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Caribbean Disaster Mitigation Project Implemented by the Organization of American States Unit of Sustainable Development and Environment for

the USAID Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance and the Caribbean Regional P rogram Drawings to Accompany the Building Guidelines Section A: General Construction Principles (Figures 1-10) Introduction | Section A(1-10) | Section A(11-16) | Section B | Section C | Sect ion D | Section E | Section F | Section G Download AutoCAD DWG files (zip archive): Section A | Section B | Section C | Se ctions D-G Figure A-1: Plan Shapes of Buildings The success with which a building survives an earthquake is significantly affect ed by its shape in plan. Most buildings with a simple rectangular shape, with n o projections, perform well under earthquake conditions, provided the constructi on is adequate. Long narrow buildings should be avoided. Long buildings should b e divided into separate blocks with adequate separation. Figure A-2: Size and Location of Wall Openings The location and size of openings in walls have a significant effect upon the st rength of a wall and its ability to resist earthquake forces. Openings are to be located away from a corner by a clear distance of at least of the height of the opening. It is recommended that a minimum distance be 15". The total length of the openings should not exceed the length of the wall between consecutive cross walls. The horizontal distance between two openings should not be less than the height of the shorter openings.

Figure A-3: Typical Wall Corner Detail Figure A-4: Typical Wall Junction Detail Figure A-5: Reinforced Masonry Gable Arrangement An important factor contributing to the earthquake resistance of concrete masonr y buildings is the detailing and placing of steel reinforcement. The reinforcing guides given in these figures are only to be used for simple single storey buil dings constructed of good quality concrete blocks. In addition to the minimum v ertical wall reinforcement, all walls, corners and junctions are to be reinforce d. All vertical reinforcement is to be securely fixed to the ring beam. Horizon tal reinforcement must be placed every 3 courses. Window and door jambs should be reinforced and tied into the lintels. Gable walls are to be reinforced by ba rs fixed to the concrete beam at eaves height and to the sloping ring beam at th e top of the gable.

Figure A-6: Recommended Method for Construction on Sloping Sites Buildings sited in exposed areas (e.g. on the brow of a hill) are most vulnerabl e, while those sheltered by natural topography are less vulnerable. In siting t he building, therefore, steep slopes and edges of cliffs should be avoided, as w ell as other conditions such as steep sided valleys where exceptionally high win d speeds are found. Where building on a steep site is unavoidable, reinforced concrete tie beams sho

uld be constructed to reduce the untied height of the columns to a maximum of 10 feet, as shown. On more gently sloping sites, a satisfactory suspended slab may be achieved through the use of loosely compacted granular fill as permanent for mwork.

Figure A-7: Hip Roof Construction Figure A-8: Gable Roof Construction Figure A-9: Rafter/Ring Beam Connection Figure A-10: Wall Plate Connection and Hurricane Straps' Details Experience and research have shown that flat roofs are vulnerable to high winds. In an effort to reduce the uplifting wind forces on the roof, the roof pitch sh ould be not less than 25 to 30 degrees. Hip roofs should be used, since this sha pe of roof has been found to be more hurricane resistant than the gable of roof. Where gable roofs are used they should be strongly constructed. Roof overhangs also experience high local pressures and, where possible, these should be kept t o a minimum or removed completely. Where buildings have roofed patios or veranda s, their roofs should be separate structures rather than extensions of the main building roof, so that the patio or verandah roof may be lost without endangerin g the safety of the main roof. The main roof must be securely fixed to the ring beam and ridge beams. This may be achieved by the use of hurricane straps.

Drawings to Accompany the Building Guidelines Section B: Concrete Construction Introduction | Section A | Section B| Section C | Section D | Section E | Sectio n F | Section G Download AutoCAD DWG files (zip archive): Section A | Section B | Section C | Se ctions D-G Figure B-1: Permissible Arrangement of Strip Footings All exterior walls and interior load-bearing walls should be supported on reinfo rced concrete strip footings. Interior walls may be supported by thickening the slab under the wall and suitably reinforcing it. The foundations should generall y be located on a layer of soil or rock with good bearing characteristics. Such soils would include dense sands, marl, other granular materials and stiff clays. The foundation should be cast not less than 1 6" to 2 0" below ground, its thickne ss not less than 9" and its width not less than 24" or a minimum of three times the width of the wall immediately supported by it. Where clays must be used as the foundation bearing material, the width of the footing should be increased to a minimum of 2 6". Figure B-2: Typical Spread Footing Detail When separate reinforced concrete columns or concrete block columns are used the y should be supported by square footings not less than 2-0" square and 12" thick. For columns footings, the minimum reinforcement should be " diameter bars at 6" centres in both directions forming a 6" mesh.

