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Vocabulary - Mass Media http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/vocabulary-lesson-mass-media.

php This is a list of vocabulary items related to mass media Aerial A radio antenna, especially one suspended in or extending into the air. Advertisement Advertising is a form of communication that typically attempts to persuade potential customers to purchase or to consume more of a particular brand of product or service. Many advertisements are designed to generate increased consumption of those products and services through the creation and reinforcement of "brand image" and "brand loyalty". Blog A blog (a contraction of the term "Web log") is a Web site, usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order. "Blog" can also be used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog. Many blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject; others function as more personal online diaries. Blogosphere Blogosphere is a collective term encompassing all blogs and their interconnections. It is the perception that blogs exist together as a connected community (or as a collection of connected communities) or as a social network. Broadcast Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. The audience may be the general public or a relatively large sub-audience, such as children or young adults. Television and radio programs are distributed through radio broadcasting or cable , often both simultaneously Column A column is a recurring piece or article in a newspaper, magazine or other publication. Columns are written by columnists. What differentiates a column from other forms of journalism is that it meets each of the following criteria: It is a regular feature in a publication It is personality-driven by the author

It explicitly contains an opinion or point of vie Editorial An editorial, leader (US), or leading article (UK) is an article in a newspaper or magazine that expresses the opinion of the editor, editorial board, or publisher. The editorial board is a group of editors, usually at a print publication, who dictate the tone and direction that the publication's editorials will take. In much of the English-speaking world, editorials are typically not written by the regular reporters of the news organization, but are instead collectively authored by a group of individuals High-tech politics The current American political system in which the behavior of citizens and policy makers, as well as the political agenda itself, is increasingly shaped by technology. Investigative journalism The use of detective-like reporting methods to unearth scandals. Journalism Journalism is the craft of conveying news, descriptive material and comment via a widening spectrum of media. These include newspapers, magazines, radio and television, the Internet and, more recently, the cellphone. Journalistsbe they writers, editors or photographers; broadcast presenters or producersserve as the chief purveyors of information and opinion in contemporary mass society. "News is what the consensus of journalists determines it to be." Journalist A journalist (also called a newspaperman) is a person who practices journalism, the gathering and dissemination of information about current events, trends, issues, and people while striving for non-bias viewpoint. Reporters are one type of journalist. They create reports as a profession for broadcast or publication in mass media such as newspapers, television, radio, magazines, documentary film, and the Internet. Reporters find sources for their work, their reports can be either spoken or written, and they are often expected to report in the most objective and unbiased way to serve the public good. A columnist is a journalist who writes pieces that appear regularly in newspapers or magazines. Magazine Magazines, periodicals, glossies or serials are publications, generally published on a regular schedule, containing a variety of articles, generally financed by advertising, by a purchase price, by pre-paid magazine subscriptions, or all three.They are published published weekly, biweekly, monthly ... Mass media

Mass Media includes all the "tools" we have for communicating with large numbers of people television, radio, film, on-line services, magazines and newspapers. All carry messages that reach masses of people in contrast to letters, telephone calls and one-to-one conversations known as interpersonal media. Media bias Media bias is a term used to describe a real or perceived bias of journalists and news producers within the mass media, in the selection of which events will be reported and how they are covered. The term "media bias" usually refers to a pervasive or widespread bias contravening the standards of journalism, rather than the perspective of an individual journalist or article.The direction and degree of media bias in various countries is widely disputed, although its causes are both practical and theoretical. Media events An event that is staged primarily for the purpose of simply being covered. News News is any new information or information on current events which is presented by print, broadcast, Internet, or word of mouth to a third party or mass audience. News, the reporting of current information on television and radio, and in newspapers and magazines. Newspaper A newspaper is a written publication containing news, information and advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called newsprint. General-interest newspapers often feature articles on political events, crime, business, art/entertainment, society and sports. Most traditional papers also feature an editorial page containing columns which express the personal opinions of writers. Supplementary sections may contain advertising, comics, coupons, and other printed media. Newspapers are most often published on a daily or weekly basis, and they usually focus on one particular geographic area where most of their readers live. Despite recent setbacks in circulation and profits, newspapers are still the most iconic outlet for news and other types of written journalism. Press conferences Meetings with reporters. Press - "the press" The media that includes television, radio, newspapers, magazines, wire services, and on-line services, among others. Print media That portion of the mass media which include newspapers and magazines. Propaganda

