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i(.^yxia.

ilMwtt^

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DEUERLICH'sche

BUCHHANDLUNG
in

Gottingen.

COLLEGE SERIES OF GREEK AUTHORS


EDITED UNDEK THE SUPEKVISION OF

JOHX WILLLA.MS WHITE AND CHARLES BURTOX GULICK

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF THE

GREEK DIALECTS
GRAMMAR
SELECTED INSCRIPTIONS

GLOSSARY

BY

CARL DARLING BUCK


PROFESSOR OF SANSKRIT AND INDO-EUROPEAN COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO

GINN AND COMPANY


BOSTON
.

NEW YORK CHICAGO LONDON

Entered at Stationers' Hall


Copyright,
1910,

by

John "Williams White and Charles Burton Gulick


ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
910.1

Cftt jatftenteum i)rtg<

GINN ANU COMI'ANV PRIhTUKS HUSTON

I'KOU.S.A.

TO
THE MEMORY OF

THOMAS DAY SEYMOUR

PREFACE
The aim
of this Avork
is

to furnish in concise

form the essential


Hitherto
the requirements

material for an introductory study of the Greek dialects.


there has been no single volume intended to
fulfill

of college and graduate students who wish to gain a first-hand knowledge of Greek dialects, vhether for a better understanding of historical Greek grammar, or for a greater appreciation of the variety of speech in the Greek world, only half suspected from the few dialects employed in literature, or as a substantial foundation for a
critical

study of these literary dialects, or merely for the ability to

handle intelligently the niimerous dialect inscriptions which are important in the investigation of Greek institutions. It is now more than ten years since the author formed the plan
of publishing a brief collection of

Greek dialect inscriptions with

explanatory notes for the use of students, and made a selection for
this purpose.

At

that time Cauer's Delectus inscriptionum Graeca-

rum (2d

ed. 1883),

which pro^ed useful

for

many

years,

had already
In

ceased to be a representative collection of dialect inscriptions.

the case of several dialects the material there given vas quite over-

shadowed meantime

in importance

by the discoveries

of recent years.

In the

this situation has

been relieved by the publication of

Solmsen's Inscriptiones Graecae ad inlustrandas dialectos selectae.

But another need, which it Avas equally a part of the plan to supply, namely of more explanatory matter for the assistance of beginners in the subject, has remained unfilled up to the present time, though here again in the meantime a book has been announced as in preparation (Thumb's Handbuch der griechischen Dialekte) Avhich presumably aims to serve the same purpose as the present one. AVith regard to the explanatory matter, the first ])lan was to accompany the inscriptions not only by exegetical, but also by rather full grammatical notes, with references to the grammars where the

vi
peculiarity iu question

PREFACE
was treated
as a Avhole.
P)ut tlie desire to

include all that was most essential to the student in this single vol-

ume
mar

led to the expansion of the introduction into a concise "


of the Dialects,"

may

prove to

Gramand the author has come to believe that this be the most useful part of the Avork. Without it the
dialectic peculiarities are

student Avould be forced at every turn to consult either the larger

Greek Grammars, where, naturally, the

not sifted out from the discussion of the usual literary forms, or else the various grammars of special dialects. For, since Ahrens,
the works devoted to the Greek dialects, aside from discussions of
special topics,
lect or, at the

have consisted in separate grammars of a single


most, of a single group of dialects.

clia-

Some

of the ad-

vantages which this latter method undoubtedly possesses

we have

aimed to preserve by means of the Summaries (pp. 129-153). Highly important as are the dialects for the comparative study of the Greek language, this Grammar is distinctly not intended as a manual of comparative Greek grammar. It restricts itseK to the discussion of matters in which dialectic differences are to be observed, and the comparisons are almost Avholly within Greek itself. Furthermore, the desired brevity could be secured only by eliminating almost wholly any detailed discussion of disputed points and
citation of the views of others,
sition to those

whether in agreement or in oppoSome notes and references text. are added in the Ajipendix, but even these are kept vitllin narrow limits. Several of these references are to articles which have appeared since the printing of the Grammar, which began in Septemadopted in the
ber 1908, was completed.

Especial pains have been taken to define as precisely as possible


the dialectic distribution of the several peculiarities, and
it

is

be-

lieved that, though briefly stated and without exhaustive lists of

examples, fuller information of this kind has been brought together than is to be found in any other general work. Put, as the most competent critics will also be the
peculiarity in the vast and
first to

admit, no one can be safe from


scattered material; and, further-

the danger of having overlooked some stray occurrence of a given


still

much

more, such statements of distribution are subject to the need of continual revision in the light of the constantly appearing

new

material.

PREFACE
The reasons
forth on
p. 14.

vii

for not attempting in the

Grammar

a fuller account

of the peculiarities exhibited

by our

literary texts in dialect are set

The
that

Selected Inscriptions

show such a

noticeable degree of coin-

cidence with the selection made by Solmsen, in the vork cited above,
it is

perhaps well to state expressly that this

is

not the result


Avith

of having simply adopted a large part of his selections

some

additions, as

it

might appear, but of an independent

selection,

made
some

some years before the appearance


substitutions.

of his Avork, and, except for

necessary reduction, adhered to with probably not over half a dozen

For a brief collection the choice of the most representative inscriptions from a time Avhen the dialects are comparar

tively

unmixed

is

fairly clear.

The

later inscriptions Avith their

various types of dialect mixture are of great interest, and some

few examples
collection.

of these
is

have been included.

But

to represent this

phase adequately

possible only in a

much more comprehensive

The transcription employed is also identical Avith tliat used by Solmsen in his second edition, but this again is the result of longsettled couAaction that this system, as used for example by Baunack in his Inschriften von Gortyn (1885) and his edition of the Delphian
inscriptions (1891),
is

the one best adapted for a work of this kind.


is

The

brevity of the notes


If,

justified

by the assistance

giA^en in

other parts of the book.

before beginning the inscriptions of a

its main characSummaries (180-273), he will not feel the need of a comment or reference for a form that, from the point of view of the dialect in question, has nothing abnormal about it. Furthermore, the Glossar}^ makes it unnecessary to comment on

given dialect, the student familiarizes himself with

teristics

by the help

of the

many
many

individual Avords.

Detailed discussion of the problems of


etc.

chronology, constitutional antiquities,


of the inscriptions
is

which are involved in


])rin(n})al

not called for in a Avork the

aim of which is linguistic. It is sometimes advisable for a student to depart from the order in Avhich the inscriptions are given, and to begin his study of a dialect with one of the later inscriptions, e.g. in Arcadian to read first no. 18, leaving until later the more difficult nos. IG, 17.

viii

PREFACE
besides serving as an index to the
all

The Glossary and Index,


mar,
is

Gram-

intended to inchide

words occurring

in the Selected In-

scrii)tions Avhich are

nut to be found in Liddell and Scott, or exhibit

unusual meanings.

was hrst planned, I learned that the had already arranged for a dealing with the monuments, inscriptional and literary, which represent the different dialects of Greece, by Professor H. ^^ Smyth. But, finding that Professor Smyth, because of other interests, was

Some time

after this book

editors of the College Series

'
to con-

quite willing to relinquish the task, the editors invited


tribute

me

my

contemplated Avork to the Series.

The

late

Professor

Seymour, under
plan,

whom more

than tAventy years ago I had read

my

first dialect inscriptions,

gave

me

valuable counsel on the general

manuscript.

and before his lamented death read over a large j^art of my I am also under oljligation to Professor Gulick for the great care Avith Avhich he has read the proofs and for important suggestions.

The proofreading
it.

in the office of the publishers has been

so notably accurate

and scholarly that

I cannot omit to express

my

appreciation of

Chicago, November 1909

CONTENTS
PAET
IXTRODUCTIOX
ClASSIFICATIOX and IxTEREELATlOX OF THE DiALECTS
I:

GRAMMAR OF THE DIALECTS

....

Page
1

The Dialects

ix

Literature

12

PHONOLOGY
Alphabet Vowels
FOR before and after Liquids FOR a IX Other Cases FOR
15
17

17 18

19
19
19

FROM

IN

AtTIC-IoXIC

BEFORE A VoWEL BEFORE V ix Arcado-Cyfriax t BESIDE e IX Other Cases FROM e BEFORE IX XORTHWEST GrEEK West Greek = East Greek e
1

FROM FROM

e e

20

....

21 21

22

FROM ei

IX
IX
ai

Eleax
TlIESSALIAX AXI) BoEOTIAX
.
.

23
23

FROJI

Lesbiax
I

23 23

FROM AFTER IN AeOLIC CoNSOXAXTAL FROM AxTEVOCALIC


t t

IX

LkSIUAN AND TlIES24 24 24

SALIAX

Interchange of

and

from , ESPECIALLY
FROM
V
uj

IN

ArC ADO-C YPRIAX

.25
25
2o
2.)

IX

TlIESSALIAX

AXD
IN
.

Boeotian etc Secondary e AND 0. "Spurious IJiphthonos""


ix

.20

Page
DlPHTHONOS
ai IN
ei

FROM
FKOM FROM

at IN

Boeotian TUESSALIAN

28
28 28

fl
t

ei ei

IN

Boeotian

20

ai,

,,

il,

FROM 01 IN Boeotian 01 BEFORE VoWELS

29 29
30

In

General
FROM

ao, eo,

,
f.

ev in

East Ionic
of

Monophthong before Vowels


In Lesbian

30 30
31

Insertion of

Loss of

31
31

Long Diphthongs In General

,,,
General

from

,,

32

et FROM Non-Dipiithongal A\)\vel Combination (Contraction etc.)

33
33 34 30
38

In

OR
e
7}

+ Vowel
^

+ Vowel + Vowel + Vowel

38

Notes to Preceding
Assimilation of Vowels Epenthetic Vowels Anaptvctic Vowels

39
40
41 41 41

Vowel-Gradation
Consonants
F

In

General
fr

43
44

FOR

Initial f before a

Vowel

44

Intervocalic f POSTCONSONANTAL f f BEFORE Consonants Consonantal Spiritls Asper. Psilosis Loss OF Intervocalic ocr. Rhotacism

45 40
47

48

49
51

52

Change of

to

53

CONTENTS
,,
V

XI

Page
54
55

,,
L.VrOXIAN

FROM

Interchange of Surds, Sonants, and Aspirates Interchange of it and itt Interchange of Labials, Dentals, and Glttuuals Nasals and Liquids Nasal before Consonant

... ...
. . .

55

56
.

.57

58

59

Transposition of a Liquid, ou Loss by Dissimilation

60

Cretan from PT, FROM Double Liquids and Nasals

,^

00
00
in

Lesbian and Tiiessalian


61
01

P, ",

Intera'OCalic
v<r

Liquid or Nasal

61

Original Intervocalic + Consonant Secondary Intervocalic Final

.......

Q2

62 62
63

64 65
66

-,
<,
<r<r,

Original
S,

66

m
.

67

Assimilation, Dissimilation, and Transposition of Consonants Assimilation in Consonant Groups

68
69

Transposition in Consonant Groups Assimilation, Dissimilation, and Transposition, between Non-Contiguous Consonants Doubling of Consonants

69
70

Changes in External Combination In General


Elision

71 72 72

Aphaeresis Shortening of a Final Long Vowel


Crasis

72 72

Apocope Consonant Assijiilation


Final Final Final
v
s

74

75
76
77

CONTENTS
Page
Final Mute
4,
t>

77 77

Consonant Doubling

.78
78

MOVABLH

Accent

79

INFLECTION
Nouns and Adjectives
Feminine Masculine o-IStems
o-SteiMS

-88

80
81
81

Consonant Stems
-STEMS
1-Stems

in

General

82

83 84

v-Stems

85
85
80 87
87

Nouns in -evs Some Irregular Nouns


Comparison of Adjectives

Numerals
Cardinals and Ordinals Pronouns Personal Pronouns
possessives

90
91
91

REFLExnE Pronouns
Demonstrative Pronouns
Relative, Interrogative, and Indefinite Pronouns Adverbs and Conjunctions Pronominal Adverbs and Conjunctions of Place, Time, and

...

92

93

Manner

Prepositional AND Other Adverbs Prepositions Peculiarities in Form Peculiarities in Meaning and Construction

......
....

95
97

99
100

Verbs

Augment and Peduplication


Active Personal Endings Middle Personal Endings I.mperative Active and Middle Future AND Aorist Perfect Subjunctive Optative
Infinitive

103

103 105 100


107

109
110 112
112

Unthesiatic Inflection of Contract Verbs

114

CONTENTS
Middle Participle in -e^evos Type Transfer of ^t- Verbs to the Type of Contract Verbs Some Other Interchanges in the Present System The Verb " To Be "

xiii

-,

........
. . .

Page
114
115

.115
.

115

.117

WORD-FORMATION
On the Form and Use of Certain Suffixes and Certain Peculiarities OF Composition
-Tjtos

-etos

Type

xapleis

-rts, -ffis,

-5,
-TTfp

= -TTjs -tos = -eos =

--ovSas

...........

119 119
119

120
120
120

- -

-,

Individual Cases of Variation in Suffix


-repos
-l8ios

............ ....
in -kX^os
.

120

-, - ............
Proper Names
Aio^oTos,
.
. . .

120 120 121 121


121

121
121
121

Interchange of Different ^owEL Stems in First Member of Compound, etc 122 Patronymic Adjective instead of Genitive Singular 122
. .

SYNTAX
The Cases The Genitive The Dative The Accusative The Moods The Subjunctive The Optative The Imperative and the Word Order
124

125
125

125
12G

Infinitive

128

128

SUMMARIES OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SEVERAL GROUPS AND DIALECTS


East Greek
Attic-Ionic
Ionic

129
130
132

Arc ado-Cyprian
Arcadian Cyprian

133 134

xiv

CONTENTS
Page
Aeolio LusniAN
TllESSALIAN
Boeotian'
135 135
136

139 141
142 143

West Greek
NouTiiwEST Greek Phocian LOCRIAN

144 144
146
147

Elean
Doric Laconian

Heraclean
Argolic Corinthian

148

148
149 149 150

Megarian Rhodian COAN Theran Cretan

151
151
;

SURVIVAL OF THE DIALECTS GROWTH OF VARIOUS FORMS OF


The Attic Koivi] The D()ric The Northwest Greek
Dialects

154

156 157
Kotvn

158
Fokjis, Artificial

Hybrid Forms, Hyper-Doric

Revival of
160

PAET
IONIC

II:

SELECTED INSCRIPTIONS
164
169

East Ionic Central Ionic West Ionic (Euboean)

171 174
180 183

ARCADIAN CYPRIAN
LESBIAN THESSALIAN
Pelasgiotis Thessaliotis

190
195

BOEOTIAN PHOCIAN
Delphian Exclusive of Delphi
.
.

196

205 212

CONTENTS
LOCRIAN

XV
Page
214

ELEAN NORTHWEST GREEK LACOXIAN HERACLEAN


ARGOLIC CORINTHIAN

219 223
225
231

239
247

MEGARIAN RHODIAN COAN THERAN CRETAN


APPENDIX
Selected Bibliography Notes and References

249 201

2
259
261

281

287

GLOSSARY AND INDEX

299

CHARTS ILLUSTRATING THE DISTRIBUTION OF IMPORTANT


PECULIARITIES
Plates I-IV

DIALECT MAI^ OF GREECE

Plate

ABBREVIATIONS
The foUowiiifi abbreviations are einijloyed for languages, dialects, of the forms quoted.
Acarn. = Acanianian Ach. = Achaean Aegin. = Aeginetan Aetol. = Aetolian
Agrig.

and

local sources

Amorg. And. =

= of Agrigentum = of Amorgos
of

Andania

= German = Gortynian Heracl. = Heraclean Herm. = of Hermione Ion. = Ionic Lac. = Laconian Lat. = Latin
Germ.
Gortyn.

Arc. = Arcadian Arc.-Cypr. = Arcado-Cyprian Arg. = Argive (of Argos) Argol. Argolic (of Argolis) Astyp. = of Astypalaea Att. = Attic
Att.-Ion. = Attic-Ionic Av. or Avest. Avestan Boeot. = Boeotian Calymn. of Calymna Carpath. of Caipathus Clialced. of Chalcedon Chalcid. = Chalcidian Cnid. = Cnidian Corcyr. = Corcyraean Corinth. = Corinthian Cret. = Cretan

= = =

= Locrian Mant. = Mantinean Meg. = Megarian Mel. = of Melos Mess. = Mcssenian Mil. = of Miletus Mycen. = of Mycene Nisyr. = of Nisyrus N.W.Grk. = Northwest
Olynth. = of Glynthus Crop. = of t)ropiis

Lesb. Locr.

=:

Lesbian

Greek

Pamph.
Phoc. Rheg.

Cypr. = Cyprian Cyren. = of Cyrene Delph. = Delphian

= Pamphylian = Phocian = of Rhegiiim Rhod. = Rhodian Selin. = of Selinus Sicil. = Sicilian


Sicyon.
Skt.

= of Dodona = Doric El. = Elean Eng. = English Epiies. = Ephesian Epid. = Epidaurian Epir. = Epirotan Eretr. = Eretrian Eub. = Euboean
Dodon.
Dor.
list lias ])een

= Sicyonian = Sanskrit Stir. = of Stiris Styr. = of Styra Sybar. = of Sybaris Syrac. = Syracusan Teg. = Tegean Thas. = of Tliasos Ther. = Theran Thess. = Thcssalian Troez. = of Troezen

111 abbreviating tlie names of Greek authors and of their works, Liddell and Scott's generally followed. Note also the more general gram. = grammatical (forms (juoted from the ancient iiramniariaiis), and lit. = literary (forms quoted from the literary dialects without mention of the individual authors). For abbreviations of modern works of reference, see under the Bibliography,

pp. 281

ff.

Other abbreviations which are occasionally employed will be readily understood, ascpd. compound, dat. = dative, imv. = iiiiperativ'e, 1. = line, pi. = plural, sg. = singular, subj.= subjunctive.

I:

GRAMMAE OF THE DIALECTS


INTRODUCTION

Classification and Intekrelation of the Dialects


1.

Wlien the ancient grammarians spoke

Greece

of the four dialects of

Attic, Ionic, Aeolic,

and Doric,

to

which some added the

KOLvrj as a fifth

they had

in

mind

solely the literary dialects, wliich

furnished the occasion and object of their study.


dialects represent only a

But these

literary

few

of the

many forms

of speech current
literature, and,

in Greece,

most

of wliich play

no part whatever in

apart from some scattered glosses, would be entirely

to
soil

us were

it

not for the wealth of inscriptions which the

of

Greece has yielded in modern times.

The existence of Ionic, Aeolic, and Doric elements in the people and speech of Greece is an undoubted fact of Greek history, and
one
of first

importance to an understanding of the dialect relais

tions.

But there

no warrant, either in the

earlier

Greek tradition
classi-

or in the linguistic evidence, for


fication.

making

this

an all-inclusive
it

These three elements were precipitated, as

were, on the

coast of Asia Minor,

where their juxtaposition gave

rise to the his-

torical recognition of the distinction.

And

as the lonians, Aeolians,


it

and Dorians

of Asia Minor were colonists from Greece proper,

was a natural and proper inference of the historians that they reflected ethnic divisions which also existed, or had once existed, in
1

See also the Summaries of Characteristics, 180-273, and Charts


1

and la

at the end of the book.

2
the mother country.^

GKEEK DIALECTS
As
to

[l

who were

the Dorians of Greece proper

They formed a well-defined group throughout the historical period, and the tradition that they came originally from the Northwest is completely borne out by the close
there was of course no mystery.
relationship of the Doric

and Northwest Greek

dialects (see below).


of Attica

That the lonians were akin to the inhabitants


both in Herodotus
1.56)

was an

accepted fact in Greek history, and the Athenians are called Ionic
(6.82, 7.57). The The only uncertainty here is as to the extent of territory which was once Ionic. There are various accounts according to which lonians once occupied the southern shore of the Corinthian gulf, the later Achaea (e.g. Hdt. 1.145-146, 7.94), Megara (e.g. Strabo 9.392), Epidaurus (e.g. Pans.
(e.g.

and Thucydides

linguistic evidence is equally unmistakable.

2.26.2),

and Cynuria (Hdt.

8.73).

If these

accomits in themselves
that the lonians

are of questionable value, yet

we cannot doubt

before the migration were not confined to Attica.


tions of Epidaurus

The

close rela-

and Troezen with Athens,


and
it is

in cult

and legend, are


lonic.^

significant for the Argolic Acte,

reasonable to assume that

at least the entire shore of the Saronic gulf

was once

The

affinities

of the Aeolians were more obscure, for theirs was

the earliest migration to Asia Minor, the most remote from the
historical period.

But Thessaly was the scene


.

of their favorite

legends, the

Aeolus,

home and many

of Achilles, as also of their of their place-names

eponymous hero

had

their counterpart in

Thessaly.

In Herodotus

we

find the tradition that the Thessalians

of the liistorical period

were invaders from the west who occupied

1 It is equally natural, and quite justifiable as a matter of convenience, to apply the same names to these earlier divisions. That the na7ne Ionian, for example, did not gain its current application on the mainland, but in the east, is of no consequence. Such generic terms are everywhere of gradual growth. 2 That is, in a period contemporaneous with the Aeolic and Achaean occupation of other parts of Greece (see below). Of a still remoter period the view has been advanced that the lonians formed the first wave of Greek migration, were in fact the much-discussed Pelasgians, and for a time occupied also the territory which with the next wave of migration became Aeolic or Achaean. This is,

naturally,

much more

problematical.

1]

INTEODUCTION
land,^

3
this the linguistic

what had hitherto been an Aeolic


evidence
is

and with
is

in perfect accord.

For Thessalian

of all dialects the

most
of

closely related to Lesbian,

and

at the

same time shares


dialects, this

in

some

of the characteristics of the AVest

Greek

admixture

West Greek elements being somewhat

stronger in Thessaliotis

than in Pelasgiotis.

See 201, 202, 210, and Chart

tians also are called Aeolians


dialect
is,

I. The Boeoby Thucydides,^ and the Boeotian

next to Thessalian, the most closely related to Lesbian.

These three have several notable characteristics in


201 and Chart
I),

common

(see

and are known as the Aeohc


an even stronger admixture
(see

dialects.

But in
ele-

Boeotian there

is

of

West Greek
I),

ments than in Thessalian

217 and Chart


If

the historical

explanation of which must be the same.

we

credit the state-

ment of Thucydides that the Boeotian invaders were from Arne, whence they had been driven by the Thessalians,^ we should recognize in these Boeotians, not a part of
tlie

old Aeolic population of

Greek invaders from Epirus (cf. Mt. Boeon), like the Thessalians who forced them onward. The Aeolic element is to be ascribed rather to ihe tribes, or some of them, comprising the early stratum, as for example the Minyans of Orchomenos. However obscure such details may be, the evidence is perfectly clear that both Boeotia and Thessaly were once Aeolic, but were overrun by West Greek tribes which adopted the speech
Thessaly, but a tribe of AVest
of the earlier inhabitants in greater or less degree.
It is a natural

presumption, of which there are some specific

indications, tliat not only Thessaly


diate lands of Phocis

and Boeotia but the interme-

and

Locris,

and even southern Aetolia

wep
2

pelled to fight against the Aeolians


tians; id. 3.2
8

-,
Ildt. 7.17(3

^. 4

^
$
i.e.

Boiwrots Toh

Thuc. 7.57

, ,

in fact

the Aeolian.s of

Methymna,

Teiiedos, etc., were

^vyyevQv
re

Thuc. 1.12

yap

,
oi

who founded
eret

these cities,

comnamely the Boeo-

(of the Le.sbian.s).

'^ yfjv

4
all

GREEK DIALECTS
that portion of Greece north of Attica

[l

legends of early Greece

was once

Aeolic.

which plays a r61e in the Phocaea in Asia JVIinor,


and in the
also

which, though later Ionic, surely belonged originally to the strip


of Aeolic colonies,

was believed

to be a colony of Phocis,

dialect of Phocis there are actually

some

relics of

Aeolic speech, as

the dative plural of consonant stems in

(107.3),

which

is

found in eastern Locris.

As
is

for southern Aetolia, the region of

Calydon and Pleuron was once called Aeolis according to Thucydides,^

and the probability

that the Aetolians of the

Homeric period

were Aeolic, though their name was taken by the


invaders.
tion,

later,

West

Greek,'
tradi-

The Aetolian occupation


of

of Elis

was an accepted

and the existence

an Aeolic element in the dialect

of Elis,

like the dative plural in -eaai,


this
if

may be brought into


Elean
is

connection with

we assume

that while the invaders were Aetolians in the


distinctly a AVest

later sense, that is AVest Greek, as


dialect,

Greek

they had nevertheless adopted certain characteristics of the

earlier Aeolic Aetolian

and brought them

to Elis.

Corinth was

also once occupied

by Aeohans according
is

to Thucydides,^

a noteworthy fact that the dative plural in


in other Doric dialects,

-, which

and

it is

is

unknown

foimd in various Corinthian colonies (107.3).


limits within

But we have passed beyond the

which the term


and Aeolic, can
of the

Aeolic, or in general the division into Ionic, Doric,

with any propriety be applied to the peoples and dialects


historical period.
It is

only in Strabo that these three groups are

made

into

an

all-inclusive

system

of classification,

by means

of
is

an
not

unwarranted extension of Aeolic to include everything that


Ionic or Doric.

And

yet

it

is,

unfortunately, this statement of


since been recognized, that

Strabo's,^ the error of

which has long

rots iv
^

, .' ) 6', . ',


1

Thuc. 3.102 Thuc. 4. 42

is

^oXuynos

?,

? .%
'^leyap4v
ivTOs (sc.
. .

trtpl

Strabo

8..333 wavres

yap

AloXeis

9,

vvveTi AhXeis

eir'

AlyiaXbv

'

aayaybvv.

...

1]

INTRODUCTION
in the literal sense, our

has often been taken as representative of ancient tradition and


still colors,

maps

of ancient Greece.

The

historical Phocians, Locrians, Aetohans,

etc.,

were not, as Strabo's

statement implies, called Aeolic.


des,

Neither in Herodotus, Thucydi-

nor any early writer, are they ever brought under any one of
Their dialects, with that of Elis, which Strabo

the three groups.

which may be conveniently designated the dialects, are, in spite of some few traces of Aeolic as mentioned above, most closely related to the Doric dialects.
also calls Aeolic, all of

Northwest Greek
There

is

scarcely one of the general characteristics

com

on to the

Doric dialects in which they do not share, though they also have
certain peculiarities of their own.
If

See 223 with

a, 226,

and Chart

I.

them under any one of the three groups, it is unquestionably Doric to which they have the best claim, and if Strabo and our maps so classed them there would be no very serious objection. Indeed modern scholars do often class them under " Doric in the wider sense," calling them then specifically " North Doric." But on the whole it seems preferable to retain the term Doric in its historical application and employ West Greek as the
to classify

we were

comprehensive term to include the Northwest Greek dialects and


the Doric proper.

In fact the most fundamental division


that into these

of the

Greek dialects
dialects, the

is

West Greek and the East Greek


"

terms

referring to their location prior to the great migrations.

The East

Greek are the


the peoples

Old Hellenic

" dialects,

that

is

those employed by

who

held the stage almost exclusively in the period

represented by the Homeric poems,

remained in obscurity in

when the West Greek peoples the northwest. To the East Greek division
latter,

belong the Ionic and Aeolic groups, though, of the

Thessalian

and Boeotian,

as explained above, are

mixed

', 6 6.
^
'HXe/ots,
.

\
.
.

iv rrj WeKonovvqau)

'

^.

dialects belonging in

, \,5 ^

6
part also in the

GREEK DIALECTS
West Greek
division.

[l

And

to East

Greek belongs

also another group, the Arcado-Cyprian.

No two
share in a
Avhere.

dialects,

not even Attic and Ionic, belong together more

obviously than do those of Arcadia and the distant Cyprus.

They
else-

number

of notable peculiarities
I.

which are unknown


l)e

See 189 and Chart

This

is

to

accounted for by the

fact that

Cyprus was colonized, not necessarily or probably from


as tradition states, but
its

Arcadia

itself,

from the Peloponnesian

coast,

at a time

when

speech was like that which in Arcadia survived


This group represents, beyond question, the

the Doric migration.

pre-Doric s})eech of most of the Peloponnesus, whatever


to call
it.

we choose
^

The term Achaean


to this group,

is
it

used in so
entirely.

many
But

different senses

that

it

niight be well to avoid


it

it is

convenient to
to
it,

apply

which actually has the best claim


is

whenever the need

is felt of

some other term than Arcado-Cyprian,


left of

which, while describing accurately what


the historical period,
prehistoric times.
is

the group in
applied to
of the

strikingly infelicitous

when

The

relations of this

group to the others

East Greek division, especially Aeolic, are the most


interpret historically.

difficult to

Strabo, of course, calls the Arcadians Aeolic,

but without warrant in earlier usage.


in describing the forces

For example, Thucydides,


(7.57),

engaged at Syracuse

makes the
Yet the

most

of the distinction

between

Ionic, Doric,

and Aeolic nations,


of these.

but does not class the Arcadians with any one

Arcadian and Cyprian dialects show notable resemblances to the


Aeolic dialects which cannot be accidental (see 190.3-6 and Chart
I),

and some would

class

in the widest sense" or


tlien appearing as "

them "Achaean" (Aeolic in the usual sense North Achaean "). On the other hand, many

all together under the head of " Aeolic

of the characteristics

common

to the Aeolic dialects are lacking,

" Achaean " is applied by some to a supposed stratum intermediate between which survived in Arcado-Cyprian and the later Doric. But there is no good evidence, either linguistic or otherwise, that any such intermediate stratum ever existed.
1

tliat

1]

INTRODUCTION
of

7
(see

and there are certain points


190.1,
193.2,3,

agreement with Attic-Ionic

and Chart

I).

One may surmise that the


due

latter,

which are in part confined

to Arcadian, are

to contact
p. 2),

with

loniaus on the coast of the Peloponnesus (see abo\'e,

and

that the connections with Aeolic are earlier and more fundamental,

with Aeohc peoples But that brings us before the " mystery of the Achaean name," that most difficult problem of the relation between the Achaeans of the Phthiotis and the pre-Doric Achaeans of the Peloponnesus, and of those again to the historical
reflecting a period of geographical continuity

somewhere

in Northern Greece.

Achaeans on the Corinthian Gulf, whose

dialect is

West Greek.

Conservative procedure here consists in recognizing Arcado-Cyprian,


or Achaean, as a distinct group intermediate between Aeolic and
Attic-Ionic,

and conceding that the precise


peculiarities

historical

background

of

their interrelations is hopelessly obscure.

Arcadian shows some few


to the

West Greek

which we may properly attribute

influence of the surrounding Doric dialects in the historical period.

Just as in the Northwest Greek dialects some traces of the

former Aeolic speech have survived, as noted above, so


surprising to find
dialects

some

spoken

in

Laconia Poseidon was worshiped under the

which

recalls Arc.

(49.1, 61.5).

Here possibly belongs

,
lands
or

traces of

Achaean speech in the Doric


For example, in
of

formerly Achaean.

name
in

the true Doric form being


tv

= iu

, it

is

not

some Cretan

in-

scriptions (10).

Besides survivals which bear specifically either the

Aeolic or the Achaean stamp, there are others of forms which are

common

to both,

and so from the

linguistic point of

view might

be called Aeolic-Achaean, only their provenance leading us to


infer either Aeolic

Achaean source
137.5,

\<;
entiation.

157,

<;

(e.g.

probably Achaean,
or again others
differ-

etc. 5, 6);

vhich might be

called simply East

Greek without further

But, apart from some few striking examples, the ques-

tion of survival versus accidental agreement or historical borrowing


is

a very delicate one,

GREEK DIALECTS
The
classification of the dialects is then, in outline, as follows

[l
^

West Greek
1.

Division
1.

East Greek Division


Attic-Ionic.

Northwest Greek: Phocian,


Locrian, Eleau,
etc.

2.

Aeolic

Lesbian, Thessalian,

2.

Doric

Laconian, Corinthian,
3.

Boeotian.

Argolic, Cretan, etc.

Arcado-Cyprian or Achaean.
accordance with the preceding
fol-

2.

The Greek

dialects, classified in

scheme, and with their important subdivisions noted, are the


lowing.

For summaries

of the characteristics of each, see 180-273.

EAST GREEK
I.
1.

The

Attic-Ionic

Group

Attic.
Ionic. Ionic,

2.

A. East

or Ionic of Asia Minor.

The Ionic

cities of

the

coast of Asia

Minor and the adjacent

islands, Samos, Chios, etc.,

together with their colonies, mostly on the Hellespont, Propontis,

and Euxine. There are some local varieties, of which the most marked is Chian, containing some Lesbian features.
B. Central Ionic, or Ionic of the Cyclades.

The Ionic Cyclades,

Naxos, Amorgos, Paros with


dres, Ceos, etc.
C.

its

colony Tliasos, Delos, Tenos, An-

West

Ionic,

or Euboean.

Chalcis (with

its

colonies in Italy,

Sicily,

boea.

and the Chalcidiau peninsula) and the other cities of EuA local dialect with marked characteristics is the Eretrian,

seen in the inscriptions of Eretria and Oropus.


1 Pamphylian, of which the meager remains permit only a very imperfect knowledge, and which is therefore, barring occasional references, ignored in this book, shows notable affinities on the one hand with Arcado-Cyprian ( = , i^ lap6s, etc.). As with dat., etc.), on the other with West Greek Thessalian and Boeotian represent a mixture of Aeolic and AVest Greek, so Pamphylian of Achaean and AVest Greek. Quite probably the earliest colonists

{,

were Achaeans from the Peloponnesus, later followed by Dorians,

2]
II.
1.

INTRODUCTION
The Arcado-Cyprian or Achaean Group
The most important material
is

Arcadian.

from Tegea and

Mantinea.
2.

Cyprian.

There are numerous short inscriptions, and one

of

considerable length, the bronze of Idahum.


syllabary.
III.
1.

All are in the Cyprian

The Aeolic Group


The
inscriptional material
is fairly

Lesbian, or Asiatic Aeolic.^

extensive, but late.

There

is

nothing approaching the time of the

poems of Alcaeus and Sappho, and very little that is older than the Macedonian period. Most of the inscriptions are from the chief cities of Lesbos, but a few are from other islands and towns of
the Aeolic mainland.
2.

Thessalian.2

Two
if

subdivisions with

marked

differences are

formed by the dialect

of Pelasgiotis

and that

of Thessaliotis,

which

may

be conveniently,

not quite appropriately, designated as East

and West Thessalian.

From

Phthiotis there

of the material is

from the period

the Northwest Greek

is

an early Thessalian inscription, but most


of Aetolian

domination and in

See 279.
is

From

Histiaeotis, Perrhaebia,

and Magnesia the material


3.

very scanty.
is

Boeotian.^

The material

very extensive, and representative


is

of all the important Boeotian towns, but period.

meager

for the early

WEST GREEK
IV.
1.

The Northwest Greek Group


from Delphi, and
quoted specifically as Delphian.

Phocian.

A large part of the material, including nearly all that is


is is

of

an early date,

1 Sometimes called simply Aeolic. But, to avoid confusion with Aeolic in its wider sense, the designation Lesbian is to be preferred in spite of the formal impropriety of applying it to a dialect not restricted to Lesbos. Most of the

material
2

is actually from Lesbos. That Thessalian and Boeotian are only

in part Aeolic, in part

West Greek,

has been explained above, pp.

