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Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Management Subtopic Media Visualization Lecture No:1 Meaning and concept Graphics

Reference

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:1

On Screen Text What is Management? Coordinating work activities so that they are completed effectively and efficiently with and through other people Efficiency: getting the most output from least input Effectiveness: completing activities so that organization goals can be attained

Views of Management scholars: F.W. Taylor - Art of knowing what you want to do and then seeing that it is done the best and cheapest way. Henry Fayol To Manage is to forecast, to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control. Peter F.Drucker Management is work and as such it has its own skills, its own tools and its own techniques. Management is the art of getting things done through and with people. 5 Ms of Management Money Manpower Materials Machinery Methods

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Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Management Subtopic Media Visualization

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:2

Lecture No:1 Nature of Management Graphics Reference

On Screen Text Nature/characteristics of management 1) Universal Process The process and techniques of management are universally applicable in the field of business, education, military, government, temples, social clubs etc 2)Goal Oriented The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved through the efforts of workers hence it is a purpose full activity. 3)Dynamic It involves decision making at various levels. It goes on and on. It has to modify its decisions if circumstances changes. 4)Intangible It is called as unseen force. Feelings of management are result oriented. one may not see the functioning of management through naked eyes but the results are apparently known. 5)Group Phenomenon Management has to enlist the wholehearted effort of the group to achieve the goals. Management has to integrate human efforts. 6)Multidisciplinary It draws concepts from such disciplines as psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics ecology, operations research, statistics etc. 7)Both Science and Art Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of well defined concepts, principles and techniques. So it is treated as science. The application of these concepts, principles and techniques required specialized knowledge and skills on the part of manager so it is an art. 8) Continuous Process Management is a continuous process i.e.its functions are repeated time and again. It does not stop anywhere. Instruction Text

Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Subtopic Media Visualization

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:3

Lecture No:1 Importance of Management Graphics Reference

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IMPORTANCE OF MANAGEMENT 1) Determination of Objectives The objectives of any organization are determined by management. They are put into writing and communicated to management. 2) Achievement of Objectives The perfect coordination and integration of human and non human resources is brought by the management or the individuals known as managers. Managers reconcile the objectives of the enterprise and those of individuals comprising it. 3) Efficient use of resources Management ensures the efficient use of various resources and increases the productivity of the enterprise. 4) Coordinated Human efforts Management provides leadership and guidance to the workers. It reconciles the personal interests with the organizational objectives. 5) Meeting Challenges Management is the brain of any enterprise. All the policy decision is taken by management. It provides foresight to the organization. Keep in touch with the external environment and supplies vision to the enterprise. 6) Economic Development Management is the crucial factor in economic and social development.Increases National Income and standard of living of the people by producing quality goods with minimum cost.

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Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Subtopic Media Visualization

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:4

Lecture No:1 Management :Art and Science Graphics Reference

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MANAGEMENT AS SCIENCE OR ART: Management is the art of getting things done through others Art Science Systematic Knowledge Use of scientific methods Continued Observation Universal applicability Cause and effect relationship Validity and Predictability Personal Skill Practical Knowledge Concrete results Regular Practice Creativity

Management as a science provides principles and as an art helps in tackling situation. Management has both the elements of both art and science.That is why it is not an exact science.But it is more of an ART than SCIENCE. It is also a SOCIAL SCIENCE.

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Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Subtopic Media Visualization

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:5

Lecture No:2 Management as a Profession Graphics Reference

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MANAGEMENT AS A PROFESSION Existence of an organized and systematic body of knowledge Formalized methods of acquiring knowledge and skills Establishment of professional association Existence of an ethical code to regulate the behavior of the members of the profession Priority of service over economic considerations

A close scrutiny of management as a profession reveals that it has a long way to go to have a universally acceptance of management as a profession. Unlike other profession such as medicine, law etc., the practice of management is not restricted to individuals with a special degree. The saying MANAGERS ARE BORN AND NOT MADE is no longer valid in the present days. Thus, although management does not possess all the essential attributes of a profession , its a emerging as a PROFESSION today.

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Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Subtopic Media Visualization

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:6

Lecture No:2 Management Vs Administration Graphics Reference

On Screen Text Management Vs Administration Various views are expressed in this regard which led to the emergence of 3 approaches: 1)Administration is above Management Administration concern itself with the overall determination of Institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives. Management is concerned with carrying out broad policies laid down by administration. 2)Administration is the part of Management Administration becomes a subordinate function to management function. Administration is concerned with day to day function and is a part of management. 3)Management and Administration are same The most practical approach. Both involve the same.Administration functions are used in organizations like educational instt,defence orgs, religious places etc.Whereas management is used mostly in organizations with profit motive i.e business orgs . But the role played by both in different organizations is the same. Difference between Administration And Management S.No. Basis of difference 1. Level in Organization 2. Major Focus 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Nature of Function Scope of Functions Employee-Employer relation Qualities Required Nature of Org Scope Influence Administration Top Level Policy formulation and objective determination Determinative- Thinking function Broad and conceptual Entrepreneurs and owners Administrative Used in charitable instt,govt,educations instt etc Takes major decisions and is wider term than management Administrative decisions are influenced by external factors like political, legal,social factors etc Management Lower/Middle level Policy execution for objective Determination Executive-Doing function Narrow and operational Employees Technical Used in Business orgs with profit motive Takes decisions within the framework of administration Managerial decisions are influenced by internal factors like values,beliefs and opinions of managers