Propaganda is the dissemination of information aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people. As opposed to impartially providing information, propaganda in its most basic sense presents information in order to influence its audience. Propaganda often presents facts selectively (thus lying by omission) to encourage a particular synthesis, or gives loaded messages in order to produce an emotional rather than rational response to the information presented. The desired result is a change of the cognitive narrative of the subject in the target audience to further a political agenda. Trial balloons Information leaked for the purpose of determining what the political reaction will be. Talking heads A shot of a person's face talking directly to the camera. Linkage institutions The channels or access points through which issues and people's policy preferences get on the government's policy agenda. Television Television (TV) is a widely used telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images, either monochromatic ("black and white") or color, usually accompanied by sound. "Television" may also refer specifically to a television set, television programming or television transmission. The word is derived from mixed Latin and Greek roots, meaning "far sight": Greek tele (), far, and Latin visio, sight (from video, vis- to see, or to view in the first person). Tabloids A tabloid is a newspaper of small format giving the news in condensed form, usually with illustrated, often sensational material Yellow journalism The term used to describe sensational news reporting. Television and the Media Quiz http://www.world-english.org/media_vocabulary.htm Test your knowledge of vocabulary related to television, radio and the media using this test. Choose the correct answer to go in the gap. Example: The .... is the person who is responsible for the overall shape of the programme. actor

producer director 1. Turn on the TV! There is live ...... of the cricket match between England and Australia. coverage report review

2. "Those were today's headlines. And now it's Angela McCarthy with her weather ...... ". forecast broadcast presentation 3. I can't stand that stupid comedy. Can you switch to another ...... , please? host channel transmission 4. A ...... is some kind of TV drama in parts based on inter-human relationships. documentary soap opera sit-com 5. We're just getting some ...... news, that a tidal wave has destroyed much of the city of Atlanta. sensation arriving breaking 6. I like the new ...... introducing and reviewing progammes on our local TV. actor guide presenter 7. 'The Weakest Link' is a very popular ...... based on general knowledge, broadcast daily on BBC television.

quiz exam test 8. The time of day when most people are watching television is known as ...... . prime time popular time best time 9. Many TV viewers were shocked when late-night presenter John Smith's face started puffing up horribly while ........ . filmed on (the) air acting

10. "Welcome to another live TV debate. Our ...... is as usual Simon Bainbridge, and his guests today are some of Poland's most prominent politicians". announcer host actor MASS MEDIA AND ITS INFLUENCE ON SOCIETY http://www.opinion-maker.org/2011/01/mass-media-and-its-influence-on-society/ By M A Mughal Fill in the gaps with the words from the box. care, entertainment ,Internet, quiz ,chores, obesity, amuse, advertising, opinion, decisions, violence, globalization, celebrity, values, junk, news, guns, influences, technology In the last five decades or so, the media and its influence on the societies, has grown exponentially with the advance of_____. First there was the telegraph and the post offices, then the radio, the newspaper, magazines, television and now the___ and the new media including palmtops, cell phones etc. There are positive and negative___ of mass media, which we must understand as a responsible person of a society. Before discussing the influence of mass media on society it is imperative to explain the three basic functions of mass media; they are providing news/information,____ and education. The first and foremost function of the media in a society is to provide news and information to the