2, 3,

10
2.

GREEK DIALECTS
Locrian.

[2

Tlie early

and important inscriptions are from westtlie

ern Locris.
3.

From

eastern Locris

material
of

is is

meager and
very early,

late.

Elean.

All the material,

Olympia.
4.

The Northwest

Greek

much

which

is

from

Employed

in Aetolia

and other

regions under the domination of the Aetolian league.

See 279.

Note. Only Phocian, Locrian, and Elean are known to us as distinct Of others which presumably belong here we have practically no material from a time when they retained their individuality.
dialects of this group.

there In Aetolia, for example, before the rise of the Northwest Greek Avas undoubtedly a distinct Northwest Greek dialect, probably most nearly
related to Locrian, but of this pure Aetolian
sjieech of

we have no knowledge. Of the Aeniania and IMalis previous to the Aetolian domination we have no remains. It is natural to suppose that Northwest Greek dialects were once spoken also in Acarnania and Epirus. But here the influence of the
Corinthian colonies was strong from an early period, as shown by the use
of the Corinthian alphabet in the

few early inscriptions

and in

later times,
is

from Avhich nearly Northwest Greek

,
all

the material dates, the language employed

but the Doric

not the

like that of the

contempora-

neous inscriptions of Corcyra.

See 279.

Hence the actual material from

Acarnania and Epirus


Cephallenia and Ithaca

is

more properly

classified Avith Corinthian.

From
from

we have

decrees in the Northwest Greek

the Aetolian period (see 279), but from earlier times not enough to show whether the dialect was Northwest Greek or Doric. From Zacynthus there
is

almost nothing.

The
is

dialect of

Achaea

(i. e.

Peloponnesian Achaea in

the historical period)


is

generally believed to belong to this group.


is

This

probable on general grounds, but there


it.

as yet no adequate linguistic

evidence of

For, apart from the inscriptions of Achaean colonies in

Magna

Graecia, which, both on account of their meagerness and the mixed


all

elements in the colonization, are indecisive, nearly


the time of the Achaean league, and this

the material

is

from

,
1.

is

not in the Northwest Greek

but in the same Doric

that was used in Corinth and Sicyon.

^.
Laconian

The Doric Group


Laconia and
its

and

Heraclean.

colonies

Tarentum and
Tables, has

Heraclea.

Heraclean, well

known from the Heraclean


is

peculiarities of its

own, and

treated as a distinct dialect,

2]
2.

INTRODUCTION
Messenian.

11

There
is

is

scarcely any material until a late period,

when
3.

the dialect
Megarian.

no longer pure.

JMegara,

and

its

colonies in Sicily (especially Sehnus)


(as

and ou the Propontis and Bosporus


Except from Selinus the material
4.

Byzantium, Chalcedon,

etc.).

is late.

Corinthian.

Corinth, ^Sicyon, Cleonae, Phlius, and the Corinits

thian colonies Corcyra (with

own

colonies Apolloiiia
etc.,

and Dyrrha-

chium), Leucas, Anactorium, Ambracia,

and, in Sicily, Syracuse

with

its

own

colonies.

Material from places other than Corinth,


of Corinthian, is generally
etc.

though coming under the general head


Argos, Mycenae,

quoted specifically as Sicyonian, Corcyraean, Syracusan,


5.

Argolic.

etc.,

and the

cities of

the Acte, as

Hermione, Troezeu, and Epidaurus together with Aegina.^ Argolic


(abbreviated Argol.)
refers
is

used as the general term, while Argive (Arg.)

more

specifically to the material

from Argos (with the Argive

Heraeum), as Epidaurian to that from Epidaurus.


6.

Rhodian.

PJiodes (Camirus, lalysus, Lindus, and the city of

Rhodes) with the adjacent small islands (Chalce, etc.) and Carpathus,
Telos,

and Syme, the settlements on the mainland

(the

Rhodian

Peraea) and Phaselis in Pamphylia, and the Sicilian colonies Gela

and Agrigentum (an inscription of Rhegium, though not a Rhodian colony, is in the same dialect). The material is very extensive, but
little of it is early.
7.
8.

Coan and Calymnian. The material

is

considerable, but not early.

The

dialects of Cnidus,
islands.

and

of Nisyrus,

Anaphe, Astypalaea,
and
insufficient to

and other small

The

material

is late,

determine whether any of these should properly be grouped with

Rhodian, Coan, or Theran.


Theran and Melian.

Nisyrus, for example, was nearly always

connected politically with either Cos or Rhodes.


9.

Thera with Cyrene, and Melos. Early


brief.

in-

scriptions are

numerous, but

1 From Aegina there is not much material from the period before the Athenian occupation, but enough to show that tlie dialect was Argolic (note lap^os

with

lenis,

58

6).

12
10. Cretan.

GREEK DIALECTS
This
is

[S
all

now

the best-known of

the Doric dialects,

owing

to the very extensive early material, especially

from Gortyna.

The

dialect of

Gortyna and other

cities of

the great central portion

of the island is also

known more

specifically as Central Cretan, to


late,

exclude the divergent type seen in the inscriptions, mostly

from the eastern and western extremities

of the island.

See 273.

But the term Cretan alone

is

to be understood as referring to this

Central Cretan, unless otherwise stated.

The Dialects
3.

in

Litekatuke

Of the numerous dialects

of

Greece a few attained the rank

of literary dialects,
ficial

though

for the

most part in a mixed and

arti-

form not corresponding to anything actually spoken at a


Moreover, in the course of literary developto be characteristic of certain classes of
dialects

given time and place.

ment these

came

literature, and, their r61e

once established, the choice of one or the

other usually depended upon this factor rather than upon the native
dialect of the author.

The
of

literary

development
it

of epic songs

began with the Aeolians

Asia Minor, whence

passed into the hands of the neighboring


of

lonians,
all epic
is

and the language

Homer, which became the norm

of

poetry and strongly affected subsequent poetry of all classes,

a mixture of Aeolic and Ionic,

in the

main Old Ionic but with


beside
of

the retention of

many

genitive singular in

Aeolic forms, such as


beside

<,
is

-,

etc.

The language

Hesiod

some Aeolic forms not used in Homer, also some Boeotian and Doric peculiarities. The elegiac and iambic poets also use the epic dialect with some modifications,
substantially the same, but witli

not only lonians like Archilochus, but the Athenian Solon, the

Spartan Tyrtaeus, the Megarian Theognis,

etc.

Of the melic poets, Alcaeus and Sappho followed very closely


their native Lesbian dialect,
influence,

though not entirely unaffected by epic

The language

of these

and other Lesbian poets was

S] directly imitated

INTRODUCTION
by some
more,
later writers, notably

13
by Theocritus in

three of his idyls, and contributed an important element to the

language of

many

e.g.

Anacreon

of Teos,

who

in the

main

employed his native Ionic (Xew Ionic), and, in general, choral lyric, which was mainly Doric.

to the

The choral

lyric

was developed among Doric


w^lio

peoples, though

under the impulse of Lesbian poets,

we know were welcomed


Its

in Sparta, for example, in the seventh century.

language

is

Doric, with an admixture of Lesbian and epic forms,

no matter
is

whether the poet


identical with
posite,

is

a Dorian, or a Boeotian like Pindar, or an

Ionian Hke Simonides and Bacchyhdes. This Doric, however,

not

any

specific

Doric dialect, but

is

an

artificial
Ijut

comwith

showing many

of the general

Doric characteristics,

the elimination of local peculiarities.


in the case of

An
is of

exception

is to

be made

Alcman, w4iose Doric

a severer type

and

evi-

dently based upon the Baconian, though also mixed with Lesbian

and epic forms.

The

earliest prose writers

were the Ionic philosophers and


and ia the
fifth

liis-

torians of the sixth century,

century not only

Herodotus, but Hippocrates of Cos, a Dorian, wrote in Ionic.

In

the meantime, with the political and intellectual supremacy of

Athens, Attic had become the recognized language of the drama,

and before the end


though the

of the fifth century

was employed in prose


stiU. felt

also,

earlier prose writers as

Thucydides, like the tragedians,


as provin-

avoided certain Attic peculiarities wliich were


cialisms (e.g.

pp

= ).

Henceforth Attic was the lan-

guage

of literary prose.

The

dialects

mentioned are the only Hterary

dialects

known and
otliers

cultivated throughout the Greek world.

But some few

were

employed

locally.

Epicharmus and Sophron wrote


did, later,

in their native
of Doric prose

Syracusan Doric, as

Archimedes.
of

A form
Magna

was developed among the Pythagoreans


some fragments
others,
of

Graecia, seen in
of Croton,

Archytas

of

Tarentum, Philolaus

and

though the greater part

of the writings of this class are

14
spurious.

GREEK DIALECTS
The comic poet Ehinthon, from

[s

the grammarians The fragments of Corinna of Tanagra, whose fame was scarcely more than local, are m Boeotian, and the Boeotian dialect, as well as Megarian and Laconian, are caricatured by Aristophanes. But the great majority

whom

sometimes quote, used the Doric of Tarentum.

of the dialects play

no

role Avhatever in literature.

Even mains must

for those dialects


for the

which are represented, the


artificial

literary re-

most part be regarded

as secondary sources,

not only because of their

character but also because of

the corruptions which they have suffered in transmission.


tional importance, however, attaches to the language of

Excep-

Homer

because of

its

antiquity,

and

to the Lesbian of

Alcaeus and Sappho

because

it is

relatively pure

and much older than the inscriptional

material.

Note. In the following exposition,

dialectic forms

from

literary

and

grammatical sources are not infrequently quoted, especially where the inscriptional evidence is slight, as it is, for example, quite naturally, for the personal pronouns. Such forms are sometimes quoted with their specific
(lit.

sources, sometimes simply as literary Doric


Lesl).), literary Ionic (lit. Ion.), or

(lit.

Dor.), literary Lesbian

grammatical (gram.). But a detailed treatment of the dialectic peculiarities observed in our literary texts is so bound up with questions of literary tradition and textual criticism that it is best left to the ci-itical editions of the various authors. It would
be impracticable in a work of the
to obscure that
jjresent scope,

and would, moreover, tend

more trustworthy picture of the dialects which is gained from inscriptions, and which is so important as a basis for the critical study of the mixed literary forms.

PHONOLOGY
The Alphabet
4.

The numerous

differences in the local alphabets, so far as


letters,

they consist merely in variations of the forms of the


deciding the age and source of inscriptions.

need

not be discussed here, important as they are to the epigraphist in

But

certain points in
of express-

the use of the alphabet and

its

development as a means
of the

ing the Greek sounds should be noted.


1.

In the most primitive type

Greek alphabet, as

it

is

seen in the earliest inscriptions of Crete, Thera, and Melos, the

non-Phoenician signs
is

not in use.

have not yet been introduced, and the are represented by The sounds of

(or ph), or, as in Crete,

where
;

distinguished from
2.

those

() when used of , , by

,.

is

not

h,

are not

In the next stage of development, after the introduction


fall

of

, X, Y, the alphabets
attached to
these
belongs, employs

into two classes, according to the values

signs.

The eastern

division, to

which Ionic
as

them

as

,,,

and

also uses the

, though
The

a subdivision of this group, represented mainly by the Attic alphabet, u.ses only the first

two and expresses

by

,.
was
at

western division,^ to which belong the majority of the alphabets


of Greece proper as well as that of Euboea,

whence

it

carried

to Italy by the Chalcidian colonies and became the source of the

Latin alphabet, employs

X,

as

not using

all,

and

Is

clearly

This distinction of eastern and western alpliabets, the distribution of which shown in the Chart in Kirchhoff's Stiidlni zur GcHchkhte den griechiJ':ast

schen Alphabets, has no connection with that of and is anything but coincident with it.
15

and West Greek

dialects,

16
generally expressing

GREEK DIALECTS
by
*).
all or, oftener,

[4

(only in Locrian

and

Arcadian by a special sign


3.

In the earliest inscriptions nearly

the alphabets have the

, , , /39, 9
Xepf^o?,
tions
4.
it is

f (vau or digamma); and many the ? (koppa), which is used before or , and that too even if a liquid intervenes, e.g.
very

^,
other

(in other posi-

rare).

Two

signs were available for

namely ^
of

or

$ (sigma) and

(san),

and most alphabets use one

of these to the exclusion of

the other.

But there are some few examples


is

a differentiation.
the charac-

In an early Arcadian inscription of Mantinea


ter
\A,

(no. 16),

a simplified form of the san, which

known from
Att.

sources, is used to denote a sibilant of specifically Arcado-Cyprian


origin, as in v\i9 (transcribed at<;)

= Cypr.

A
in

sign T,

which

is

also probably a modification of the san, is used

e.g.

some Ionic inscriptions from Halicarnassus


TeTape^;,

from Ephesus

[^]7;<?
5.

beside

In Boeotian,

.
V,

\()
of Asia
l

Minor

for the usual

beside

= reaaape^,

,
.
See
68.3.

= Att.

etc.,

from Teos
sometimes
there

a compromise between
later
(9.2).

and

I,

is

used for the close

e,

At Corinth and Megara


the e-sounds, but usually

were two characters, 5 and


entiated.
6.

E, for

differ-

See

28.

In most of the alphabets the

(early B) is the sign of the


e

spiritus asper,

and neither

and

nor the lengthened

and
and

("spuo.

rious

et

and

")

are distinguished from the short e

in East Ionic, where the sound of the spiritus asper

very early period, the H, which was thus


account as a vowel sign, not so

left free,

But was lost at a was turned to

show a difference in quantity (in the case of a, I, no such need was felt) as one of quality. It was probably used first only for the extremely open e coming from a, that is for the specifically Attic-Ionic (8), which for a time was more open than the sound of the inherited e, though this was also open as compared with the short e, and both soon became
to

much

"

6]
identical

PHONOLOGY
and were denoted in the same way. To be

17

distinction is to be observed in East Ionic inscriptions, but

seen in some of the Cyclades, to which the use of the

from East

Ionic, e.g.

from Naxos

(no. 6)

(with
no. 8)

in the penult).

Similar examples from Ceos

,,
it

sure,

no such
it is

had passed
etc.,

but
(e.g.

and Amorgos.
of

The use

77

extended not only to the Ionic but also to the


it is

Doric islands, Pdiodes, Thera, Melos, and Crete, where


in the earliest inscriptions,

found

though in Crete

w^nt out

of use for

a time, not appearing for example in the Law-Code.


Ionic,

In Central

where the sound

of the spiritus asper still survived, as also

in Rhodes, Thera,
h.

It occurs also

and Melos, the sign was used both as and as with the value of he, at Delos, Naxos (no. 6),
is

and Oropus
and

(no. 14.46).

The Ionic alphabet some


or
7.

also characterized
of

by

its distinction of

through differentiated forms


of the islands,

(usually

namely Paros, Thasos, and Siplmos,

= , but in = 0, and

= ).
In 403
B.C.

the Ionic alphabet was officially introduced at

Athens, and not

much

later replaced the native or " epichoric

alphabets in other parts of Greece.


fifth or

Inscriptions of the end of the

the beginning of the fourth century often

show a
Ionic.

transi-

tional

with the

Even was generally retained where it was f still sounded, and sometimes a form of was used for the spiritus asper, as in the Heraclean Tables and occasionally elsewhere (Elis, no. 60, Sicyon, Epidaurus). The Delphian Labyadae inscripform of the alphabet, partly epichoric, partly
full Ionic alphabet,
l

tion (no. 51) has

A,

=.
no. 19.

For the Cyprian syllabary, see

VOWELS
5.

for

a before or after

liquids.

Examples

are

most numerous

in Lesbian, mainly from

literary

and grammatical sources, as

18

So

, ,'^ ,^ << [] (
GREEK DIALECTS
=

(uo.

occur in inscriptions, likewise in Boeotian


proper names,

names,

. '^^,
names,
Boeot.,

from

21)

as regularly).

The forms with

attested for Thessalian, are to be attriljuted to


Cf. Boeot., Thess.

, ,
',
Both

etc.

like Hoiii.

and

in

numerous
in proper

but also
a,

proper

Lesb.

'^ '^ '


=
(Naples)
(49.2),

(Strabo 13.613),

(no. 23).

, ,
=

which are the only ones


influence.

attested

whence

In Arcado-Cyprian also

we

find

Arc.

but in form belonging with

(also Arc.

Cypr.

in Hesych.), Cypr.

(Hesych.)

fopjov

*KaTfap'yov aorist of
of the root as in

weak grade

In various West Greek dialects occur derivatives of

though the verb

, ', ', *,
itself

always has

Sicyon, in Argolis also


Cret.

a.

Some

of the examples, if taken


.

. ,, .
ehpaKov from
(49.2).

*-4<^ ('^)
a.

,
(cf
.

West

, ,
by
Lesb.
Ion.

o,

Thus

^
=

with the

with

in Elis, Argolis,

etc.,

Heracl. aveiri'ypoEpid.

Mel.

Cf. also Cret.,

siqyj^ort, Cret.

by themselves, might be regarded

simply as inherited o-grade forms

(cf 49.2), e. g. Arc.

).

etc., and, But an actual substitution must be recognized in Lesb. while the precise conditions and scope of the phenomenon are not clear, it is evidently one in which all the Aeolic dialects and Arcado-Cyprian had a etc. are anything more than inherited o-grade share. Whether forms may be less certain, but it is i^robable that these are Achaean survivals (see p. 7), and belong in this same connection.

lasgiotis),

rites,

in Heraclea, Sybaris, Locris

, , .
6.

for

a in other

cases.

and Arcado-Cyprian

also Arc. 8e/co

Thess.

Heracl.

hurial-place

' ,. , ,
6v

= {,

in Lesbian, Thessalian (PeLesb., Arc.

see 22).

and Lesb.

), (),
(cf.

Delph.

Elean

.
=

hurial

9]

PHONOLOGY
. The
explanation
is uncertain, and not necessarily the same For example, it is possible that the of = West Greek the same light as that of

19

the forms cited here.


is

to

be viewed
a.

in

But the preference Achaean characteristic.


116
7.

for

appears to be, here as in 5, an Aeolic-

? .
Sta.

for all
etc.

See

e for a.

For forms with

beside a wliich

fall

within the

regular system of vowel-gradatioii, see 49.2-4.

An
Thess.

actual change of final


-ei

to e is seen in Thess. hie

Cf.

= -ul

(27).

d
in all other dialects,

,
8.
a.

Attic-Ionic

from

a.

Original a, which remains unchanged


in Attic-Ionic.

becomes

Thus

but in other dialects

(-stem),
this

(Lat. fdri),

," ,
repre-

(Lat. dare).

For the contrast between

sents an inherited e-sound


also,

note Att.-Ion.
differs

But Attic
and

p, as <yvea,

and that which


(Lat. mater).

and

is

common
it

to the other dialects

elsewhere

from Ionic, in that

= Ion.
in Att.

<yeverj,

,.
has
a,

not

after

e, i,

The change

of

in the direction of
etc.

and was universal. The

began in the Attic-Ionic period, is not the original a unchanged,

but a special Attic reversion to

wliich occurred, however, before the

new

sound had become completely identical with that representing original e, That is, but and hence did not affect the latter (so Att. the r/ from a. was at first an extremely open e-sound, even 'more open than that of original e, and even in the historical period the two sounds are

-, ).

distinguished in the spelling of some inscriptions of the Cyclades.

See 4.0.

from lengthening of a in connection with original interfrom vocalic etc., undergoes the same change, e.g. Att.-Ion. from and from See 76, 77.1. But in original was of later origin and was unaffected. See original the

, , , *. , *,
77.:5, 78.

b.

The

arising

9.
1.

from

before a vowel.

Even

in Attic

than in other positions, and was frequently written


(Oropus)

= =

. .

an

before another vowel had a closer sound

So, sometimes, in Ionic, as

?=,
ei,

as ^eid?

20

GREEK DIALECTS
In several dialects the
e

[9

progressed so far in the direction of

that
2.

it

, , ^/? \\<, <;


(see 4.5), as

was frequently, or even regularly, written i. Thus Boeotian. The spelling is usually i, but sometimes e,

et,

or

I-

aveOiav, aveOeiav beside avedeav,

, <; =
=

'peovro<i.

a.

Boeotian

in general

had a

relatively close sound,

occurs occasionally even before a consonant, as

=
etc.

*^5

(68.2),
so constant that
it

-.
the

In iv

^, =
(16),
of the

and the spelling

the spelling

which

in other dialects

connected with

ei is

perhaps stands for original


as
if

, ,
t,

was shortened

name

town vere

etc.

{)
4.

3.

Cyprian.

At Idalium the
l

spelling

is

regularly

as

^,

= iovra, peirija = eirea. regularly, Cretan. We find


f.

except where the

was once
to stand

followed by
vocalic f

That
e

is,

the change was prior to the loss of interlater,

before another vowel,

,
;

and the

which

with the loss

of f,

came

was

unaffected.
TrXee?,

irXie';

5.

Laconian.

in early inscriptions (also in

=
6.

Heraclean.

as in Cretan, e.g.

other words,
influence.
7.

., ,
t,

= Hom. We find

but

Thus
vleo^,

<,

i6vT0<;,

with the same restriction as in Cretan,

,
e

Alcman and
t,

Ar. Lysist.), e.g. ^to9,


is

In later inscriptions the spelling

Verbal forms show

with the same restriction


but peovra,
as fereof,

but usually

e,

owing to

. .
in

usually

e.

In

In Argolic and Thessalian, both

there are

,.
10.

some examples
before

of

i,

as Arg.

,
of

which usually show


Trehiov

,
is

e,

Thess.

form in Arcadian and Cyprian, also in compounds as Arc.

, , ^^, , , ,), (). -. , , , ^',


from
in Arcado-Cyprian.
tv

= iv

the regular

^,

and

Uameworthy

(.

to

Cypr.

Cf. also early

Arc. (Mantinea, no. 16)


ev occurs

a7n;SeSo/AiV[o<?]

But

other

12]

PHONOLOGY
iv

21

words, and the more precise conditions of the change are not yet
clear,

= iv

is

found

also, possibly

p. 7), in

some Cretan
beside
e in

inscriptions of

Achaean " survival (see Eleutherna and Vaxus, and in


an
"

an Achaean
11.
L

inscription.

other cases.

The occasional interchange


beside
(a

of

and

in related

words, as

vowel-gradation, but not of the

common types

, , <?, ,, , , , .
Lesb.
etc.

,?,
sionally seen

among

appears with
Lesb.
Locr.

, ,
t

dialectic forms of the

reaaepe^, Att.
are from

*, *
given in 49),
is

kind of

occa-

same word. Hom. from while


(76).

Ion.

Att.

earta

in all other dialects, so far as quotable, e.g. Ion.

Thess.

Boeot.

Delph.

Heracl.

^eo?,
Arc.
'

Syrac.

Ehod.

ptov,

Coan

Cret.

,,
12.

well as the early substitution of

due to the influence


a from
but
e

of

.
in
is

In

tliis

case the

l,

as

for f in

most

dialects,

before

/'/?
no. 56)
El.

(no.

in a fifth-century inscription (no. 50),


(no. 51),

the pronunciation of a preceding


the spelling
is

',
a.

, ( \_2 , , , ,,,
from the
aorist).

inscriptions,

,
3
pi. opt.

analogy of the present

but the spelling ap

, ,
(but

Northwest Greek. Locr.

<).

Here

,,
also
for

may be

with

(as,

vice versa, Cret.

fapyov,

(=

),

4,

not quite uniform even in the early


to ep (see 241).

,
with
effect

after the

and

later gives

way

Delph.

and

show that

in Phocian too
e,

had a similar
Ach.

on

but except in these instances


Cf. also

ep

in no. 51).

Zei"?

*-

and Pamph.

= virep.

Elean has a also after from (31),

p, as

beside

open sound. Cf.

*.(..

in contrast to

(see 161.1); also before final


etc.

v,

as

-,

occasionally elsewhere, as tvaac

-, showing that Elean

in general

had a very

El.

^ (l^)

22
b.

Epid.

,
is

and open

to other possible explanations


yreiik

same

light as the

13.

West Greek a

dialectic interchange of

gradation (49.2-4), in which the distribution of the


various
(e.g.

of

by-forms in which the preference for the a forms


characteristic.

, , {, , , , ),
GREEK DIALECTS
and

[l2
isolated,

though more

contamination with

grade or assimilation), are perhaps to be viewed in the


a.

Elean forms imder

= East

Greek
e

e.

Besides the examples of

a and

cited under the

head

of vowele

and
is

forms

there
is

a group

marked

West Greek
1.

ta/309 (or lapo<i) is

the regular form in early inscriptions of

all

West Greek

dialects

and Boeotian,
influence.

lepo<i

occurring only later


is

and plainly due to

The

situation
of

probably the

same
t/309

in Thessahau,
(or
is
i'e/009)

though the occurrences

is

Attic-Ionic and Arcado-Cyprian, while a third


I/ao?

form

seen in Lesb.
ei

*2.

with

I),

Ion.

beside

*-,

(likewise

ipev<;, tpeta,

beside

, ,
,,
and Cyprian.

both forms are

late

late.

*laepo-).

There are many other words wdth


as

variation between

-e/?o?

and

-<;,
name

widely different dialectic distribution.


so far as the
of all AVest
is

",
=
Ke

(probably from

but with

quotable from early inscrip-

tions, is the

form

Greek dialects except Cretan, and of


tliis is

Boeotian.

In later Doric and Delpliian inscriptions

replaced by
3.

"'.
() is
in

usually

the form of
lias
re,

all

West Greek

dialects

and BoeoSee
134.2.

tian,

while Thessalian

The same
etc.

doubtless Boeotian)

,=, ,
-,
is

like Lesbian

wliich are also

Att.-Ion., Arc.-Cypr.

West Greek (and


(but Lesb.

etc.

See

132.9).

verbs in
dialects.
a.

-=
See

= je is likewise West Greek and


-,

Boeotian.

belong to some, but not

all,

AdWest Greek
is

133.1.

arcjoos

not confined to West Greek dialects, but

also
is

quotable from Arcadian, Boeotian, and Lesbian, and even for Attic
implied by arepos with crasis.
Ionic only, all

So far as we know, crcpos belongs to Atticexamples in other dialects being late.

18]

PHONOLOGY

23

14.

Original

that

is

representing original

e,

remains un-

changed in nearly

all dialects.

Contrast the special Attic-Ionic

from

(8),

both being seen in Attic-Ionic

=
4.6.

of other

dialects.
15.

On

the introduction of the character H, see

The sound of was so open in Elean that it approximated that of a, and was frequently, though by no = means consistently,' denoted by a. Thus (but also
a from

,
bet

= -,
et

16.

from

,^ .
= -, ea
beside
in Thessalian
e.

in Elean.

(but also ete)


Cf.

,)

, 8= =

for e (12 a).

and Boeotian. In these

dialects the

sound was so close that with the introduction

-}9, Thess., Boeot.

,
it

was uniformly denoted not by

time represented a close

Thess., Boeot.

<^,

Tliess.

<;,
,
=

Boeot.

.
17.

In late Boeotian inscriptions the spelling


Trapets

beside

(eh

',
18.

Lesb.

'. ,
=
^s, Att.

, ,
t

of the Ionic alphaei,

but by

which

at that

Boeot.

= --.

is

sometimes found, as Tracts

163.3).

also (Etyni. Magn.)


is

=
was

The explanation

difficult, since

in all other cases

remains unchanged

in Lesbian.

Perhaps

more open

initially

than in other positions, and


(47), led to ai.

this, in

connection

with the epenthetic vowel

from
after

after
is

in the Aeolic dialects.

tion of

indicated by
(but

occasional spellings such as Lesb.


Thess.

(Lesb.

from

/)79, beside Tpairehha.

.
but

), '^ .
=
Lesl).
cf.

beside

, ), ',
is

An

perhaps from

also 19.2.

probable I'oeotian
Cf.

example

Hesych.

But vowel-assimilation

(46) is also possible.

^ ,
is

open pronuncia-

* = /,

24
a.
h.

GREEK DIALECTS
Lesb.
El. TToXep

[18
etc.

,
=

owes

its c to

and

fitvioL

,
t.

the influence of

indicate an open pronunciation of the

though isolated occurrences, Cf El. = e and d (12 a, 15).


.

in Lesbian and Thes() from antevocalic The consonantal pronunciation of antevocalic t might occur anywhere in rapid speech, but was especially characteristic of AeoUc, as indicated by the following related phenomena in
19.

Consonantal

salian.

Lesbian and Thessalian.


1.

Lesb.

from

St in

, <;,

from glosses or

inscriptions, the usual

also

(^)
Lesb.

inscriptional

spelling being 8ta etc.

on a coin of Phocaea, Cypr.

(Hesycli.).
2.

<;, aWoreppo<i, \.4< (Herodian) =

'/?9,
3.

<;,

the development being

pi, p^, epi, epp.


i,

Thessalian doubling of consonants before

be retained or omitted in the spelling, as ihhiav, 7roWio<;,


VLovv,

. ,
4.

Kvppov beside
Cf. Att.

Omission

,.
from

which may then

apyvppoi beside apyvptoi,

,
=

,
=
in Attic

8
Cf.

late

of

t,

as Lesb.

apyvpa
3).

apyvpia, Thess.

etc. (see also

20.

Interchange of
is

lowing syllable

in the early fourth century, in other dialects only late


site assimilation in

ceding

(also Olynth.

relation of wliieh

Meg.

, <
eu,

or of the sufhx

, . -, /09, < <


and
v.

under

Assimilation of

to

of the fol-

seen in

which appears
;

beside

Influence of the pre-

in Lac. 'EXefAiiwa

name

of a montli).

Other by-forms, the

is

uncertain, are

and

<;,

the oppo-

etc.

21.
it is
I,

remains unchanged everywhere.


et,

But

in late inscriptions

as

.
or

sumetimc'S denoted by

which had come

to

have the sound

24]

PHONOLOGY

25

22.

and Cyprian,
as Arc.

jevoLTv, epperaaarv {in Arcadian there are no early examples of

,
from

especially in Arcado-Cyprian.

In both Arcadian

final

nearly always appears as

v.

Gen.

sg.

-dv

Cypr. 'Ovaaiyopav.

Cypr. 3

sg.

mid. -rv

= -do, = -, as
influ-

the ending, and -ro in a late inscription


ence).

Arc, Cypr.

may

be due to
after

Arc.

formed

Arc.

for

= aWo. But 6v = affli (6) in


(no.

is also

Lesbian and Thessalian.

Cf. also vv

Cypr. vvedeKe (once) beside ovedeKe, and Arc.

vvedvae
a.

In Lesbian there are several examples of

before
h.

as

,.
15
;

in later inscriptions

due to the
initial

).
o,

especially

is

common

to nearly all, perhaps


etc.,

all,

dialects except

Attic-Ionic.
c.

Cf. the

In Chalcid.
first.

/ ,
=

compounds
and

which are
is

universal.

9<;,

the second

due to assimilav,

tion to the
d.

In Pamphylian,

in final syllables regularly

becomes

written

or

.
23.

from

in Thessalian.

original or secondary (25),

introduction of the Ionic alphabet, was regularly denoted by

'
rovv
24.
it

became a

^,

.
B.C.,

Cf. et

,
Long
close

in Thessalian,

whether

then

and, after the

rayovv

ov.

from

(16).

and

Instead of becoming a sound like

German

ii,

French

u, as

did in Attic at an early period, the original -sound (English oo

in food)

This

is

was retained most obvious

in several, perhaps the majority of, dialects.


wdiere, the Attic values of the letters being

taken as a

basis, the spelling

was replaced by
is

ov.
B.C.,

In Boeotian, ou begins to appear beside


frequent after 300

,,

though

not

quarter of the century.

Thus

ovirep,

(22 h), etc.

In the third century the spelling

about 350

and

is

uncommon

until the last

apyovpiov, aovvypa-

26

never consistently, after

, , <;, , ,
(pronounced like English u in cube
?)

GREEK DIALECTS
is

[24

also

employed, though

, , , ,

(^)

and once

initially

tively rare, spelling

m Boeotian

( ).
=
is o,

and

as

= 8,

etc.

also once after

Another, but compara-

as

= virep,

a. Except in Boeotian and Pamphylian, where ov is also frequent, the is retained in inscriptions. So in Laconian, for which the retenspelling tion of the i/-sound is amply attested by the numerous glosses spelled Avith

ov in accordance with Attic values,

and by the pronunciation of the modern

Tsakonian.

In various other dialects, as Arcadian, Cyprian, Thessalian,


for v, or

Lesbian, Cretan, Euboean, there are indications, of one kind or another, of


the same pronunciation, such as the occasional spelling ov or

(22 ), use of 9 before day pronunciation.


for

(Chalcid. 9upvus,

/^?, etc.), or present-

Secondary and
25.

" Spurious Diphthongs "

In

many

dialects, as in Attic, e

and
q).

differed in quality

from

and

being close vowels

(e,

Consequently the long

vowels which came from them by contraction or compensative


lengthening, since they retained the same quality, were not identical

with

and

but were e and

q,
et

the latter becoming

it,

and

eventually came to be designated by

and

after these original


(28, 34).

diphthongs had become monophthongs in pronunciation

But in other
so written.
*rpL<;

dialects they

were identical with

from

<; **
(42.')),

Hence such
and
(74),

dialectic variations as

from
and

*
and

and

rpeU and

'

and were
from

(76),

and
from

from

feV/ro? (54),

from

(76),

and

from

(106.1), ace. pi. -Of?

and

(54), gen. sg.

- and

*\ et

and
(75),

from

-old

from

-ov<i (78).

The

dialects

which regularly have


et

and

in such forms are

Arcadian, Cyprian, Elean, Laconian, Heraclean, antl Cretan.


tian has
a.

Boeo-

but

as for original

(16).

Other dialects which occasionally show


beside eiAcro,

usual, are Argolic

,,
and

, though
etc.;

and ov are

at Ilermione

25]
gen. sg. in

-,

Coan
etc.;

(,

at Cyrene, a colony of Thera, regularly

,,
acc.pl. in
et,

-),

,
But
is

PHONOLOGY
Khodiau

(,

etc.),

Theran

?, ,{, ,/,
, ).
It is

probable that
regularly,

,
27
etc.),

these dialects belong properly with those which haAe

and

that their usual

Ionic alphabet they also adopted in the


of such words.
b.

rest

,) , .
=
X"p- (Att.

ov are due to the fact that with the introduction of the

main the

Attic-Ionic orthography

,
-.

is

even jnore widespread, e.g. not only

Cret. Kipavs, Arc.

C'ypr. i^ipov,
it is

but Epid.

Corinth,

probable that this

^
is

and even Delph.

wholly upon
sg.

a nom.

due in part at least to the influence of (quoted by Ilerodian as Aeolic) formed after the analogy

*- (79), but

does not

of inherited p-stems in
c.

8,

Dor.

Cf. Att.

in place of

(112.3).
Bov-

(Cret., Theocr., Callim.) do not belong here.

Aos has a genuine diphthong, as shoAvn by the spelling ov in early Attic


inscriptions and in Boeotian, while

must come from a by-form


to Att.