Figure B-3: Reinforcement of Strip Footings Reinforcement in the foundation is needed to ensure the continuity of the struct ure. This is particularly important in cases of bad ground or where the buildin g may be subjected to earthquake forces. The reinforcement is assumed to be defo rmed high yield steel bars which are commonly supplied in the OECS. For strip fo otings, the minimum reinforcement should consist of 2 No. 4 (") bars placed longi tudinally and " diameter bars placed transversely at 12" centres. Figure B-4: Concrete Floor in Timber Construction Figure B-5: Concrete Strip Footing and Concrete Base with Timber Construction An acceptable arrangement for a foundation of a small timber building with a con crete or wood floor is shown in these figures. This construction is suitable in reasonably stiff soils or marl. Where the building will be on rock, the thicknes s of the footing may be reduced, but timber buildings are very light and can eas ily be blown off of their foundations. Therefore the building must be securely b olted to the concrete footing, and the footings must be heavy enough to prevent uplift. Figure B-6: Typical Block Masonry Details Concrete blocks used in walls should be sound and free from cracks and their edg es should be straight and true. The nominal width of blocks for exterior walls a nd load bearing interior walls should be a minimum of 6 inches and the face shel l a minimum thickness of 1". It is better to construct exterior walls of 8" thic k concrete block. Non-load bearing partitions may be constructed using blocks w ith a nominal thickness of 4" or 6". Blockwork walls should be reinforced both v ertically and horizontally; this is to resist hurricane and earthquake loads. It is normal practice in most of the OECS to use concrete columns at all corners a nd intersections. Door and window jambs must be reinforced. The recommended minimum reinforcement for concrete block construction is as foll ows: i. 4-" diameter bars at corners vertically. ii. 2-" diameter bars at junctions vertically. iii. 2-" diameter bars at jambs of doors and windows iv. for horizontal wall reinforcement use "Dur-o-waL (or similar) or " bars e very other course as follows: 4" blocks 1 bar 6" blocks 2 bars 8" blocks 2 bars v. For vertical wall reinforcement use " bars spaced as follows: 4" blocks 32 6" blocks 24 8" blocks 16 Figure B-7: Concrete Column Detail Columns should have minimum dimensions of 8" x 8" and may be formed by formwork on four sides or formwork on two sides with blockwork on the other two. The mini mum column reinforcement should be 4- diameter bars with " stirrups at 6" centres . A filled core column or poured concrete column should be placed full height to the belt course (ring beam) at each door jamb. Figure B-8: Alternate Footing Arrangements for Block Masonry This reinforced concrete footing is constructed monolithically with the floor sl ab. It consists of a series of slab thickenings under the walls with a minimum 1 2"deep downstand on the perimeter. The footing is placed entirely on well compac ted granular material.

Figure B-9: Floor Slab Detail The reinforced concrete floor slab is kept free of the perimeter walls. The mes h reinforcement in the slab is placed in the top with 1" covers. The slab is con structed on well compacted granular fill, crushed stone or marl. Figure B-10: Alternative Floor Slab Detail The suspended reinforced concrete slab is tied into the external capping beam at floor level. The top (steel) reinforcement is important. The main reinforcement should be of the order of " diameter at 9" centres, and the distribution steel 3 /8" diameter at 12" centres. Figure B-11: Fixing Detail for Vernadah Rail to Column It is important that the rails be adequately fixed into the side column. At a m inimum the bolts should be galvanised to prevent corrosion. Epoxy grout or che mical anchors are recommmended for fixing the baluster into the concrete column. Figure B-12: Reinforcement Arrangement for Suspended Slabs The reinforcement should be bent and fixed by knowledgeable workmen. Care must b e taken to maintain the top steel in the top with adequate cover. Figure B-13: Reinforcement Arrangement for Suspended Beams The reinforcement should be bent and fixed by knowledgeable workmen. Care must b e taken to maintain the top steel in the top with adequate cover. Figure B-14: Reinforcement Arrangement for Suspended Cantilever Beams The reinforcement should be bent and fixed by knowledgeable workmen. Care must b e taken to maintain the top steel in the top with adequate cover. Figure B-15: Reinforcement Arrangement for Suspended Stairs