masses, that is why the present era is some time termed as the information age as well. People need____ /information for various reasons, on one hand it can be used to socialize and on the other to make_____ and formulate opinions. Entertainment would be the other function of the mass media where it is mostly used by the masses to____ them in present day hectic environment. Educating the masses about their rights, moral, social and religious obligations is another important function of mass media, which needs no emphasis. In present era of____, majority of people in the society depends on information and communication to remain connected with the world and do our daily activities like work, entertainment, health____, education, socialization, travelling and anything else that we have to do. A common urban person usually wakes up in the morning checks the tv news or newspaper, goes to work, makes a few phone calls, eats with their family or peers when possible and makes his decisions based on the information that he has either from their co workers, tv news, friends, family, financial reports, etc. we need to be conscious of the reality that most of our decisions, beliefs and____ are based on what we know for a fact, our assumptions and our own experience. In our work we usually know what we have to do, based on our experience and studies, however on our routine life and household___ we mostly rely on the mass media to get the current news and facts about what is important and what we should be aware of. We have put our trust on the media as an authority to give us news, entertainment and education. However, the influence of mass media on our kids, teenagers and society is so big that we should know how it really works. The media makes billions of dollars with the____ they sell and that we are exposed to, every single moment. We buy what we are told to buy by the media. After seeing thousands of advertisings we make our buying decisions based on what we saw on TV, newspapers or magazines. These are the effects of mass media especially in teenagers, they buy what they see on TV, what their favorite____ advertise and what is acceptable by society based on the fashion that the media has imposed on them. There are some positive and negative influences in young people of our society due to these ad campaigns in the media. Here is a positive influence example, if there is a___ show on education that is getting a lot of attention by the media and gains popularity among your friends and society, you will more likely want to actively participate and watch these quiz shows. These activities are good for the society and will promote literary activities in the youth. However a negative influence in teenagers is the use of___ and ammunition by celebrity movie stars, the constant exposure of which would seduce the teen to replicate the same behaviour in the real life. When we watch TV or an action movie we usually see many images of ___and people hurting others. The problem with this is that it can become traumatic especially in our children as they see it more and more. Our kids that are starting to grow and are shaping their personality values and beliefs can become aggressive or they can lose a sense of distinction between reality and fiction. Teens, youngsters are in a stage of life where they want to be accepted by their peers, they want to be loved and be successful. The media creates the ideal image of beautiful men and women with all the ingredients of a successful person, you can see it in movies and TV. Its a subliminal way to persuade the masses that if you want to be successful and look like them then you have to buy that particular brand or product. Another negative influence in teenagers, especially in the USA, that has grown over the last years is____. There are millions of adolescents fighting obesity, but at the same time they are exposed to thousands of advertisements of____ food, while the ideal image of a successful person is told to be thin and wealthy.

The media has a huge impact on society in shaping the public___ of the masses. They can form or modify the public opinion in different ways depending of what is the objective. For example, Pakistani media influenced the public opinion against the Taliban in Swat by repeated telecast of a video clip showing whipping of a woman by a Taliban. How does TV affect your child? http://kidshealth.org/parent/positive/family/tv_affects_child.html Most kids plug into the world of television long before they enter school. According to the Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF): two-thirds of infants and toddlers watch a screen an average of 2 hours a day kids under age 6 watch an average of about 2 hours of screen media a day, primarily TV and videos or DVDs kids and teens 8 to 18 years spend nearly 4 hours a day in front of a TV screen and almost 2 additional hours on the computer (outside of schoolwork) and playing video games. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that kids under 2 years old not watch any TV and that those older than 2 watch no more than 1 to 2 hours a day of quality programming. The first 2 years of life are considered a critical time for brain development. TV and other electronic media can get in the way of exploring, playing, and interacting with parents and others, which encourages learning and healthy physical and social development. As kids get older, too much screen time can interfere with activities such as being physically active, reading, doing homework, playing with friends, and spending time with family. Of course, TV in moderation can be a good thing: Preschoolers can get help learning the alphabet on public television, grade schoolers can learn about wildlife on nature shows, and parents can keep up with current events on the evening news. No doubt about it TV can be an excellent educator and entertainer. But despite its advantages, too much television can be detrimental: Children who consistently spend more than 4 hours per day watching TV are more likely to be overweight.Kids who view violent acts are more likely to show aggressive behavior but also fear that the world is scary and that something bad will happen to them. TV characters often depict risky behaviors, such as smoking and drinking, and also reinforce gender-role and racial stereotypes. Children's advocates are divided when it comes to solutions. Although many urge for more hours per week of educational programming, others assert that zero TV is the best solution. And some say it's better for parents to control the use of TV and to teach kids that it's for occasional entertainment, not for constant escapism. That's why it's so important for you to monitor the content of TV programming and set viewing limits to ensure that your kids don't spend too much time parked in front of the TV. Post- reading comprehension test. T/F Most kids do not watch television before they enter school. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) advises kids under 2 years old not to watch any TV. As kids get older, too much TV time can prevent other necessary activities. Despite some disadvantages TV has some benefits especially in pre-school education. Children who spend many hours a day watching TV are more apt to be gain extra weight. It's preferably for parents to control the use of TV of their children.