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Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Subtopic Media Visualization Lecture No:2 Management Skills Graphics Reference

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:7

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MANAGEMENT SKILLS 1)TECHNICAL SKILLS Technical skills is knowledge of and proficiency in activities involving methods ,procedures and processes. It involves working with tools and specific techniques. For example mechanics working with tools. 2)HUMAN SKILLS Human Skills is the ability to work with people, it is cooperative effort; it is teamwork; it is the creation of an environment in which people feel secure and free to express their opinions. 3)CONCEPTUAL SKILLS Conceptual Skills is the ability to see the big picture to recognize significant elements in a situation and to understand the relationship among the elements. 4)DESIGN SKILLS Design Skills is the ability to solve problems in the way that will benefit the enterprise. Top Level Management--------- More of Conceptual and Design Skills Middle Level Management---------More of Human Skills Lower Level Management----------More of Technical Skills

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Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Subtopic Media Visualization

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:8

Lecture No:2 Levels of Management Graphics Reference

Levels of Management
Board of Directors Managing Director Executive Directors TOP MANAGEMENT

MIDDLE MGT Marketing Manager Finance Manager Personnel Manager

Branch Manager

Chief Accountant

Labor Officers

Sale Officers

Finance Officers LOWER MGT

On Screen Text LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT There are 3 levels of management A)TOP LEVEL MANAGEMENT 1. To provide a basic sense of direction to the activities of the company by setting its long range mission and translating into clear set of objectives 2. To design the organization structure of the company in terms of differentiated and integrated activities, role of various positions, authority & responsibility between them. 3. Top management must ensure the quality of personnel in terms of their skills, orientations and commitment 4. To ensure that the resource conversion and exchange systems are designed and operated efficiently. 5. Periodic review of objectives for necessary modifications is a part of this function

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Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Subtopic Media Visualization

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:9

Lecture No:2 Levels of Management Graphics Reference

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B)MIDDLE LEVEL MANAGEMENT 1.To interpret and explain the plans and policies formulated by top management 2.To monitor & control the operating performance 3.To cooperate among themselves so as to integrate the various activities of a department 4.To train, motivate and develop supervisory personnel; and 5.To lay down rules & regulations to be followed by supervisory personnel C)LOWER LEVEL MANAGEMENT 1.To plan day to day production within the goal laid down by higher authorities 2. To assign jobs to workers and to make arrangements for their training and development 3. To issue orders & instructions 4. To supervise & control workers operations and to maintain personal contact with them 5. To arrange materials and tools and to maintain machinery 6. To advise & assist workers by explaining work procedures, solving their problems etc. 7. To maintain discipline and good human relations among workers 8. To report feedback information and workers problems to the higher authorities.

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Subject Principles of Management

Class

MBA

Unit

Academic Consultant Lecture No:2 Characteristics of Quality Managers Graphics Reference

Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:10

Topic Subtopic Media Visualization

On Screen Text CHARACTERISTICS OF A QUALITY MANAGER 1.Provide clear direction. An effective manager needs to establish clear goals and standards for people. He must communicate group goals, not just individual goals. He must involve people in setting these goals, and not simply dictate them himself. He must be clear and thorough in delegating responsibility. 2. Encourage open communication. The manager must be candid in dealing with people. He must be honest, direct and to the point. "People want straight information from their bosses," the study says, "and managers must establish a climate of openness and trust." 3. Be willing to coach and to support people. This means being helpful to others, working constructively to correct performance problems and going to bat for subordinates with superiors. This last practice "was consistently rated as one of the most important aspects of effective leadership," says Robert Stringer, senior vice president of Harbridge, who supervised the survey. 4. Provide objective recognition. The manager must recognize people for good performance more often than criticizing them for performance problems. Rewards must be related to the excellence of job performance, not to seniority or personal relationships. "Most managers don't realize how much criticism they give," the study says. "They do it to be helpful, but positive recognition is what really motivates people." 5. Establish on-going controls. This means following up on important issues and actions and giving subordinates feedback on how they are doing. 6. Select the right people to staff the organization. 7. Understand the financial implications of decisions. This quality is considered important even for functional managers who do not have responsibility for the bottom line. 8. Encourage innovation and new ideas. Employees rate this quality important in even the most traditional or conservative organizations. 9. Give subordinates clear-cut decisions when they are needed. "Employees want a say in things," the report says, "but they don't want endless debate. There's a time to get on with things, and the best managers know when that time comes." 10. Consistently demonstrate a high level of integrity. The study shows that most employees want to work for a manager they can respect.He must be known as a person of high moral integrity.