Drawings to Accompany the Building Guidelines Section C: Timber Construction Introduction | Section A | Section B | Section C | Section D | Section E | Secti on F | Section G Download AutoCAD DWG files (zip archive): Section A | Section B | Section C | Se ctions D-G Figure C-1: Alternative Foundation for a Small Timber Building With timber construction the foundation must ensure that the building is adequat ely supported. For most timber buildings the foundation must be firmly anchored to the ground to prevent the building from being moved by high winds. This found

ation alternative describes a timber post concreted into a hole in firm soil. Gr eenheart or pressure treated timber must be used. Figure C-2: Fixing Detail for Timber Joist Bearing on a Concrete Beam Figure C-3: Fixing Detail for Timber Rafter to a Timber Header Figure C-4: Alternative Fixing Arrangements for Pillar Supports at Floors to Res ist Uplift Drawings to Accompany the Building Guidelines Section D: Steel Construction Introduction | Section A | Section B| Section C | Section D | Section E | Sectio n F | Section G Download AutoCAD DWG files (zip archive): Section A | Section B | Section C | Se ctions D-G Figure D-1: Steel Column Pedestal and Footing Foundations for steel framed buildings generally consist of a reinforced concret e pad located at a suitable depth on a bearing stratum. The pad supports a stub column which has the column holding down bolts cast into it. The height of the s tub column is such that the column base is located at the desired elevation. Since steel framed buildings are comparatively light weight structures, the foot ing size is determined by the size of the adequate anchor required to prevent up lift due to wind. The size of footing should therefore be provided by the design er or supplier, and the horizontal restraint needed at the column bases must als o be shown on the drawing. Because of this, it is not possible to provide specific design guidelines for th e footing, since the size of the footing is dependent upon the forces which woul d be generated by the wind. Experienced engineers would be required to carry out a wind analysis, the result of which would permit design of the footing to be u ndertaken.

Drawings to Accompany the Building Guidelines Section E: Fire Prevention and Fire Safety Introduction | Section A | Section B| Section C | Section D | Section E | Sectio n F | Section G Download AutoCAD DWG files (zip archive): Section A | Section B | Section C | Se

ctions D-G Figure E-1(a): Cover Details for Reinforced Concrete Members Figure E-1(b): Cover Details for Reinforcement Concrete Members Adequate concrete cover to reinforcement is required for both durability and fir e resistance. The covers recommended should provide a fire resistance of about 4 hours.

Drawings to Accompany the Building Guidelines Section F: Plumbing, Sanitation, Water Supply and Gas Installations Introduction | Section A | Section B | Section C | Section D | Section E | Secti on F | Section G Download AutoCAD DWG files (zip archive): Section A | Section B | Section C | Se ctions D-G Figure F-1: Schematic Drawing Showing Connection of Fixtures for a Single Storey Dwelling The general arrangement for connection of fixtures to a single stack is depicted . It is important that no soil or waste pipes discharge into bends attached to a water closet (WC) bowl. The pipes must be laid to adequate falls to the service manhole. Figure F-2: Detail of Manhole Construction Manholes are to be installed at every change of direction and gradient, spaced n o more than 60 feet apart. Manholes are constructed of reinforced concrete or bl ockwork and the drain where it passes through the manhole shall be carried in an open benched channel. Manhole covers are typically of steel, cast iron or concr ete and are to be airtight and fitted with lifting handles to facilitate removal . Figure F-3: Conventional Privy Pit privies shall preferably be located on the leeward side of a building and sh all be ventilated. Privies shall not be used in areas where the water table is w ithin 2 feet of the surface since they will not function well. The precast concr