*-

The

relation of Lesb., Boeot., Dor.

ow

obscure, since

is also Ionic.

d. It is to

be remembered that the early inscriptions of most dialects have

simply E, 0, which we transcribe c, 5, no matter Avhether the later spellAmong the , dialects the actual spelling , does ing is et, ov, or ,

not occur, of course, until the introduction of the Ionic alphabet about

400

B.C., except that in Crete,

Rhodes,

etc.,

where

>;

is

much

earlier,

we

find

etc. in
et,

the earliest inscriptions.


is

Of the

ov dialects, Corinthian
et,

the only one in which the identity of

genuine and spurious

ov belongs to the earliest period,

owing

early monophthongization of the diphthongs (28, 34).


of the earliest inscriptions
is

The

El,

OV

at Corcyra (e.g

OV

(but E, not El) at Corinth.

are more common until even earlier), but E, and occasionally appear much later. In general El becomes established earlier than OV, and many inscriptions use El uniformly but and OV. In Ionic the gen. sg. -0 is especially persistent. vary between
in the fifth century
after

to the very

spelling even
Ei/xt),

and

In Attic-Ionic examples of El,

OV

occur

400

B.C.,

In Locrian no. 50 has only E,


earlier no. 55 has El

in the gen. sg.


is

(/).

( ,
(e.g.
etc.),

ros), while the

somewhat

and

OV

in the ace. pi. (tovs) but


gra])hic vagary,

This

last difference,

though only a

observed also in several Ionic inscriptions. In other dialects El, OV come in with the introduction of the Ionic alphabet, and even then the
spelling varies for a time.

28

GREEK DIALECTS
Diphthongs
26.

[26

from at in Boeotian.

earliest inscriptions,

at Tanagra, e.g.

as a

monophthong, an open

Ionic alphabet

infin.

@ - = -, -. -,
=

found, as
27.

,, . ,
from
we
ai in Thessalian.
et

.
find

,. ,
ai

The diphthong
ai,

is

retained in the
ae, especially

sometimes as

sometimes as
it

But

came

to be

pronounced

e,

and with the introduction

was regularly denoted by , e.g. dat. sg. and nom. pi. - = -at,

dat. pi.

, = -

of the

ai,

In very late inscriptions even In general

ei is

Larissa

for final ai,

Ti =

ytvveireL =

TreTrelaTeLv

ovypayjreiv

, ^, ^,
at,

remains, but at

e. g.

and, with added

(139.2, 156),

28.
e
(e),

Sooner or later

et

became everywhere a monophthong, a

close

though the spelling was retained and extended

to the f of

different origin (25).

In Corinthian this had taken place at the


Avliile at

time of the earliest inscriptions, and,

was
e.g.

El (25 d), at

a single sign, though generally differentiated from the open

Af Efia,

i.e.

TloTBiSav), but

Megarian inscription
a.

^ .,
Apevia
e,

Corcyra the spelling

Corinth the sound was nearly always denoted by


e or

= Aeiviov, i.e. TloreSavL (rarely = = retSe in an early Cf. also = ; and genuine or spurious et). (here ^ =
e

At

a late jjeriod the

jJiOgresscd

still

further to an , usually with


to
t.

retention of the old spelling

et,

which then came

be used also for original


In some words this late
of

(21), hut sometimes with phonetic spelling


spelling with

became

fixed in our texts, e.g.

', , ?,
and other

which

, , 5.
b.

the proper spelling, as

shown by
it

insci-iptions of Attic

dialects, is

But before vowels

remained
it

,
c.

elsewhere, and, to distinguish


Uprja, etc., especially in

for some time after it had become from et = t, was often written , e.g. the Augustan period.

For Elean

at

from

et

after p, see 12 a.

31]
29.

PHONOLOGY
from
et

29
in pronunciation

in Boeotian.

took place everywhere at a late period (28 a) occurred very early


in Boeotian,
fifth
i,

century varies between

e.g.

16),

e^t

-, .
and here showed
ei,

The change
itself in

which

the spelling, which in the

h (4.5),

and

i,

but later

is

regularly
(cf.

= e^ei,

< =

eVt

= eVet,

eVtSet

also

30.

from

in Boeotian.
et (29),

The diphthong
appearing as

oi

was retained much


also, in

longer than at (26) or

ot,

but

some

of

the earliest inscriptions especially of Tanagra, as

oe, e.g.

Xoepi'Xo?,

/8.
the
V,

But in the third century


o,

it

became a monophthong,
ov for
v, 24),

probably similar to the German

to denote which, approximately,


(cf.

with

its

Attic value of w as a basis

was emdat.

ployed with increasing frequency from about 250 B.C. on, though
not uniformly
sg.
till

the end of the century,


-ol,

e. g.

=
ot is
ai, 26),

and nom.
it

a vowel

though

In some late inscriptions


i is

/
pi.
is

-=

dat. pi.

-l?

= -oa.

AVhere

followed by
as

usually retained (in contrast to


occurs once, also

".

?,
I

also found, indicating the further progress of the

(see 28 a), e.g.

avreh

.
1,

of

Lebadea and Chaeronea the spelling

sound to

,
31.

before vowels

In the case

of ac,
its

et, ot,

also

vl,

before vowels the omission


tlie

of

L,

consequent upon
is

consonantal pronunciation with

follow-

ing vowel,
is

anything but constant, and

statement as to the conditions of the


later

70 =
beside ete

,,
voia,

Thess. Tevvaot

, ,
beside

to be observed in various dialects,


it is

though the spelling

impossible to
loss.

', ,,
Lesb.

beside

so e.g. Ion.

Vevvaiov, Arc.

^, , ,
Thus, as in Attic

make any

general

(12 a),

,
beside

evvoa beside ev-

evvoav

= evvoiav^
El.

ea

Cret.

a^eXaot

30
ayeXaioi, Del})li.
of

as Att. Troet,

Boeot.

70,

Arc.

vaTroLa<i.
a.

*, , , ,
GREEK DIALECTS
=
(liut

[31

(). ),

So especially in forms

Lesb.

Cuau

beside

Owing

to the variation in

ing sometimes appears in words where


as late

8<;,

6,
ev,

32.
it

lu

, ,

. ,
(33),

forms like the


it

ahoA-e, the diphtliong'al spell-

has no etymological justification,

,
ii

did in

many dialects when

not only by Ionic ao, eo

such as Corinth.
Cret.

,
33.
a.

fore the i(-sound,


ao, eo

, ,, ,
the

remained an ii-sound, not becoming


not part of a diphthong. This
is

as

?,
fifth

shown
Ion.

but by occasional varieties of spelling


Corcyr.
Att.

where f indicates the natural glide beCret. airophhav, etc.


ao, eo appear in East Ionic
of the fourtli cen-

and Locr.

from

eu in East Ionic,

inscriptions (eo also in

Amphipolis and Thasos)


century) and
is

tury

(eo

once in Chios in

later, e.g.

,,
The explanadoubtful.

eovoia, oe/37eT7;?.

This spelling

tions of this region.

For
ov

El.
(cf.

from

tv after p, see

12

show
34.

tion of

= ev =

Att. ov from eo), as

in Delph.

?,

late Lac.

,. ,
n.

frequent even in

inscrip-

Some

late

Cretan inscriptions

etc., is

became, in most dialects, a monophthong

(first

, later

il),

though the spellmg


tended to

was generally retained and eventually exthe secondary o. In Corinthian this had taken place at
See 25
d.

the time of the earliest inscriptions.


a.

Occasionally words which contain genuine


in early inscriptions

spelling
ovK, eral

when

for secondary 8

(or

have genuine ov (e.g. Cret.

early Attic, e.g.


i. e.

, ), {

^?

See 37.1).

In forms of

,
was

are found with the


usual,
e. g.

which in genfrequent in

etc.), this spelling is so

also in

Thasos;

cf. also

Orop. cvro^a,

as to point to

some

special caiise.

Possibly, as has

been suggested, there exi.sted beside the usual forms with genuine ov (e.g. from *--'), a gen. sg. formed by doubling of

(),

TO (jov), which then influenced the other forms.

37]

PHONOLOGY

31

,
35.

before vowels

Certain \vords

show

diphthong in Lesbian (and in Homer)

in contrast to other dialects, e.g.

),

= Dor.
(cf.

Horn.

<, Att. ?, from


etc.

*ausos-d), vavQ<i
Att.
vea)<i,

= Dor.

()<;

* ()
etc.
(cf.

(cf.

Hesych.

L.

aurora from

Lac. vapov),

*.

probably from *vaafo<i {5if),

= Att.

Hom.
need,

<,
from

a. In such forms comes from a combination containing or p, not from simple intervocalic p, vhich in Lesbian, as elsewhere, regularly drops out without affecting the preceding owel. Forms like citSe from *8(. are

poetical only,

and due

to metrical lengthening or doubling of the

under
(89. ))

the ictus.

The consonant-doubling

accounts for the di2)hthong in Thess. KXem?, from


avTos, Cret.

tween V and the following vowel


Cypr.

,
36.

In words vith regular antevocalic ev the natural glide beis

In late inscriptions
of

tives

Corcyr.

,,, , .
Calynin.

, ?.
as

in hypocoristic pro])er

*,

names

often expressed by p, as Boeot.

Lac.

\<; ( = ,
Lesb.

51).

is

sometimes omitted, especialh'


Delph.

in deriva-

<;,

,
;

Att. irapeaKeaa

Long Diphthongs
37.
1.

The

original long diphtliongs di, an, ei, eu, oi, on, except

when
ei,

final,

were regularly shortened in prehistoric times

eu, oi, ou, or, in

some

by-forms as /Sou? from


Ids, Skt. ace. sing,
(cf.

gdm

Skt. di/dus) but ace.

consonant declension,
2.

The Greek long diphthongs may be original when final, but otherwise are of secondary origin. Most of the latter arose by loss
of

an intervening consonant, as

cldvis), and in the earlier period these were not diphthongs but

* * ,, , ,, *
cases, lost the
(cf.

to ai, au,

second element. Hence such


(cf.

Skt. (/dus) but Dor.

Lat.

also once in

Homer),

from

(cf.

Lat. dies),

whence, with transfer to


(84).

etc., Cret.

from

were pronounced in two

syllables.

So

;,

,,
(cf.

Lat.

32

GREEK DIALECTS
etc.

[37

7<;,
poets.

the other hand the change of

presupposes the diphthongal pronunciation

, , , ^, ^, , , , ,
regularly iu

Homer, aud often in the later Ionic This pronunciation is also indicated by occasional spellings
in Ionic inscriptions.

such as

On
(38)
e.g.

to

ei

(39) or
;

the loss of the

and where we find


side,

and

side

by

the latter
it is

must be

understood as

leprjLov.

But

in general

impossible to

determine just

when

the change from dissyllabic to diphthongal


it is

pronunciation took place, and hence

we should

-, ',
diaeresis, for

accent

,', ,
e.g.

('')
We

or

<;
and

often uncertain whether


(/cX?;?),

is

or

or

editors of the

same
of

texts differ in their practice.

employ the accentuation which

goes with the earlier pronunciation, though without the

mark

the early Ionic inscriptions

and likewise

in general,

simply as a matter of convention, in citing forms of this kind in the

grammar.
38.
a,

, ,

from

at,

,.

In Attic the

ceased to be prospelling without


t
t

nounced

in the second century B.C.,

and the
;

(the iota subscript is a mediaeval device


like other letters or omitted entirely)

in inscriptions

written
fre-

became more and more


all

quent, and Greece.

may
in

be found in late inscriptions from

parts of

But

some

dialects this dates

from an
dat. sg.

earlier period.

East Ionic has occasional examples of


sixth century B.C. on, though

-=-

from the

is

the usual spelling.

Lesbian has

in a fifth-century inscription (no. 20),

though

this is possibly only

an error due

to confusion

with the

genitive construction

which

follows.
B.C.)

For

no.

21

(first

half fourth
sg.
-ai,

century) and no. 22 (324


(3 sg. subj.

have uniformly 22
;

dat.

in no. 21,

-77

in no.

see also 149).


-a,

But from the

end

of the fourth

century the forms in


fifth

-,

predominate.

Thessalian has from the

century dat.

sg.

and raya beside arayiai


Ionic alphabet
subj. -ei

(in no. 33),

and

in inscriptions in the

we

find regularly dat. sg. -a,

(=

23), 3 sg.

(=

16).

40]

PHONOLOGY
dat. sg. -a, -6, beside -ul, -ol,
(no.

33
but in the Idalium

Cyprian has
bronze
as
a.
b.

19) only in the case of the article

when

followed by

t,

IpovL.

The The

loss of

j^rohably

began

in the article,

fluctuation between the historical

inscriptions introduced confusion in the spelling of forms with original

hence such spellings as nom.

Such imperative forms in


the subj. in
39.

sg.

and

, -,
of

which was proclitic. and the phonetic spelling in late

gen. sg.

8,

imv.

where

this spelling

was favored by

,;

-,

are especially frequent, notably in Cos.

from
at,

that of

,.

The history
at,

differs in

especially in Attic,

where
a,

it

some dialects from became et (i.e. f) some


(37.2) the spelling
i?.C.

two centuries before

became
of

.
is

almost universal,

^
ei is

In the case of medial

secondary origin

frequent in the fourth century and from about 300

from

^.
e.g.

/cXei?

from

In inflectional endings

ei is

also

and predominates in the third and second,


3
sg. subj. etVet.

But here, owing to the analogy of other forms same system, as was never given up and eventually was fully restored, so that the normal spelling in imperial times was or (38). The spelling ei beside partly at least due to Attic influence, is also frequent in third- and second-century inscriptions of other dialects, or even earlier as in the Heraclean Tables, where we
with
of the

' , , ,,,
<;,
from

frecent

in the fourth century


e.g. dat.
sg.

find 3 sg. subj.


a.

,,
of to

etc. (so

usually, but twice

-,

once -).

Euhoean, where it was accompanied by was effected about 400 n.c. Someat Olynthus. at AmphipoHs, and oi beside what later et occurs beside Dat. sg. - is found also in an inscription from Naples.
is

The change

also

a change of

to

ot.

Tn Ereti'ian this

N0N-Diri[TII0N(iAL COMBINATIONS OF

VOWKLS
and

(Contraction
40.

etc.)

large

Owing number

to
of

the proetlinic loss of intervocalic

new vowel-combinations

arose,

and these were

3i

GREEK DIALECTS

[40

subsequently augmented by the dialectic loss of intervocalic f (53). An exhaustive treatment of their history in the several dialects

would require not merely that each


should be considered by
be
itself,

of the

numerous combinations
lost,

but that further distinctions should

made according to the

character of the consonant which was

that of the sound which preceded the combination, the accent, the

number

of syllables in the

word,

etc.

See 45.

Only some

of the

most important

facts

can be stated here.


or

41.

1.

e,

{spurious

ec),

+ vowel or . Attic-Ionic

a,

but elsewhere

,
a

Arg.

,, , ,, ,
+
t,

at least in

etc.,

West Greek and Boeotian. Similarly at or from Examples are forms of verbs in -, as Att.-Ion. which have in West Greek and Boeotian, e.g. Cret.,
Lac. ivUe,

Rhod.

Meg.

Locr.

Delph.

Boeot.

(Ar.), etc.

Corcyr.

a.

In Lesbian, Thessalian, and Arcado-Cyprian there are no such forms


7],

with

but also no certain examples of

from

ae, since

the contract verbs

in these dialects

ac in crasis is Lesbian, Thessalian,

But from and Arcadian, as well as West Greek and Boeotian. See 94.6. So far as we know, from ae is Attic-Ionic only.
of inflection (see 157, 159).
2,

show other types

Meg. (Selinus)
Lac.
rarely,

Heracl.

tracted in Boeotian (as in Homer), but in most dialects yields


as

,, ,., [ , ), ^, (^) ? ), 4-

or

. When

contracted, the result

is

in all dialects.

So regularly in forms of verbs in

',

-,

as Att.

vlkovtl, Locr.

Boeot.

(subj.), eVAe/3oAai9

from

but

also,

uncontracted as Boeot.

Locr.

group of four houndary-stones, from from *7-^<;. ao from afo

from

etc.,

etc.

(AyXaois

Cypr.

from ao

),

[*,
Boeot.

cf.

Hesych.

Boeot.
^

from ayXao- (*a'yXafo-), Boeot.

occasionally elsewhere),

, -, , '<, -,
in Boeotian and

from

'
is

*-,
,

Cf. also

uncon-

<;

^avyvei<;, etc.
is

(cf.

otherwise

unknown

here perhaps

41]

due

to the influence of a
etc.

have

*
(not

PHONOLOGY
like Cret.
etc.,

35
35
a).

Arc.

-),

abstracted from
a.

etc.

3.

\<)
Dor.
4.

, .
from
Lesb.

e.

Attic-Ionic

elsewhere

Att.-Ion.

(Horn.
in Pindar
etc.,

{Cret. gloss a/3e\to?j,

or

Attic-Ionic
first

or
(cf.

In Attic-Ionic

, elsewhere
first
cf.

or uncontracted.

8),

often preserved in

Homer,

whence
of

(with shortening of the


of

, lengthening

vowel,' and, in the case

the second

43),

which often has the

value of one syllable, and which


(in Ionic

may
45.2
;

be further contracted to
in Attic not so restricted,
clear).

mostly after vowels,

cf.

but the conditions are compUcated and not wholly


Boeotian.

In

the other dialects the uncontracted forms are most general in

Gen.

sg.

masc.

-stems. Ion.

-,

(also

in no. 6),

from
(rare
-a.

-do as in

Homer

(here Aeolic, beside Ion.

-)

and Boeotian
Greek

in Thessalian), Arc.-Cypr. -av (22), Lesb., Thess., AVest

Att.-Ion.
Boeot.,

(Hom.

West Greek

a?.

/) from ^;
-,
in

Att.-Ion.

?,

^?,

(seen in proper

(but see 35, 54/), in most

compounds
pi.

as

- (*-,
Gen.

-stems. Ion.

, ,-, ., ,
eto?, i.e.

^) from

*a/ro9 (Skt. ydvat), Lesb.,

(Hom. 7;<?, ';, names of several


dialects

Eub.

dialects),

/,
(but

but

-,

See 45.3.

-,

(also -rjov in no. 6), Att.

-, from
Crannon,

Skt. -dsdm) as in

Homer

(Aeolic), Boeotian
etc. at

always rdv, see 45.4), Thessalian {rdv

but otherwise
Att.-Ion.

-dv), Lesb. -dv,

West Greek
Att.

Corinth. UoriBafovi,

,. *-, . 8, ,
edp.
Ton.

from

*,

West Greek

Boeot. Oidwpia, Lesb.

(Hes.

Pindar, Arc,

West Greek

).
Boeot.

-dv.

^,
*-/:,

from

Att.

Ion.

YloreBdvi,

^^,

Hom.

,
So Epid.

(-),

36
Cret.,

GREEK DIALECTS
Rhod., Delph. TloreiBav
Lac. TlohotSap

,
a.
h.

(-), Lesb.

8,
of
rj,

Arc.

[-).

[41
.

Tn Ionic, beside usual

there are

some examples

or tv (cf 33),
as in

as ^/)05,

.<;

(Paros, Thasos), gen. sg. -tv (Erythrae etc.).

In Ionic some of the older forms witli unshortened

by later writers, as <;. So in an inscription of Oropus (no. 14). c. In Thessalian there are some exam2)los of ,
are employed also

we

expect d, as gen.

ovTos (cf.

Avith dialectic coloring (for


coristic in

,
-,

pi.

<;).

-,

But the

,
first

Homer,

^?

in

Herodotus and

(from

;, HoreiSowt, hvXopi-

, 23),
is

Avhere

three are probably

such hybrids, see 280),

and hvXopiovTos from

{- beside

- .8
(see 167).

forms
a hypo-

42.
(9),

1.

+ a.

In general

+ vowel Attic , elsewhere


elsewhere
Ion.
ace. sg.

uncontracted ea or

as ace. pi. Att.

(),

[)4.
;

But occacentury)

sionally

in other dialects, as
(cf. 45.2),

(no. 8

fifth

beside usual eVea etc.


century), Lac. ace.
ples
(e.g.

Rhod.

(no.

93

sixth

sg.

(sixth century), besides later

Lac. K\o<yep. Heracl.

, Rhod. , Delph.

exam-

ivSoyevfj),

influence. which may be due to Even ea from fa, which is uncontracted in Attic, sometimes in West Greek dialects, as Delph. ivvi) = ivvea, Ther. becomes

some

of

,
Sicil.
2.

Dor.

, <

\\'^< = K.\eayopa<i,
(Theocr.
etc.)

(Acrae)

fiaatXy) (43, 111.:]).

+ a.

Proper names in -ea?, as

remain uncontracted in Attic

.
\,
is

dialects,

though in

But

late times partly replaced

regularly in Ionic (from

&()

and sometimes elsewhere, as Rhod.


(archaic).
Cf.

Rhod.

( ,, ,8, ,
(cf.

,
is

Rhod.

.<^ =
etc.)

(Alcman
Callim.).

Dor.

eap,

Cf. also

<;,
-'),

usually

the Ionic form) and most

by

-,

as

from

tain examples of Dor.

from ea are from the islands (Syrac.


to

.
as

Ther.

All the cer-

doubtful),
;

and hence are possibly due


so, cf.

very
from

early

lonio

influence

but not necessarily

Dor.

ea,

above.

42]
3.

PHONOLOGY

37
or
(see 25), as Att.

e.

Eegularly contracted to

/39, Ther.

from

*<
x/jee?,

(Skt.

forms also occur, as Cret.

,. , ,
TifeTLd.

See

45.5.

,
e
(9, 16),

(ei)

trayas).

But uncontracted
(9.4),

Boeot.

1,

, or .
Boeot.

Eegularly contracted to

et,

Uncontracted forms, like Locr. Sokl,


let,

Delph.

forms like

Names

-.
5.

in

ev,

(from

See 108.1

+ 0.

The contraction
have

from

Most
tliis

dialects

*
a.

,
to

are rare.

See

45.5.

,
as

But

see 45.1) are usually uncontracted.

occur in some dialects, though most have only

(but

';

(),

as in yevov;
etc.,

from *yveao^,
is

see 45.1),

Attic only.

eo or lo (9), as yeveo^

(-to?),

(-).
(cf.

In Ionic eo often has the value of one syllable in poetry, and


diphthongal pronunciation came to be represented by ev
33).

= original

This spelling, though foimd in our texts

of earlier authors (sometimes

even in Homer, as

, <;),
B.C.

does not appear in inscriptions until the fourth century


Ionic, ev spread to the

From
also

Doric islands, and from the third century


etc.

on

is

frequent in Ehodes, Cos, Thera,

At

this

time
etc.

it is

found in continental Greece, as at Megara, Delphi,


a.

Boeotian has some examples of


o),

iv, lov,

from

but mostly after dentals, where

of the spelling lov

but once also


b.

Heraclean has
(but

c.

Contraction to

. /

of

(24).

Thus

Ntv/AetVto?,

=
is

eo before a single

from

tpo).

single consonant, as
T9 in
d.

<;
two, e.g.

found in certain parts of Crete (see 273) before a


(but
see d). Cf. also

an inscription of Phaselis. For eo we sometimes find simply


l)efore

, , , , it

beside lo (both original and vas supported by the prevaleuce

consonant, as

//?, ,-

or

o.

So in Megarian

proi:)er

',?, ?. ^, , , , ,
compounded
consonant,

^, in Avhich, nearly always,


Such forms
in 0-,

- appears before a single

mon

only in Megarian.
44.4) are Ion.

sis, cf.

etc.)

,,

cyetros,

<;,

but

occur elsewhere, but arc com-

names

Other examples of from

from

eo (so-called liyphaere-

Cret. (Ilierapytna

Delph.

(but also TroUovra,

38

?
6.

'),
e

Ion.

Delph. ivKoXeoi,

? ,, ,, , , , , , ,, , ,
GREEK DIALECTS
Mess,
[42
Ileracl.

Arc.

from

(113.2).

or

oi.

In Attic regularly contracted, as


but sometimes

(but

etc.,

see 45.1).

In other dialects regularly uncoutracted

0L,

or

loi (9),

after a

vowel

(see 54.2).

but

but

Lesb.

but

Locr. eovri,

El.

i^aypeov, Bokol but iroLov, evirotol, ttoloito (also

Troieot),

Heracl.

().
43.

&'^]\, but

Cret.

+ vowel
In the declension of nouns in -eu9 the
of the

stem

is re-

tained, as in

Homer,

in Lesbian, Thessalian, Boeotian, Elean,

and

Cyprian

few examples also in early Ehodian and Coan), but is etc.), and in Attic in the majority of dialects shortened
(a

this is

(, ).
is

(,

accompanied by lengthening
See 111.
in

of the second vowel,

if

or

This "quantitative metathesis"

seen in Attic

many

other words Ionic also (as usually from

? ,
'<;
also

41.4), e.g.

(Herodas
(161.2 a),

(49.)),

'?

Hdt.
is

or "Xeo'il) from

(109.2), Mil.

(Herodas, and, borrowed from Ionic, in Coan)

though the usual Ionic form

Cf. also the subjunctives

), Boeot. KovpovdeUi,
(Att.

),

etc.,

Cret.

Contraction of
in Eul). 3
(Hdt.),
(111.3).
pi.

to

(but probably through ea,


(cf.

from
in

, *
with

',
See

retained in

Hom.
151.2.

.
cf.

(.), = Cret.

(42.1) is seen

but shortened in most


etc.

dialects, as Ion.

Hom.

),
/
Greek

elpearai
dialects

and

etc, of

Delphian and most Doric

,,
44.
1.
-\-

+ vowel

a.

'\^^len contracted, the result is


41.2), e.g. Att.
etc. in

(cf.

from a

+ o,

in all dialects

Heracl.

from

-(),

West

as well as East

dialects,

45]

PHONOLOGY

from

--{)
+.

(for

Ehod.

as Corinth, rdo'yadov
2.

Aetol.

, , 8'.,, ,, 8,
=
ayadov
etc. (94).

39
Cf. also

see 167).

in crasis,

Usually iincontracted (Att.


e. g.

),

but in Ionic regularly


Cret.

, in

matter whether
0780774,

Hdt.

.
also

taken
3. sg.

, , ?.^ ,, , ,, ,
Att.

other dialects sometimes a,

lihod.

but Ion.

Leslj.

Att.

but Coan, Ehod.


77

For Ionic
cf.

from

o?;,

no

is

from a or original

?;,

also

(once)
r;),

and o'ySwfcovra from

(with original

and

In the termination of

beside

whence

beside Lesb.

Aetol.

hyphaeresis has

j^lace.

See

4.

+
or

0.

Eegularly contracted to
(106.1).

()
is

or

- from -olo
e.

4.

When

contracted, the result

the same as from

(3), e.g.

Att.

7\^<,

8<<;
Lesb.

Att.

(nom.

pi.,

from -()<?) but Lac.


etc.,

,
oe,

So Heracl.

^^^
cf.

mainly from

,
Att.
ope,

(Ep.

8<;)

but Boeot.

(Hom. Xoerpov), but Heracl.


etc. (94.2).

from *7rpoe77uo9.

Cf. also the crasis in Att.

("hyphaeresis,"

MaXoevTL, Arc.
tion

,
42.5 at
(Ion.),

But we
Lesb.

and, before two consonants, sometimes


i^),

e.g.

Locr.

'/

, <,
also find uncontracted

, ^,.
+

(see 25), as gen.

Heracl.

(see 45.4),

Meg. ^eXivoevrc but ^eXivovrtot,

'^/,
ber, cf.

8^,

BoXoet'Tt'ooi/, later

'OXoWt,

analogy of compounds with original

'';)

lects is

Cnid., Cret., Delph., El., Locr., Meg., Mess.).

^ '
Some
Ije

Ep.

8'^^, and

?.

and in the same

inscripCret.

So beside Att.

//)7'9
initial

(with elision, after the

vowel in second mem-

Nisyrus and Astypalaea, the form of most dia(attested for

Arc, ArgoL, Boeot.,


So Ion. aXopyo^ in
to account
of

Teos and Samos.


45.

Notes to 41-44.

of the factors

which help

for divergence in the treatment of the

same combination

vowels

in the

same

dialect

may

understood from the following.

40
1.

GREEK DIALECTS
A coiiibiuation which
So Att.
arises
t

[45

that arising from the loss of

tracted only later.


yevovs,

", yevwv, Locr.

2.

combination which

,, . ,
by the
loss of p,

being of later origin than


in contrast to

or

may remain
rjSea,

8,

uncontracted, or be con-

later

is

otherwise uncontracted

after a vowel, Att.

but
also,

sometimes after consonants


but
',i.

?,

may be
but

contracted

Ion.

El.

8 but
is

but not usually),

crea, Iriwv l)ut

,,

(-

etc. (see 42. ti).

combination which
Att.

, ,.
longing also under
contracted
1,

tracted in dissyllabic words, Att.

, ? , ,,
Treos,

otherwise contracted

Dor.

may remain unconand likewise, though beSuch words may be

when forming

the

first

member
.

of

compounds, as Att.

Cf also Meg. these forms, as regards their origin, belong under 4. 4. The position of the accent on a following syllable
factor.

cases of " hyphaeresis " (42.5

other factors also must be involved in part, and the whole


still

not wholly clear.

The
nouns
5.

article, as proclitic, is often the first

Cf. Boeot.

also),

trast to

) ,. .
So Locr.
(later
iZ,

Dor.

@8, .

Perhaps

but

?,
;

44.4) originated in like

is sometimes a and perhaps all conditions, though

phenomenon

is

Thess.

form to show contraction. in (Crannon elsewhere

Eub.

Here belongs probably Dor.

as in con-

The

analogical influence of grammatically related forms in which the


is

vowel, either of stem or ending,


acts the

not subject to contraction often counter-

normal phonetic development.

forms like
etc. after

and

tioned

name

Boeot.

ples of

not necessary assumption, see

, . , , ,, ',
Assimilation of Vowels
is

8
?.
and

So Cret.

etc.

with

after

Ion.
etc.

etc.

(not

-)

after

etc.,

Locr.
.

46.

The

assimilation of vowels

comparatively rare in Greek,


dialect.

not characteristic of

any particular

Here may be menfrom

from

the regular native form of the

of

both the Boeotian and the Arcadian town,

name

of the

Boeotian local hero, Thess. Fe/ceSa/xo?


beside

Delpli.

For exam-

see 20.

For Boeot.
in

see 18.
is

For

8,

which assimilation
49.1,3.

a possible but

49]

PHONOLOGY
Epenthetic Vowels

41

47.

Lesb.

(from

),

, ^,
of original

etc. in

Sappho and
see 74

grammarians, but not found in inscriptions.


etc. (17).

Cf.

Lesb.
a,l.

For epenthesis in the case

vl, pt, \i,

Anaptyctic Vowels
48.

examples are

'^,
=

inherited by-form.

, '=\,
of El.

and

(114.7)

from
Thess.

*-, *6-.
Homer,
is

only exceptional occurrence, as Att.

in Cretan, Delphian, etc., as in

.
Cret.
is

Other

'E/aeyu.?}?

ireXedpov

perhaps an

Vowel-Gradation

erally agree in the grade


eXiTTov, in all

of dialectic differences, of
1.

to contamination of

)
oy

,
49.
2.

In the system

of inherited vowel-gradation the dialects gen-

shown by corresponding forms e.g. dialects alike. But there are some examples
;

/,
(= Att.

Series,

ei, ol, c

(,
(cf.

which the following may be mentioned.^


XeXoiira, eXnrov).
etc.).

Ionic and Coan beside

?, 79, ]^ , ). , {, , ', ,
etc. (41.4)

, ,
,
(*6fL'y-).

= Att.

heiK-

and

-.
ei

and
with

in various dialects (144 a).

Sata),

,
also
1

in derivatives, as Att.

(
Ion.

Ion.

perhaps due

Lesl).

(*6fiy-)

Carpath.
ot

(lait
?)

the famous Potidaea was


Arc.
Lac.

(assimilation
(?)

in

and Lesb.

from Pergamum.

,
A^ry

rare),

but usually

Boeot.

,
reaaepe^,

Series ep, op, ap or

pa

rerope^,

etc. (114.4).

Ion., Lesb., Cret., Mess., Epid.,

Coan
(also

but Att.

Arc. appevrepov, Lac.

Ther.

form with

').

Cf. also El.

fappevop (from a by-

initial

cf.

Skt. vrsan- beside Avest. arsan-), later epae-

influence, see also 80).

in Aeolic

Some

cases

fall into the

where the variation is quite possibly not same system, are included for convenience,

inherited, but vvliich

42
(gram.
;

GREEK DIALECTS

Lesb. depaeta' in Theocritus), and in proper

frec^uently in Lesbian, Thessalian, Boeotian,

7709,
(f^epaia^,

Tliess.

/,
=
(in

names
etc.

but Cret.

sometimes in Herodotus,
Delph.

, ). , ^ , ., , ,^ '^ (, 7^ ^, , , , ,,, , , ,
characteristic of Arcado-Cyprian, as
Ion.

etc.

(cf.

, , ,,
(depaovv, Boeot.

[49

names most
Arc.

and Arcadian, as Lesb.

in Aeolic (gram.), but in proper

<,
as
(see 5)

the

ei

is

not original),

Cret.

Cret.

as in Pindar etc.,

East Ionic

assemhly

ayopa).

West

Ion.

(Naples), Arc.

(with obscure
etc.,

v).

For

see 13.1.

For

see

5.

fl.

The weak grade


and
likewise

varies

Bpa)(^^rj,

(Horn,

variation

is

ap uniformly, as
3.

),.
Epid.

and between etc. So Cret.

pa, as in Horn,

and

,
or

Arc, Cypr., Corcyr.,

Lesb.

in part
it

due

to metathesis,

and clearly so in Cretan, which has


See 70.1.

*, 8, ']
El.

(6)

.
Boeot.

Cret.

This

also has

Series

\,

o\,
(cf.

Boeot.

Thess.

Thess. "AttXovv with

,, , ^
(assimilation
?).

etc.).

(rarely early Attic), Thess.

West Greek
all

from a grade in
(but this
is

(, )., ,, ,
Arc.

Arc,

Cret., Delph., Epid.


(89.3)

Cypr.

a Semitic loanword).
Lat. vitulus).
Cret.,

,.,
=
Boeot.

,
=
due
with

See

75.

Coan

Lesb.

yearling

(cf.

Corinth.,

Lac, Pamphyl.

=
a or av

weak grade

.
=

).
For
5.

4.

Series

and

= (pyv,pp'ya, Series , ,
as
Att.-Ion.
Cret.

, , , , , ).
Ion.,

(),

ov

(),

()
For

Coan, Heracl.
etc.,

( ,
=
Arc

to assimilation

from

*,
from
as iu

see 116 a.

participles with

, .
beside

?),

whence

, ,

but

see 163.8.
(Lac.

),
Homer

50]
etc.

For Heracl.

<^<
Epirotan,
a.

in Attic-Ionic, also in Lesbian

',
=
examples are
late

PHONOLOGY
Dor.

43

= etKa,

see 146.4.

dialects (though the


influence),

and various West Greek and so possibly due to


(also

but ejKTaai^ in Thessalian

etc.

Corcyr.,
Trd-,

Meg.

/?,
=

ent root

like

,, ,
Heracl.
Cyjjr.

quent in literary Doric, were employed in iweference to perhaps all, the dialects except Attic-Ionic. Cf., besides

.
etc.

Boeot.

See 69.4.

, ,,
owner,

perf. sul)].,

Locr.

,,
Arc.
aor. siibj.,

, ?
El.

<), Corcyraean,
contain a differfre-

and related forms,


etc. in

most,

etc., Cret.

Arg.

Boeot.

CONSONANTS
F
50.

