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Explain the term value 1) Values represent basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally

or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence. They contain a moral flavour in that they carry an individuals ideas as to what is right, good, or desirable. 2) When we rank an Individuals values in terms of their intensity we obtain that persons value system. We all have a hierarchy of values that form a value system. obedience, equality, and so forth. This system is identified by the relative importance we assign to such values as freedom, pleasure, self-respect, honesty, We all have values and, as you will see, what we think is important influences our attitudes and our behaviour. 3) Generally values are relatively stable and enduring and a significant portion of the values a person holds is established in his early years from parents, teachers, friends etc. sometimes however the process of questioning ones values may result in change but mostly it leads to reinforcement of the values already held. 4) Importance of Values: Values are important to the study of organizational behaviour because they lay the foundation for the understanding of attitudes, perceptions, personality, and motivations. Individuals enter an organization with preconceived notions of what ought and what ought not to be. Of course, these notions are not value-free. On the contrary, they contain interpretations of right Further, they imply that certain behaviours or outcomes are preferred over others. and wrong.

5) Types of Values a) The most important early work in categorizing values was done by All-port and his associates. They identified six types of values: 1. Theoretical Places high importance on the discovery of truth through a critical and rational approach. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Economic Emphasizes the usefulness and practicality of the situation. Aesthetic It places the highest value on form and harmony. Social Here the highest value is given to the love of people. Political It places emphasis on acquisition of power and influence. Religious It is concerned with the unity of experience and understanding of the cosmos as

a whole.

b) More recent research suggests that there is a hierarchy of levels that are descriptive of personal values and life-styles. One such study identified seven levels. Level 1. Reactive. These individuals are unaware of themselves or others as human beings and

react to basic physiological needs. This is most descriptive of newborn babies. Level 2. Tribalistic. These individuals are characterized by high dependence. They are strongly

influenced by tradition and the power exerted by authority figures. Level 3. selfish. Level 4. Egocentrism. These persons believe in rugged individualism. They are aggressive and They respond primarily to power. Conformity. These individuals have a low tolerance for ambiguity, have difficulty in

accepting people whose values differ from their own, and desire that others accept their values. Level 5. Manipulative. These individuals are characterized by striving to achieve their goals by They are materialistic and actively seek higher status and

manipulating things and people. recognition. Level 6. Sociocentric.

These individuals are characterized by striving to achieve their goals by They are materialistic and actively seek higher status and

manipulating things and people. recognition. Level 7. values. Existential.

These individuals have a high tolerance for ambiguity and people with differing

They are outspoken on inflexible systems, restrictive policies, status symbols, and arbitrary

use of authority. c) Rokeach Value Survey has indentified two types of values: Terminal Values: Refer to desirable end-states of existence. These are goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime Instrumental Values: Refer to preferable modes of behaviour or means of achieving ones terminal values.

Q2. Discuss the role of values in Indian corporate with examples Q3. Short Note: Discuss individual value system refer q1 and Stephen robbins para on value system. Q4. SN values and beliefs refer Q1 also. Values vs Beliefs Knowing the difference between your beliefs and values can be a little confusing. People use both to guide their actions and behavior and to form their attitudes towards different things, but they are essentially different. Beliefs are the convictions that we generally hold to be true, usually without actual proof or evidence. They are often, but not always connected to religion. Religious beliefs could include a belief that God created the earth in seven days, or that Jesus was the son of God. Religions other than Christianity also have their own set of beliefs. Non religious beliefs could include: that all people are created equal, which would guide us to treat everyone regardless of sex, race, religion, age, education, status etc with equal respect. Conversely someone might believe that all people are not created equal, which results in racist and sexist values and attitudes.

Beliefs are basically assumptions that we make about the world and our values stem from those beliefs. Our values are things that we deem important and can include concepts like equality, honesty, education, effort, perseverance, loyalty, faithfulness, conservation of the environment and many, many other concepts. Our beliefs grow from what we see, hear, experience, read and think about. From these things we develop an opinion that we hold to be true and unmovable at that time. From our beliefs we derive our values, which can either be correct or incorrect when compared with evidence, but nonetheless hold true for us. It is possible for our beliefs and values to differ over time as we encounter evidence or have experiences that challenge our previously held views. Conversely our beliefs and values can also be strengthened by experience or evidence. For example, someone who believes in God might have that belief confirmed when they see a loved one recover from cancer and see it as a miracle delivered from God. However, a person might have their belief in the essential goodness of human beings shaken and changed if they have a truly terrible experience.

Everyone has an internalized system of beliefs and values that they have developed throughout their lives. These may stem from religion or may develop separately to religion. Q4. SN - Ethical Behaviour and Values