Ukrainian politics http://www.economist.com/blogs/easternapproaches/2012/10/ukrainian-politics0?zid=307&ah=5e80419d1bc9821ebe173f4f0f060a07 Skim through the article to define its main idea. Was the author objective and fair enough to reflect the pre-elections events in Ukraine? Express your opinion. Explain the italicized word collocations. Ten days before polling day Oct 18th 2012, 15:58 by G.C. | KIEV AND YALTA

THE ruling Party of Regions and its allies look set to win Ukraines parliamentary election on October 28th. They may even gain a constitutional majority with control of two-thirds of the parliament. This will likely happen despite the fact that most Ukrainians regularly tell pollsters their country is heading in the wrong direction and less than a quarter of them plan to vote for the Party of Regions. Perhaps the most important reason for this is that Ukraine has reverted to the mixed proportional and first-past-the-post system last used in 2002. Back then, it allowed Leonid Kuchma, an unpopular president, to secure a working majority in parliament thanks to a divided opposition and post-election defections to his camp. The same conditions are in place now for Viktor Yanukovych (pictured above), the current president. His candidates can come out on top in first-past-the-post constituencies where three or more opposition politicians are competing. On October 14th the two main anti-Yanukovych forces agreed to withdraw some of their candidates in some districts in order to limit this phenomenon, but they have stopped far short of a genuine alliance. It is testament to the current parliamentary oppositions ineffectiveness that it allowed this electoral reform to pass last year, giving the ruling party a chance to retain power in an election that could be classed as free and fair (given that an elected parliament had agreed to its rules). Still, it appears Mr Yanukovychs team sees no compelling reason to take that chance: there are plenty of ways to skew the vote before international observers, who see this election as a