In Attic-Ionic the
is

was
of
it

lost at a

very early period. In


earliest inscriptions

East Ionic there


it is

no trace

even in the
;

very rare in Central and West Ionic


its
v,

and in Attic the only


absent from

evidence of

existence
as

is its

occasional use to express the glide

sound before

(32).

In Thera,

too, it is
;

the earliest inscriptions (seventh century


Cos,
etc.,

B.C.)

likewise at lihodes,

though here early material

is

scanty.

In Lesbian

it

existed, initially at least, in the time of


is

Alcaeus and Sappho, but

not found in inscriptions, of which, however, none of any extent

is earlier

than the fourth century.

But
it
till

in

most
till

dialects

it is

of frequent occurrence initially,


later, in

where

survives

the fourth century or

Cretan and Boeotian

the second.

Between vowels
dialects,

it

occurs in the earliest inscrip-

tions of

many

after consonants in several,

and before

consonants in a very few.


a.

In some cases the disappearance of

from inscriptions

is

due

to

influence rather than to an organic loss of the sound within the dialect.

So

evidently in Laconian, as

ing

(51), but

by

its

shown not only by its reap]iearance in the spellsurvival in some vords in Tzakoniun, the modern
(vanne), lamh (/rapv-).

representative of Laconian, e.g.

44
b.

GREEK DIALECTS
Even where there
is
is

[50
loss of the

no reason to doubt the actual

sound,

the spelling, as

natural in such cases, only gradually adapted itself to the


is

pronunciation, and often there

an interval of considerable length in which

the older spelling with f and the later spelling without f occur promiscuously, even in the same inscription. In the Ileraclean Tables the presence

,?
51.

or omission of initial f is constant for certain words, e. g. always and derivatives, also pero^, /rtSios, but oikos,

and

hiaos, etc.

,
v),

,
in

4,

for f.

is

represented by

,
B.C.

which we must understand


in

in its later value of a spirant (Engl,


in

the

Laconian from the fourth century


e.g.
(cf.

nos.

8<;,
87],

, ,^,
70-73)
f

later inscriptions

,,
fyap
a.

'', .
52.

', , ^, , ,,,
numerous
glosses and
of

several

dialects.

So frequently in

to the second century a.d.,

title of

officials

(piS-),

beside

8< =

rom */, etc. and in


;

Cretan, e.g. Bo'/a^to?,


etc.

Cf.

also Arg.

= older

Corcyr.

= earlier

(no.
lost).

61, in the stereotyped phrase

otherwise f
is

For
in

initial

= pp,
of

see 55.

Conversely,

used in place of

an early Co-

rinthian inscription.

The name

of the Cretan

town Fa^os was sometimes

represented by*Oa^os, as Lat. Nerva

by Nepoa.

initially before a vowel.

Examples are numerous

in in-

scriptions of
lects,

most
(cf.

dialects, e.g.

, ^,
dialects,
a.

Lat. vicus) in

f eVo? (cf. Lat. vetus) in eleven diatwelve dialects, (cf. Lat.


in ten dialects, further, in various

vlgintl) in eight dialects,

<, /?,
ot),

peiir-,

pepyov,

and many others

,,,
it is

(see also a,

b, c),

especially in proper names.

In several dialects which otherwise jireserve


as in

(but not before


etc.

Homer,

without
piv, etc.).

beside

ogy of pa,

But the

,,
e.g. in
is

Gortynian forms of

/?,

etc.

, (,
lost before

and
wvij,

precise dialectic scope of this

povhy analphenomenon is

not yet determined, and po

by no means unknown,

e.g. Arc.

, ,
etc.),

(no. 16, fifth century; in no. 17, fourth century,

Cret. Bop^ios, Lac.

3,

beside

etc. (see 51).

,-

53]
h.

PHONOLOGY
Initial

45

/
/r,

yields hf, occasionally written

usually simply

shown by the fact that after the loss of asper. Thus Boeot. F/ie/<a-8a)U,o, Thess. later In some El., Arc.
than
*suek\s)

in general, e.g. in Boeotian,

and

, . ?
'
also
'

ph (of. Eng. which) but which, however, was pronounced as hp (or a surd p), as

-/,
c^

such words have the spiritus


Cret., Locr., Delph.,

dialects this

was

lost earlier

where

(from

are frequent in inscriptions


(no. 43.8).

from which otherwise have inipe^, i.e. phi$,

tial p, as

,
c.

There are

some words with

/,

which have in their later forms, e.g. Att. from piS-, Lat. vid-), / (cf. Cret.
(cf.

Locr.
(cf.

^,
Thess.
p.

some other

cases of secondary

but the following


53.

', in which is not involved, is uncertain, and analogical influence are the chief factors.

,
we
etc.

original initial p, not

,, ,
The

coming from
(cf.

Lat. vesper),

(cf.

Locr.

^, ),
Boeot.
Lat. ves-tw),
Skt.
exjilanation, as in
p,

Goth,

loilwan).

Intervocalic

This was lost sooner than initial

hence

is

found in fewer
inscriptions.

dialects,

and in most
find forms

of these

only in the earliest

Often

with and without

from the

same period or the same inscription, showing that it was either weakly sounded, or wholly lost in pronunciation and retained only
in the spelling.

This inconstancy
p.

is

much

greater than in the

case of initial

The

spelling with

often persists in proper

names, and sometimes in certain conventional or solemn expressions, longer

Examples are most frequent


Sopevai,

uniformly except in some later inscriptions,


(but always
in

Eub. *A'yaai\epo with


(no. 9).

(no. 33).

but not found after 450

with
Locr.

beside
Xeoi,

, ,, , , , ' ,, ^, ^. ,
than elsewhere.
in Cyprian,

where

it

appears almost
popof,

?, ', with
name

e.g. alpei,

loss of p).

the proper
lost,

beside

iiroieaev

Thess.

but otherwise
iiroipeae,

as in hvXSpeovro^, iaoae
etc.,

Boeot.

B.C.

except in a late archaistic inscription

etc.

Phoc.

/caTat/rei' (also

?,

alpei (Crissa

sixth century).

pepaheKora, but see a)

El. [Troji/reot once (also airope-

but see

a),

but usually

etc.

Lac. hike poi, vapov,

^,

even in the same inscription,


(cf.

Lesb.

46

, ,
(alei,

El.

Locr.

,
,
cases
;

GKEEK DIALECTS
elsewhere contracted to
late
(51).

[53

eTToifehe (also TrehapoLKoi, Lut see a).

YlorehavL,

, -,
etc.)

()),

,,
(a).

as Cret.

Arg. Aifi, Aifovvaio,

Corinth. YlorehapovL beside


Corcyr.

etc.

phopalai,

f{a)aav,

etc.

There are no examples

of intervocalic

the earliest inscriptions of Arcadian

(cf.

f in even no. 16), or Cretan

except in compounds

a. Even where intervocalic f is regularly lost, it may appear in compounds or in augmented or reduplicated forms, owing to the influence of has the simplex or of the forms without augment or reduplication, where and late Hence survived as initial, e.g. Cret. in any dialect such forms are not necessarily evidence of the survival of true

, .
/,
The combinations
vp, pp, \p,

intervocalic p.
h.

The
also

use of

to indicate the natural glide before or after

(see 32,
p.

36)

is

no evidence for the survival of the inherited intervocalic


p.

54.

Postconsonantal

and

also

/
of

(in

some

see /) are preserved in the earliest inscriptions


loss of

some

dialects.

The

was accompanied by lengthening


Ehodes and
colonies),

of the

preceding vowel in East Ionic, Central Ionic (in part

see a)

and Eastern Doric

(Crete, Thera, Cos,

while in the other dialects, as in Attic, the vowel was not affected.

Cormth.

Arc.

Corcyr.

, ,,, - , ,, * * , , ,
B,ev-

Ion.

Cret.

Corcyr.

Cyren.

. Sevpapeop

<;,

- ,

In most dialects

7<;

Pihod.

5eii/i<?,

Ion. etvaro^i, Cret. Ion. eveKa, Cret.


Cret.

*,

Ion.

Ion.

[)

Ther.
Arc.

/309

Boeot.

Ion. Ion.
Ion.

Boeot.,

Cret.

Ion.

Ion.

55]

PHONOLOGY
forms like

. To the lengthening
tions, but, in general,

in East Ionic there are possibly

and especially are due to has survived only Attic influence. Similarly in Rhodian etc. where is far more common in proper names, and in late Cretan where In Central Ionic the lengthening is attested for Paros and than Thasos, but it is uncertain how far west this extended. From many of the islands, both Ionic and Doi-ic, decisive material is lacking. b. Lesb. ^eWos, eweKa, in grammarians and late inscriptions, are probably

,
some
Arg.
Aetvtov.

47

local excep-

<:.

hyper-Aeolic, due to the frequency of


Cf. also

from

vt,

crv,

etc. (74, 76, 77.1).

in an inscription of 2-14 a.d.

see 19.3; for Boeot.

^,
,

),
c.

Different from opfo<; etc.

probably standing for

lation of
d.

An example of
for ihfuatv-

before f), whence the f after a mute

^ *
92
is

For Thess.
Ilvp/rtas, livp-

Corinth,

(cf.

(from
of

vfith early assimi-

most

dialects.

is

Corinth. Afevid

Cf Horn,
.

c.

Tp yields

(81), e.g. Att.

, ,
or

In

West Greek
Cf. also

rtropes the

other forms such as


nants.
/.

The

history of

,*
in

with the same distribution as for original


instead of

etc.

Ion. riaaepe^, etc. (cf. Lat. quattuor, Skt. catrarasy or is due to the analogy of was expelled between the conso-

which

from

in

distinguished from that of original intervocalic


is

apparently parallel to that of

etc.

probably come from


first

comes

(like a/x),

* *
(like

<;
/xe),

(61. G).

etc.,

probably of secondary origin,

etc. (76).
(cf.

, -), .
Thus Lesb.
which
cf.

is

to

be

the treatment of which


Dor.

?,

hence *vavpos,

(35), elsewhere va^os

whence

vaos, vecj? (41.4).

55.
etc.

before consonants.

,
p.

(from
(15),

Corresponding to Att.
Lat. verhuni)

beside pep- in

we have

,, El.

in Lesbian be-

Cypr. ppera (70.3) with

its

denominative

{ippiof the

Cf.

appeTeve (with prothetic


El.

also spelled
35.

eupperaaarv indicating an anticipation

a and

So also Kevevpov from Kevepov), Arg.


a), later

wholly

(cf.

Hesych.

and

aeWrj<i (a-peX-),

Delph. aXia,

asscmJ////, Ion. (Hdt.)

d from apa

as in

, ).

(-- with Aeolic


(also

,, <; ),

4,
also

vjas sjwkesman, premled.

is

from

-\-, and
o,

cf.

5),

Dor.,

related to

from apaX-, with Ion.

48

GREEK DIALECTS

[55
vr,

indicating a pronunciation fp appears as words quoted by grammarians and in our texts poets

the time of our earliest inscriptions.

, .
{,
scriptions

in

Lesbian
Lesbian
at

of the

etc.),

though this has become simply

Cf. also Boeot. Bpavi8a<i beside

In most dialects f was lost before the time of our earliest inand we find, as in Attic, initial p, medial pp or p. See a.

a. In the case of medial fp, which would occur only in compounds and augmented or reduplicated forms of words with initial fp, the f unites with the preceding wel to form a diphthong in Lesbian (cf. 35), e.g. (Herodian) from *i-fp, *a-fpTqKTO<i (Att. from *TaXa-fpLvo<i. But elsewhere the syllabification of llom. the simplex (or form without augment or reduplication) was retained (i. e. fp Avith the following vowel), and later this fp became pp or sometimes In Attic and most dialects p, e.g. Arg. f(.fplh>a, afpircvc, later is formed augmented and reduplicated forms have pp, as Att.

<;

-, -, ^^,

after the analogy of


pprjya,

forms like

under the while compounds also usually have pp but sometimes but also continued influence of the simplex, as Att.
Delph.
also

^ was probably
56.

Cf. pp

(from *L-fpv, like and from 76

-, , , (,
/^.
76
h),

Ileracl.

-<,
h.

cf. Hom. The development

-),

but

of medial
is

parallel (cf. El. d/rXaveos etc., above),

though there

no

example in Lesbian.
Consonantal
(l)

Original

almost wholly disappeared from Greek in prehis'

toric times, giving

or, rarely,

initially, as in 09 (Skt. yas),


etc.,

(Lat. iecur),

(Skt.

yugam),

yielding various results in


(71, 81, 82, 84),

combination with a preceding consonant

dropped between vowels, as in

rpel<i

from

*
in

But between

and a following vowel, as

existed as a natural glide in pronunciation, and in a few dialects


this is expressed

and being
always

(Skt. trayas), etc.


it

Pamphylian, as hua, hiiapoiai,


early Arg.

acter,

", ,, ,
m
Ion.

the spelling.
etc.,

So,

by the repetition

of

l,

in

and sometimes elsewhere, as


Cf. also

Ion. (Priene)
(37.2).
j,

<.

Arg.

In Cyprian a special char-

which we transcribe

is

generally employed, though not

58]

PHONOLOGY
e

49

uniformly, as in the Idalium bronze (no. 19) regularly before

but not before

or

o, e.g.

Ijarepav but lepepljav, feirija but

a,

The Spiritus Asper.


57.
t

Psilosis

The

spiritus asper generally represents


is

an original

(59) or

(56),

but in some words


(cf.

of secondary,
;

origin, e.g.

Lat. equus

part of compounds,
(cf.
i).

,
a.

'?

and sometimes obscure,


regularly as the second
etc.,

":7709,"'770'?,
with
'

"),

Skt. asviuii)

after the analogy of v/xet? (with

The sound was denoted by (earlier B) until the intro= , after which it was generally left unduction of the Ionic designated.^ But see 4.7.
from
Psilosis, or the loss of the spiritus asper, is characteristic of

East

Ionic (whence the sign was

left free for


(i. e.

use as

see 4.6), Lesbian,

Elean, Cyprian, and Cretan


Psilosis
is

Central Cretan).

ence of phrases and compounds in which a preceding mnte


to the aspirate, e.g. East Ion. air
ov,

no bar to the retention of aspirated mutes in phrases and compounds which were formed prior to the loss of the asper. For they would be affected, if at all, only by the analogical influence of the El. Hence East Ion. simplex, as Cret. by
Cret.

/5, etc.
58.

spiritus asper.

. /' ., ,,
'But psilosis
is

shown, not only by the absence of

A,

but by the presis

,,

not changed

El.

Cf.

Mod. (irk.

etc., in spite of

the loss of the

Even

in those dialects

which generally preserve the


psilosis,

spiritus

asper,

and wliich, in distinction from those with

we may caU

the A-dialects, there are

many irregularities,

partly in special words,

1 In quoting forms from inscriptions, wherever the sign for the spiritus asper appears in the original it is transcribed , to be distinguished from ', which is supplied as a purely diacritical sign, like accent marks, and the employment of which is, in many special cases, of doubtful propriety. Tliat is, the evidence is often insufficient to determine whether the omission of the sign of the asper is merely graphic, in which case we should transcribe the form with ', or due to an actual loss of the sound, in which case we should transcribe with '. As a workfrom inscriptions which ing rule we employ the lenis in quoting forms without

have the character or are of a period when

it

was certainly

in

common

use.

50

GKEEK DIALECTS
existed, partly
(cf.

[58

where by-forms e\ddently


ciation of the
a.

due to the weak pronun-

sound in general

the variations in Latin spelling).

larly or frequently

, d, etc., appear regushowing that in these piOclitic forms it was either wholly lost or more weakly sounded than elsewhere. So in Locrian (nos. 55, 56) always 6, never ho (cf. also 6), fern, a and Aa once each; in as article (A 30, 38, C 19), but demonstrative ho (B 53); Delphian (no. 51)
In several dialects the forms of the article,

without

A,

Thess. Kol

ol

(no. 26);

likewise in

some

early inscriptions of Boeotia,

Pamphylia, Syracuse, Metapontum, and Sybaris.


(nos. 16.14, 17.7), with

The same

is

probably to

be inferred for Arcadian from the omission of h in the


05 (no. 51

i-elative, as

A 28)

(no. 40) and Delph. which compare Boeot. os = beside usual ho, hoaris, etc., though in most dialects the A

is uniformly retained. Other forms which regularly have the spiritus asper, but for which but even in Attic by-forms with the lenis are to be recognized, are

of the relative

inscriptions frequently

lenis in

,
b.

Locr.

Rhodian and Argolic,

.,
=
Heracl.

77, with ho etc.), Epid.


tapeos (beside

6 oIkos,

]\Iess.

(hLep,

huipo<i,

as llhod.

,, ',
:

Ther.

iir'

Troez.

in

numerous
Arg.

dialects),

but with
(nos. 76,

(no. 83, Avith Ao/xovoiot? etc.), Aegin.

).

So

iir'

^
is

in the

Megarian

inscription no. 92, in contrast to hvapov at Selinus,

Epidaurian graver.
/'? (Lac.
TTO^'

Thess.

or

,
the

versa,

sometimes

Amorg.

c. Several words which regularly have the with the asper in various dialects. Thus

.
(beside
iStos

, '),
),
<;),

For Alant.

hpo<i, see d.

(see 57), in Doric dialects

Aa/i-e's),

but also
(cf.

but also

as Thess.

, (Coan /'
etc.).

probably due to the

for Avhich, vice

(no. 33), Mess,

lenis

show secondary forms

^va-h.pha.
in the

(cf.

Mod.Grk.

similar phrases.

-, 5

late inscriptions of various dialects (really

,.
=
Delph.

(e.g. after

haKpoaKipia^, Corcyr. haKpo^,

, ,, ) , ,
(from
probably after
Ileracl. hoKTtii (also
all after

(from f

), ),

Epid.

' ,

(from

and frequently

probably after the analogy of

but Thess.

Theran), So probably by a
Ther.

but

),

',
?,

), "
and

but

Ileracl.

ctos etc.

in

and so often in

probably after

Ileracl.

beside

Locr.

(of.

),

' <;

' <in

but Delph.

hevrt, after

Delph., Ther.

still

further extension of the asper

(no. 107).

but Ileracl.

and perhaps Delph.


is

(?uo. 51 D47).

also frequent in the

a contamination of

59]

and

avypiiu

, (^)
in

PHONOLOGY
from
tlie
is

51
obscure.

while Delph.

In Thess.

Lesb.

asper, as well as the

v, is

probably

due to contamination with some other word. d. Besides such special cases as have been noted in a, b, and c, there are in some dialects irregularities which seem to be due to confusion in spelling consequent upon the asper being weakly sounded or on the verge of
total disappearance,
cial causes.

though even some

of these

may possibly be due to

Locrian has

,, , , , ,- ,
vBptav (A before

).
.

beside hopKov,

and, vice versa, once

. , ^,

spe-

and

for aycv (cf

').

and the very early Mantinean inscription, and once hav for no. 16, shows no example of , though containing not only (see a) but and for which Atepo? is fully attested in the other Arcadian and among the brief archaic inscriptions there is a inscrif^tions as no. 16
;

In Arcadian, no. 17 has

beside 'OttOvtlol, beside

,,

notable lack of agreement in this matter.

mentioned under
for

c,

where we expect

Heraclean has, besides the cases and hoi-

At Epidaurus, no. 83 has always arepos not


Loss of Intervocalic

, .

.
59.

Original initial s

became the

spiritus

asper in proethnic
(Lat. sequor, Skt.

Greek, as in
sac-), etc.

'?

(Lat. sedeo, Skt. sad-),

At the same time


lost, as

intervocalic s

same way and then


etc.

in

was changed

in the

(Skt. janasas, Lat. generis),

Nevertheless there are

many Greek words with

intervocalic

, either retained
as

by analogy

as in the aorist, or of secondary origin

from

(61).

This Greek intervocalic

was subjected

namely became h and was


and Cyprian.
1.

later lost, in Laconian, Argolic, Elean,

Laconian.

Early iiroiehe, vLKaha<i, eVAe/SoAat?, TlohoiBavi,


;

AvhiTTTTOv, ^FiXevhvvia, etc.

<; (-),
etc.

later

Tlah,
(Tieiai-),

IleuKXeiSa
of

,,
to a similar process,

<;
felt as

(<;),

Cf. also

97

a.

Examples
and
is

omitted are also in Ar. Lys. and

in glosses.
earliest
of

This was a characteristic of Laconian speech from the


period,
faithfully represented in the spelling

known

most

of the early inscriptions.

But
of

it

was

a provincialinscriptions

ism and ignored in the spelling

some few early

52
wliich were set

GREEK DIALECTS
up outside
of

Laconia

(no. 64,

the retention of
no. 65, 'yveaioL,

usually
2.

show

),
in this

non-Laconian name

and

in

See 275.
early
;

Argolic.

From Mycenae,
(197
etc., later

<;
';,
is
1,

anyway the kter inscriptions, which


is

,
natural
275.

[59

though

(no. 75, fifth cen-

tury), late
At

?,

[^,

B.C.)

from Argos, early

TeXetTTTTo?

(-), @\<{
in the

(),
etc.

eiroipehe,

(),

{%-),

But forms with

are also frequent at all periods, e.g.


fifth

century),

same inscription with


See

?.

(no. 78,

This inconsistency in the spelling, which


Laconian, has the same explanation.

even greater than in

and

a. Nearly all the examples are from Argos and vicinity, from which one might conclude that the change was specifically Argive, not general Argolic. But there are some traces of it at Epidaurus, and the absence of other examples may be due to external influence.

3.

Elean.

In no. 60 (middle fourth century) aheakrahaie,


beside

(slot, subj.),

Alexander)
etc.

(),
(),
(cf.

,.
97
a), as
is

^beside
is

In no. 61 (after

(aor. subj.),

In

all

the earlier inscriptions intervocalic

unchanged.
4.

Cyprian,

also in sentence combination

('
60.

).
Final
9

{) ( ),
written.

{-),

But generally
Rhotacism

Ehotacism, or change of

Laconian, and Eretrian, rarely elsewhere.


1.

Elean.

appears uniforudy as

tions, nos. 60, 61, e.g. earlier inscriptions

,
-9

show

and

,,.
-p side

to p, is

found in Elean, late

in the later inscrip-

by

side without

Most of the any appar(cf. 59.3).

ent system.
a.

Rhotacism

of intervocalic
is

is

unknown

In the earlier inscriptions

relatively

most frequent

article

and the

indefinite or the relative pronoun, e.g.

,,
in

forms of the
op,

and

61]

PHONOLOGY

53
But even

possibly the rhotacism began in such enclitic and proclitic forms.

here there
2.

tions, e.g.
3.

tions of
'piv,

But there are many exceptions, and the use of is gradually given up under Attic influence. Although Plato, Cratyhts 434 c, remarks
that the Eretrians say
tional
for

,
is

Lacouian. Ehutacism of final

Eretriau.

Eretria and Oropus,

, ", , , ,, .
<?

great fluctuation in the spelling.


is

seen only in very late inscrip-

etc.,

continued by numerous glosses.


is

Ehotacism

of intervocalic
e.g. Eretr.

frequent in inscrip-

e^ovptv,

78'-

example
it.

of

for final 9 except once

,
to

Orop.

there

is

no

inscrip-

for

which

see 97
4.

Rhotacism

of

])efore a

voiced consonant

is

Ml/5709 =

10-709, late

(Matropolis, Pharsalus)
in this position

was pronounced

often indicated by

as

.
Change

Cretan (Gortyna)

'9.
(z),

In most dialects

seen in Eretr.
Thess.

as a sonant

and in

late times

of

61.

is
v.

changed to

very frequently before

t,

and sometimes and the change

before
is

The more

precise conditions are uncertain,

in part independent of dialectic variation, in all dialects, e.g.

some words But

being retained in

and

in

some words becoming

in all dialects, e.g.

most words
and

like

(Skt. ga-ti-s),
is

9,

etc.

in a consideral)le class of

words there

a distinct dialectic

distribution of the r-

-forms, the retention of

being a nota-

ble characteristic of the

and Thessalian

',
2.

1.

Verb forms with the endings


(Arc.

ful in all the

, .
also share.
-rt,

West Greek

dialects, in

which Boeotian

-vrt, as

,',
{-tl,

Lesb.

Examples
See 139.2.

'
and

are plenti-

West Greek
for

dialects

and Boeotian

-),

Thessalian are indirectly evidenced by

-=

-.

The numerals

(Arc.

-.

20 and the hundreds,

{)

for

54
3.

GEEEK DIALECTS
Some nouns and
have
adjectives in
in all dialects.

-, -, -.
= =

this class

Dut

numerous West Greek dialects, Boeot. Aeolic form in Homer), Coan, Delph. iviavTLO<i
4.

'
Lesb.
dialects,

[61

Most words

of

Boeotian and Thessalian,

But Homer has


5.

attested for

Thessalian.

form

(cf.

, ,), ,
in Cretan,

,<;,
a.

,'
dialects,

in
(the

etc.

in all other IVest

Greek

with

= Att.-Ion.,
etc.

/'?, Arc.-Cypr. '?.


the forms with

ttotl, as

well as irpo^. See 135.G

Woreihav,

being

numerous West Greek


is

with Boeotian and

Lac. liohoihav

a relic of the Pre-Doric (Achaean)


of

Arc.

with the Laconian change

to

h.

in

some

later Doric inscriptions is probably

due to the

influ-

ence of the usual TloaetScov.


6.

TV in literary Doric and an inscription of Epidaurus, Boeot.


Lesb., Arc.

= Att.-Ion.,

but Att.-Ion., Arc.

^,
suffix

Cret.

Lesb.

which we find Arc, Delph., Epid., Meg., Thess.,


from

,
(cf.
:

[]-,
with

Epid. he^iTeta,

suffix

-,

*<,

late Cret.

,<

beside

with

--.

62.

In general

,,

remained simple mediae, but in some

dia-

lects there are indications of their

pronunciation as spirants, which

eventually prevailed even in Attic


th,
1.

Mod.Grk,

r,

= "soft"

= guttural
2.

spirant).

Such

are

for f in later Laconian etc. See 51. The use of liy in three of the very The representation of
e.g.

Elean inscriptions,

, ',
,

though the others have


elsewhere.
(for

Cf. also early Rliod.

see 89.1)

.
of

following what was the usual spelling

'=
7

, , ^, ,
ToSe (no. 93), and early Arg.
or substitution of
i,

earliest

\\\ (^),
various places.

,,

3.

The occasional omission


(Ar.,

as in Boeot.

Corinna)

= ',
and

? (9)
Arc.

{^}), Pamph.
in late inscriptions of

64]
4.

PHONOLOGY
The occasional representation
of

55

by

Cyprian, as

(yd),

(^<?).
5.

Cret. airofSSav.

See

89.3.

63.

In general

, ,

remained true aspirated mutes, and in

the earliest type of the alphabet, which had a sign for


for
or,

but none two were represented by and Kh, as at Thera, where a sign for h was not in use, simply by and , as in the
or

, these

Gortynian Law-Code
ings like

(e.g.

^'7,

,
51
Attic,

=
late,

).

Spell-

SeSoK^Oat are mostly


(no.

an exceptionally
dat. sg. of
" th,

early example being Delph.

13
"

).
of

But the pronunciation as spirants (Engl./,


which eventually prevailed even in

hard

Germ,

ch),

may have

existed at a
is

much

earlier period in

some

dialects.

Such a pronunciation
(64),

certainly presupposed

by Lac.
So too

and probably by
to the fact that

Cret.

=
(85.1) is

etc.

(81 a, 85.3).

in Locrian, Elean, etc.

most plausibly explained as due

had

become a spirant in other positions, but remained an aspirated mute after and so, in contrast, was denoted by r. A similar explanation probably holds for some other cases where is used for , as
Cret.
etc.

(66),

and

Cret.

?,
its
;

i.e.

Delphian epithet
nunciation of V as
64.

of Apollo,

with

hallowed pronunciation

,
ol to
it.

the originally
re-

tained (also sometimes spelled


u,

\\\\
being u
of

denote the pro-

Cretan

see 24).

Laconian

=.

The use
this

by Aristophanes

in

the
is

Lysistrata to indicate the sound of the Laconian

(and there

no good reason to doubt that


shows that
nian ear as
it

belongs to the original text)


strike the Athe-

had become a spirant which would


even
if

not yet fully identical with

themselves retained the spelling

but
inscription,

()
beside

and

in very late inscriptions

,
and

The Laconians

()

in all the earlier inscriptions,

occur in a fourth century

',

()^

etc.

56

GKEEK DIALECTS

[66

65.

Dissimilation and assimilation of aspirates, or transposition

of the aspiration.

from
period.
tion.

So

Ion.

(Cumae)

sixth century Attic inscriptions),


logical,

= 6<;, = usual Att.


(from
ration
(124).
cf.

* , ^^, , '' -,< , ',


The
dissimilation seen in
etc.,
(cf.

Interchange of Surds, Sonants, and Aspirates

from

*,
(also in

belongs to the proethnic

But there are some examples


Cret. ^t^e'/xefo?

of later, dialectic, assiiuila(i.e.

\<; =

^) = ', West
(in part ana-

Arc.

as in

), whence
El.

and influence

also 66).

For transposition

Cret.

66.

aspirate, surd

Ion.

(Chios)

from

from

In Pamphylian
as

Pamph.
factor.

whether the preceding


IjOCy.

, ,, , ^, ^'^, 8', ', '-. ). (^ ,', *'. *-. , ^ '. ,


There are scattered examples of variation between surd and

.. , ',
etc.),

Lac, Epid.

Locr., El.
(inscr.)

Att.

(164.4), Att.

iv-

Ion.

is

the more original form


of the aspi-

Att.
of

through transposition
Eub.

Cf. also

like

is

from

through influence of
also Ion.

cf.

Tliess.

from

,
Locr.

(but

(68.2).

and sonant,
Cret.

etc.,

especially before a nasal.

Heracl.

beside

Eretr.

Ther.

to

Aetol.

beside

Epid.

proljably contain the suffix

Cf.

(So perhaps Delph., Locr.


Cf. early Att.
etc.)

from

*',

this

),
= = = =
is is

becomes regularly (^) ( not written, 69.2), = In Cret. (cf. also

it is

uncertain

or the following

is

the more important

obscure.

El.

verbs in

probably due to the influence of other

(but possibly like


(to

with analogical

cf.

63).

For Att.-Ion.
to
etc.)

after

68]

PHONOLOGY

other dialects (and Ionic in part) have the original


Att.

88).
+
Very

,
from
a.

the spiritus asper of eh, in later Attic and elsewhere.

,,
=

are replaced

by

' , ^,

57
(cf.

with

late inscriptions

show numerous examples

confined to any special conditions, as

Lesb.

Interchange of
67.

Of the Homeric by -forms

found also in Cyprian, rarely in Arcadian and Cretan, and in Thessalian after a vowel, as

7,

86.2);

7\<

is

found in Cyprian

, ^^
and
of

, ,? ^ /. ? ,'
=
Lac.

of confusion, not

and

is

from

(gloss)

and Cretan

(rare),

and in many

dialects as the second

member

of proper

names.

Interchange of Labials, Dentals, and Gutturals


68.
1.

Those sounds

of tlie

parent speech which are called labioas qV,


gV',
gl^li,

velars

and are commonly designated


(1) labials before

appear

m
(3)

Greek regularly as

the back vowels

a, o,
t,

,
,
cf.

and
Osc.

before consonants, (2) dentals before the front vowels

gutturals before and after


pod),

,,
Many
Instead of

v.

Thus

TroOev (Lat. qiiod,

but

(Lat. quis), re (Lat. qtie), Cret.

76/709, but
(Lat. vlvus),

irevTe (Lat. quinque),

< .
e.g.

(Eng. queen) beside Boeot.

, ,
with
7,

which

,,
with
after
is

But before

only in Heracl.

exceptions are due to leveling between related forms,


Cypr.

^
after

(Eng. wolf), 'yvvq

usually

= reiaet

with analogical
v,

regular before

vpiayeie^ (see

86.3).

Examples

West Greek

Delph.

etc.

oSeXo^ (49.3)

=
2,

8,
(but

is

analogical, as in

may

belong under

below).

, .
e.g. Cret.

,,
,,
e.g.

e,

etc.

several dialects have forms


irpecyv^
etc.,

Boeot.

of the

normal relation are Arc.


(75)

if

from the rare early


Boeot.

iVtt.

6<;,

Thess.

58
2.

GREEK DIALECTS
But
it is

[68

a notable characteristic of the Aeolic dialects that

they very frequently show a lahial even before a front vowel,

where the dental


TreVre,

Lesb.

to rrjXe, Thess.

, *,
etc.,

= =

<,
=

Lesb. Be'X^ot (gloss), Boeot.


Boeot.

[), '

unexplained), Boeot.
Lesb.
is

, ,, , &
is

regular elsewhere.
(Hesycli.,
cf.

Thus

Lesb., Thess.

'

Horn, irtavpe^), Boeot.


Boeot.

Trer-

Thess. ireiaat,
Lesb.

(Sapplio), Boeot.

Boeot.

,
(65)
3.

(gloss), Thess.

(though this

a case of original

whence Thess.
SeTTaX6<;, Ion. etc.
e.g. re,

= Att.

have the dental,

,,
(no.

' .
= Cret.
to
is

^-/'?
Att.

', &8<; '-,


=
Boeot.

= West Greek =

Thess.

^Aw not gUh),

, sibi-

with transposition of the aspiration

Yet some words always

the reason for this being obscure.

In Arcado-Cyprian there

evidence that the sound arising


elsewhere, identical with the

before a front vowel

was

not, as

ordinary dental, but, at least under certain conditions, vas a


lant.

,
=

Thus Cypr.
etae

?=9
(for
tlie

19),

(Hesych.),

and Arc.

= el're

an early inscription of jMantinea (no. 16),


dian inscriptions have
beside SepeOpov

',
XoTK. The
influence.
4.

and see note

,
usual

the character transcribed

see 4.4) in

though

all

other Arca-

etc.

Cf. also

the glosses

and
65
2.

beside inscriptional

to no.

fact that in Ai-cadian only the

one inscription named shows

anything but the dental spelling need not indicate that the peculiar pronunciation was locally restricted. It was probably colloquial throughout
the dialect, but not usually followed in the spelling, owing to external
Cf. El. ^

only in the earliest inscriptions (62.2), and see 275.

There are some pronominal forms with

usual

or

. Thus

Ion.

= =

,
etc.

texts of Ionic authors, inscriptions always showing the usual forms),

Lesb.

,
after

in
etc.

place of the
(but only in

Thess.
etc.

Possibly such forms arose


(above,
1).

in phrases like

with regular

69]
a.

of

, 8)
A

Puzzling

tion of the u element of the consonant, as in


5.

,
is
.

Thess.

Unless due to contamination


cf. Ilesycli.

^;
=

PHONOLOGY
(cf. also

Hesych.
there

seen in

change

of

to

Dodona.

,,
that
is,

)., ?.
of

another root (e.g. that


is

59
evKav-

an anticipa-

doubtless, of spirant th to /,

is

an inscription found

at

Nasals and Liquids


69.

Nasal before consonant.

to the character of the following consonant, but

The nasal was always assimilated was less distinctly


position.

sounded than in the intervocalic


nected the following
1.

Witli this are con-

facts.

The

letter

is

freely used for the guttural

as well as for the dental, e.g.


2.

'?, ,

and the

lects,
3.