Roles of a Manager According to Mintzberg, there are ten different roles of a manager which can be divided into three broad categories: 1.Interpersonal Roles Figurehead Role Leader Role Liaison Role

2.Informational Roles Recipient Role Disseminator Role Spokesperson Role

3. Decision Roles Enterprenurial Role Disturbance Handler Role Resource Allocator Role Negotiator Role

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Subject Principles and Practices of Management Unit I Topic Subtopic Media Visualization

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Atul Narang Slide No:11

Lecture No:3 Evolution of Management: Early contributions Graphics Reference

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EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT The Pre-modern Era Ancient massive construction projects Egyptian pyramids Great Wall of China Michelangelo, the manager. Adam Smiths Contribution To The Field Of Management Wrote the Wealth of Nations (1776) Advocated the economic advantages that organizations and society would reap from the division of labor: Increased productivity by increasing each workers skill and dexterity. Time saved that is commonly lost in changing tasks. The creation of labor-saving inventions and machinery. The Industrial Revolutions Influence On Management Practices Industrial revolution Machine power began to substitute for human power Lead to mass production of economical goods Improved and less costly transportation systems became available Created larger markets for goods. Larger organizations developed to serve larger markets Created the need for formalized management practice Classical Contributions Classical approach The term used to describe the hypotheses of the scientific management theorists and the general administrative theorists. Scientific management theorists Fredrick W. Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, and Henry Gantt General administrative theorists Henri Fayol and Maxber

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Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Subtopic Media Visualization

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:12

Lecture No:3 Evolution of Management: Early contributions Graphics Reference

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Scientific Management Frederick W. Taylor The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) Advocated the use of the scientific method to define the one best way for a job to be done Believed that increased efficiency could be achieved by selecting the right people for the job and training them to do it precisely in the one best way. To motivate workers, he favored incentive wage plans. Separated managerial work from operative

Scientific Management Contributors Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Bricklaying efficiency improvements Time and motion studies (therbligs) Henry Gantt Incentive compensation systems Gantt chart for scheduling work operations

General Administrative Theory

General administrative theorists Writers who developed general theories of what managers do and what constitutes good management practice Henri Fayol (France) Fourteen Principles of Management: Fundamental or universal principles of management practice Max Weber (Germany) Bureaucracy: Ideal type of organization characterized by division of labor, a clearly defined hierarchy detailed rules and regulations, and impersonal relationships

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Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Subtopic Media Visualization

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:13

Lecture No:3 Evolution of Management: Early contributions Graphics Reference

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Human Resources Approach

misery.

Robert Owen Scottish businessman and reformer who advocated for better treatment of workers. Claimed that a concern for employees was profitable for management and would relieve human

Hugo Munsterberg Created the field of industrial psychologythe scientific study of individuals at work to maximize their productivity and adjustment. Psychology and Industrial Efficiency (1913) Mary Parker Follett Recognized that organizations could be viewed from the perspective of individual and group behavior. Believed that individual potential could only be released by group association. Chester Barnard Saw organizations as social systems that require human interaction and cooperation. Expressed his views on the acceptance of authority in his book The Functions of the Executive (1938) Hawthorne Studies

A series of studies done during the 1920s and 1930s that provided new insights into group norms and behaviors Hawthorne effect Social norms or standards of the group are the key determinants of individual work behavior. Changed the prevalent view of the time that people were no different than machines.

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Subject Principles of Management Class Unit I Academic Consultant Topic Lecture No:4 Subtopic Taylor and Scientific Management Media Visualization Graphics Reference

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:14

On Screen Text SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT Scientific management (also called Taylorism or the Taylor system) is a theory of management that analyzes and synthesizes workflows, with the objective of improving labor productivity. The core ideas of the theory were developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s, and were first published in his monographs, Shop Management (1905) and The Principles of Scientific Management (1911). Taylor believed that decisions based upon tradition and rules of thumb should be replaced by precise procedures developed after careful study of an individual at work. s Taylor's scientific management consisted of four principles: 1. Replace rule of thumb work methods with methods based on a scientific study of the tasks. 2. Select, train, teach and develop the most suitable person for each job, again scientifically, rather than passively leaving them to train themselves. 3. Managers must provide detailed instructions and supervision to each worker to ensure the job is done in a scientific way. Divide work between managers and workers. The managers apply scientific management principles to planning and supervising the work, and the workers carry out the tasks. According to Scientific Management: Mgt is a Science and not a Rule of Thumb Scientific Selection and Training Cooperation Maximizing Output Instruction Text

Subject Principles and Practices of Management Unit I Topic Lecture No:4

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Atul Narang Slide No:15

Subtopic Media Visualization

Benefits of Scientific Management Graphics Reference

On Screen Text Characteristics of Scientific Mgt: Approach Techniques Method Discards old Method Changes in Attitude Emphasis Attempt Elements and Tools of Scientific Mgt: Separation of Planning and Doing Functional Foremanship Job Analysis Standardization Scientific Selection and Training of Workers Financial Incentives Economy Mental Revolution Principles of Scientific Management: Replacement Rule of Thumb with Science Harmony in Group Action Co-operation Maximum Output Development of workers Strengths of Scientific Management/ Benefits

One of the first formal divisions between workers and managers. Contribution to efficient production methods, leading to a major global increase of living standards. Focus on the individual task and worker level. Compare: Business Process Reengineering (process level) Direct reward mechanisms for workers rather than pointless end-of-year profit sharing schemes. Systematic. Early proponent of quality standards. Suggestion schemes for workers, who should be rewarded by cash premiums. Emphasis on measuring. Measurement enables improvement.