crucial test for Ukrainian democracy, arrive to observe the polling itself. Evidence from various quarters suggests this machinery is in motion across the country. In the eyes of many in the West, the election is already fundamentally flawed because Yulia Tymoshenko, one of the main leaders of the opposition, is in jail and barred from running as are several of her colleagues. The European Union and America have repeatedly condemned this as a case of selective justice. Ukraines media climate also falls short of the requirements for a truly free and fair election. Independent television channels face pressure while mainstream media overwhelmingly favour the ruling party, as monitoring of 230 news outlets carried out in August showed. That is according to Ukrayinskiy Tyzhden, a magazine that has reported extensively on press freedom violations (and incorporates some content from The Economist. Last month the magazine saw its distribution blocked at several key outlets. Should control of the media not suffice, those in power have also used their positions to remove rival parties advertisements as notes Opora, an NGO. Oporas 251 long-term election monitors have been producing regular reports listing dozens, if not hundreds, of election violations. Most of these (though not all, it should be stressed) are committed by or for government candidates. They run from burglary and slander to use of administrative resources to bribe voters. It seems all this is working: since July the Party of Regions ratings have improved dramatically, though it is hard to identify any success the government has had in that time to justify this. Casual conversations in Kiev can give an alarming impression that people believe the propaganda. One regularly hears, for example, that the Party of Regions is the party of business. That was hardly the feeling at the Black Sea Economic Forum, a conference in Yalta earlier this month: foreign and Ukrainian businesspeople alike deplored the deteriorating investment climate. Increasingly, Ukraines image abroad appears to be that of an unpredictable kleptocracy plagued by a need for greater transparency a catchphrase that is, as one delegate pointed out, just a euphemism for rampant corruption. Corruption will also very probably work in favour of the ruling party: the business advantages to be gained by being in power in such a system mean that a number of opposition candidates are likely to cross the floor once elected, further boosting the ruling coalitions majority. Independent journalists and much of the public are convinced that Natalia Korolevskas Ukraine Forward party, which has recruited the nations football hero, Andriy Shevchenko, is not actually an opposition force at all, but a technical project run by the government to take votes from the genuine opposition. Yet despite the hostile conditions and dirty campaigning, one new force is emerging in Ukrainian politics: that of Vitali Klitschko, another legendary sportsman. The reigning WBC world heavyweight champions grouping, UDAR, which means both punch and Ukrainian Democratic Alliance for Reform, is level-pegging with the United Opposition forces gathered around Yulia Tymoshenkos Fatherland party, on around 15%. That represents a considerable surge in popularity since campaigning started. Mr Klitschko is a charismatic figure who can fill the symbolic hole left by Ms Tymoshenkos perceived betrayals and imprisonment. He draws more of his support from the Western and Central regions that used to back Ms Tymoshenko and Viktor Yushchenko, her Orange Revolution partner, who is even more discredited. Mr Klitschko makes far less play of the

patriotic card, seeking instead to appear as a representative for all Ukrainians who are sick of the old, corrupt class. If he does well in these elections and then manages to hold his party together for two more years, Mr Klitschko could be well placed to challenge Mr Yanukovych for the presidency in 2015. The problem is, of course, the question of who is backing the boxer. Plenty of those on his party list have already held office. And Mr Klitschko himself was photographed celebrating this summer at the 73rd birthday party of Mr Kuchma, whose corrupt and undemocratic regime the Orange Revolution promised to dismantle, seven years ago. Post reading tasks. 1. Find the sentences from the articles which identify mass media inequality in Ukraine. 2. Find the synonyms to the given words in the text: proponents, to support, regardless, disability, to keep power, real opposition, competitor, to hire, to appear, power, true proof. 3. Organize group debates: What party to support and vote for? Censorship. Look through the peoples different attitude to censorship. What is your point of view? http://www.debate.org/opinions/should-the-national-government-censor-the-media-in-order-toprotect-the-public Should the national government censor the media in order to protect the public? YES 33% of members Voice Your Opinion Yes, if necessary, for the safety of the country and its people. The media sometimes goes too far in taking the position that they have the right to know and report everything that is going on. I believe that there are times that National Security may be dependent upon some things remaining confidential. The media should never report anything that would compromise our National Security and the Government should have the right to intervene in those cases. Posted By: WhiteZane84 Yes, the media should be censored, because children are left at home alone more these days than they used to be. With so many parents having to work late nights to make ends meet, there are children at home alone more, watching television. The government should censor what the media is allowed to air and talk about. Kids, as well as senior citizens, can become very upset if the media is not censored. Posted By: HealthyMose59 Censorship in the media may be better than unrestricted opinions. Currently, our country is embroiled in partisan politics partially flamed by the partisan media. Outlets such as Fox News which deliberately spread untrue statements such as the fact that Obama is not born in the United States should be shut down. On the other spectrum, Keith Obermann should also be censored for his inflammatory remarks on the left. News should be news and not anything else. Posted By: Random59387