The nasal is omitted in the spelling, occasionally and regularly in Cyprian and Pamphylian.
any
dialect,

.
= =

labial nasal,

in all dia-

Complete assimilation to a following mute, though not regusometimes occurred in careless pronunciation, as
occasional,

lar in

shown by

XeaOai, Boeot.
beside usual

assimdation

was usual
nasal

.
4.

in the

, ,
From
Crete,
is

'/^ ".
name

and mostly
(late

late, spellings, e.g. Att.

inscription), Delph. "A ^/3/39

where

in general consonant

most extensive
of the

(86),

there are several examples, as

and the assimilated form town Lappa, whose coins show


Delph.
Thess.

In some cases the dissimilative influence of a preceding

was probably a
(papyr.)

^.
factor, e.g.

. -),
A
This
as in 17709),
(49.5).

perhaps belongs here rather than under

^
2, i.e.

', 'to be read


Jiij,

()(^8)8.
special case
is
is

Boeot.

(uniformly so spelled)

from

*-7<

tlie

root being
is

(cf.

(witli

, (-,
is

from original
in

which

simplified initially to

-, as

etc.

60

GREEK DIALECTS
.
Assimilation of a nasal to the charaetcr of the preceding nuite

[69
is

liaps to

be seen in Coan A^ttrrai^iO?

49.2 a.
2.

8 ^,
70.
1.

Bap^fxa,

8^..

Cf. JNlod.Grk. Ilarvos

from

^<;, ^5
and
Cret.

,
= =

per-

Cri^t.

Trausposition of a liquid, or loss by dissimilation.

Transposition within the same syllable.

written occasionally,
etc.),

numerous Cretan

, *, , , , , ? .
also
etc. for

<, <;,
Syrac.

,
which
see

from

'.

Transposition between different syllables.

Heracl.

Amorg.
3.

(Hesych.).

Loss by dissimilation.

Cypr.

per a

Epid.

from

in various
at Naples.

dialects (Delphi, Cos, Chios, etc.), vice versa


71.

Cretan

from

In Cretan the

was a deep guttural


alter, etc.),

closely resembling

(cf.

French anf7X from


Gortyn. ahevinai

and was so
There are

e.g.

(but usually

= /reX/xeW"?,

glosses in Hesychius with

\, e.g.

<:.
= from in is without parallel, and must be a. Cretan due to some kind of dissimilation between the two p's of

-.

72.

, , from , ^.

Several examples of

in Peloponnesian Doric

Meg., Mess., Heracl., Syrac.

in Epicharmus,
delv) occurs in

, (),
73.

and the

()

Alcman, Epicharmus, Theocritus, and


late Delphian,

{
in in

Sicilian

(),
Alcman,
)

and

Italiot colonies, e.g.


etc.,

,()
=
ivdelv
at

are found

Arg.

in Theocritus,

(-

Corcyra

also in

an Arcadian (Lycosura), a

and a

late Cretan,

inscription.

Double Liquids and Nasals in Lesbian and Thessalian

The combinations treated

74-76, also 77.1, 79,

have in

part a connnon history, since they all

become double

licjuids

and

nasals in Lesbian and Thessalian, l)ut in other dialects a single

76]

PHONOLOGY
by lengthening
of the

Gl
preceding vowel
;

liquid or nasal accompanied


(if e

or

0,

to

ei,
i,

or

,,

according to the dialect

74.

From From

. *,^,
Lesb.

*4,
From
if

p, V,

+.

when preceded by any


Lesb.

other vowel than a or


Arc.

(gram.), Att. etc.


(gram.), Thess.

Lesb.

(gram.), Att. etc.

,..
see 25).
(18), Att. etc.

o.

a.

But

or

precedes, epenthesis takes place, the result being the

same
b.

*.
(beside
75.

in all dialects, e.g.

from

*<,
e. g.

*\.

gives

in nearly all dialects,

49.3, 68.2), Lesb.

Ther.

/reu/LieW?

, , , , .
Att.-Ion.

Boeot.

, .,*,
From

\v.

, '). *\,
But Cyj^rian has

ai\o<s (beside

()),

from

*,
Dor.

from

(Lat. alius),

.,
From

Thess. ySeXXo/xat, Att.-Ion.


Locr., Delph.

\, *, *\ (*8\, *, ^^/,
Lesb., Thess.
etc.

.
is

and Elean once

.
from

EL, Coan, Heracl.,


(gloss), Ion.

From

*,

Lesb.

etXetu,

Delph.

El. airofeXeoL, -eoiav, Heracl.

'Cret.

(In these forms the

meaning
root,

debar, prevent.

= peXpevwi
like

and

are perf. pass, participles,

like
a.

Hom.
Forms

from the same


with

but meaning assembled.)

of
h.

(with V restored by analogy of from a form without


in Ionic

beside
76.

, ,
from
Thess.
Lesi).
.

in all dialects represent a later treatment

(Homer and

Intervocalic

+ li(piid
From

sa-hasra-), Lesb., Thess.


X'iXtoL

, ,
is

*).
or

elsewhere

,
etc.,

elsewhere

(?),

aeXavva, elsewhere aeXavd, Att.-Ion.


.

from But there from cf Horn a. For no example of Lesb., Thess. pp\ and the development was not 2)arallel

, ,^ * , . *(
v, is

'/

etc,).

Arcado-Cyprian, and occurs

also,

Eretrian).

or nasal.

From

(cf.

Skt.

Ion. etc.

Lac.

(Att.

(Skt. asmi), Lesb.

(25).

From

Att.-Ion.

* '.
(cf.

', Thess.

Skt. asmdii), Lesb.

From

*).

to that of

assuming that Lesb.

ipos-is

from

*-

(13.1).

62
h.

GKEEK DIALECTS
Initial
etc.

[76
etc.

became hX
MAetJios

etc., later

simple

The

earlier stage

,
is

represented by occasional early spellings with


Corcyr. phof

etc., e.g.

Aegin.

rarely

Compounds and augmented or reduplicated forms show the development proper to intervocalic

of siich

words only

from

*.

etc., as Att.

Usually this was checked by the analogical influence of the


etc., later

simplex, and the subsequent development Avas to

continued influence of the simplex and of words with original

simply
later

beside eXa^e, etc. But pp usually remained, e.g. Att. Dor. -eppvd, though here there is considerable variation, especially in com-

.
1.

etc., e.g.

Horn,

-, -,
VS

pounds (Att.

and

77.

Original intervocalic
(also

Lesb.
(in this

word the vowel was already

e/cpivva, Att. etc.

From
from

. *,
(cf.

/}^9), Tliess.

,*
etc.).

initial

e-pptov, e-vveov,

-,
etc.)
a.

(under the

Cf pp from fp, 55

From

(cf.

Lat. 7nensis),

(also /xeiw?), Att. etc.

From

Dor.

as,

*, Lesb.
Bvit in Arc.

a.

-, but from
the other cases.
2.

The

dat. pi. of v-stems, as

other cases, and this secondary

,
is

etc.

Pindar) with substitution of the vowel of


the
also is introduced
(cf. 3).

. . ,,
',
*,
Thess.
Att.-Ion.
(gram.), Att. etc.
is

long).

From

',

^',

Lesb.

Att. etc.

Similarly

not formed from

-evat,

from the

retained

consonant lost

its

in proethnic

on the preceding vowel,


from

<, *-,
e.g.

from
etc.

So also Epid.

Delph.

perhaps from

see no. 53.17, note).


3.

* ^ *
*6
Greek without
(cf.

), dental

effect

from

(but

Secondary intervocalic
before
l,

in

comes from

tl,

or

original

had an entirely different history from that of which was changed before the new came into
is

existence.

This

retained in Cretan
cf.

(i.e.

Central Cretan,

cf.

273), Argolic

(mainly Argive,

251), Thessalian,

and Arcadian,

wliile in other dialects it loses the


witli diphthongization, of the

witli lengthening, in

preceding vowel. Thus from

^,

Lesbian

78]

where

pres. part,

where

Att. etc.

that 3
lect
a.

, * , . , . ', , , , , - /, ,, ^^ ^^, , , ,, , ', , , .


PHONOLOGY
Att. etc.

63

Cret., Arg., Thess.,

*,

Arc.

Lesb.

From
else-

Cret. etc.

(not yet quotable), Lesb.


sg.

or

(Arc, Arg. examples lacking), Lesb.


elsewhere
Cret.

etc.,

--,
or

(Arc. examples lacking


etc.

,
From nom.
etc.,

fem. pres. part,

--, Cret.

Thess. Xetropevaavaa,

aTreXevde-

or

-, -, -.
;

From

dat. pi.

Thess., Lesb.

-),
etc.).

etc.,

Arg.

else-

From

aor.

Cret.

7.

From

pi. -vtl

(West Greek

Arc.

etc.,

Lesb.

etc. (so also

Chian

pi.

cf.

184), Att.

etc.

Observe

is

exclusively Arcadian, since this


to the

which belongs both


In derivatives in

,
e. g.

-?

from verbs in

not only Cret.


etc.,

=
Since

owing

to the influence of the A'erbs.

,
-

is

the only dia(61) groups.


all dialects,

and the

-,

Epid.

,
is

from

kept in

but Att.

78.

Final

+ consonant

lost its

in proetlmic Greek

in close combination (77.2), the same would be true of final with a following word beginning with a consonant. Hence there arose doublets such as 1) before vowel 2) before con-

sonants T09,

Such doublets

are found in Cretan, the Gorty-

nian Law-Code

still

adhering very closely to the original distribution

in the case of the article, e.g.

But elsewhere the use of one or the other set of forms has ceased to depend at all upon the initial of the following word.
Accusatives in

, .
but
not

,,

-,

are the regular forms in

Thessalian,

Arcadian
in

(so probal)ly C}-priau

-),

Theran, are frequent

Coan

{and

beside

-), and

are occasionally found in other Doric


(e.g.

dialects dialects

in literary Doric

frequent in Theocritus).

Other

have development as that seen in the case of secondary intervocalic


etc. 77.:>), e.g.

-, -,

or forms coming therefrom by the same

251), Lesbian

,, ,
Arg.
in

(for

Argolic in general, see


or
(25),

most

dialects

64

GREEK DIALECTS
in spite of

Only Elean,
the
-aip, -oip.

[78

has here a development similar to


later,

Lesbian, yielding -at?

and

with the rhotacism

(60.1),

At

the time of the early Elean inscriptions the diph-a*?, -o'?

thong was not yet fully developed (pronounced


incipient diphthongs)

with

and we

find the spelling -a?, -09 beside

-,
e?)

(there

happen

to be

no o-stem accusatives in those

inscrip-

tions

which show

-).
whence
rotV,
etV or e?

Similarly the preposition ivi in Cretan (beside more usual

and Argive
dialects).

(cf.

251),

(note that Lesb.

et<?

has a

genuine diphthong, like

Cret.

, ,
Cf. also

and so

differs

from the ek nom.

of other

the treatment of final


(also

from --<;,

e.g.

Att. etc.

},
79.
etc.

<;,

Lesb.

?,

Latos),

Heracl.

Thess.

?.
sg. part.

Arc.

Ther. alpedei;.

,
eareWa,
Att. etc. eareiXa, Cret.

From *, \. From . From */?-

^, *
Lesb., Thess.

Lesb.
(cf.

(cf.

reppat

relpai), Att.

Tlieocr.), Att. etc.

^-,

Epid.

Skt. haras, grip) Lesb.

^- ('?

(but see 25

b).

80.

But

in another set of

words
to pp.

and

did not have this

development, but remained unchanged in most dialects, while in


several this per

eKepaev,
Lac.

, , ,,
Cypr.
[ej/cepaei^,

was assimilated
and

Cf.

Hom.

Ion., Lesb., Cret., Epid.,

,, ,
Coan
most
dialects
etc. (so in

(partly in j)roper

names

only).
is

The
as

assimilation to pp
;

Attic as

earliest inscriptions

in early Attic writers

,,
or
is

in

the

(Cumae), ajappL<i (Naples),


(for

dian as

in Arcadian), appevrepov (but also f)paia<i,

,
in

corresponding to

Lycophron, not to

which

see below, a), Elean, as fappevop,


is

due

,,
influence),

';?,

Ionic),

West
etc..

Ionic

',

like

Arcafor

which would be
and Travayopai^
(in later

to

Theran as

[a](p)pva,

81]
a(p)prj<i,
is

%{)'<,
to

due

influence).

also in

Phocian (Delph.

and, beside more usual


etc.

usual)

and Megarian
from

Cf.

also

Epicharmus, and Sophron.


a.

Even

in dialects

which regularly have


etc. after

analogy, e.g. Att.


other nouns in

-?. So Arc. sometimes assimilation, as Att.


b.

, * .
etc. (all

PHONOLOGY
archaic
;

in later

Proper names with pp

, ^,
65

occur

<8>8,
(Cret.

Amphiss.
l)ut

%<),

in Boeotian (e.g.
(e.g.

Xeppia^, but

,
pp,

(8),

%-

etc. usual).

81), in

Alcmau,

may be

retained

by
is

other datives in

-,
in these

etc. after

The divergent development

8, West ,,
of

But even

words there

Ion. ayappL<i.

depended originally on the accent, the retention of normal when they immediately followed the accent. In
be leveling in both directions, and the development
79, but

as^iven in 79 and 80, probably (later pp), being

,
is

sometimes that of 80 (Horn,

,.
/ci,

aorists there

would

usually that given in

Arc.

).

,
from

, ^ ^, ,
81.

Att.

= Ion.
and

comes from
cliiefly

Ti,

or Ot,

is

seen in presents like

(kl),

(),

(kl),

TeVrape?,

(54

e,

(), in feminines like (), and in comparatives like gives the same result, e.g. (), 114.4). Inscriptions show that Attic had
of the early writers being

TT from the earliest times, the


to Ionic influence.

Attic TT

Cretan

( ,
is

Most

of the dialects agree

found also in Boeotian

= Arg.

at least in Styra, Eretria,


a.

in late Cretan, as
KOLvi]

is

due to

influence (in

,,
Oropus
words of this

,, , (, , (, , ).
, and
(apparently, see 82)

due

mtli Ionic, but the

from

*),
(from
is

7<;),

and Euboean,

*<;, 61.6),

inscriptions

Miore

connnon than the

strictly Attic

);

after these also

late inscriptions

have

in

those belonging under 82, as

as ieeavT<i.

For

it is earlier

for earlier otto? (82).


class, as

for original

^^^,
as

, ,

Some

of the

also for

and for

(85.3).

66
b.

GREEK DIALECTS
Although the Thessaliau inscriptions usually have

[81

evidence that the dialect had

Aside from

names

,, , ?,
and

originally, or at least in certain localities.


cf.

etc.,

which are quoted as Thessalian, and especially IleT^aAos from

,
82.

(),
find

there

is

some

the proper
(65).

, ,, , ),, ^, , , , ,, 8. , 8.
poetry, but never in inscriptions) in

^ give

Att.

not

, and
+
In

(*<,

cf.

Skt.

madhyas).

, ';
Ion.

(early

often in

dental

gives precisely the

same

result, e.g.

ehUaaa,
cf.

etc.

all

such cases most dialects

have

or

(for

Lesb., Thess., Delph., EL, Heracl., Argol.,

East Cret.

Heracl.

Argol.

but Boeotian and Cretan have


Cret.

e.g.

Boeot.

4<;,
,
as

In some very early Cretan inscriptions

we

Note. This

is

to

be recognized as the normal development of

and
is

Ol.

The

diffei-ent result

seen in the classes of words mentioned in 81

the influence of the forms containing gutturals. After a consonant


in all dialects; e.g.

,,
etc.,

due to
gives

from

*..

83.

Original

retained, as in
e.g.

,
84.

Lesb.

Lesb.

(143), dat. pi. Lesb., Thess., Boeot., I)el})h., YA.-eaat, Heracl.


(107.3).

, , , \, ,
Original

which becomes
Thess.

in Attic

(, ^),
(cf.

is

Homer

in several dialects

etc., 82),

Heracl.

Ther. eV-

Boeot.

For

late Cret.

etc.,

see 81 a.

Attic-Ionic

{, Germ.

(,
lects.

Lesb.

) ,

, which

Avas

pronounced zd and comes from zd

Ast,
or

from

-()-)

or,

more

often,

from jt

(),

is

also

in the majority of other dialate inscrip-

found in our literary texts and in a few

tions, is

only another spelling of the same sound, adopted perhaps

because

was used with the value

of

in

etc. (19.1).

8]
But assimilation
to

PHONOLOGY

initial

is

Boeotian, Thessalian, Elean,

liotis,

, , ^, ,^, ,, '
Thess.
(no.
;

El.

888, 88, {) 33 no 8(), ^{),


but there
is

Cretan, Laconian, and Megarian

',
Cret.

(?).

Boeot.

(),

88, ?,

the only example, so possibly

only in Thessa-

, 67
in Ar.

evidence against

its

being general Thessalian).

^,

{), Lac.

etc.

Lys.,

6'()[],
is

in inscriptions.

occurs also on a vase from Ehodes, and


dian.
Cf. the occasional assimilation of

is

perhaps genuine Eho-

in external combination

in Ehodian, 97.i.

Meg.

doubtful (Ar. Ach.

, -,
or
aorist forms.

only

, (),
in

in inscriptions).

In Cretan and Elean the spelling

{'),, ('^).
Boeot.

is

also found, as Cret.

(),

. There is some interchange between presents in -^ or -, owing to the identity of tlieir future and

, '
Att.

==.^(,
^ersa, Cret.

and,

of Greece, even at Athens.


2.

. , ,,
85.
1.

,, ,
Thess.
xVtt.

- =
=

.
Thus
Att. Att.

but

and those

-.
and

teristic of

as

/\,
later

occurs with some frequency in Phocian, as Delph.


etc.. Stir,

also in Boeotian, in late inscriptions of


etc.),

, ^
=

The use

of

for

(see 63) is

Northwest Greek.

It is the regular spelling in Locrian,

and early Elean,

as

',

, ,, It occurs

mainly charac-

Orchomenus (aTroXoyirTaBut there


are

where

in Thessalian

(^,
it is

perhaps due to Aetolian influence, and twice


Larissa).

some
parts

early examples in other dialects, as Cret.

(A^axos), Lac.

and

in late times it is

found in

many

This

is

found in

late Elean, as

(no. 60),

(no. 61).

68
3.

GREEK DIALECTS
=
of

cities

central Crete, as
e.g.

(also, rarely,

. , ^).
Tliis is

usual at Gortyna and some of the other

,,
But
is

[85

{),
of the

etc.

found in most

very

earliest inscriptions,

and in the

latest (here

influence).

Assimilation, Dissimilation, and Transposition of Consonants


86.

Assimilation in consonant groups.

Many

of the
e.g.

changes
55,

belonging under this head have been given already,


69, 74-77, 79, 80, 84, 85.

under

See also under external combination, 96-

100.

No

notice

is

taken of assimilation wliich


to

dialects

and presumably proethnic, as


is

is

common

to all

etc.

This class of phenomena


colloquial

one in which the difference between


is

and careful speech


Wliile

most noticeable,
form

as

may

readily be

observed in Enghsh.

some assimilations are


is

so uniformly

effected that the unassimilated

completely displaced and

forgotten, others

remain colloquial only, the unassimilated form


This accounts

being
for

still

preferred in careful speech and writing.

much

of the lack of uniformity in the evidence as regards

some

of the changes mentioned in this and the other sections.

In some

cases the spelling varies greatly even in the dialects

where the
uniform in

change

is

best attested.

Sometimes the assimilation

is

certain dialects, but evidently existed colloquially in others also

and only sporadically made


1.

its

appearance in the spelling.

KT

to

TT in Cretan,
see 100.
Cf. also

Locr. ()

Cumae.
2.

, ^,
3.

coml)inatiun
to

, '^ (,
to TT in Cretan

9,

,'
Cret.
67), also

SiaXeXerraL in an inscription of

.
to

For

(99.2).

Cf. also Thess.

(Boeot.

ycaro^

(^

77

(7)

in Cretan.

7rpia<yete<;, 68.1),

(), ^ -^ ', '^, and Thessalian.


Thess.

eyparrai

'

Trpeiyv? probably

.
etc. in

= ye'ypaexternal

from

7rpeiytaT0<;, late

also Coan).

parallel cliange of

seen in Laconian glosses, as

<.

is

88]

PHONOLOGY
Note that the forms
(cf. also

.
.
4.

Cret.

cited, as also Thess.

beside
is

),
=

not

,
hi

69
are formed from

as in Att.-Ion., Lesb.

beside

=
cases
5.

, ,
to

Late Cret. TrpeyyevTas

a hybrid form.

in Cretan, Laconian,
dress,

Lac.

(Ar., Plato), eVre

* = '.
=
=

and Boeotian.

Cret.

(Etym. Magn.), Boeot.


gi'eat

But in the

remains in the spelling of inscriptions.


pi'

to

i^y

0evvaco<i
6.

=
to
to

^.
in Cretan.

,6=/most
dialects except
(Thess., Boeot.).

in Cretan,
V.

7.

^v

appears as
late), or as

.
As
character,

majority of

Attic (here also, but

'^^
^ery

is

occurs in Lesbian and in Ionic prose writers (Att.

late),

and in some

not really assimilation, but loss of 7 by dissimilation from the


tial

supported, in the case of

87.

Transposition in consonant groups.

so probably

8\'

from

, *',
late.

Doric inscriptions.

This

ini-

by the
to

of other tenses.

from

*,
or less

{kk from

as in Thess.

tto/c

which points Boeot. from vhereas

from

would be

contrary to

aU analogy,

cf. 86.1).

But most

examples are

of colloquial

and transitory

more

frequently repeated slips of the tongue, or sometimes, without

- ^^
doubt, only graphic.

Thus from Attic

(-),

ejpa-^ev (often on
assimilation).
88.

Abases),

'^, =
(65),

inscriptions

= ''^,

first

'
=
to
class,

by

Assimilation, dissimilation, and transposition, between non-

contiguous consonants.
aspirates in proethnic

Except

for the regular dissimilation of

Greek

these

occasional character as the preceding (87).

phenomena are of the same They are most freits

quently observable in the case of aspirates, or of liquids, for which


see 65, 70.

nasal

may

interchange with a mute of

own

by assimilation or dissimilation with another

nasal, e.g. Cret. vvva-

(cf.

Mod.Grk.

beside

^?/,

name

of

the monastery on Mt. Pentelicus),


beside
Att.

tions in epic style from Athens, Corcyra, etc. (nos. 88, 90).
also 69.3, end,

mentioned Ion.

,, , * , (). ^ 8 .
70

GREEK DIALECTS
or,

[88

vice versa, Att.

from

beside Cypr.

See

aud

which occurs

in certain inscrip-

and

86.7.

Among

examples of transposition
Delph., Epid.

may

(Att. usually

8<;),
Epid.

also,

with assimilation, Rhod.

be

a.

few

dialectic

examples of liaplology, or syllabic

loss

tion,

may be added
from

()8.

here.

from

(()8,

by

dissimila-

as Att.

^-

Cret. veoras, hodi/ of youny men, geu. veoras

from

i'eora(To)s, ace. veora

from

Doubling of Consonants
89.

single consonant

is

sometimes written double,

cating a syllabic division by

which

it

was heard

,,
syllable
1.

any particular
101.2.

especially liquids

thong. Thess.

also 101.1.

, , , 8, ,, , , , ^, , ^ -^, ?, ' \ < ,,


are frequent,

', ',
etc.

and the beginning

of the next.

Such

spellings as

,,at the

this indiof

end

one

and not confined


Arg.

to

dialect.

For examples in external combination, see


z-zd)

Similarly

(=

and

(=

ks-s),

e.g.

Delph.

Locr.

Boeot.

Thess.

vaKa(h)hev.
2. 3.

Before consonantal

Between vowels.
and

Dodon.

El.

Delph., Cret.

,
l

in Thessalian, as
is

etc.

See

19.3.

This

confined

to

continuous sounds,

nasals, mostly after a long

vowel or diphEhod.
Delph.
Cf.

Lesb.

Boeot.

Thess.

Cret.
is

airophhav (spirant ).

from

Meg.
4.

shows that

it

was

felt as

-'^.
etc.,

though

<;,

Epid.

(no. 83).

Cret.

Arg.

(cf.

Osc. alttram

frattre etc. in

Latin inscriptions).

90]
5.

PHONOLOGY
In hypocoristic proper names, where
it

71
originates in the voca-

tive

and

is

due

to the emphatic utterance in calling.


far

Examples,

though found elsewhere, are by

^', <;,
90.
netics,

most frequent

in Boeotian, e.g.

Mevvei,

etc.

CHANGES IN EXTERNAL COMBINATION


The phenomena
such as
elision, crasis,

of external combination, or sentence pho-

consonant assimilation,

etc.,

are found
is

in all dialects.

But

in Greek, as in

most other languages, there


of

a tendency to limit

more and more the scope


and
its

such changes, and

to prefer, in formal speech

written form, the uucombined

forms.

The mscriptions, Attic

as well as those of other dialects,

differ greatly in this respect

according to their time and character.

The following general observations may be made. 1. The changes occur mainly between words standing in close logical relation. Thus oftenest in prepositional phrases, or between the article, adjective, or particle and the noun with which it agrees 8e, 4, etc. and the prefrequently between particles like

ceding or following word

less often

between the subject or object


such as the ehsion
of a short

and the following


2.

verb,

and very rarely in looser combinations.


consonant assimilation, are least

While the

less radical changes, of

vowel or the simpler forms


restricted in scope
of crasis

and survive the longest, the more violent forms


Thus, in the matter of consonant assimila-

and

of

consonant assimilation are the most infrequent and

the soonest given up.

tion, the partial assimilation of a nasal to a following mute, espe-

cially a labial, as in

is

very

common

to a late period
(cf. 96.1),

and sometimes observed even

but examples like

^,

,
vs,

in all dialects

down

in loose combinations
etc.

are compara-

tively infrequent

and

practically restricted to early inscriptions.

Some matters which

strictly

belong niider this head have been discussed


s,

elsewhere, as the rhotacism of iiual

treatment of final

etc.

72
3.

GREEK DIALECTS
Although the
dialects differ in the
in

[90

extent to which they

exhibit

these phenomena and

some

details (e.g. Cretan

shows

the most extensive and radical series of consonant assimilations),

the differences depend more upon the time and character of the
inscription, the degree to

which the language has been formalized.

4. There is no consistency in the spelling, even as regards the milder changes, combined and uncombined forms often standing

side

by

side in the

same

inscription.

Elision
91.

Elision

is

common
is

to all dialects, but, as in Attic, subject

to great inconsistency as regards the written form,

which even

in

metrical inscriptions
of the meter.

very often not in accord with the demands


is

In general elision

most frequent in the conjunc-

tions

prepositions, and,

''
Xer
92.

crasis, see 94.

,
ayaOa
Ion.

and

particles

such as

(oSe, ov8e, etc.), re,

etc.,

the
like
Bei-

etc.
is

among case-forms, in stereotyped phrases The ehsion of a dipththong, e.g. Locr.


rare.

comparatively

For

elision in place of usual

Aphaeresis

'' ', ^,
Examples
'?,

of aphaeresis,

which
^vttol,

is

only a form of

rare.

(Chios, no. 4), Locr. e

EL

/xe

Lesb.

\\\'\

', ', ',


crasis, are
e
initial

Vi.
Shortening of a Final Long Vowel

93.
.so

The shortening

of a final long
is

vowel before an

well kno\vn in poetry,

Cret. /*

( ),
with

occasionally seen in inscriptions,


evhiKov,
etc.,

Meg.

iireiSe

Cypr.

(
Crasis,

e|)

from

vowel,
e.g.

So

e (9.3).

Crasis

94.

mostly
is

of

or forms of the article with tlie folof all dialects,

lowing word,

found in the early inscriptions

94]

PHONOLOGY

73

though the uncombined forms are more frequent. As between the "phonetic principle," where the result of crasis is in accordance
with the regular laws of contraction, and the " etymological principle,"

,
1. 0,

with lengthening of the second vowel as in Att.


the former
is

of Attic.
(of),

,-\- a

with the regular contraction to


Similarly Lesb.
pov), Delph.
(lit.)

),
8),

( 7),
"

Boeot.

and so regularly in

), ^( ), ^^
Corinth.

( , ^, ^. , /), ( ((
almost,
if

not wholly, predominant outside

(cf.

44.1).

Ion.

ayouvo';),

where Attic has

Arc. Kardppevrepov

7()
(

Meg.

Lesb.

literary Doric.

Elision, rather than crasis


is

according to the

in the few examples

Arg. Tapyeiot

'Apjetov), Cypr.
2.

(),
(6

3.

+
(lit.)

(cf. 41.2).

Lesb.

), ^ ), () ( ). ), ^ ( ( ). ( (
etymological principle,"
like Corinth,

probably to be assumed
^

'Apyeloi),

(6

'AyeXaiSa

+e

(cf. 44.3).

Att.-Ion.
(6

Locr.

^).
),

Att., Dor.

Ion., Cret.

Aegin.

( ')
6

), .

6),

with double

crasis, like

Cf.

in Theocritus.

4.
5.

6.

+ (cf. 41.4). + (cf. 41.3). + e (cf. 41.1).

Meg.
Locr.
Att.-Ion.

iv), etc.,

AVest Greek

,,
(no. 33)

).( ^ ( ),
( OXvv7rta<;). (
and re?

etc.

So also in Thessalian

an early inscription, though the texts of the Aeolic and Arcadian has Keiri. etc.) poets have mostly
in
;

() -

((
iv,

iiri),

,
eV).

eVt'),

Lesbian has

1 We continue, as a matter of convention, to transcribe in the form of crasis where the combination belongs to those whicli commonly suffer crasis, even in cases where we believe the phenomenon is elision. For it is impossible to draw the line between crasis and elision with certainty. See also under 7, 8, 9.

74
7.

GREEK DIALECTS
AVith words beginning with a diphLhong.
eu-,

[94

Inscriptions some-

times show the regular crasis with

),

as Delph.

Rhod.
is,

(
what
Ion.
is
ol),

>8), but otherwise the diphthong


probably elision rather than

unchanged, that
Thess.

), (
^

Delph.

Attic and Ionic literature (also

and in Theocritus. Forms


Theocritus,
(6

in Epicharmus, are rarely attested in inscriptions (once Ion.

the pre-Ionic alphabet

jeTav

),
=6

?
or

)
like
is

(
=

ovre).

Similarly

), , ,

crasis, e.g.

( (

(6

)
ol,

and
in

Herodotus and
ovSev)

in Theocritus,

<;).

-= (etc. in
ev-),

But the proper transcription


e.g.

of

forms in

sometimes uncertain,

evepjeTav) or KevfepyeTav, Boeot.

Aegin.
t

8.

AVith words beginning with

El.

or

v.

-), Delph.
is of

( )( ^. ' ). (
(6

Thess. Kevfep-

or

Cret.

uiee?).

In such cases there


or

course no evidence as to whether the

was lengthened,

as usually in Attic-Ionic, but probably

we

have here simply


9.

elision.
tlie final

In Elean in the forms of the article

vowel or diphfinal

thong disappears, sometimes even the vowel

Thus

( 7),

( ),

and even

').

( ), (? ),
This
is

( ),
Cf.

consonant.

clearly not crasis proper,

but an extension of the principle of


in

elision.^

an Attic inscription.

Once

El.

aphaeresis.

( ' ^)
and
in inscriptions),

with.

Apocope
95.

Apocope
but

of prepositions
is

is

almost

unknown

in Attic-Ionic

inscriptions,

usual in other dialects for at least some of the


6v, vv)

prepositions.

All of them have av (or

(even Ionic

has av in literature and a few cases of

See footnote,

p. 73,

96]

PHONOLOGY

75

and

70

are found in nearly all the AVest

Greek

dialects (but not

in Cretan, and rarely in Argolic), and in Boeotian and Thessalian.

But these are mostly confined


cially

to the position before dentals, espe-

Before other consonants they occur, with assimilation, in Thessalian and sometimes in Boeotian and
article.

forms of the

Laconian

also in Lesbian

and Arcado-Cyprian
airv).

(in

Arcadian Delphian
;

before all consonants in early inscriptions, later only before the


article,
(cf.

otherwise icarv formed after

irep occurs in

also

= /?),

Elean

(), and Thessalian

also in

Lesbian (Alcaeus), and in a few proper names in Locrian (TleppoOapiavj, Cretan, and Laconian.

,,
i.

are Thessalian only,

except for two examples of

in Boeotian before
ire
e.

form

of
is

is

seen in Arc.

7re(S)

,
a.

Apocope
irep,

, .
eV,

most extensive in Thessalian, which has

. . ,,
An apocopated
av,
(cf. 45.4).

best exi)lained as
article,

The Thessalian genitive singular in -ol is also arising from -old by apocope, beginning with the
of course, proclitic like the prepositions

which was,
there

Apocopated forms are more common in early inscriptions than


later,

when
Forms

is

a tendency, partly due to

iufluence, to

employ the

full forms.
like

,,
to

instead of

, ,

occur not only in

where double consonants are not written, but also in the later inscriptions of some dialects. For the most part the matter is one of spelling only, but in some cases such forms represent the actual pronunciation, due in jiart to actual simplification of the double consonants, in j)art from to syllabic dissimilation or haplology, as in later Attic
early inscriptions

,
,
1.

So

in

Arcadian the spelling

etc., later

expand the forms


of the student.

,
{)

it

is

almost uniformly
In doubtful cases
if

(early
is

KaKup-ivav).
etc. in

better to

()

our texts,

only for the convenience

Consonant Assimilation
96.

Assimilation of final

To the

likewise in the other dialects.

v.

class of a following labial cr guttural.

Cases like

are frequent in Attic inscriptions,

and

So also between object and verb as

76
Delph.

.
2.

tions as Att.

. Att. e? = ), {<;) (?
To
beside

Before
re aTeXev.
arise
3.

Cf.

4.

,
To

by assimilation but by regular

,, . , ,
Arc.

,
Lac.

GREEK DIALECTS

'/
Ion.

, , . irepi,

Arc. iv

,, '
and
but oftener
El.

[96

in looser

combina-

Arg. iroioley

Delph.

Epicl.

Cf. Ion.

and Lesb.

+ consonant.

So Rhod., Cret.

8,
.
/3.

Att.

<;,
=

Att. ep

'',

, ,
Att. ia
e
etc.

afaXav. These do not


See
77.2, 78.

loss of

v.

Xojov, Ion. iX
Epid.

,. ,
e etc.

also

Delph.

''.

Cf.

rior of a word, it is also frequently

()
1.

.
To To
V.

Cjiirian,

where

before a consonant

is

always omitted in the inte-

omitted in sentence combination as

97. Assimilation of final

Delph.

<).
2.

and f

()<; =
in Cypr.

.
.
. So

,
3.

To

Att.

Lac.

'

.. ,
.

.
<?.

Cf.

///? ('?

Cypr.

4'{)
Cret.

/^ =

In the same way arose

Arc.

(' =

<?),

( () 8<;.
8,<;,
cf.

^'^,

()

fa-

= /ca?

(/cat)

Xrjt),

4.

regularly in Cretan, e.g.

, '()
=

' {no. 93), (8)


5.

8<;.
',

Rarely elsewhere, but

{)

?.
=

Rhod.

Assimilation in the oppo-

site direction is

seen in Arg.

aevTepa<; (no. 81).

To

Cretan only, as

duyaTepa^.

Cf. Cret.

medially
a.

(85.3).