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Subject Principles of Management

Class

MBA

Unit I Topic Subtopic Media Visualization

Academic Consultant Lecture No:4 Limitations of Scientific Management Graphics Reference

Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:16

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Limitations of Scientific Management. / Disadvantages Taylorism can easily be abused to exploit human beings. Conflicts with labor unions. Not useful to deal with groups or teams. Leaves no room for individual preferences or initiative. Overemphasis on measuring. No attention for soft factors. Mechanistic. Treating people as machines. Separation of planning function and doing. Loss of skill level and autonomy at worker level. Not very useful in current knowledge worker environments.

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Subject Principles of Management Unit I

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah

Topic Subtopic Media Visualization

Lecture No:5 Fayol`s Administrative Management Graphics Reference

Slide No:17

On Screen Text

HENRY FAYOL Henry Fayol (Istanbul, 29 july 1841 Paris, 19 November 1925) was a French mining engineer, director of mines and management theorist, who developed independent of the Scientific Management a general theory of business administration, also known as Fayolism. He was one of the most influential contributors to modern concepts of management.

Henry Fayol was born in 1841 in a suburb of Istanbul, Turkey, where his father, an engineer, was appointed superintendent of works to build a bridge over the Golden Horn. They returned to France in 1847. Fayol studied at the mining school "cole National Suprieur des Mines" in Saint-tienne

Nineteen years old he started as an engineer at a mining company "Companies de CommentryFourchambeau-Decazeville" in Commentary. He became director in 1888, when the mine company employed over 1000 people, and held that position over 30 years until 1918. By 1900 the company was one of the largest producers of iron and steel in France, and regarded as a vital national industry.

Fayol found that activities of an industrial organization could be divided into six groups: Technical (relating to production) Commercial (buying, selling and exchange) Security (protection of property and person) Accounting (including statistics) Managerial (planning, organization, command, coordination and control)

Managerial Qualities and Training Fayol was the first person to identify the qualities required in a manager. According to him, there are six types of qualities that a manager requires. They are as follows: Physical (health and vigour) Mental (ability to understand and learn,judgement ,mental vigour and capability) Moral (energy, firmness, initiative, loyalty, tact and dignity) Educational Technical (peculiar to function being performed) and Experience (arising from the work)

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Subject Principles of Management Class Unit I Academic Consultant Topic Lecture No:5 Subtopic 14 Principle of Fayol Media Visualization Graphics Reference

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:18

On Screen Text Functions/Elements of Management Planning Organising Staffing Directing Controlling

14 Principles of Fayol .1. Division of work:This principle is the same as Adam Smith's 'division of labor'. Specialization increases output by making employees more efficient. 2 Authority and Responsibility: Managers must be able to give orders. Authority gives them this right. Note that responsibility arises wherever authority is exercised. 3 Discipline. Employees must obey and respect the rules that govern the organization. Good discipline is the result of effective leadership, a clear understanding between management and workers regarding the organizations rules, and the judicious use of penalties for infractions of the rules. Unity of command. Every employee should receive orders from only one superior. Unity of direction. Each group of organizational activities that have the same objective should be directed by one manager using one plan. Subordination of individual interests to the general interest. The interests of any one employee or group of employees should not take precedence over the interests of the organization as a whole. Remuneration of Personnel:Workers must be paid a fair wage for their services. Centralization. Centralization refers to the degree to which subordinates are involved in decisionmaking. Whether decision-making is centralized (to management) or decentralized (to subordinates) is a question of proper proportion. The task is to find the optimum degree of centralization for each situation. Scalar chain. The line of authority from top management to the lowest ranks represents the scalar

4 5 6 7 8

chain. Communications should follow this chain. However, if following the chain creates delays, cross-communications can be allowed if agreed to by all parties and superiors are kept informed. 10 Order. People and materials should be in the right place at the right time. 11 Equity. Managers should be kind and fair to their subordinates.

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Subject Principles of Management Class Unit I Academic Consultant Topic Lecture No:5 Subtopic 14 Principles of Fayol Media Visualization Graphics Reference

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:19

On Screen Text

12 Stability of tenure of personnel. High employee turnover is inefficient. Management should provide orderly personnel planning and ensure that replacements are available to fill vacancies. 13 Initiative. Employees who are allowed to originate and carry out plans will exert high levels of effort. 14 Esprit de corps. Promoting team spirit will build harmony and unity within the organization.