NO 67% of members Voice Your Opinion no For example,in the case of China,driven from their communism influence,the government restrict the usage of mass media,especially the internet. It deprives their people from having full acess of the worldwide web,disempoweing them from knowing the truth. Posted By: Anonymous While the news media may need a major overhaul, government censorship would make matters worse. News media has gotten to a dangerous point. Much of what is reported is so slanted or biased that actual 'news' is lost behind belief and ideology. It needs a major overhaul, or even a complete rebuild. But government censorship would take the problem to the extreme. It would not protect the public from misinformation or media-produced hysteria. It would simply blind the public even further. Posted By: KnownEvan The government should not censor media because if they did that would hurt the public more then protect it. The government has no right at all to censor media. The public deserves to know the whole truth and nothing but the whole truth. We would be making a huge disservice to the public if we would allow our government to control what could and could not be said. Everything we would read would be even more skewed and messed up than it is now. Posted By: eyeslikethat There is no reason why the average person should not have access to media uncensored, because we all need to be informed. There are those that would argue that censoring the media helps keep people from making bad decisions and doing foolish things, in response to what they see and hear. While this may be, in part, true, one must consider the fact that censoring the media also keeps people from having the opportunity to make good decisions and wise choices, in response to what they hear. We should have free access to all information, so that we are fully informed in all our decisions. Posted By: MariaR No, because I believe that censorship is the first step towards a dictatorship. I do not believe that media censorship protects the public. If the media has access to information that affects people, the people have a right to know what is happening. It can have a real effect on the outcome of a situation. For instance, in Libya today, the people are struggling to obtain their freedom from Moamar Gadhafi and his government. Those who are being brutalized by government forces need to know that the world supports their position. This will affect how hard they will fight for their freedom, because it will give them the impetus they need in the face of a seemingly hopeless situation. Posted By: P0ngCuII Media shouldn't be censored No, government isn't responsible for media censorship. It is against the first amendment. Everyone should be able to express themselves even if it's violent. For those parents who are concerned about their children watching inappropriate channels while they're not home, v-chip was made. You can block the channels you wouldn't want them to

watch. Also, there are rating systems and parental advisory stickers made to prevent negative influence. Posted By: Anonymous Netiquette: etiquette governing communication on the Internet. http://www.studygs.net/netiquette.htm Communicating clearly on the Internet without creating misunderstandings is a challenge. One problem is that you haven't any facial expressions, body language, or environment to help you express yourself; another that there is little "give and take" for developing what you mean to say or are discussing. These guidelines hopefully will help you: Be clear Make sure the subject line (e-mail) or title (web page) reflects your content Use appropriate language If you have a question on whether or not you are too emotional, don't send the message, save it, and review it "later" Remember: no one can guess your mood, see your facial expressions, etc. All they have are your words, and your words can express the opposite of what you feel Don't use ALL CAPITAL LETTERS--it's equal to shouting or screaming Be brief If your message is short, people will be more likely to read it Refer to the Guide on "Writing for the Internet" Make a good impression Your words and content represent you; review/edit your words and images before sending Be selective on what information you put in an e-mail or on a web site: Information on the Internet is very public, and can seen by anyone in the world including criminals, future employers, and governments Forward e-mail messages you receive only with permission of the sender Remember you are not anonymous What you write in an e-mail and web site can be traced back to you Consider others If you are upset by what you read or see on the Internet, forgive bad spelling or stupidity; If you think it violates the law, forward it to the FBI or your state's Attorney General

Obey copyright laws Don't use others' images, content, etc. without permission Don't forward e-mail, or use web site content without permission Visit the Library of Congress' Guide on "Copyright Basics" for students and teachers Cite others' work you use Refer to the Guide on "Citation" Use distribution lists appropriately and with permission Do not send SPAM SPAM is posting or e-mailing unsolicited e-mail, often advertising messages, to a wide audience (another way of thinking of it is electronic junk mail) Don't forward chain letters If you receive one, notify your web master Don't respond to "flames" or personal attacks Contact your web master for action and referral Online learning/communicating: Online learning: questions | Distance learning | Mobile learning (M-learning) | Taking online tests | Netiquette | Basics: Website development | Basics: Website design | Making your website popular You can visit this website for testing your punctuation skills. http://www.tolearnenglish.com/cgi2/myexam/stats.php?id=1985

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