Before a word beginning Avith a vowel


Lac.
AioAev^e/aio

calic, e.g.

'

final

may be treated
(60.3).

as intervo-

05 iXeveepiov (cf. 59.1),

Cypr.

('),

(59.1), Ei'etr.

100]
98.
85c,

PHONOLOGY
Assimilation of final
Soei
to

77
e.g.

So regularly in Cretan,

rpa

[ ).
and
Final

7raTe{S) Sdei,

7() .

Cf. Cnid.

7()

^^
Thess.

99.
1.

Assimilation of a final mute.

. The

apocopated forms of
(cf.

and
95

they occur otherwise than before

, ,, . ),
=

lated (sometimes with further simplification;

07<,
(Alcaeus),

,
Final

so far as

95), are generally assimicf.

(
,

a), e.g.

),

Boeot.

Lesb.

(Alcaeus),

in

compounds,

e.g. El.

{8)8\,
Arc.
etc.
err

{),
is

(Sappho),
Lesb.

,
when

etc.

So

Lac.

(<,

(Alcman),

2.

.
.

Thess.

But

often unassimilated.

eVt are assimilated iu

Cf. 86.2.

3.

Final

See 100.
dialects, as in Attic, e|

100.

In most

becomes

before a

consonant, this appearing often as


before sonant mutes

before an aspirate, and iy


until late times rule
is,
e/c

and

,,

, ,

is

usual before
vowels, and

all

consonants.

The general

then, e^ before

e/c

(, ey)

before consonants.

But the antevocalic form

ef occasionally appears before consonants in various dialects (so


regularly in Cyprian, as e| tol
etc.).

In Locrian

it is

fuUy assimilated

to all consonants,

.the simplification of

double consonants in the spelling,


i
etc., i.e.

simply as

e,

{)

.',
is

e.g. e

'^,

i(X)

In Thessalian, Boeotian, Arcadian, and Cretan the regular form


before consonants
(cf.
e<?,

, ,
e.g.

()

i(v)

also

iairepaaaL, Cret, eV

<.
where

nantal form in an intermediate stage of

,.

,
m
This

All these dialects have e| before vowels except Boeotian,

,
is

Thess.

e<?

from

. ,
Arc.
e<?

whence, with
it

, () 8, e(p)

appears

e^).

Boeot. 9

, ?,
=
eV<?

Thess., Boeot., Cret. eayovo^

appears

an early

inscription,

but usually eV?, as

probably a transfer of the anteconsoits

development

(e|,

, ).

78
a.

GREEK DIALECTS
There are some traces
Cypr.
c?

[loo
e/c

^, e.g.

according to some

^? e?

of e? in other dialects

which generally have


7.5), Sicil.

or

(Ilesych.), Arg. e(s) SiKeAcias, and

Tos (Syracuse, llhegium), Delph.

/?

(but see note to no.


(?

no. 51,

45).

Consonant Doubling
101.
1.

Before vowels.
Att.
is

-4,
tion.

-,

also

0\&.[,-,,.,.\.. '^, ,
in a

inscrip-

This

a compromise between phonetic and etymological

syllabification,

than
2.

those for the similar

With

etc.,

or Epid. ro

9\,
V

and the examples, though

doubling in internal combination

etc. (89.1),

compare Att.

Coan

.
it is

rare, are

mostly earlier
(89.3).

Epid. eV?

movable
102.

The
where

movable in the dative plural in

-{)

and

in the

verb forms in
Ionic,

-{)

and

-e{v) is

marked

characteristic of Attic-

it

appears from the earliest inscriptions on with in-

creasing frequency and before both vowels and consonants. (In Attic
its

use becomes gradually more and more uniform before vowels,


it is

and

also

than elsewhere.)
dialects,

and even here only in Thessalian


etc.).

Heraclean

the older inscriptions of other dialects, and where found


sign of
influence.

{
t^tc.

somewhat more common before a pause in the sense Only in the dative plural does it appear in other

(^,

no. 33)

and

In verb forms

wholly unknown in
is

a sure

Note. In the
datives like Att.

, ,
dat. pi.

the

is

due

to the

Dor.

Lesb. a^/xiv and

,
pi.

analogy of pronominal
in

which

is

in-

herited (beside a form without v).

-(),

(), (),
etymological
all
v,

e.g. 3 pi.

()

After the dat.


]1.

after dat.

part.
is

{),
rjtv

-()

arose the 3 pi.


St-

then also 3 sg.

Another source
1 sg.

163.3) to

^a, after the analogy of

forms withl

sg. -a, as

/,

forms with

3 sg.

(originally 3 pi. with

1 sg. in -ov,

as cAcyev,

which arose -(v) to from which it extended later to tXafiev, etc. which are not found in the

earliest inscriptions.

103]

PHONOLOGY
ACCEI^T

79

eralization as to the
all

,
a.

,,.
103.
of

Of the dialects outside

of Attic-Ionic,

Lesbian

is

one

whose accentual

peculiarities

we have any adequate knowle.g.

edge.

This was characterized by the recessive accent,

The Doric accent


^<;.

is

said

by the grammarians
are too

certain classes of forms, e.g.

But the statements

,,
is

,
the only-

to be processive in

'? =
to
is it

Att.

',
of gen-

meager

admit

system as a whole, nor

Doric dialects had these peculiarities.

known whether Hence the practice now

frequently adopted, and followed in this book, of giving Doric forms

with the ordinary Attic accent.


dialect forms can be little

In general our accentuation of


of convenience.
considerable difference
inflec-

more than a matter


is

question of detail, touching which there

of practice

among

editors of dialect texts,

whether, in the case of

tional forms

which

differ in their quantitative relations

change the accent to accord with the Attic system,


Kptvuv, or Kpivev, ace. pi.
like like

,;
class of forms,

sponding Attic forms, to adopt the actual accent of

^, ,, ^, ^, ;.
e.g. infin. Kpivev like
('ret.

question of the true accentuation

,
is
-at,

from the correthe Attic forms or to

or

or

The

a comjjlicated one, differing in each

and impossible
it

of

any certain answer. But practical conventhis alternative

ience favors the use of the Attic accent in .some cases, as in the accusative
plural to distinguish in
all

from the nominative, and we adopt


in -u,

the cases mentioned.

The pronominal adverbs


this affords a convenient

and

following here what the grammarians laid

working rule, But it is far from certain that the accent was as we do, and uniform, and that we should write e.g. like Att. ;, not, with some, like Att. olku, and etc., about which the grammarians And as between and
e.g.

from gen.

).
wcic
oiKOL,

in

beside

doubt,

we

definitely prefer

in spite of
cVSot etc. (cf.

though

)
etc.).

, ,,, ,
We
may
accent
also

, ,, .
t^oi,

- we accent as peri.spomena, down as the Doric accent, since and, for -, serves to distinguish

, ,

(cf.

Att.
etc., like

be defended.

INFLECTION

NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES


Feminine a- Stems

,,
104.
2.
1.

NoM.

Gen. Sg.

-, Att.-Ion. -<;. Arc. -dv after the masculine,

Scx.

-a, Att.-Ion.

-.

as

but only at Tegea, and here -a? beside -dv in early

inscriptions,

and always
-,

3.

Dat. Sg.

-at, Att.-Ion.

-, whence

also -a,

Boeot. -ai

{-ae,

26),

and

this is to be

-, -ei. See 38, 39. assumed in the other

dialects wliich
4.
5.
6.

have

-ol (106.2).

Ace. Sg.
Pl.

-dv, Att.-Ion.

-.
-,
26).

-at (Boeot. -ae,

Gen. Pl. Dat. Pl.


after

-, -, -, -.
B.C.

See

41.4.

7.

In early Attic, -dai{v),

-(),
rare

420

-. In Ionic, -() regularly,

-{),

sometimes

-(),
being

and probably

Attic.

In

Lesbian,

and

this occurs, rarely, elsewhere.

Most

-at<i

(but always

),
from from

dialects

have

-at?

the earliest times.


8.

Ace, Pl.

-"?, with the same development as has


(see also 78)

o-stems,

namely

-,
-,
Cret.,

-, -,
Cret.,

-09

Arg.

Arc,

(Cypr.?),

Thess., Ther.,

Coan

-,

- or
dialects
80

-,

-, -, -aip
-, *-,
Elean

Most

Lesbian

106]

INFLECTIOK
Masculine d-Stems

81

105.

1.

NoM.

Scx.

-a? (with secondary

, after

the analogy of

Att.-Ion.

-.
s also

etc.),

,
2.
.

a.

Forms without

occur, several in Boeotian

and a few from other parts of Northwest Greece. Cf. also though this is possibly a form in like Hom.

(, ,
El.

-),

Gen. Sg. -do (with

o,

place of

?,

after that of o-stems),

whence Arc.-Cypr. -dv


Att. -ov
is

(22),

elsewhere

-d,

Ion.

-,

-.

See

41.4.

not from -do, hut the o-stem form taken over as a whole.
in

-tt/ro,

/, /,

of

two metrical inscriptions from

Corcyra (no. 87) and Gela,

form was already


no. 88,

p, either representing a glide sound before the following


no. 88.
f, as
h.

/
-d,

is

a reminiscence of the epic -do (the spoken

which appears in other equally early inscrijitions, as no. 85) with the introduction of a non -etymological
(cf.

See 32), or due to a false extension from forms with etymological

= Hom.
Forms
in

-,
-a

dialects, e.g.

;
(no. 92)

nominatives in

with the old ending unchanged and belonging with the (above, 1 a), occur in scattered examples in INIegarian

and from various parts of Northwest Greece. c. Att.-Ion. proper names in -<;, from the fourth century on, frequently form the genitive after the analogy of -stems, e.g. Att. (after
etc.). Ion. AeaSeos,

Rhod.

'?-oto

. ?
0-Stems
cf.

This type spreads to other

106.

1.

Gen. Sg.

(from *-oaio,

Skt. -asj/a) as in
-oi,

whence, with apocope, Thess. (Pelasgiotis)


Elsewhere, witli loss of

and contraction, -ov or


Idalium
apjvpov,

Cyprian -ov beside


etc.,

and so usually -ov in nouns, whether vowel or consonant


;

lows
a.

but also

,,
-o
(at

as

, ',
(25).

,
In
fol-

Homer,
etc.

before a consonant,

and always

to).

-oto is

often employed in metrical inscriptions, in imitation of the

epic, e.g. nos. 87, 88.

But

in Thessalian it also occurs in a few prose ingenitiA'e in

scriptions,
-oio.

and the grammarians often refer to the Thessalian


is

This, togetlior with the fact that apocojte

more extensive

in Thes-

salian than in

any other dialect

(see 95),

makes the derivation

of the usual


82
Thess.
rate
it

GREEK DIALECTS
-01

[i06

from

entirely

from

For the added


2.

tlian other explanations which sepaand so from the forms of all the other dialects. in Cyprian no explanation that has been offered is adequate.
-oto far

more probable

this

Dat. Sg.
01 in

-ot

in

most

dialects,

whence

also

(38

Thess.

23).

Arcadian, Elean, Boeotian

(-oe, -v, -t, 30),

and in

later

inscriptions from various parts of

Northern Greece (Delphi, Aetolia,

Acaruania, Epirus, Cierium in Thessaly, Euboea).


a.
-et

In Euboea

replaces earlier

- and may be
-ot is

derived from

it,

like
(cf.
is

from

(see 39).

But

in general

rather the original locative

o'lkol)

in use as the dative.

In some dialects the history of the dative

obscure, owing to the lack of early material or the ambiguity of -01 in

the pre-Ionic alphabets.


3.

NoM. Pl.
Dat. Pl.

-ol (Boeot. -oe, -v, 30).

4.
it

lasts
-oL'i,

). Elsewhere only
5.

of

in Homer, in early Attic, Ionic, where somewhat longer than in Attic (but some early examples especially in West Ionic), and Lesbian (but here always
-oi<?

-{), as

(Boeot.

-, -,

Elean

-oip).

Ace. Pl.

-01^9,

with the same development as

-.

See 78,

104.8.
6.

Gen. Dat. Dual,

dialects in

after the analogy of the dative plural, as

107.

1.

Acc. Sg.

the analogy of vowel stems, occurs in Cypr. ijarepav, a(v)8pija(v)-

nom.
2.

, -),
Thess.
3.

and among late Nom. Pl. -ev for usual


Dat. Pl.

,. , '^. -oiiv as in

Homer, whence
at
all.

which the form occurs

Elean -, -,
-a,

-olv in

most

Consonant Stems in General

-av in place of the usual

with

added

after

El.

(but possibly

from

inscriptions of various dialects.


-e?

originated in pronominal forms.

-,

as in
is

Hom.

the form of

-stems,

characteristic of the Aeolic dialects, Les-

occurs in late Cretan, having


a.

See 119.2

probably an extension of

bian, Thessalian (Pelasgiotis),

and Boeotian, and

early Delphian, East Locrian, Elean

-),

(^

is

also found in
;

no. 60

elsewhere

and

in inscriptions of various Corinthian colonies (Corcyra,

108]

Epidamnus, Syracuse).
{perhaps origmally

Heraclean has
=

with ivT-

of eVre? etc.),

after the analogy of o-stems, is characteristic of Locrian, Elean,

and the Northwest Greek


Ace. Pl.
first

* ,
Skt. satsu,
etc.

,
'
-Stems

INFLECTIOE"

83
in pres. part,

'etc.,

then
oi9,

by fusion
as

whence
i.e.

it

finds its

way

into

various dialects in later times.


4.
-e?

in place of

-,

the nom. for the ace, perof"

haps

used in the numeral rTope<i owing to the influence


etc., is

the indeclinable Trevre

seen in Delph.
(in

(no. 49,

early fifth century), Terope<i,

fourth century

but otlierwise in Delphian only

regularly in Elean ([reVoioJe?, sixth century, irXeiovep,


no. 61, etc.)

in the \'ery late inscri2)tions of various dialects, even Attic.

,
-,
108.
1.

and Achaean {iXaaaov<;,

<, ,
an inscription
of early
etc.),

and

etc.),

also

after the analogy of


etc.

-stems, in Cretan, e.g. Ovyarepav';,

All dialects except Attic have the uncontracted forms.

Gen.
(9),

sg. in
-eu<?

most

dialects

-, whence -io? in Boeotian, Cretan,

etc.

in later Ionic, Ehodian, etc. (42.5).

Ace.

sg.

masc. and

ace. pl. neut. -ea,


a.

whence

-ta (9), occasionally

Proper names in
(gen.

-, -<;.
2),

Cvpr.
till

(42.1).

/res,

whence

(beside -kXyjs), Boeotian


in
sg.

Euboean
Cypr.

-,

(-'?, -?)

in Attic

about 400 B.C., and regularly

but in the other dialects regularly

-/?,

in

most dialects For names in


2.

-.

Boeot. -KXeios

(= Horn.

-,

-.

cf.

16), Att.

-,

Gen.

but

Proper names often have forms which are modeled after the
-stems,

analogy of the masc.


(e.g.

Att.

where the agreement in the nom.


this,

but also in the other

-dv:

-),

appellatives in Lesl).

, , ' , ), ,
instead of

-'

-^, see 166.1.


and

this not only in Attic-Ionic

Eretr. gen.

- was
Thus
Arc.

especially favorable to

dialects.

ace. sg. in

- {-: - =
Dat.
sg.

e.g.

Boeot.

etc.. etc.,

and even in

Cypr. areXev.

in

-,
(or

etc.

T{o)<;

. .,
84
Lesb.
;

GREEK DIALECTS

Gen.
(like

sg.

in

(like -d) in Lesb.


l)

also, perhaps, -;?

-,
?),

105.2

in Thess.
(no.

nom.
?).

for gen.
\^oc.

by mistake
in
-r;

sg.

(like

-d)

in Arc.

?^
;

33

^ [i08

@'^4

or

etc.,

Delph.

The numerous Boeotian hypocoristic names in


"Bevvet, are also best

-ec

as Mevvet,

\\,

understood as vocatives of
to

tills

type used as nominatives.

They correspond

names

in -;?,

-<,

in other dialects, but in Boeotian


sg. -Lo<i, ace. sg. -eLv).

follow the analogy of

-stems (gen.

i-Stems
109.
1.

In

all

dialects

except Attic-Ionic, and, for the most


is

part, in Ionic too, the regular type of declension

that with

throughout, namely
-ia? (rare).
2.

-t9, -io<i, -I, -lv, -ie<;,

-, -, -?

(Cret. -tw) or

The type

in

-i<?,

and

(from

-',

as in

is

almost exclusively Attic.

In Ionic

'?

scriptions of Chios (no. 4)

and Thasos, and

But otherwise

in Ionic,

and always in other


-eai, are

Homer),

-et, pi. -ei<?, etc.

occurs in early inin Teos (no. 3).

dialects,

forms of this

type are late and to be attributed to Attic influence.


the Attic datives,
nom.-acc.
pi.
-et?,

In general,

-ei

the

first

to be adopted, next the

and

lastly the gen. sg.


it is

-.
and

Thus

in the later

inscriptions of
dat. sg.
-ei.

many

dialects

common

A gen. sg. 79
of various dialects.
3.

is

found in the

to find gen. sg.

-, but

Lesbian has a nom.

pi. -i?

('?,

no. 21), perhaps the ac-

cusative used as nominative.


4.

.
5.

Cyprian has such forms as gen.

sg.

The f

is

certainly not original here,

to the analogy of v-

and ?7U-stems

(gen.

-,
in

,
and
is
-t"/ro9).

in later inscriptions

dat.

sg.

perhaps due

transfer to the type

-t?, -tSo^,

as frequently in Attic, is
-t9,

characteristic of

Euboean proper names

as

8.

Ill]

INFLECTION
-Stems

85

110.

Nearly

all

the inscriptional forms occurring are the usual

ones of the type -?,

-.

Boeot.

[/]09
For

( from

e,

9)

agrees

with the

09 of non-Attic literature.
Nouns
in -US
is

see 112.2.

111.

The stem

throughout, nom.

sg. -ev<;

(from

-^,

cf.

37.1), gen. sg. -77/09, etc.


1.

The

without the
bian

(\<;

salian
2.
sis.

Attic only are

But from the beginning

the Attic forms most widely adopted by other dialects.


3.

( , ^
original forms in
p, in Cyprian
etc.
etc.), Boeotian (TlrdLept,

(, ', ^^,
-^, -,
of

are preserved, with or

/<?), Lesetc.),

Thes-

etc.),

and Elean (/3<?),

as also in

Homer.
is

\<;,

with quantitative metatheone of

influence

Most

dialects,

cept Elean, have

',
but

namely Ionic and the West Greek dialects exetc., with shortening of the .

Generally these are the forms of even the earliest inscriptions


(Cret.

f ot/ceo?

etc.),

we

which has
Ehod.
42..5),as

^' ^<;). ,
also
etc.
;

/^/?
(cf.

, ,
find

Coan
later

leprji,

etc. (no.

101,

always

lepel etc.),

and once
(cf.

Beside -eo? sometimes -eu?

Meg.

but,

owing

to the confusion with the nominative,

this spelling is far less

common

than in the genitive of

-stems.

Acc. Sg.

-a in Ionic, Locrian, Cretan.

most

of the
ieprj,

Doric dialects
Lac.

Delph.

,
tape?.

Tlepai

(no. 76, fifth century),

Coan
Pl.

rence,

and due

Nom.

, , ,, ,, ')
But
in

Delphian and

(see 42.1, 43) is the regular form, e.g.

Mess. Upi), Meg.

Mycen.

Arg.

Ehod.

etc.

In these dialects -ea

is of later

occur-

to

influence.
(e.g.

-ee? in

Cretan

ally contracted to

-.

in early Attic,

and Arcadian

().

Coan

(),

Also

-779 (in

and elsewhere, but usupart at least directly from

-)

Laconian (Meyape'i

etc.,

no. 64),

At Cyrene

occurs nom. and acc. pL

86
Ace. Pl.
-ea9

GREEK DIALECTS
in

[ill

louic and Doric (Cret.


-et?
sg.

when not
4.

replaced by

of the

Arcadian has nom.


ijepe<;,

in

-, as

8<;,

cf.

107.4),

lep-q<;,

'';, ovt<; (Cyprian


sg.

also once

^.
5.

but usually

-eii?),

ace. sg. hiepev (cf. 108.2),

Some

proper names

-'; = -<; are also found elsewhere.


gen. sg.

In Miletus and colonies occurs nom.


sg.

likewise at Ephesus gen.

belonging to
Irregular
(84).

, , .
(^)'
(also

nom.

pl.

Some
112.
1.

ZeU9.

Zev9 or

uncertain origin, in an inscription of Corey ra and one of


cf.

Att.

<;, Cypr.
Homer,

also in A'arious dialects (attested for

EL), as in

Late forms with


2.

occurrences are as follows, mostly from a stem


Sg.
Cret.,

.
3.

,.

,,
;

),
Thess.

Nouns
Ai(/r)o'?,

, of
But
Cret.,

Dodona

Ai{f)a, in most dialects.

East
(Cret.

Ion.,

,,
, ).
-:

Coan, Ther.,

etc., 37.1).

are hyper-Doric.

Aside from the o-stem forms, the inscriptional


Lac, Att. (Att. also

Gen. Sg.

fiVo? Cret., Att.


vlei Argol.,

(no. 33).

Dat. Sg.
Ace. Sg.
No^i. Pl.

Phoc, Att.
etc.
;

Arc, Cret., Locr.,


669 Cret. (as in

Horn.)

Att. vleU.

Dat. Pl.

Cret. (as in Horn.), after

. <;,
*4<;
/iei9,

Ace. Pl.

Stem

Thess.

(vowel-shortening before

, .
*),
Arg., Cret.
;

Att.

analogy of

etc.

(cf.

Lat. mensis),

Att. etc.

whence The nom.


later

+ cons., but

(77.1)

Lesb.

became
Meg.

than the assimCorcyr.,

ilation of

medial

Heracl.

In Attic,

whence regularly (78) Ion., was replaced by

the analog}' of original i/-stems in

due to the analogy


4.

ing 6

, \,

Hom.

tive beside

9
6

?, after the analogy


also Att.

-, -.
(above,

formed after
is

Elean

perhaps

of Zeu?,

1).

Originally a neuter

-stem

\, becomHence
in geni-

of 6

(Soph.), Cret.

etc.

114]
5.

INFLECTION
Cret.

87
sg.
(cf.

nom.-acc.

sg.

a stem in

but gen.
6.

sg.

, <;. ),
sg.
is

-.

So also Cret.

*8,
el/xa,

but gen.

ornament

),
from

which in Attic

is

declined as a consonant stem (gen.

properly a contracted o-stem (from


in Ionic, e.g. ace. sg.
i^ee

and remains so
7

^,
1.

-)

gen.

pi.

like

)?,

27

h, 79.

Comparison of Adjectives
113.
find the

Beside

/''^ and
(from

/cpetTTwy,

both with anomalous


in Ionic

normal
(from

ros, is in origin

*) , (? ,, , , , . , ,
in Ionic.

*)
pi.

*-)

For Dor.

(both from

see 49.2 with a, 80, 81.

,
Arc.

i,

we

and Arcadian, and


Cret,

2.

Beside

irXeove^,

-stem forms, like

Hom.
(e.g.

TrXee?,

occur in Lesbian

no. 21)

and Cretan
Cf. also

Gortyn.

beside

Dre-

a y-stem form,

cf. 77.1 a).

*7,
3.

cf.

42.5 d) adv.

= irXdov.
is

Heracl.

EL, Lac.

()
=
1.

formed directly from


Aesch.)

(also

in

from the compar.

(this regularly

from

^'').

,.
is
(cf.
;

(from

formed

NUMERALS
Cardinals and Ordinals

),
*eV'?.

114. 1-10.

Cret. eV?

Cf. 78.

as in

Homer. Also masc.

but with pronominal force


Att. etc.
is

uncertain (not
(Boeot.

2.

ending of

*76, = consonant stems.

. . .
to9 (cf.

Fem. ,

Nom.

sg.

masc. Att.

etc.

eh, Heracl.

Lac.

-=

ev<;

-, Law-Code IX. 50

see 97.4), from

but, of different origin, Lesb., Thess. la,

Hom.

dat. sg. neut.

in Cretan,

[Boeot.

now

in Corinna.]

West Greek and

Boeot.

The source

of

cf.

44.1).

24) in all dialects.

Lac. once
in late Att.

vith the

and

,.


88

GREEK DIALECTS

[114

Plural forms
Cret.
3.

,
Att.

iii

various dialects,

Tliess. 8va<i,

and

[)
(for

e.g.

Chian, Cret., Heracl.

in late ALLic

and

45.5.

Ace.

Att. etc. rpel^, Cret.


rpl'i,

T/3ee<?,

Ther.

<;,

. 8,
See
25, ace.

from
i

*Tpae<;.

Cret.

with

introduced anew

from

etc.).

Under the

influence of the indeclinable numerals,


is

the nominative or the accvisative


dialects,

used for both cases in some

namely nom.
Lesb.

?
(18).

in Attic

and elsewhere, and

in

<, '' 6<;, 7<;, ),


4.

Boeotian, Heraclean, Delphian, Troezenian, and perhaps in Lesbian.

Greek

the differences being due to inherited variations in the second


syllable {tner, tuor, tur, tnr),

.
Boeot.

Ion.,

Arc. Teaaepe; (also


Lesb.
(cf.

4<; in Ionic and


West

(Horn, iriavpe'i),

From

*qVetuer-

Lat. quattuor, Skt. catvdras),

qU

, , .
and
(68)

to the divergent

development

of

and tu

(54

e,

81).

Hom.

5.

TreWe, Lesb, Thess.

,. , ,
6.

77, Cret.
',
Cret.,

/^
(86.2).

Boeot.

See 49.2

a.

(68.2).

Delph., Heracl. f e|.

See 52

h.

For Boeot.

-(58
c),

see 100.

7.

but Delph.

(cf.

Delph., Heracl.

8.

,
116

Elean
9.

Ion.

, ,,
ivvea, Delph.

Delph., Ther.
10.

See

6,

115. 1119. Att.


(e.g.

and Hom.
Boeot.

,* , , , . , , [). . , , , ),
Boeot., Lesb. o/cto (like

Epid.

<;).
from

(with

).
r".

), Heracl., Ther.
in Att.
etc.

eVi^j} (42.1).

But

Cret.

See

54.

Heracl. hevvea,
.

see 58

Lesb.

Arc. 6e/co

see

6,

116

Arc, Lesb.

rarely

(e.g.

Heracl.

).
and

but in most dialects


Delph., Heracl.

rarely

(also late Attic).

also indecl.
cf.

(Attic after
114.3);

(Boeotian etc.;

also

300

B.C.)

especially

13th^l9t]i, Att.

Arcadian (no occurrence in Cyprian), but


no. 107; for h see 58
c)

Att. etc.

in all dialects (but Ion.

,, , ,, , . ,, ,. , ,. , , -^, [], ,
117]

INFLECTIOK

89

when

the substantive precedes (so Attic even in

fifth

century).

Similar variations for 14-19.

',

(see

above).

etc.,

but

or

etc.,

in East Ionic, Boeotian,

and Lesbian

116. 20-90.

(from

*-)
in

(-).

in Attic, Ionic, Lesbian,


(, cf. Ther.

Thessalian, with

not

ei,

and

retained (61).

West Greek with Boeotian and The ei of Heracl.

feUaTi beside

is

due to the influence

Ion.

of Att.

(see 114.4), Delph.,

Corey r., Heracl.

(so doubtless in all AVest

Attic influence).

Greek dialects previous

44.2).

(),
Lesb.

to

etc.,

with

Delph., Heracl.

Heracl. hoiyhorj

inflected genitives dialect


(cf.

, ).
Att., Ion.

,
a).

(alscj

)
;

See 114.7-9.

of

CJen.

etc. in
is

Chios,

where the use

such

one of the Aeolic features of the

in Alcaeus, also
etc.,

Boeot.

West Greek
a.
cf.

dialects also

but Thess.

{),
is

The

earliest

form of the ordinals

tliat iu

Skt.

trUi(,-(tl-tama- etc.).

Under the
(cf.

influence of the cardinals in

,in Hesiod).

doubtless in all

(from

-hiit-to-,

due

this

*-',
the
<jf

became whence

in Attic etc.;

in Lesbian,

instead of the
(cf.

extension of this analogical


heKOTov,

- , ,
more
Skt.

',

-<;

.',
in

and of the hundreds in


original

78).

nnder the same influence,


the same analogy
after

To
(e.g.

(Skt.

-,

Lat. vKjinll),

), -,
is

Lat. centum).
is

It is possible that a still further

Arc, Lesb.
1.

SeKoros, Arc.

117.
2.

100. Att. etc.

200-900.

Att.-Ion., Lesb.

doubtless Thess.)

,-.. -. ,
to
a.

be assumed in exjilanation of Arc.


Lesb. tvoro^.

Ave.

See

6,

116

a.

West

Greek,

J5oeot.

(and

Arc.

(with East Greek

but

West Greek

See 61.2, 116

), , , , ). , ,
90

GREEK DIALECTS
(Ion.
is

[117

The d

(Ion.

),
of

extended to

and the a

of

to

3.

1000. Att.

from

Lesb., Thess.

^eWioi, from

*'.

*',

(but Lesb.

but Ion.
See

Lac.

76.

PRONOUNS
Personal Pronouns 118.
^

Singular.
1.
e'/x-

with

or

Greek
(cf.

(reo?,

a-.

The stems, except in the nominative, begin 2. original tu, whence East Greek -. West re). But enclitic rot is from a form without u
1.

Skt.

te),

and occurs
f- in

also in Ionic (Hom., Hdt., etc.).


teuo- (120.2).

and
su,

Teiv are

from the possessive stem

Horn.
3.
'.

original

whence
2.

some

NoM. e7w,
Gen.
a.

'^ (Boeot. , ,

dialects

{,

foi, piv), otherwise


62.:5).

Dor.

TV, Boeot.
-eio

.
h.

as

Att.-Ion., Lesb., Arc.

See

61.G. etc. like

3.

Ion. -ev, Att. -ov.

Locr.
4.

feo<i.

(Hom.

e/zeZo

-eo? in
lit.

c.

-Oev, as
-01,

Dat.

a.

as e/Aoi,

, ,,
Dor.

),
(lit.

wlience

-eo,

later

Vest Greek,

lit.

Dur.

,
lit.

,
Ion.

Epid. edev.

Dor.

TOi), ol, oi (Arg., Cret.,

Delph., Cypr., Lesb. poi).

,,
l.

-iv in

AVest

Greek (where also


never
poi,
ol,

-01,

but mostly in the enclitic forms, as

and
lit.

,
2.

lihod., Delph.,
5.

and

Ace.

1.

T/re,

written

used as ace).
119.

,
3.

.
e

Dor.

though
lit.

also

Dor.

),

as Cret., Calymn.,

Att.-Ion., Lesb.
lit.

Cret. fiv.
lit.

Dor.

(Cret.

in Hesych.); also

Dor. and Epid.


viv.

(nom.

();

also

lit.

Dor. and Epid.

Plural.

1.

The forms

tain, apart

from the endings,


etc.),

of the first
(cf.

and second persons con-

Skt.

asman

etc.)

and

Skt.
1

yimndn

whence

Lesb., Thess.

-,

Lesb.

-,

(cf.

elsewhere

As

the personal pronouns, especially in the singular, are of comparatively

rare occurrence in inscriptions,

from literary sources,


Kuluier-lilass
I,

but only a few out


ff.

some forms are added which are quotable only of the great variety, for which see

pp. 580

121]

INFLECTION
(Att.-Ion.

91

,2.

-)
in

or

-, -.

See 76, aud, fur the spiritus asper


h.

or leuis in the first person, 57, 58


-e?
-ei?.

all

replaced by
a.

Lesb.
/Aes

<, ^, Dor.

dialects except Attic-Ionic, Avhere


etc.

,.
(9),

it

was

. , ,. -,),, ,
In late Cretan
3.

was frequently replaced by under the influence of 1 pi. /erbal forms in which Dor. -^ Avas often replaced by the kolvtj for a/xe's after for -(.. That io, From -ev was extended to other pronouns and to participles, as etc. riviv,

Gex.

(Horn,

whence

-,
Dor.

-.

Lesb.
(Cret.),

Tliess.

later
4.

,.
DaT.
5.

-t-{v).

Lesb.

So Dor.

latter not satisfactorily explained.

Ace.

-e

in all dialects except Attic-Ionic,

placed by-ea9,-a9. Lesb.,

, ,, , , ,, , ,, , ,.
etc.,

El.

Dor.

Att.-Ion.

but Att.-Ion.

Arc.

the

where

it

was

re-

Thess.

Dor.

etc.

Possessives

120.

(Lesb.
2.

',
1.
e'/uo'?.

PI.

Dor.

etc.

<

(Lesb.

Att.-Ion.

<;).
b.

)
PI.

and

<;

a.

tuo-, Att. etc.

<?.

teuo-, Dor.,

Lesb. reo?, Boeot.

in literature only).
3.

Both forms

in

Homer.
l.

and
(lit.),

';.

(all

a.

suo-, Att. etc. 09, Cret. fo?.

Both forms

in

Homer. PL

seuo-,

Dor.

Thess.

09.

and

6<;.

Reflexive Pronouns

121.

Aside from the reflexive use of the forms of the personal


118, 119, e.specially that of the third person

pronouns as given in

which

is itself

a reflexive in origin, various forms of expression are

employed, as follows
1.

Combinations
its

of the personal

pronouns with

ing

.
=

own

inflection, as in
Cf. also,

Homer

eacli

keep-

etc.).

So Cret. flv

with the possessive,

Cret.

fa

92
2.

GREEK DIALECTS
Compounds
or
of the

only the second part declined.


(also late
;

with

from ea

Thess.

, ,, , ,
[121

same elements, with


Att.

contraction, leaving
or

).

with

from

Coan

Ion.

(lit.)

etc.

The

forms found in Ionic inscriptions are like the Attic, and probably
are Attic.
3.

alone, as

sometimes in Homer.

Thus Delph.
(no. 61.17), Lac.

(SGDI.

=
4.

(no. 66).

,
is

2501.4), El.

<;

either with each declined separately, or, oftener,


of

merged into compounds


This combination
is
1

somewhat varying form.


late,

comparatively

replacing the earlier


in

types mentioned under


Boeotian, but

and

3.

It is

most frequent

Delphian and
dialects,

and probably even


a.

),

. . ? . .
c.

Argol. (Calauria)
(/.

) . . , ,,, ,, <
in Attic (Kuhner-Blass
ttotl

found in several of the other West Greek


I, p.

600, anm.

5).

05 ?.

I)el])h.

Boeot.

'

(=

Delpli.

etc.,

Boeot. vvep

lU'i'acl.

Cret.

etc.

Delph.

etc.,

Boeot.

Cret.

Boeot.

(late).
etc.

e.

Delph.

See 33

a.

f.

Ileracl.

(as in

Sophron and Ejucharmus), Aegin.


(Thermae).
Prob-

g.

Sicil.

ably from

',

gen. sg.

(Segesta), gen. pi.

(cf. late eurov,

above, 2), with transposition of

the last two syllables.

Demonstrative Pronouns
122.

The

article.

Nom.
For

pi.

,,
in

as in

Homer,

in the
oi, ai,

West
after

Greek
have

dialects except Cretan,


o,

and

in Boe(jtian.