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Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Lecture No:6 Subtopic Bureaucracy Media Visualization Graphics Reference

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:20

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BUREAUCRACY Max Weber has considered three types of power in organisations: Traditional Charismatic Rational-legal or Bureaucracy

Bureaucracy Is the structure and set of regulations in place to control activity, usually in large organizations and government. Bureaucracy is an administrative system designed to accomplish large scale administrative tasks by systematically coordinating the work of many individuals. Bureaucracy is a concept in sociology and political science referring to the way that the administrative execution and enforcement of legal rules are socially organized. Four structural concepts are central to any definition of bureaucracy: 1. a well-defined division of administrative lab our among persons and offices,

2. a personnel system with consistent patterns of recruitment and stable linear careers

3. a hierarchy among offices, such that the authority and status are differentially distributed among actors, and

4. Formal and informal networks that connect organizational actors to one another through flows of information and patterns of cooperation.

Examples of everyday bureaucracies include governments, armed forces, corporations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), hospitals, courts, ministries and schools.

According to Weber, the attributes of modern bureaucracy include its impersonality, concentration of the means of administration, a leveling effect on social and economic differences and implementation of a system of authority that is practically indestructible. Instruction Text Subject Principles of Management Unit I Class Academic Consultant MBA Ms Tanu Marwah

Topic Subtopic Media Visualization

Lecture No:6 Principles of Weber Graphics Reference

Slide No:21

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Features of Bureaucracy Administrative Class Hierarchy Division of Work Official Rules Impersonal Relationships Official Record

PRINCIPLES OF BUREAUCRACY THEORY 1.A formal hierarchical structure Each level controls the level below and is controlled by the level above. A formal hierarchy is the basis of central planning and centralized decision making. 2. Management by rules Controlling by rules allows decisions made at high levels to be executed consistently by all lower levels. 3. Organization by functional specialty Work is to be done by specialists, and people are organized into units based on the type of work they do or skills they have. 4. An "up-focused" or "in-focused" mission If the mission is described as "up-focused," then the organization's purpose is to serve the stockholders, the board, or whatever agency empowered it. If the mission is to serve the organization itself, and those within it, e.g., to produce high profits, to gain market share, or to produce a cash stream, then the mission is described as "in-focused." 5. Purposely impersonal The idea is to treat all employees equally and customers equally, and not be influenced by individual differences. 6. Employment based on technical qualifications (There may also be protection from arbitrary dismissal.) The bureaucratic form, according to Parkinson, has another attribute. 7. Predisposition to grow in staff "above the line Instruction Text

Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Subtopic Media Visualization

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:22

Lecture No:6 Critism of bureaucracy theory Graphics Reference

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A bureaucratic official:

is personally free and appointed to his position on the basis of conduct exercises the authority delegated to him in accordance with impersonal rules, and his or her loyalty is enlisted on behalf of the faithful execution of his official duties appointment and job placement are dependent upon his or her technical qualifications administrative work is a full-time occupation work is rewarded by a regular salary and prospects of advancement in a lifetime career

An official must exercise his or her judgment and his or her skills, but his or her duty is to place these at the service of a higher authority; ultimately he/she is responsible only for the impartial execution of assigned tasks and must sacrifice his or her personal judgment if it runs counter to his or her official duties.. Criticism As Max Weber himself noted, real bureaucracy will be less optimal and effective than his ideal type model. Each of Weber's seven principles can degenerate:

Competences can be unclear and used contrary to the spirit of the law; sometimes a decision itself may be considered more important than its effect;

corruption, political infighting and other degenerations can counter the rule of impersonality and can create a recruitment and promotion system not based on meritocracy but rather on oligarchy;

Problems in Bureaucracy Invalidity of Bureaucratic Assumptions Goal Displacement Unintended Consequences Inhuman Organisation Closed-System Perspective

Instruction Text Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Subtopic Media Visualization Class Academic Consultant MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:23

Lecture No:6 Hawthrone Experiments Graphics Reference

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HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOL Due to unrest caused by Taylors scientific principles in the 20s and 30s work was carried out based in the human side of workers not focusing on money Elton Mayo was one of the main theorists involved.

Hawthorne Experiments
The following are the four phases of these experiments: Illuminations Experiments (Phase I) Relay Assembly Test Group (Phase II) Interviewing Programme (PhaseIII) The Bank Wiring Observation Room Experiment (Phase IV)

HISTORY OF THE HAWTHORNE STUDIES Background: Mayo wanted to find out what effect fatigue and monotony had on job productivity and how to control them through variables such as Rest breaks Work hours Temperatures Humidity

He found a principle of human motivation that would help to revolutionise the theory and practice of management The experiment 6 women from an assembly line Segregated them from the rest of the factory Put them under the eye of a supervisor (a friendly observer) Made frequent changes to their working conditions Always discussed and explained the changes in advance

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Subject Principles of Management

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MBA

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Academic Consultant Lecture No:6 Conclusion of Hawthrone Experiments Graphics Reference

Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:24

Topic Subtopic Media Visualization

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Implications Of Hawthorne Experiments


Social factors in output Conflicts Leadership Group Influence Supervision Communication