ete slab pit privy has been adopted by many health authorities. There shall be openings at the top of the walls to dissipate odours. For maximum odour control a vent pipe can be installed in the tank to carry odours away fro m the privy. The vent pipe shall be at least 6.0 inches (150 mm) in diameter, pa inted black, screened with a wire gauze and located on the sunny side of the lat rine so that air inside the pipe will heat up and create an up-draft. The pipe s hall extend a minimum of 2 feet above the roof of the privy. The door should open outwards to minimize the internal floor area.The toilet sha ll be sufficiently screened to discourage flies. The walls and roof shall be wea therproof, shall provide privacy, exclude vermin and be architecturally compatib le in external appearance with the main house. Figure F-4: Details of Construction of Water Cistern In areas without a public water supply, a water storage cistern should be constr ucted for each house or dwelling, along with a rainwater collection system from the roof or other suitable catchment. The size of a typical storage tank or cist ern is as shown. The water storage cistern can be located under one or more buildings of a dwelli ng group or consist of a separate tank remotely located. The cistern shall be lo cated uphill and as far as practical from any septic tank, privy, soakaway, or l eaching tile field. The water storage cistern shall be preferably reinforced con crete and provided with access hatches to allow cleaning out and repairs. The cover of the water storage cistern shall be of a durable, non-rotting materi al. Wood or plywood is generally not satisfactory. The cover must be tightly fit ting to prevent mosquito breeding. Light should be excluded from the cistern wat er to prevent the growth of algae. Sufficient overflows must be provided to prev ent flooding of dwellings. The overflows must be screened to prevent the entranc e of mosquitoes, frogs, or other vermin. Figure F-5: Standard Septic Tank Details The basic function of a septic tank is to receive domestic sewage, partially tre at it, segregate the solids, and discharge the liquid to a tile field or soakawa y. Anaerobic bacterial action breaks down much of the solid matter into liquids and gases. While in an efficiently operating tank the liquid discharge is compar atively clear, tanks do not accomplish a high degree of bacteria removal and inf ectious agents including pathogenic organisms may be widespread in the effluent which is "septic". The primary purpose of the tank is to condition sewage. To p rovide for maximum solids removal, adequate tank capacity is necessary. Figure F-6: Alternative Arrangements of Sanitary Fixtures in a Bathroom Six different arrangements of small two- and three-fixture bathrooms are depicte d. The dimensions shown are the minima for proper use of the spaces. Figure F-7: Typical Plumbing Layout for a Small House All plumbing shall be installed in a workmanlike manner. The water supply pipes should be provided with a properly protected and easily accessible stop cock or gate valve near to the boundary. The fixtures should be of smooth, hard, durabl e, impervious and corrosion-resistant materials, free from flaws and blemishes. All fixtures connected to foul drawings shall be trapped as close to the fixture as possible. The water closets shall have a vent pipe of not less than 1 inches in diameter. A drain laid under a floor on fill, must be laid in a straight line for its entire length beneath the building, and should not exceed 40 feet in le ngth. Figure F-8(a): Soak-Aways in Areas with a High Water Table

Figure F-8(b): Soak-Aways in Areas with a Low Water Table Soakaways shall be used as alternatives to shallow absorption fields where sub-s urface conditions are feasible. They shall never be used where there is likeliho od of contaminating underground water supplies, such as areas with fresh water w ells. The most suitable disposal system is dependant on the percolation rate and this is generally determined by the Public Health Authority. In the construction of soakaways, proper precautions shall be taken to prevent t he side walls from collapsing while workmen are in the hole.The soakaway pit is to be lined with stones, bricks, or concrete blocks laid up dry with open joints backed up with at least 3" of gravel. The bottom of the pit is to be filled wit h coarse gravel (pea rock), to depth of at least two feet. The cover is to be ma de of reinforced concrete or steel. Where two soakaways are to be constructed th ey shall be located not less than three times the largest of the surface dimensi ons apart. Soakaways may be used in all areas for the disposal of excess rainwat er or run-off from buildings that is not of a septic nature.

Drawings to Accompany the Building Guidelines Section G: Electrical Guidelines Introduction | Section A | Section B| Section C | Section D | Section E | Sectio n F | Section G Download AutoCAD DWG files (zip archive): Section A | Section B | Section C | Se ctions D-G Figure G-1: Typical Electrical Plan for a Small House Electrical installations, including the service capacity of the installation, an d the number and distribution of circuits shall meet the requirements of the rel evant Electricity Regulations. This sketch covers single-phase electrical servic es for residential construction under 2000sq.ft. All electrical services shall be installed by an experienced electrician in acco rdance with the Electricity Regulations governing the installation of electrical service, and in accordance with the relevant Electrical Code. Only experienced and/or licensed electricians should install electrical systems. Figure G-2: Typical Sections of Wall Showing Locations of Fixtures