Att. etc.

the analogy of
',

o,

some
ohe, are

dialects

which

in general

see 58 a.
t,

Forms with added


and Boeotian
For the relative

used like

found in Elean

{-, -, -).
use, see 126.

{-, -)

126]
123.

INFLECTION
Thess.
6-ve,

93

,. , ,,
Arc.
6-vl,

Arc.-Cypr. o-vv,
(cf.

oSe.

Thess. rove,
sg.

rave, and, with both parts mflected


gen. pi. rovvveovv.
(136.1).

Boeot.

Cypr.

Horn, rolaheai), gen.

Arc.

(gen. sg.), tolvl, etc.

ovv, Arc.

,,
,,
'

Cf. also

also (late)

124.

after

,^

^.

Cf. Horn., Boeot.,


pi.

Cypr.

vv.

Nom.

like

in

West Greek

(examples from Cos, Delphi, Ehodes, Selinus). Att.


etc.

etc.

Boeotian, with

replaced by

after

, ,
125.
2.

etc.

Interchange of av and
;

masc, neut.
also

vice versa El. neut.


is

throughout

also

). .
1.

).
a.

Boeotian

(,

For the spelling with


Ion.

from

*-.

Cf.

25 with

,,

So also Delph.

,, )
Att. gen.

throughout,
pi. fern,

,, ,
mfluence of

due

to

and Euboean

[,
(but
a.

instead of OV, see 34

Lesb., Cret., Ehod.,

Coan

<;, both
(*-<;),

of different origin

in Delphian, Heraclean, Argolic (Aegina), Megarian, as well as in


Sicilian Doric writers (Theocr., Sophron,

Epicharmus).

Neut.

in Cretan, as sometimes in Attic inscrip-

tions.

Relative, Interrogative, and Indefinite Pronouns

126.
of

The

relative o? occurs in all dialects.


article,

But the

relative use
is

forms of the

frequent in

Homer and

Herodotus,

usual

in Lesbian (so always in the earlier inscriptions and nearly always


in Alcaeus

influence, as

(,

Arcado-Cyprian (Arc.
Arc. av, Cypr.
01, ot).

,
{,

and Sappho

o? in later inscriptions

shown by the
oirep,

spiritus asper,

',
o,

is

due

to

etc.),

Thessalian

but also 09 in an early metrical inscription), and


etc.,

,,
at
all,

Cypr.

etc.,

but also
in-

So also in Boeotian in a fourth-century


(cf.

scription (no. 41), but later only 09

clean

Lesbian).

It is also

Hera-

etc.
it

so often in Epicharmus), but in


if

most West

Greek
late

dialects

occurs,

only in later inscriptions (so in


earlier period).

Delphian and Cretan, never in the

For the demonstrative use


(L33).

of 0?, cf. Heracl. ai

Se

94
127.
Cret.
(cf.

GREEK DIALECTS

[127

6, which of two,

is

the true relative correlative of

Skt. yataras beside kataras),

usual oirorepo'i as oto9 to


128.

?,
Arc.
in

ore to

'.
s?/^

aud so related to the

<,

Ti<?.

Cypr.

9,

?,

see 68.3, Thess. iV,

see 68.4.

from

*The

Cret. dat. sg.

/xt,

orivi,

and

with the same pronominal


esmei, etc.

8,
/ct?

(),

l-asmdi,
cf.

Umbr. pusme,

Att.-Ion.

129.
1.

from

*.

Meg.

as in

Skt. hasmin,

(Ar.)

rtVa from

*,

indefinite relative

;,

.
dialects, e.g. Locr.

with both parts declined, in various


Boeot.

hoLTtv<;, Cret. octlv<;,


2.

9, with

e.g.

Delph.

<.

only the second part declined, in various dialects,


otlvl, Cret.

(128).

Lesb.

om,

*oh-Ti,

and by analogy

oTTLve'i etc.

Cf. also Lesb.

In

all

other dialects the double consonants are simplified, presum-

,,
,

regularly from
etc.

ably under the influence of the simple


a.

<;

etc.

account of Locr. (no. 56) it is generally assumed that the first which part of OTIS is not from a form of the relative stem seen in os, related in form "was originally 10- (Skt. ya-'), but a generalizing particle and use to the so in Eng. whoso, ivhosoever (Old Eng. swd liwa swa). But so long as the one occurrence of Locr. is the only example of a form with (even the other early Locrian inscription, no. 55, has Hotl), there is decidedly a possibility that this is only an error.

On

^,

3.

Neuter forms in

tan, e.g. art

artva,

130.

Cret.

,
form
use of

Se

(sc.

jvvaiKi)

. , '
-,
with only the
i.e.

first

part declined, in Cre-

but used hke adjectival

8, yvva
reo,

,
(also

,
hie

as

ehoKe.

|)<?),

cf.

Hom.

For the form


etc.

Hesych. reiov

131.

Interrogative pronouns used as indefinite relatives. So regu-

larly in Thessalian, e.g.

yivveiTei =

')

hioTi,

eXXee =
=
is,

()
(in

form

with some rare exceptions in literature, found

.
,
of

)=,

<^,

(in

Elsewhere the

only in late Greek. In Cypr.


tive force is given

by the

Ke

the indefinite rela-

an adverbial form

obscure formation.

132]

INFLECTION

95

ADVERBS AND CONJUNCTIONS


Pronominal Adverbs and Conjunctions of Place, Time, and Manner
132.
1.

-.

Place where.
origin,

Att.-Ion.

,,,,
(Boeot.

etc.

These are of genitive


2.
-ei.

and are
(above,

specifically Attic-Ionic.
of

Place where.

These are the West Greek equivalents

the Attic-Ionic adverbs in


dialects, in
et
TTOL),

oTTet, relSe,

8,
3. -OL.

?, and Delph. eVe^ei.


even in Attic-Ionic in

. ,,
Here
also,
e'/cet

1),

occurring in various Doric


Tret

Delphian, and in Boeotian,

e.g. el, Tret, Tret (Cret.

),

aXXec,

by analogy, Heracl.
is of

70 = irpoaeand occurs
etc. in

The ending
(cf.

locative origin,

also eVei).

Place ivhither (also where),

,,
like
-et, is

numer-

ous dialects, as in Attic.


where, formed from
gin,

With

-9,

Delph. oh.

Cf. also Orop.

,
?,

(5 ). This ending,

and means simply ^/ace

wliere

(cf.

oIkol,

),

of locative ori-

but in these

pronominal adverbs the prevailing force

is ivhither.

4.

-ut.

Place whither (also where).

, ,Rhod.
0Tru9.

or

-,

Rhod.

1^9,

Arg.

(for whatever purpose),


(to

Cf. also Cret.

Cret. vl,

with
lit.

-?,

giving

Dor.

113.2),

lit.

Lesb. rviSe,

Delph.

eVSi?.

This type originated in

*;,

,
way)

from the stem


5.
-CLL

(I.E. qihi-, cf. Skt. ku-tas,

whence, Osc. pu-f, where).

(Att.-Ion.
at,

ner.

Thus

-).

Place where, whither, and especially

man-

Delphian whither, Lesb.


see 38), Cret., Corcyr.
tions.
is

how and where in various Doric dialects, in oirira where, dXXa elsewhere (a from -di,
otherwise, Heracl.
(cf.

in all direcin

The

indefinite

Corcyr. aXXac

any

other

used in Cyprian as a strengthening particle, anyhotv, indeed

and

indeed, ihe

then indeed, no. 19.4,12).

Cret. at, oTrat

are used in the sense of as, in whatever ivay, but also as final con-

junctions, and at
a.

is

also used as a temporal conjunction.


-at

Reside these dative-locative forms in

there existed a type with

original

Lac.

'

(Att.-Ion.

-77),

probably of instrumental origin, to which belong

tixvt-q fjTi,

such a

way

as (no. 60), Dor.

where (Etym.

96
Magn., Hesych.)

GREEK DIALECTS

Horn,
in

[i32
for the

with particle
tlie

--^l.

But

most part

it is

impossible to distinguish this from

commoner type

in original

-dt,

to

which many forms


Lesb.
etc.).

-5.

niay ecpially well belong (as such

we have reckoned

In Attic-Ionic there

tional spelling A'arying

a given form (e.g.

between
ichei-e')

is the same ambiguity (the tradiand -), with the added possibility that may belong under 6, below.
-7/

,
when,
o,

6.

-. Place where and tvme when.


oire, ivhere
[rJti'Se,

Cret.

and

vjhen, Lac. hoire, as,

in this place, Meg. rihe, aXXe, here, elsewhere.

- -,
rj,

cohere,

but usually
El.

Of

this

same formation are whether, Cypr. e = el (134.1), Place whence (Att.-Ion. -Oev). Lit. Dor. 7. -.

,,
07, from
h.

Locr. ho, hoiro, Coan, Mess,

El,

eVe

eVet'.

etc., Cret.

Similarly Delph.
cf.

the house.

These are

of ablative origin (I.E. -5d,

early

Lat. -od, Skt. -dd).


a. These adverbs are not to be confounded with another class, mostly from prepositions, meaning p/ace where or whither and occurring in Attic-

,
8.
a.

Ionic also, as

on each side of(ci.

, , ^,).
etc.

To

this belong Delph.

within,

Coan

Although probably

all

adverbs of place whence iu


Cf. also 133.1.

the West Greek dialects formed the pronominal -, forms like being late, the appears in

adverbs derived from place names, as Arg.

-.

Manner,
is

,,
and

,
is

9,

Corinth. Ilepaeo^ev.

etc. in all dialects.

Final conjunctions,

of these

are the usual final conjunctions, and


is

by

far the

more frequent, though

not uncommon,

especially in the earlier inscriptions.


or, once, ai (above, 5).
9.

Early Cretan uses neither, but rather

rare, except in very late times.

-T,

-, -.
etc. iu

Time when.

Arcado-Cyprian (Arc.

,,,
bian,

West Greek (and presumably


Lac.
El.

occurring in Khodian, Laconian, and literary Doric,

,
rj,

6,

Cypr.

, ), ,

rore, Trore in Attic-Ionic

and

in Les-

,
.5,

Boeotian), e.g. Cret.

Delph.

, -.
is for

(,
.)
(Ion.

Even Attic has


also
a.

), .

and

in

some words,
and

as

Temporal conjunctions. Besides


ai,

ore etc.
6).

iirei

(above, 2), note the

temporal use of Cret.

owl (above,

For

so long as, until,

we

find

133]

1) ews, as (41.4), 2) eare, evre (cf

Arc.

tion, 4)
(cf.

, ,8, , ^ ,
.

INFLECTION
135.4),
-3)

97
(also prep.

Cret.

<;).

Thess.

IIoin.

all

related,

but of obscure forma-

with and without

ov, 5) ets o, es

G) Boeot. ev

136.1).

Prepositional and Other Adverbs

133.

1.

usually

-Oev,

-, -.

In adverbs like
;

(nearly always in inscriptions

and

-),

Attic in

.
(gram.)

while the AVest Greek dialects


etc.), l)ut also
etc.,

Heracl.

Delph.

(85.1),

but also Meg.

2.

Cf. also Arc.

(-'),

and probably
3.

^'

-.

Arc.

, , ,, ,, .
show

,
Cret.

Lesbian has

in the lyric also

also

(which

is

-,

-.

Lesb.

Dor.

(85.3),

is

seen in

(no. 16.17) is

, .
Epid.
4.

For Delph., Locr.

= e/cro?, see 66.

. , .,
Argol.
Cret.

(Hesych.)

Cf.

Hence,

after the anal-

ogy of other adverbs in

(132.7 a)

and

-ot (132.3),

Delph., Epid.

From

Cretan),
(after
5.

<), Delph. ^, Lesb., Epid.,


Beside

,
-ii',

are
Ion.

formed

besides

Att.-Ion.

(also

(Ceos)

Cret., Delph.,

Syrac.

Meg., Syrac.

6<;

Delph.

'4vhv<;.

adverbs, Lac.
etc., cf.
6.

, ).
-i.

(132.7 a) are formed, after the analogy of other


Cret., Syrac. e|ot. Dor.,

Delph. e|o9 (after

e/cro?

-9,

Forms with adverbial

change with each other and with forms without either


the numeral adverbs in

-, -klv,
Eheg.

sometimes

-Kt,

but -klv in Lac.

),
Cret.

= 6<}.
as Cret.

Thess.

beside Lesb. at (also aliv Hdn.), Ion. ali (also


lease)

,
Likewise

-lv in

,,,, ,
-9

-?

or -y sometimes interor
-v,

as

-kl.

Thus

in

most

dialects

-/ci?,

Cret.

other adverbs of time

(Hdn.)

= <;,

El.

varaptv

under jJ^rpetual
in

= usual
Phoc.

ate?,

piv, *aip<i, etc., cf. Cypr.,


-t9 is

, ),

.,
(cf.

Att.

Here

also

(all

from *alfi, *ai-

while a corresponding form

to be seen in Cypr.

fak, forever, a combination like Att.

98
et<?

GREEK DIALECTS
aei,

[i83

containiug
cf.

liar,

but

,
;

= eiri and
53).

from

*alfi<} (omission of

f pecu-

Cf. also

Epid. avevv, El. aVef?

avev (Meg. and late

lit.

formed
134.

after

^?),
Tlier.

Dor.

Coan, Rhod.,
1.
;

.
is

(Pindar) beside

,
as

avL<i is

The conditional conjunction,


e

el in

Attic-Ionic and Ar-

cadian

at in Lesbian, Thessalian, Boeotian (),

and

all

the

West

Greek
a.

dialects

()

in Cyprian.

in other dialects

than Cyprian

is

simply

tchether, e.g.

Heracl. Tab.
al,

(no. 74) 1.125.

In Cretan there

no true conditional

beside

Mas

once supposed, but rather a temporal


2.

, for which
used,

see 132.6.

av, K,

is

only Attic-Ionic and Arcadian.


/ce,

dialects the unrelated

is

In

all

other
fcev),

in Lesbian (also
dialects

Thessalian, and Cyprian, /ca in the


a.

West Greek
and a

and Boeotian.
be seen

Arcadian once had

like Cj^rian,

relic of this is to

which appears, where there would otherwise be hiatus, between tl which had regularly replaced and a following as a significant element (probably through prehistoric Ionic influence, cf. p. 7). Thus regularly el since has become a mere by-form of el (like or better ei/c beside oi), but el ' Once, without where em, but best classed with the some assume a significant in place of usual
in the

,
h.

, , .
ei

subjunctive clauses without

(174).

In Attic-Ionic,

combines with

in Attic to eav or dv, in Ionic

to ^v.
c.

The

substitution of

el

for al belongs to the earliest stage of Attic


dialects,

(koivt;) influence in

the

West Greek

but that of
is

for

only to

the latest, being rarely found except where the dialect

.
3.

almost wholly

tions of

.
he.

Hence the hybrid combination d most AVest Greek dialects.


Arc.-Cypr.
(as of
/ca<?

is

the rule in the later inscrip-

(also

of

which

the rare Cypr.

for
to

which
is

see 97.2), the relation

obscure.

In Arcadian

this occurs only in the early

where
4.

,
4
is

Mantinean
related to

inscription, no. 16, else-

See 275.

Thessalian uses
. .

for he, e.g.

he

(no. 28.22;

due to

influence).

135]
5.

INFLECTION

'

99

,
ISe,

identical with

Horn, vvp,
Boeotian,
6.

iu Arc.-Cypr. ovv

oSe (123), and with

occurs as an independent particle in Cyprian and

e. g.

Cypr. hvpavoL

Sokol

, Boeot.

in

form

= Horn.

tSe,

occurs in Cyprian introducing the

conclusion of a condition {iheirai then indeed, i8e then no. 19.12,25),


or a

new

sentence (ISe

and

no. 19.2G).

PREPOSITIONS
Peculiarities in

Form

135.
2.

1.

For apocope

of the final vowel, see 95. of final consonants, see 96, 97, 99.

For assimilation For 6v


22.

Elean
4.

, , =, (^)
100.
3.

see

6.

Iv

= ev,

10.

22.

e?

formed

after the analogy of

etc.,

in

and Lesbian

(gram.).
of iv

iv,

ek.

The inherited use


but once
in

with the accusative

(cf.

the
(El.,

use of Lat. in) is retained in the


Locr., Phoc.
;

Northwest Greek dialects

e<?

an early Delphian inscription, no. 50)


(Iv).

together with Boeotian and Thessalian, and in Arcado-Cyprian

Elsewhere this was replaced by an extended form iv-, \\4ience


9.

etV,

See

78.

Similarly eVre

= eVre

Northwest Greek

'.
5.

,. ,
of these dialects
is

in Locrian,

Delphian

(hevTe, 58

c),

and the

But Boeotian,
unrelated to

in spite of iv, has erre

in origin,

is

used in

its

place in Lesbian, Boeotian (probably in Thessalian too, though not

yet quotable), Arcadian

influence

TreSayayov,

names, as Boeot.

month

,,., <^? ,^(Most

{ire,

95),

Argolic,

Cretan, and Theran.

show

also

, but
Trehiov

at a time

when
and proper

probable.) So also in compounds, as

Cret. veBexeiv, Arg.

ireSafoiKoi

Argol.

or (by fusion of

The name of the and Mera-) Xleraiu

(or

-to?)

Att.

occurs

Rhodes, Cos,

100
Calymna, Megara,
not attested.
6.

GKEEK DIALECTS
Sicily,

[135

and Magna Graecia, where


series of forms,

alone

is

There are two independent


p,

one with

and one without the


1)

each with -ariation between

final -9

and

-tl.

Horn,
Cf. also

(cf.

'Ski.

7/9.

Painph. irepr, Lesb. (gram.)

paHi) in the West Greek and Boeotian, Arc.-Cypr.


a.

Although the relation


in origin as that of

unknown, and moreover the assumption of apocope is unlikely for Att.-Ion. <;), and beside indeed is far from clear, yet, barring the appearance of and forms is the same. See 61. in Homer, the distribution of the

same

. . . ',' (,
pirUi), Cret.
of
to

(70.1), Att.-Ion.,

Lesb.

2)

(cf.

A vest.

dialects (except Cretan) with Thessalian

can hardly be the


are

to

,
it

But note that


l.

Another form,

larly before dentals, e.g.

There are also several examples in Delphian, all before dentals and one each in Locrian, Corinthian, Cretan, and except very likely an alien). Boeotian arose is vmcertain. Of the various suggestions offered, Just how this the most plausible is perhaps, since with but few exceptions Trot'occurs only through loss of by dissimilation. became before dentals, that
7.

). (?,

,
=
1.

is

,<
is

universal in

most frequent in Argolic, where

,
etc.

(133.1).

occurs regu-

(but

^,

But
8.

Ion.

. ,^ , *-.
as in

Homer,

in early Attic, elsewhere

from

Cypr.

e.g.

^
iid,

Cypr.

^],
(cf.

Probably cognate with Skt.


taras).

Engl, ovt

There are traces

of the

same

prefix in a few

^ ^^. (Hesych.).

Skt. nt-

Ehodian and

Boeotian proper names.


Peculiarities in

Meaning and Construction

136.

Dative instead of the usual genitive construction in


1)

Arcado-Cyprian.

2)

Arc. e?

irepl rot-vt,

iXeuOepiai.

Cypr. Trept
5)

'.

Arc.

. : .'^
Arc.
(sc.

epyot,

toll

), .

4) virep.

Arc. virep

'
Cypr.
3) irepi.

toll

Arc.

136]

7)

Boeot.

sc.

,', , ,
sc.

'.

. . ^
6)

INFLECTION
Arc.
/roiA:taTat[<?].

IhiaL

8)

with dative occurs also in Pamphylian


formerly,
i.e.

,/ [
their
eirl
;

101
city.

]9.

(sc.

,.

with dative in
Cf. Thess.

just jJreviously, no. 28.43, and Boeot. eV

nntil, no. 43.49).

a.

This growth, at the expense of the genitive, of the dative (locative)


an inherited one
(cf. etc. with dative), and was probably furthered by the influence

construction, ^^hich in the case of most of the above-mentioned prepositions

was

also

,,
e.g.

its

extension

even to

and

e^,

of the

most

frequent locative construction, that with iv


2.

(Iv)

at, with,

with accusative instead of dative. This


dialects, including Thessalian

in the

Northwest Greek
28

and
in
(no.
e/xivav ei?

Megarian and Baconian,


;

corresponding to

letter in the

),

Boeot. a

' " '; <^< 8,


Thess.

and Boeotian,
of Philip's

is

found

Delph.

Se
later,

M.vaai^Vov, El.

' 4.

and rarely seen in dialect inscriptions, is the more genbetween the dative with verbs of rest and the accusative with verbs of motion, and the final supremacy of the accusative construction, as
eral confusion

. Much

3.

',

hy,

in the sight of, with accusative instead of genitive,


wo(r)

() -^
in Elean.

he shall he judged guilty in the eyes of Zeus.


inscription the

use of

76()
is

,
is

deov

feppev

,
=

'

7()

In a later Elean

same idea

expressed by

7{)
are concessions

where both the genitive construction and the


only a step removed from that of

instead of the genuine Elean

to Attic usage.

This Elean use


to,

7/09, in relation

with accusative.
ace. instead of gen., as avev<i

,^ 9 <,
4.

El. avevf;

= avev, with
=

5.

according

Locrian.

"
to,

with genitive instead of accusative, in


a,

()

, ()

102
6.

GREEK DIALECTS
eiri

[3
This

with the dative of the deceased person, in epitaphs.

occurs in a few early epitaphs in Lesbian, Phocian, and Locrian, but


is

especially

common

in Boeotian, e.g. eirl

.
7.

8
it

e/it,

eVt 'O/ci-

In most dialects the

name

of the deceased appears in the

nominative.

.
TLva,

In most dialects

is

obsolete.

In the phrase oi
occurs in Argive

which survives
;

also in Attic prose,

and Ehodian
it is

in Argive also once in purely local force.


ahoiit,

used freely in the meaning

with dative or accusative,


contend about a slave,
8.

e.g. ac Se

,
2)

concerning (as in Homer),

8\

about the division.


of,

In Cretan

if they

Besides the usual meanings instead

in return for,
of note.

which are found everywhere, the following uses are worthy


Attic and in a Delphian inscription.

1)

The

original local meaning, before, in front of, occurs in

So frequently Cret.

in the presence of witnesses.

From
etc.,

return for, with verbs of buying, selling,


tive use, e.g. Arc.

<

68e\o<i

fine of three obols for each (loagon).

1 A 4)

),
Cf.

is

probably /or each year, yearly

though generally taken


Hesych.
'

same year
night,
origin.
9.

(cf.

explained otherwise.

Coan

So Delph.
(cf.

,
<;.
(no.
is
. .

the use of

,in

an

arose a freer distribu-

one shall

pay a
(no.
*

as in course

)
is

Hesych.

of the year, in the

101.43), during the

though without distributive force


Hesych.

'

perhaps of the same

Si

4.
hk

An

extension of the regular use of e| (or

genitive to denote material and source,


sions of

with a crown worth 1000 drachmas,

misia

drachmas a medimnus, and even more

,'

ivith

amount

or value, e.g. Att.

hapeiKOiV

crown Maussolus with a crown worth


one worth thirty,

, ,
^

seen in certain expres-

Ion.

) ) ^,
.

and

with the

fifty darics, Arte-

Att.

barley 2^U7rhased at three


freely

Ther.

iy

138]

INFLECTION
iy

two of harley.
10.

,
(cf.

103

Noteworthy combinations are Thess.

Arc. 769 from eVt and e?

= e^

, ,, ),
lost

medimnus of wheat and


just lefore,

and

meaning /or

and on

occasion of, hence emphatic just for, in iiarticular for.

VERBS
Augment and Reduplication
137.

Most

peculiarities are

such as are due to divergence in the

form of contraction where a consonant has been

* ^, ^,
cf.

25), or in

Phoc.
after

XeXonra

,
1.

the treatment of consonant groups, as Att.

from

etc.

with original

initial

lou.

after

forms like

like Ion.

= Att.

Note

also Cret.

with which compare

Active Personal Endings 138.


-si) is

Second singular. The original primary ending


also in Epid.

preserved in Hom., Syrac.

so perhaps regularly in
of the

West Greek

, , ,' . , ,
or
(76
h),

{ \, ,
but Att.-

but

Ion., Epid.

Arg.

(55 a), Cret., El.

= <ye-

in all dialects.

-si (Skt.

and

dialects (inscriptional

examples

second singular

are, naturally,

very

intervocalic

being due to the analogy of

rare),

the retention of

But

in the East
etc.,

Greek

dialects,

where 3

sg.

became
nearly
all

(61.1),

^
is

with secondary ending, were employed.

Thematic
evidence of

<;

etc. in

dialects,,

but there
in

^^, probably due to


starting
is

(glosses of Hesych.)

Also ending

-,
-,

Homer

(,
88,

widely used in literary Lesbian and Doric, as in


etc.).

preserved in AVest Greek


See
61,1.

,
2.

Third singular.

,,
from

and Doric (Theocr. and gram.).

,,

the secondary

,
-ti

some

Cyprian

with the original perfect

The

original

8,

primary ending
etc.,

(Skt. -ti) is

whence East Greek

Thematic

etc. in all dialects.

104
3.
-??i06),

GREEK DIALECTS
First plural.

[l38

West Greek
See 223

-<;

originally the primary ending,


a.

East Greek -,
-vtl (Skt. -nti),

(cf.

8kt. -vias, Lat. -mtis

from

originally

the secondary ending.


4.

Third plural, primary. West Greek


Thus, hi thematic verbs,
(139.2), Arc.

-().

.
whence
Delph.
as Cret.
5.

^,

West Greek

Lesl).

See 61.1,

77.3.

So also in

Att.-Ion. etVt,

see 160)

a later formation, with -avn

stem, as also in Boeot. perf. hehoavdi.

In the perfect the earliest type

redupl. pres. dadhati), Avheuce also

dialects this is replaced

Late inscriptions of various dialects have also the secondary -av,

Third plural, secondary,

in the /u,i-forms, as eOev, eSov,

as in

Homer. Likewise

lar shortening),

sons), as

Delph.

But Attic-Ionic has eOeaav, eSoaav,


taken over from the
(163.:},1).

, , ,, . ., ,, ,
(- added
is

/it-verbs,

,
by

West Greek
But
Att.

Ion. (with the accent of contract forms,


etc.

Bt8ovai.

, , ,, ,,
(and Chian)
ivri,

East Greek

Boeot., Thess.

Att.-Ion.

SiSovrc,

represent
of the
5.

to the final

Cf. Boeot.

that in

-.

Weav etc.,
{-nti,

below,

Skt. -ati in

Hom.

-,

Arc.

Thus Phoc. [fo'\Xea. But

in

most

as Cret.

Att.-Ion.

-.

-v

(from

-nt) in

etc.

So also

which are retained

in

most

dialects,

pass. iXvOev, eXeyev (from

but also sometimes

-, with regu-

Hom.

Cret., Epir.

^,
(with

from the other per-

Corcyr.

etc.,

with

or

-aorist, as also
is

Similarly -v
or

forms like
(9.2),

Trapeiav

(),
by
-av,
cf. 7,

and

in Thessalian

-ev (an inherited


27), as

)]
Cypr.

where most

dialects

have

replaced by -av (also mainly after aorist


in Boeot. avedeav, avedeiav, avedtav

(from KareOeav,

cf. 9.3)

perhaps from

oveOeLKav), and, with diphthongal ai from ae,


i8(t)Kaiv,

(), ^,
ending seen in

Hom.

oveOeUaev (beside
(cf.

probably due to Thessalian influence, in a l)el])hian inscrip-

tion), also

once even in a thematic form,

139]
a.

INFLECTION
In the

105

optative, and such forms occur in late inscriptions of various dialects, e.g.

Boeot.
6.

Third dual, secondary.


Epid.

Boeot.

-, elsewhere -.
139.
1.

, ,

the ending

Delph.

.
(22).

spread even to thematic forms and to the

Att.-Ion.

-,

elsewhere
sg.

-,

e.g.

Similarly 1

mid. Att.-Ion.

Middle Personal Endings

Third singular.

Primary

-Tt (27).

Arcadian has

-tol (perhaps also

able),

due

to the influence of the

to -Tv), e.g.

'^,
-,

heaTOi,

and 3
2.

pi. -vtol is to

be assumed, though not quotable.

.
and
e.g.

-,

Boeot.

(26),

Thess.

Cyprian, but not quot-

secondary

(before its
sg. Keioi =

change

Cf. also 2

,
with

Secondary

Cypr.

Third plural. Usually

-vtul, -vto.

But

in the perfect

and pluperfect

after a

consonant

but also after a vowel in Boeotian

{-,

larly in Ionic in the perfect (e.g. H(.)m.

contracted

,
and

),

pluperfect,

optative,

,
also
:

-, -, mostly
(e.g.
;

^),
and so reguin unthe-

see below)

later elpeaTui,

and even

matic presents and imperfects,


to

8,

of TtOeuTai to

Boeotian and Thessalian liave


to the influence of

to the third plural active endings.

Middle.

(-),

from at
;

ing

near the Boeotian frontier,

, , ^,
cf.

Active.

, , ,, , -, -, and
in tliese endings, doubtless

.
=

and also 8vveaTai,

(witli suffix vd,

weak

va), after the

analogy

owing

from these the

was extended

Thus
etc.

Boeot.

(-,

aTreypa^avOo,

Thess. iyevovOo, eiXovOo,

(27)

and an added

(perhaps the active secondary end-

the double pluralization in the imv.


Indicative and subjunctive.
Thess.

-).

etc.

Boeot.

,,.
(pres. subj., 159).
etc.

Boeot.

8,

Imperative.
Stiris,

So also from the Phocian

lOG

GREEK DIALECTS
Imperative Active and Middle

[uo

140.

In the third plural

tlie

dialects exhibit the following types.


3

Observe the divergence between the active, where

the usual types, and the middle, Avhere the corresponding 3 h and
4
l

are rare, the usual type being 2


1.

The same form


Corcyr.

middle.

Coan
2.

a.

the secondary ending

, ,,
Thas.

h.

as the third singular.

-, formed

'.
-v.

7,
as in
is

Rare, and only in the

Calymn.

,
a and 4 a are
of

from the third singular by the addition

Homer,

in Ionic only.

corresponding thematic

4\ -,
l.

-.
a.

unknown.

dialects except Cretan.

,
3.
h.

(cf.

-,

etc.,
5).

the usual form in most dialects.

formed

after the

analogy of 3

pi. indie,

-.

etc.

in Arcadian, Boeotian

{-,

139.2),

and the Doric

,
Lesb.

Note. Later Doric


Conversely
beside

inscriptions often

-,

tlie later

Delphian inscriptions often have the general Doric which is the form of the earliest Deljihian.
Epid.

it is

-().
from

Lac.

(rather than under 1) Heracl.

-,

see 77.2.

But Corcyr.
etc.,

,^, ).
show the
Att.

beside

-.

For

and

so probably hero

(cf.

Coan

of later origin

possible to read
a.
3,

4.

and

phian, Elean, Cretan.


l.

-().
e.g.

5.

-, -,
= ovTov),

after the analogy of 3 pi.

Lesbian,
(e.g.

o8v

,, . - ,,,
-,
likewise early Att.
etc.,

and with

later treatment of

(77.3, 78),

comes from

and
l).

(4

with double pluralization, a combination of types 2


as in

Homer,

in Attic-Ionic, Del-

Early Att.

etc.. El.

probably from

(4 a),

(2 h)

with -ov

etc.

This

is

the regular type in

and Pamphylian
otherwise in the

and

also appears, probably


of Phaselis

through Pampliylian
is

influence, in

an inscription

which

PJiodian dialect, and in a Rhodian decree at Seleucia in Cdicia.

,
142]
6.

-, -,
300

INFLECTION
with

replaced by

(more rarely
B.C.,

etc.,

after about

hence in

), ,^
(cf.

107

138.5).

Att,

dialects.

Future and Aorist


141. " Doric future
" in

-.
Att.

Attic-Ionic
fined to the
dialects

(Hom. iaaeirai,

West Greek
;

dialects (examples in

and in Delphian
from

in Locrian

Thus, from the very numerous examples, Delph.

aeOvTi, Ther.

Doric

, , ,
Cret.
(t
e,

9),

Epid.

Coan, Cnid.

KOLvrj, see 278).

Heraclean has

ambiguous, but probably to be accented


third plural
since from the

, ,
type

,, ,
(with Att.

,
Except

later inscriptions of various

for a

few middle forms in


type
is

etc.), this

con-

most

of the

and Elean no futures

^, ,
occur).

Ehod.

, of

Doric

as often in the

ipja^rjrai, etc. (the active forms are

eaaovrai, apparently of the ordinary type,

we should expect
influence.

etc.),

but in the

(cf.

^).
seen in some
as a general

In

all

other Doric dialects, however, forms of the ordinary type are


clearly

late,

and

due to

142.

in the future
is

and

aorist of verbs in

-.

The extension
is

which

regular in the case of guttural stems, to other verbs in

-, which regularly have


beside

isolated examples even in

phenomenon
it is

part),

enced by

, , <, ,^, , , ' , .


it is

)
from

, (8, ),
Homer

and Hesiod

characteristic of the

almost universal except in Argolic, together with Boeotian

Cret.

,
(

Thessalian, and Arcadian. Thus, from the countless examples, Ther. SetTrviCoan Ehod.

Meg.

Corcyr.

in

forms of 12 verbs, but also

),

El.

see below, a), Delph.

, ,
Thess.

{, ().

as,

conversely,

But

West Greek

dialects,

where
(in

Ileracl.

probably influ-

(Locr.

Arc. irape-

108

But

in Argolic the

ceded, e.g. Arg. beside

, ,
82), e.g.

Boeotian has, fi'om different localities, both


eireaKeva^e,

,
{{/

similar extension of guttaral stems

, <
143.
A'owel.
is

forms, e.g. Ileracl.


Theocr.),

Cret.

,, , ,
=
Lac.

<,
(also

,.
formation
is

GREEK DIALECTS
avoided

[i42 a guttural pre-

ipydaaavro, Epid. ipyaaaaOai,

, ^.
and

^Att.

(=

iapeid^aaa, and

and especially the frequent abstracts in


(89.1), Corcyr.
Cret.

, ). , ',
Argol.,
]\Iess.

is

sometimes seen

in other

lit.

Dor. 6pvi$, gen.


Lesb.

-^is

-,

as Aetol.

, ,
(as

in

Locr.

in the future

and

aorist of verb-stems
of

ending in a short

The Homeric extension

an Aeolic

Boeot.

\<.
(Cret.

cliaracteristic.

Lesb.

[^\], 6<;,
from stems

from ireXea-aa to

\),

Other dialects may have

.
'
a.

ending in

or a dental, as

eriXeaaa or ehUaaaa (Boeot.


(82, 83),

'),

later

with one

144. Aorist in -a.


dialects.

Arc. part.

(e.g. Ion.

to

many

other verbs,
or

,,
elira

and

^, = ?,
Boeot.

,,
or

but always

,
(Ceos);
original,

in various

Lesb.

elsewhere

no. 2).

In late times this type

is

extended

e.g.

<;.
the form of most dialects except Attic,
(Chios), also

not

yjvtyKa, is

e.g. Ion. ^veiKa (Ilom., Ildt.),

Lesb., Delph., Argol., Calymn.

not

et)

usual aorist forms in

and

,,
145.

,
and 3

. ^, the
-.

,
in

latter

showing a fusion of

( probably

Future passive with active endings.