CONCLUSIONS OF HAWTHRONE EXPERIMENTS The individuals became a team and the team gave wholehearted co-operation with the experiment They were happy in the knowledge that they were doing what they wanted to do They felt they were working under less pressure than before They were not pushed around or bossed by anyone Individual workers cannot be treated in isolation but must be seen as members of a group Monetary incentives and good working conditions are less important to the individual than the need to belong to a group Informal or unofficial groups formed at work have strong influence on behaviour

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Subject Principles of Management Unit I

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah

Topic Subtopic Media Visualization

Lecture No:7 Social system approach Graphics Reference

Slide No:25

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SOCIAL SYSTEM APPROACH The real pioneer of social system approach is Vilfredo Pareto,a sociologist. The ideas were later developed by Chestar Bernard who has really developed the concept of social system approach in management. According to this approach the organization is essentially a cultural system composed of people who work in cooperation. The major feature of this approach are: 1)Organization is the social system, a system of cultural relationships 2)Relationship exists among the external as well as internal environment of the organization 3)Cooperation among group members is necessary for the achievement of organizational objectives. 4)Efforts should be made for establishing harmony between the goals of the organization and the various groups .

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Subject Principles of Management Unit I

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah

Topic Subtopic Media Visualization

Lecture No:7 Decision Theory Approach Graphics Reference

Slide No:26

On Screen Text

DECISION THEORY APPROACH Major contributor to this approach is Simon. Other contributors are March, Cyert, Forrester. The main emphasis of this approach is that decision making is the job of every manager. The manager is the decision maker and the organization is the decision making unit. Therefore, the basic problem in managing is to make rational decision. Decision theory approach has the following features: 1) Management is essentially decision making. 2) The members of the organization are decision makers and problem solvers. 3) The level and importance of organizational members are determined on the basis of importance of decisions which they make. 4) Quality of decisions effect the Organizational effectiveness.

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Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Social Lecture No:8 Responsibility

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:27

Subtopic Media Visualization

Social Responsibility Graphics Reference

On Screen Text Concept Social responsibility refers to the obligations and duties of business to the society. Responsibility of business to various interest groups 1)Suppliers 2)Customers and buyers 3)Employees /workers 4)Creditors 5)Community 6)Government 7)General public 8)Shareholders

Instruction Text Subject Principles of Management Unit I Business ethics Topic


and social responsibility

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:28

Subtopic

Business Ethics

Media Visualization

Graphics Reference

On Screen Text BUSINESS ETHICS Ethics refers to the code of conduct for business. Ethics mean character, guiding, beliefs, standards or ideals that prevail in a group, community or people. Every profession or group frames certain Do`s and Donts for its members. The members are given a standard in which they are supposed to operate.

Nature of Business Ethics 1) Ethics is important in all types of Business; large/small, manufacturing/service. 2) Business ethics are above laws. It requires behavior which is socially desirable even if legally binding 3) Ethics is dynamic term and may change overtime.

Instruction Text Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Subtopic Media Visualization Lecture No:8 Tools of Ethics Graphics Reference Class Academic Consultant MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:29

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TOOLS OF ETHICS 1)Values Values are the moral beliefs held by an individual, an organization and society. Values represent moral convictions and are relatively permanent. 2)Rights Rights are the claims of the individual or organization. For example every citizen of India enjoys certain rights under the countrys constitution. 3)Duties Duties are the obligations of a person or an organization.

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Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Lecture No:8 Subtopic Ethical issues Media Visualization Graphics Reference

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:30

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Ethical Issues Relating to Business Honestycommunication and behavior consistent with facts Disclosure of information Promises/commitments Laws and professional standards Representation of others like shareholders (applies to board members) Unfair competition Refrain from bribes and excessive gifts (that sway judgment) Avoid quid pro quo transaction Comply with anti-trust laws (these relate to pricing, monopolistic practices) Just compensation Respect intellectual property (product piracy) Treat employees fairly Respecting rights of others Treat others with fairness and respect regardless of age, religion, ethnic group, sex, economic status, etc., especially children, women, and subordinates Respect the community you operate in by paying fair share of economic costs you create Respect others and future generations by treating the environment well

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Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Subtopic Media Visualization

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:31

Lecture No:8 Costs of unethical behavior Graphics Reference

On Screen Text Business Costs of Unethical Behavior 1. Loss of physical assets 2. Increased costs of security 3. Loss of Business Costs of Unethical Behavior customersespecially those who value ethics 4. Loss of employeesespecially the more ethical 5. Loss of reputation 6. Increased legal costs 7. Higher costs of debt 8. Loss of investor confidence (lower stock price, difficulty in raising funds, problems with lenders) 9. Regulatory intrusion 10. Costs of bankruptcy

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Subject Principles of Management Class Unit I Academic Consultant Topic Lecture No:8 Subtopic Ethical behavior adds value Media Visualization Graphics Reference

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:32

On Screen Text Why Ethical Behavior Adds Value Better information Trust from investors Lower costs for audits, controls, investigations Better allocation of resources Customers will be more loyal Lower costs from suppliers Attracting and retaining better employees Fair competition Lowers cost of business in economy Leads to better decision-making (do whats best for firm, not one individual) Improves competitive nature of a countrys economy Just compensation Creates a more vibrant, entrepreneurial economy Attracts and retains better employees Rights of others Draws upon talents of wider set of individuals Develops long-term respect from the community Maintains the environment for long-term value to all Its the right thing to do!

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Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Subtopic Lecture No: Objective Questions

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No:33

Media Visualization

Graphics Reference

On Screen Text Q1.Which of these refer to the number of employees reporting to a supervisor 1) 2) 3) 4) Line of Authority Chain of Command Span of Management Delegation

Q2.Which of these refers to the deployment of organizational resources to achieve strategic goals 1) 2) 3) 4) Leading Planning Organizing Controlling

Q3Which of these means that an employee is accountable to only one supervisor 1) 2) 3) 4) Work specialization Unity of command Division of labour scalar principle

Q4 The following four different approaches to management thinking were developed in the first half of the 20th century: 1) Scientific management, Hawthorne Studies, quantitative, and organizational behavior. 2) Scientific management, general administrative, quantitative, and organizational behavior 3) Scientific management, general administrative, quantitative, and contingency approach 4) General administrative, globalization, organizational behavior, and quantitative 5) Systems approach, scientific management, general administrative, and organizational behavior. Q5. Authority, discipline, unity of command, and unity of direction are 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)
Taylor's four principles of management. Principles of the human relations movement. Elements of Weber's ideal bureaucratic structure Key features of learning organizations Four of Fayol's fourteen principles of management

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Subject Principles of Management Class Unit I Academic Consultant Topic Lecture No: Subtopic Objective Questions Media Visualization Graphics Reference

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No: 34

On Screen Text Q6. Some of the other fields of study that affect management theory or practice include: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Anthropology, astrology, political science and psychology Zoology, psychology, sociology and philosophy Political science, philosophy, anthropology and sociology Political science, sociology, typography and economics Economics, psychology, anthropology and physics

Q7. Division of labour, authority hierarchy, formal selection, formal rules and regulations, impersonality, and career orientation are all features of: 1) 2) 3) 4)
Q8.

Weber's ideal type bureaucracy General administrative theory Fayol's principles of management Taylor's principles of management

Who is the person was well known for the Hawthorne Studies? 1) Elton Mayo 2) Max-Weber 3) Chester Barnard 4) Mary Parker Follet

Q9.The concept of scientific management is given by: 1) Fredrick Taylor 2) Henry Fayol 3) Peter Drucker 4) Elton mayo Q10.Management is 1) Pure science 2) Applied science 3) Art 4) Science and Art both

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Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Subtopic Media Visualization Lecture No: Objective Questions Graphics Reference

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No: 35

On Screen Text Q11. Management process includes a) Cooling c) Staffing Q12. Management nature includes: a) Goal Oriented c) Intangible Force b) Refreshing d) All the Above

b) Continuous Process d) All the Above

Q13. Management definition consists of some basic elements namely: a) Sourcing b) Effectiveness c) bench-marking d) All the Above Q14. The importance of the Management can be a) Accomplishment of goals b) to remove the uncertainty c) To create havoc d) All of the above Q15. Which all planning does not includes: a) Determination of Objectives b) Un-systematic thinking c) Budgeting d) All of the above Q16. Co-ordination cannot be a) Between two departments c) Between the positive and negative results

b) between two employees d) between two destinations

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Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Subtopic Media Visualization Lecture No: Objective Questions Graphics Reference

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No: 36

On Screen Text Q17. Co operation does not include a) Formal relations c) Collective efforts

b) Voluntary in nature d) All of the above

Q18. First line Management signifies which level of management a) Middle management b) Top Management c) Lower management d) All of the above Q19. Which of the qualities does not match the qualities of a successful manager a) Technical ability b) Shrewdness c) Clear expression d) All of the above Q20. Which all Managerial skills are there in a manager a) Technical skills b) Analytical Skills c) Conceptual Skills d) All of the Above Q21. Define the skills in an ascending order of the top management a) Conceptual, Human Technical b) Technical, Human, Conceptual c) Conceptual, Technical, Human d) All of the above Q22. The point which denotes that Management is not professional a) Specialized field of knowledge b) Un-ethical code c) Representative Associations d) All of the above Q23. System approach is given by a) Abraham Maslow c) Victor vroom b) Chester I Barnard d) All of the above

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Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Subtopic Media Visualization Lecture No: Objective Questions Graphics Reference

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No: 37

On Screen Text Q24. Which approach expresses the mathematical models a) Scientific Management b) Systems Approach c) Quantitative Approach d) All of the above Q25. Techniques of Scientific management a) Time Study b) Fatigue Study c) Planning the task d) All of the above Whether True / False Q26. Speeding up of workers is a criticism of the scientific management. Q27. Sale of spurious products or adulterated goods is an ethical practice. Q28. Social responsibility of business means the obligation to act in a manner which will not serve the best interest of the society. Q29. Taking immediate action is one of the fourteen principles of Henry Fayol. Q30. Careful application is the nature of Management principles. Answers 1(1), 2(3), 3(2), 4(5), 5(5), 6(3), 7(3), 8(1), 9(1), 10(4), 11(c ), 12(d), 13(b), 14(a), 15(b), 16(c ),17(a), 18(c), 19(b), 20(d), 21(a), 22(b), 23(b), 24(c ), 25(d), 26(T), 27(F), 28(F), 29(F), 30(T)

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Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Subtopic Media Visualization

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No: 38

Lecture No: Short Questions and Answers Graphics Reference

On Screen Text Q1. Define Management. ? Ans: It is a process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals working together in groups efficiently accomplish selected aims. Q2. What are the functions of Managers? Ans: Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Leading, Controlling. Q3. What are the different managerial skills.? Ans: Technical skill 1. It refers to the ability to the tools, equipment procedure and techniques. 2. Effective supervision and co-ordination of the work a group members or subordinates. Human skill 1. It refers to the ability of the manager to work effectively as a group member and to build co-operative effort in team leaders. 2. Needed to understand people. Conceptual skill 1. It is also called as design and problem 2. To see the organization and the various component of it as whole 3. To understand how its various parts and functions mesh together Q4. What is 'Esprit de Corps'? Ans: Promoting team spirit will build harmony and unity within the organization.

Instruction Text Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Subtopic Media Visualization Class Academic Consultant MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No: 39

Lecture No: Short Questions and Answers Graphics Reference

On Screen Text Q5. Explain unity of direction? Ans. Each group of organizational activities that have the same objective should be directed by one manager using one plan Q6. Define Administration? Ans: Administration concern itself with the overall determination of Institutional objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving those objectives. Management is concerned with carrying out broad policies laid down by administration. Q7.Differentiate management as a art and science? Ans: Science: It is a systematic body of knowledge with array of principles. Art: 1. It is the application of skill in finding desired results. 2. Management is both science and art: 3. It contains general principle 4. It also an art because it require certain personal skills to achieve desired result. Q8.What to you mean by social responsibility& social responsiveness. Ans: Corporate social responsibility is seriously considering the impact of the companys action on society. Social responsiveness means the ability of a corporation to relate its operations & policies to the social environment in ways that are mutually beneficial to the company and to society. Q9.Discuss the 3 levels of Management? 1. Top-level management 2. Middle level management 3. Lower level management Top level management functions 1. To formulate goals and policies 2. To formulate budgets 3. To appoint top executives. Instruction Text

Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Subtopic Media Visualization

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No: 40

Lecture No: Short Questions and Answers Graphics Reference

On Screen Text Middle level management functions. 1. To train motives &develop supervisory level 2. To monitor and control the operations performance Low level management 1. To train &develop workers 2. To assign job 3. To give orders and instructions 4. To report the information about the workers Q10. Compare Management and administration Ans: S.no. Basis of difference 1. Level in Organization 2. Major Focus 3. 4. 5. 6. Nature of Function Scope of Functions Employee-Employer relation Qualities Required Administration Top Level Policy formulation and objective determination Determinative Broad and conceptual Entrepreneurs and owners Administrative Management Lower/Middle level Policy execution for objective Determination Executive Narrow and operational Employees Technical

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Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Subtopic Media Visualization Lecture No: Descriptive Questions Graphics Reference

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No: 41

On Screen Text

Q1. Explain briefly about the various functions of Management. Q2. What are the Henry Fayols 14 principles of management? Explain. Q3. Explain the overall development of management thought. Q4. Management: Science or Art Discuss. Q5. Compare Management and administration in detail. Q6 Mention the scientific principles of management and also specify the features of scientific management. Q7 Q8 Discuss the main characteristics and qualities of the good manager What do you mean by professional ethics? Discuss the ethical issues in business.

Q9. What do mean by Management skills. How does skills requirement differ at various levels of management Q10. Discuss the contributions of Hawthorne experiments in the development of managerial thinking?

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Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Subtopic Media Visualization Lecture No: Assignments Graphics Reference

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No: 42

On Screen Text

Assignment # 1
Q1. How do you consider the functions of Management important in organizing your daily schedule? Q2. We consider the management as a professional course just like CA, Medical etc. are you convinced with it or it is an unprofessional course? Q3. Management is a science or an art this statement is discussed but how do you perceive while understanding its implications?

Assignment # 2
Q1. After studying the scientific approach and Management approach what is your perception about a practical doings which can be implemented in todays industry? Q2. Satyam was a recent major scandal do you think that they adopted the good managerial practices, if not then justify? Q3. Business Ethics and Profitability goes parallel to each other. Do you agree or not please comment?

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Subject Principles of Management Unit I Topic Subtopic Media Visualization Lecture No: References Graphics Reference

Class Academic Consultant

MBA Ms Tanu Marwah Slide No: 43

On Screen Text

1. Koontz - Principles of Management (Tata Mc Graw Hill,

Ist Edition 2008)

2. Robbins & Coulter - Management (Prentice Hall of India, 8th Edition) 3. Prasad. L.M Principles and Practices of Management(Sultan Chand & sons,6th Edition 2001) 4. Bulletin Board for Libraries based at the University of Strathclyde, giving quality subject sources for business.

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