Ther.

^,

Ehod.

Cret.

<^\\,

with the

Archimedes. Although the inscrip-

tional examples are, as yet, confined to the Doric islands, it is not

improbable that this was a general Doric or West Greek characteristic.

147]

INFLECTION
Perfect

109

146.

1.

-perfect.

But there
gular, like
etc.,

are

some few forms without


beside

Hom.

e.g. Boeot.

pepvKovo
Arc.

[^]?, ['\\ (but

, , , ,' , , ).
This
is

usual for vowel stems in

all dialects.

outside the indicative sin-

?;

beside

<;,

part.

,^ , ,,
So

The gradual extension of the /c-type to other than original vowel stems is by no means confined to Attic (cf. e.g. Arc. and some verbs which usually have but also Att. the strong perfect show dialectic forms with a vowel stem and .

),
is

,
(cf.

8,

with usual eaha,

('), but Locr.


verbs in

pepaheKora, Ion., Epid.


the vowel stem which
etc.).

(also in Archim.),

present in

many
but

formed from
rerv-

Usual

in Boeot. hiea-

aeiXOeiKe (part.
2.

without

see above).
in various dialects.

Aspirated perfect.

Examples occur
where
it is

Even

in the case of the /c-perfect,

unknown

in Attic-Ionic,

the aspirate
3.

is

seen in Arg. 8[].

Cf.

In Heraclean occur 3

pi. indie,

due ultimately to the influence of the 3


after the analogy of 3 pi. pluperf.

^^, pi. aor.

in Sophron.

with
(cf.

probably
3
pi. perf.

also Dor.

),
?

from
(to

*'8-, whence
an
indie.
?).

and 3

pi. subj.

*elxa

Or formed
Cret.

to the fut. perf.

4.

Dialectic variations in the grade of the root (49) are not infree. g.

quent,

),
from
5.

,
see 138.4.
147.
optative,

= Att. = Att.
(so
;

Heracl. ippijyela
(cf.

from

',

<,

Dor.

etc.

(Hom.

= Att.

also, in

the middle, Heracl.

Arc.

Hdt.,

. .).

For the reduplication, see 137

for the third plural ending,

Thematic forms

in the perfect.

Aside from the subjunctive,


inflection,

and imperative, which regularly have thematic

we

find:

110
1.

GKEEK DIALECTS
Indicative.
Sicilian

[i47

Forms

inflected like presents are often

by the
KL,

Doric writers,

Epich. ^eyddeL, Arcliim.

,
e.g.
{-ev,

of

,, ,
2.

Cnidus and Carpathus,

e.g.

sionally elsewhere, as Phoc.


Infinitive.

Forms

, .
etc.

Theocr.

in -eiv
in

are found in Lesbian

and

some AVest Greek


<yyoveLv, Epid.

Delph.

Calymn., Nisyr.
dar

\8, Theocr. SeSvKeiv.


Participle.

Cf. also Heracl.

-.
3.

The thematic
Boeot.

^, 7,
Cf.

dialects, e.g. Lesb.

Hom.
a.

KeKXr}yovre<i.

,, ,
Ehod.

^,
from

/^, and some , and -) [TreTrovdei^,

employed

etc.)

occur in

inscriptions

yeyovei,

occa-

instead of -evaL

dialects, e.g. Lesb.

Cret.

\\.

'.,
So PinThess.
(146.1).

--

instead of simply

inflection is regular in the Aeolic

88
Att.

<), and
148.

in later Deljiliian (e. g. There are some feminine forms in elsewhere, but these represent a more restricted phenomenon,

quite independent of the preceding.

Cf. also

Hom.

The

participle in its regular (unthematic)

the feminine in

-.

But forms

and elsewhere,

e.g.

Heracl.

^,
Cypr.

in -ela are

Ther.

.
B.C.).

form usually has


late Attic

found in

Subjunctive
149.

The subjunctive

of

thematic forms.

The mood-sign

is

everywhere ^^, as in Attic.


in

~, not

-.

But the third singular sometimes ends So uniformly, from tlie earliest times, in ArcadoXe<ye,

Cyprian,

e.g.

Arc.

).

\,

(also

sg. fei-

Lesbian has earlier

century on nearly always -,


fourth century), but

/
a.

(=,

15), E})id.

',
more

-, but

from the

last quarter of the fourth


etc. in no.

e.g.

21

(first

half

etc. in no.

Coan

\.

22 (324

Cf. also El. e/c-

It is

the prevailing \\a\\ that these forms are not equivalent to the
original formation, in

Attic, but represent the

were added directly to the

(X^-s, '^xq-ij))^

without the

which the endings i, which is due to

151]

INFLECTION

111

But this is far from cei'tain, -et. coming from -. Even in the case of the Arc.-Cypr. forms there is nothing decisive against this, and it is distinctly more probable that the later Lesbian - comes from the earlier (in
the analogy of the indicative forms in
as
it is

-,

quite possible to view the

as

spite of the fact that in no. 22 the

is still

written in the datives). See 38.

150.

The subjunctive

of the

-aorist.

As

in the case of other


this was originally came to follow the

unthematic formations

(of.

Horn,

to

),
later

a short-vowel subjunctive in

more common long-vowel type


etc.,

short-vowel forms are found in East Ionic, Lesbian, Cretan, and

occasionally elsewhere.
Teos),

7)
beside

,,
beside
etc.
-et

%, and only
in
''^/^,

East Ion.

,,
(likewise,

Aside from Hom.

(no. 3,

from the

etc.,

further

-), Cliian
transcribed
beside
151.

(with Lesb.

extension to the thematic aorist) reKotai.

(hence the forms of the LawrCode are to be


-ei),

^,

not
etc.

Cf. also

Coan

The subjunctive

of

unthematic vowel stems.

, ,
77.3).

from

Cret.

,
(i.e.

-,

-aorist,

not

Lesb. (with

beside

Astyp. 86^ei.

There are two

distinct types.
1.

The endings

are added directly to the long vowel of the stem.


is

With very few


of
cially in the
indie.

which the corresponding indicative has the short vowel. So


middle,
Arc.
e.g.

Hom.
indie,

rat, Ther.

e\y]pvaL to indie. Epid.

aor. subj.

After the relation of

, , , ,, . , , .
exceptions, this type
Cret.

found only in those forms


espe-

beside
(cf.

beside indie,

Searoi

hearo), but also,

when

the indicative also has

a, Cret.

Further, in the active, Mess,


beside ivTi, Mess,

beside

(hence

also,

^),

beside indie,

beside indie,

to

e.g. Cret.

likewise in Elean, with loss of


(no. 61).

(59.;5),

,
etc.,

Del[)h.

but also Calymn.

there arose also an

Arc.

(no. 60),

112

GREEK DIALECTS

[151

2. The usual type is that in which the long vowel of the stem was followed by the short vowel subjunctive sign %, this being generally replaced by the more usual ^^ (ef. 150). Further change is

etc.

, ,, ,,, , ', ,), ^, , , ,


due
to the shortening, in the majority of dialects, of the long

stem vowel before the following Aowel

), )',

8],

Heracl.

with shortening Ion.

Similarly in the aorist passive,

dee, but

with shortening Ion.


Heracl.

,
Boeot.

(43).

Horn,

{Oeio-

(from
Att.

*),
Hom.
Att.

Delph.

;,
e),

Thess. Swaerat, but


(i

Cret.

^, '^,
Cret.

from

Boeot.

Arc.

(of.

Rhod.

etc.

Optative
152.
1.

Thematic.

Late Delph. 3

pi.

deXotv,

-ev replaced
2.

by

-v after the

analogy of
of

Unthematic.

The extension
is

to the plural, as often in

Ionic and late Attic,

seen in late Delph.

due to
3.

influence.

,
etc.
h.

,
from

etc.,

with

doubtless

Unthematic type in contract verbs.


-aorist.

See 157

4.

The
is

so-called

in Attic-Ionic,

seen in El. Kariapavaeie, later aheaXrahaie with


(as in

a from the indicative

at throughout, as Cret.

, , ,
the usual
Locr.
-ai).

AeoHc type

in

-,

-eie, -ecav,

common
have

But most
Arc.

dialects

etc.

Infinitive

153.
1.

The

infinitive of

thematic forms.

Att.
ei.

-eiv or

-, according as the -.
many

.
or
e
-|-

dialect has

e (25).

So Att.-Ion., Thess. (Thessaliotis), Locr.,


Lesb., EL, Lac.
2.
-ev.
?),

Corintli.,

Rhod.

-eiv,

but

So in Arcadian (but
Delphian, and
Coan,
etc.).

at Lycosura, near Elis),

Cyprian

(or -ev

of the

Doric dialects (Heracl., Argol.,

Cret., Ther.,

155]
3.

INFLECTION

113

Cret.

',

Some

of these dialects

have

evpoiKev (but also

tyna), Ther. Siolkcv,


154.
1.

Coan

,
-ev

even from verbs in


;

henrvev,

Calymn.

elvuL,

Arc.

.-.
2.

, .
-mi.

The

infinitive of

unthematic forms. Att.

,
e.g.

both types at Gor-

elvai.

So in Attic-Ionic and Arcado-Cyprian,


Cypr. hopevaL (probably -fevai, like

-),

So in Lesbian, as in Homer,

, ,,
Arg.
e.g. Att.-Ion.

-,

e.g.

3.

-.

etc. in

Thessalian, Boeotian, and nearly all the

West Greek
4.
5.

dialects.

-.
-.

Cret.
etc.

etc.

(but also

both types at Gortyna).

(probably formed from

after the analogy

of -eiv)

in Ehodes and vicinity (Carpathus, Telos) and the PJiodian

colonies (Phaselis in
also at

Pamphylia

Gela and Agrigentum, in Sicily

Rhegium
is

no. 100).

155.
1.

The

Interchange of thematic and unthematic types of

extended to thematic forms in Boeotian and Thessalian

(Pelasgiotis), as
e.g.

Boeot.

sometimes in
Thess.

'.
added

an early inscription of Lyttus.


2.

(Att.

^,
(i.e.

aorist passive infinitive,

Dor. y

), follows
etc.).

bian and Arcadian,


or

e.g. Lesb.

--

with

, ,,
Homer
(cf.

infinitive.

and

),
in

Cf. also Cret.

which

is

regularly unthematic

the thematic type in Lesetc..

Arc.

to the aor. pass, stem, or

- with

complete assimilation to
3.

as

matic type

, , -, (). , ).
In Lesbian the present
ends in
infinitive of

weU

as of the contract verbs,


(157),
-v,

unthematic vowel stems, which otherwise follow the unthe-

not

-,

e.g.

Once

,,, also aor. intin.

(but usually

as

4.

For the tliematic forms For Euboean

of

the perfect infinitive in various

dialects see 147.2.


5. etc.,

and even

beside

see 160.

,114
156.

GREEK DIALECTS

[156

The

infinitives in

and

-.

Thessalian (Larissa) has


etc.,

BeSoadeiv, eaaeadeiv, TreTrelaretv, kXeareiv,

with

-et

from

-at (27),

and

added

after the analogy of other infinitives.


(26).

Boeot.

-,
The

with

from ai

For

see 85.1.

Unthematic

Inflection of Contract

Verbs

the Aeolic inflection,

and

Kevra, Kvevaav, hiepoOvre^i (78),


in

, .
a.

157.

/it-infiection of
is

contract verbs, sometimes

known

as

characteristic of Lesbian, Thessalian,

Arcado-Cyprian,
evepyevreaai,

[]';, '?
e.g.

Lesb.

evepyere^ (78),

so perhaps always in Thessaliotis), Arc.

'' , , , (78),

(Sappho), Kokevrov, Karaypevrov,


Thess.

(but hv\opeovTO<i in no. 33,

an inscription

of

,
Cyrene
is

and

aht-

Cypr.

probably a

relic of

the pre-Doric (Achaean) element in Thera.

also quoted as Boeotian

by the grammarians, but the inscriptions


etc.).

, ^, , ), , , , , , , 8,
The stem ends
also,

show only the usual type


(though

{^
which
is

yut-forms are

in a long vowel,

regularly shortened before


in contrast to usual tvcp-

with analogical

Lesb.

vcVreaCTt I'tc,

and

like Att.

in contrast to

Thess.

luit is

otherwise retained throughout, e.g. Lesb.


Thess.

Tat,

,
I).

uncertain).

8, ^', 8,
like Horn,

Arc.

This type, then, follows the analogy of that seen in etc. rather than that of Tt^e/ACj/os,

with vowel-gradation.
of the long vowel

^,

from the singular

tract verbs, as in Att.

Ion.

. ,
The more
beside

limited extension of the

,, ^. ,
But even the
VA.

latter

sometimes shows an extension

,, ,
[7']\'\,
-) beside 8,

(no. 18.28, but reading

active, e.g. Lesb.

Cf. also tlie iniinitives El.

,8

,
of

yu,i-inflection to

etc., is

occasioually found (>lsewliere.

(=

Cret.

the optative of con-

Middle Participle in -
158.

The middle
if

participle in -ei/ievo? (or

-)
is

from verbs in

-, as

from --<; instead

--<},

characteristic of the

, , ., , .
161]

INFLECTION

Northwest Greek
Delpli.

dialects

and Boeotian,
etc.,

e.g.

Locr.
El.

,
Ka(S)8a\eet

115

Boeot.

<;.
(or
7;)

Tliis is

due to the analogy


as the infinitive
after

of

forms which regularly had


Cf.

from

e-e,

Phoc.

formed

a.

Lesb.

KaXr//i,evo5,

Arc.

^/,

etc.

do not belong here, but among


a.

the other ^t-forms of these dialects.

Type
159.

Forms

in

-, -, with

tenses extended to the present, are found in various dialects, e.g.


Lesh.

8\,
ence).

Thess.

Phoc. KXapoieLv, Boeot.

inscriptions of

Orchomenus, and probably due


Calymu.
here, but contraction

Ther., Eliod., etc.

and so belong
25
a).

, 8 , ,
the long-vowel stem of the other
(3 pi. subj.), Delph.

See 157

(only in late

to Aetolian influ-

may

be from

-,

from

-oet is also possible (cf.

Transfer of

Verbs to the Type

of Contract

Verbs

160.

The

transfer of certain forms of /Ai-verbs to the inflection

of contract verbs is

Delph.

With

Tidet etc. in

and the Euboean


side elvat.

p, 12 a)

phonetic development from

8 ,. , ,
Some Other Interchanges
in the Present

161.

1.

A^erbs in

, 8, , ^, 8, dialects, as Att.
is
,

found in various

iStSov,

8c8eovaa, but

most wide-spread

in Ionic.

Homer and

Herodotus, compare 8i8ot (Miletus)

infinitives

and even

elv be-

System

form their present in


beside aor.

in Elean, as

beside aor.

also (with

after

[],
2.

and

So also

an inscription

of Dodoiia.
-e/ri&),

This represents the normal

the usual

Ijeing

due

to the

influence of the other tenses.

Verbs in

show forms

in

in various dialects, but,

with
e.g.,

few exceptions, only where the

e is

followed by an o-vowel,

116

GREEK DIALECTS

aside from literary examples

), , <;
Theocr.

9.4)

and

rests

upon an actual phonetic change


But we may have
to

,
Delph.
(Att.

',

Locr.

also

(Agrig.), El.

,, , ', ), 4[i61
(as

Horn,

Alcm.

^),

(l)ut

Aetol.

lihod.

Cret. (with

from

e,

[^).
of

According to some this


eo,

ao to

the ao

()

in

Attic and elsewhere being a restoration due to leveling with the ae


forms.
type,
(in
all

do simply with a transfer to the

-
;

most

which was mainly favored where it offered uncontracted forms dialects eo was uncontracted until late, but ee contracted in

forms like Ehod.


a.

, -8 ,
El.

^,

Conversely Delph.
Boeot.

,,

Att., Ion., Heracl. Ion.

late), Cret.

Lac, Locr.

Delph.

(158).

, ^
for usual

the ov

is

an Attic substitution
seen in Meg.
(Att.

,
Phoc.

for eo).

is

.(.<:,

Rliod.

^^^,

162.

present stem,
1.

Among other, more individual, may be mentioned


:

cases of variation in the

= -00),

especially in AVest Greek.

(Delph.

intrans.

Delph., Rhod., Mess., Cret.

sometimes). Dor.
2.

. .
3.

- = -.
Cf. Cret.

Lesb.

(also Att.

-.

Delph., Arg., Meg., Cret., Ther.,

Boeot.

here.
5.
6.

, ,,,
=
4.

,
etc.

( , ).
= Att. =
=
Heracl.
in Epid. SieyeXa,

), {,

Boeot., Phoc.

Delph., Thess. aireXevOe-

(but also Ionic and Attic


Ar. Eq. 1225).

Thess., Dor.

Heracl.

, {)
*7,
=
(140.3

Sicil.

in

Coan

Arg.
it

Locr.

though

Boeot., Thess.
Aetol.,

Aetol.

Lac, Cret.

^, ,
= =

could be from

, '. ,
(subj.

from

,
=
159)

=
h).

Heracl.

probably belongs

with transfer to the

I'u-class.

l)ut

mostly in the perfect, as

beside other tenses from

163]
7.

INFLECTION
For Att.

Hom.
9.

, ,
(Boeot., Cret.
of the root.
8.

, )

from
as in

117
most
dialects

etc.,

have

Homer. These

are

from inherited by-forms


Xa'yaaai, like

Cret.

release (cf.

(also Delph.), aor.


(cf.

aor.

To

7,
Hesych.

7,

Xajaaaat

inform,

10. Cret. 11. Cypr. 12. Arc.

8 . , /,
), = ,,
aor.

, ,,
(cf.

() ^?,
like

^, '-),
sell,

aor.

14.3),

but also
a).

(cf.

^]^<, 142
etc.

(ovev,

),

Cretan has the active forms


eireXevaei, will bring

as

sometimes in Homer.
ereiaa

= >, formed to

(cf.

,,
Skt. saoiti,

etc.).

The Verb
163.
1.

to be

First singular present indicative.


or

, Thess. , elsewhere
2.

*, whence
76.
(cf.

Lesb.

See
^evri

Third plural present indicative,


sent),

Osc-

Umbr.
3.

whence, with substitution of

other forms,

West Greek

,
it
cf.

Att.-Ion.

Third singular imperfect,

(from

. *-,

e after

the analogy of the


61.1, 77.3.

See

cf. A'\^d.

Skt. as) is

attested for various


Epid.,
lit.

West Greek

dialects (Acarii., Corcyr., Delph.,

Doric), Boeotian (irapeh). Arcadian,

and Cyprian, and

is

probably the form in

all dialects (for Locr. ev, see no. 55.9,

note)

except Attic-Ionic, where


third plural (from
4.

was replaced by
Skt. dsan).

(Hom.
had

), the old
;5),

*,

Third plural imperfect.


of

Most

dialects

(see above,

examples
crian.

which are found

in literary Doric, Delphian,


see 138.5.

For Boeot.

irapelav, Att.-Ion.

, ,
5.
6.

Third singular imperative,


of
etc. after

, '
in

and Lo-

most
e.g.

dialects.

with

the analogy of

to

'.

But

late
El.

also with analogical

but with retention of


Arg. eVrw, Boeot.

',
e.g. in

Third plural imperative.

formed from 3
Delphian.
Ion.

pi. indie,

',

evri

Also thematic

Attic

and

late

, '.,
(139.2), Cret.

118
7.

GREEK DIALECTS
Tresent iufinitive.

[l63

The

difference in the form of the ending


of

(154)

and

also in the

great variety of forms, Attic-Ionic ehai (also Eiib. eh, 160), Arc.
Lesb.

,
8.

or

(25),

, , ,.
development
Thess.

nasal (76) explains the

"West Greek and Boeotian

et/iey

Rhod.

Cret.

Present participle,

in

most

dialects, Att.

But there

are also unthematic forms, as Heracl.

eWe?

(also

quoted from AlePlato Crat. 401 C),

man
Arc,
sail,

from

*VTe<;

with

e as in ivri,
cf.

(also in

some Doric writers;

Arg., Mess,

',

Cret.

,
=
at

above,

2),

fem. Lesb., Epid.

'

=
(all

from *aria

= Skt.

with the substitution or prefixing

of e after the

analogy of the

other forms).
a. This unthematic feminine formation in some forms quoted by Hesychius, namely

in

(^) = ,
9.

Middle forms,

at Delplii, 3 pi. subj.

',

10.

In a Cretan inscription

^.
as imperf.
of

() .
=

- ('),
are late.
(no.

(from -n(-h)

is

seen also

Cret.

etc.,

Cf.

sg. subj.

Andania.
113)

Dreros

we

find

4\

WORD-FORMATION
On
the

Form and Use

of Certain Suflixes

and Certain Peculiarities

of

164.
(this

1.

Ion.

Composition
^

= Att. -eio?.

tained in various dialects,

<;,
2.

centuation of these forms, see

, , ', ,
again in part from
cf.

-,

Att. -ei09 is in part derived

Boeot.

e.g. Ion.

Ion., Cret.

Ion., Lesb., Cret.

, ,
),
Delph.

Delph.

37.2.

Adjectives of the type

are

The feminine was


stem -uni;

originally -farux (like Skt. -vatl,


163.8), wdience,

cf.

with substitution

from the analogy


-[p)eaaa or
pe{a)aav,
as
poetical

of the

forms in

-pevT-, arose peTUi, this yielding

-[)
(Ar.),

(81).

Cf. Boeot.

Pamph.
in

/:{).
origin Ionic.

The genuine Attic forms have


(inscr.),

, . , from

which

is re-

Lesb.

Ion., Cret.

On

the ac-

from -pevr-

(Skt. -vant-).

from the weak


of e for

Corcyr.

those with

being

and

Most

adjectives of this type are

poetical only, except in substantive use especially the

names
a.

of places in
relic of

A
(cf.

hyphaeresis of
-opivTtoi.
3.

)
-9.

the
or

weak stem

o), in

/
-o'ei?,

numerous

for

which
is

see also 44.4.


seen in a few derivatives, as
^

-far-

(cf.

Avayvpovs)

from

-{)
or

(with

contrast to the nsual

-ovrtoi, -ovvtlol,

-,

-Ti9

See

61.;5.

of usual

-9 in Arg.

Boeot. ayopaaaLv, in

forms like are<yaaTO<i,


1

^, ^, '.
For
-|t9 see

142

a.

We

find

-< instead

Epid.
first

Troez.

which the

is

due to the influence

,
from
of

For convenience the form


stem.

of the nominative

is

cited, ratlier tlian that of

tlie

119

120
4.

GREEK DIALECTS
-/109,

[i64

-.

In most words
is

earlier dental,

Att.

,
Cret.
5.

.
;

which

(Pindar

especially

the older

,, < . ', , -also Delph.,


(65).

So for Att.

,,
see 142 a.
dialects

has replaced, by analogy, an

sometimes preserved, as in Horn.

we

find Dor.

Boeot.),

and Lac, Epid.

,^
(-),
Hes.

de-

Locr., El.

After the analogy of forms in


arose Arg.

-,
Eor
but

(-). As
prose.

a productive suffix of nouns of agency

has been very largely displaced by

most fully in Attic

are not infrec^uent in poetry, e.g.

so they occur also sometimes in the dialects, e.g. Locr.,

Delph.

Hom.
6.

have

-= -

, . 8.
(but in

As forms with Hom.

most

, ), , 8,
= usual

- (-)

like Att.-Ion.

Corcyr.

Cf. also

Cypr.

as Lesb.

but in most dialects


7.

- = -.

-, as
8.

ApoUonia and Epidamnus, and

,,
(-8),
The
parallel,

^, , ', ).
-. In
is

= usual

Pamph.

like

adjectives of material Lesbian and Thessalian


;

(which

not from -eo?

Boeot.

- may be
(cf.

or -eo?),

Tliess.

Hom.

\,

Hypocoristic proper names in -; 1/ instead of the usual


are very frequent in the Corinthian colonies of are occasionally found elsewhere.

-8, -8.

Patronymics in

-8, as

78,
in

are

most common in Boeotian, but are not infrequent

Phocian and

Euboean
ported.

while elsewhere they are rare and probably im-

but less common,

-8

is

attested for Boeo-

tian, Thessalian, Locrian,


9.

frequent.

, , )) , 78 , =^78, , *- ),
and Euboean.
Tliess.

Individual cases of dialectic variation in suffix are of course


So, for

example,

(cf.

al)ove, 6), Ion.

Locr.

Thess.

(l)ut also

Boeot., Epir.

(after

Thess.

(stem

---,

cf.

etc.)

Cret.

(also Sicil.

used, like Epid.

Tia, in the sense of

Cret.

(from

formed

166]

WORD-FORMATION

from
Att.

<; after the

analogy of

^^) = '.
but
165.
1.

8\^

-),

8\0

in other dialects, Delph.

-Tepof.

Noteworthy examples

denote contrasted relations (not merely those of degree as


comparatives), as in he^Lrepo^,
epaevairepo^i (for ai

as

, 7\8. 8

cf.

jepairepo'i,

(
2.

-8

forming adjectives from adverbs or adverbial phrases,

So

, . , (),
m
are Arc.

, ^

121

evdeo^,
(cf.

of the use of this sufhx to

the
El.

7\<;),

El.

7<;

(evBodtSiav
entrails
;

3.

-.

}?

jtyvo

8o\av household

slave), Epid.

so

Arist., Hipp.), Cret.

^
See
41.4.

Cret.

From words
paid, as
Ion.,

som, the suffix came to


or

means of release, hence ranbe used freely in words denoting reward


like

amount

reward of

victory, Epid.

per-

quisites
(of

for healing.
Cf.
?),

Coan reXearpa expenses of inatujuration


inaugurate), Cret.
Cret.
gifts
the three-

the priest.

Coan

(more specific
fold amount.

4. in nouns denoting Pamph. a(y)Bpuov),

-, (cf.

belong Heracl. of earth

, , . <, '
and, even from a numeral,
place, as
(Ion.

To

this large class

(i

9.0)

hurial-jjlace,

heap

from Halaesa),

This class

is

not to be confused with nouns of agency in Ion.

- but Dor.

etc.

-, -,

,
2.

166.

1.

Proper names in

are most

common

Phocian, and Aetolian.

the influence of hypocoristics in


(i.e.

<;,
siod), instead of

(formed after
usual Alo8oto<;,
also has

-, -, -)
-ea?.
cf.

-'

and Thessalian

Elsewhere such forms are rare and doubtless imported.

, , ^, , 8
in Thessalian, but also occur in P)oeotian,
is

. , -, -,
cow-shed, Ion.
ridge.

as Ion.

Dor.

instead of

-<;, as

a modification of

under

and

cf.

in

He-

are frequent in P)oeotian,

and

(60.4).

lectic.

, ,, ,,
122

GREEK DIALECTS
of diiferent

[i67

167.

The interchange

vowel stems in the


is

first

mem-

ber of a compound, or before a derivative suffix,

sometimes

dia-

Thus

etc.

in

most

dialects,

but Ion.

\<;,
(:<,

Cnid.

\<;, Ehod.

likewise Ehod.

with

inscriptions), Lesb.

< ( , 7, ?, ,- ,^ ,, ,
and
so related to

(* -()).

[* -(^))

Thess.

';
from

instead of usual

*-<;
from

(hvXo peovTO^i) from


as

\.<;.
Arc,

Locr., Thess.

(or poLKiaras:)

<;

*\to

for usual

from

is

the form used in Cretan, as sometimes

in

Homer). Ion.
Arc.

Cret., Epid.

for usual

Ion.

(Epic), Lac.
etc.).

from

?
Cret.
El.

(also Pindar), Cret.

etc.; cf.

Heracl.

as
(cf.

Late Att.

Locr., Phoc.
Cret.,

Chalced.

Carpath.

conversely

Astyp. BiexTO?)

Ehod.

7<?, Meg.

After the analogy of names containing inherited t-stems arose


also forms like

various dialects, Ehod.

Mel.
a.

ber of compounds, as in

as in

Att. avepWevTo<;.

of tlie

^/, - ^) , ., ,, ,
(cf.

Cyren.

Att.

. ^ ^,
like

8<;,
=

<;,

for usual

in an Attic inscription.
Iihod.

, , ). ,
(also in

(but Att.

some

Mess,

;,
=

= = 'AyeXao^.

'^, .7]
So Cret.

but

Meve/c/oa-

^^,

etc.

(cf.

in

Coan, Nisyr.,

Nisyr.

Tlie well-known lengthening of the initial -owel of the second


is

-,
Cret. Cf.

mem-

seen in Ton.

=
are

To

the analogy of forms like

<;, which

same kind,

is

due the

- of

share (cf. Ilesych.

--

<;)
Use

and Horn.
of a

<;.

in Euripides.

168.

patronymic adjective instead

of the genitive sinin literature,

gular of the

fatlier's

name. Though occasionally found

Hom.

this is the regular practice in prose

only in the three Aeolic dialects. Thus Lesb.


Thess.

, ,
168]

WORD-FORMATION
'AvTijoveio<;, Ni/coXao?

123

Boeot.

,^ /^ /^?, '^';
name
is itself

^.

<, '7-los,

. When
the genitiA'e

the father's
is

a patronymic form in -8as or


;

regularly employed in Boeotian

but later the adjective forms like


b.

'8,
Thus

so also in early Thessalian,

Tt/Aowt8aios are usual.

Under

influence the use of the adjective

was given up
There

in favor
is

of the ordinary genitive construction.

in Boeotian the genitive


is

usual after about 250 b.c. and occasionally found earlier.

some
See

evidence that the Plataeans adopted the Attic usage at an early date.
no. 42.

c. There are also examples in Thessalian and Boeotian of adjectives in agreement with appellatives, in place of a genitive of possession. Thess.

HoXvievata
d.

tive, as in

Vt

2^Vtat (gen.) tJie son of Nicias, the son NtKtatoi (dat.) is also a i)atronymic adjective, but in apposition of Caucus, where Avith the genitive implied in NtKiatot.

) ^, (sc.

),

etc.

See the following.


Boeot.

genitive

may

be used in apposition to that implied by the adjecipl (sc. 6

Hom.

e/xi

\^],

()[]
Lesb.

SYNTAX
169.

Although the syntax


it

of the dialects deserves fuller investithe.

gation than
dialects are
tion.

has received, yet syntactical differences between


less striking

much

than those

of

phonology and

inflec-

tion in

To a considerable extent they consist merely in the conservasome dialects of early forms of expression which have become
and in a
less strict formalization

rare or obsolete in literary Greek,


of usage.

Some

peculiarities
e.g.

have already been mentioned in conin the use of certain

nection with the forms,


131),

pronouns (121-

adverbs and conjunctions (132-134), and in the meaning and


It is necessary to
tlie

construction of prepositions (136).

add here only


moods.

a few comments on certain uses of the cases and


other,

Some

more

isolated, peculiarities are observed in the notes to the

inscriptions.

CASES
The Genitive
170.
is

Genitive of Time.

The genitive

of the 'time

within wliich'

especially frequent in the early Cretan inscriptions, although ev


is

with the dative


the article
is

already the more usual expression.

In both cases

used, while in late inscriptions


article.

we

find only ev
1.25

the dative and without the

Cf.

Law-Code,
1.6 ev

So in Locriau, but without the


povT

Aside from the adverbial phrases


tive of time
is

release witltin five days,

but

<;

article,

as also in early Attic inscriptions.


etc.,

most persistent in dating,

usual expression in most dialects.

(-)

eny decrees of various dialects, though eventually replaced in

by ev

'<
as
is

beside ev rpta-

.
etc.,

with

the use of the genithe

More noteworthy
connnon

is

the phrase

(-?) which

in the prox-

many

124

174]

SYNTAX

125

The genitive

also in Attic, e.g.

of

?
is

time

is

used distributively iu various dialects, as


uv
daily, beside

171.

Genitive of the flatter involved, in legal phraseology.


of the charge or penalty is

Al-

though the genitive


lects,

common

to all dia-

the genitive

nowhere

else

used so freely as in Cretan to


eXevdepo heKa

,
scribed

denote the matter involved,

e.g.

8\

irevre shall condcm.n hirji to

in the case of a freeman, five staters in the


decide as to the time, at

a fine of ten staters case of a slave, he


eypaTTat as
is ^:)re-

for each

case.

The Dative
172.

The adnominal
is

', 173.

Greek, and

especially frequent in the introduction to inscriptions

or their separate sections, e.g. El.

, <' ^/,
a
PIioc.

dative

is

more common than

in literary

paXeioL'^, Locr.

Boeot.

, 8.
is

Nt/ca/jerr/, Att.

For the dative instead

of the genitive construction

with various

prepositions in Arcado-Cyprian, see 136.1.

The Accusative

noteworthy accusative absolute construction


e

seen in
unless

Arc.

el

Three

the Fifty or the

Hundred
/xe

approve.

This

is

an extension from

instances where the participle agrees with the accusative of a pre-

ceding clause, as Arc.

.
as
is

el
.

Cf. also Arc.

prescribed in the case of those

who

conspire.

THE MOODS
The Subjunctive
174.

and temporal

The subjunctive without av or clauses, where the particle

in conditional, relative,
is

regularly employed in

126

GREEK DIALECTS

[174

Attic prose, though frequently omitted in

elsewhere (Kiilmer-Gerth

several dialects, though always as the less


Locr. al SeiXer
ples with
tilum),
at

in the
so,

,
same
av
et/c

Homer and sometimes

II,

pp. 426, 449, 474), is attested for

?
eU

common

construction,
;

(no. 55.7,26

ten exam(Co-

inscription), Arc. et Se

and

probably, Arc.

contrast to usual
(no. 19.25,81), ter

(see 134.2), Cypr.


e

Cret. dvyarpl
VI.l).

when one

gives

let

(no. 17.21) in
ot
. .

it to

the

daugh-

(Law-Code

Examples

are not infrequent in later Locrian,

Phocian, and Delphian inscriptions.

175.

In Elean the optative with


ea

tions, e.g.

hundred

years,

The Optative
is

the usual form of prescriplet

there he alliance

for a

each

pay a fine

of ten minae.
the

Similarly in Cyprian, but without

e.g.

king shall give.


is

The subjunctive without


Elean inscription
176.
1.

used in the same sense in a

late'

(no. 61.32,30).

The optative

in conditional clauses survives in several

dialects, although, except in Elean, it is

much

less frequent

than

the subjunctive, and indeed

is

almost wholly eliminated in favor of

the subjunctive in Attic-Ionic inscriptions, and in Lesbian, Thessalian,

Boeotian, Cyprian, Heraclean, Theran, Coan, Ehodian,

in

fact in the majority of dialects.

Where

the optative survives,

it is

sometimes used with a

still

recognizable differentiation from the

subjunctive, but oftener without such.

In the Gortynian Law-Code,

which
where
(e.g.

offers the fullest material, there are in conditional clauses

about 50 optatives to about 80 subjunctives.


tlie

Some

of these occur

contingency

is

obviously one more remotely anticipated

VII.9, hnt if there should not he

any free persons,


;

as contem-

plated in the precedmg subjunctive clauses


deny), others as

I.ll,

hut if one should

mere variants

of the subjunctive for parallel or


opt.

even identical contingencies

(e.g.

IX.18

subj. VI.25).

In

176]

SYNTAX
has the optative only
(cf.

127
also the relative clause

/ ), A
Locrian, no. 56
only.

also at


A 17, in
8'

whereas no. 56

and

no.

55 have the subjunctive

In Delphian, no. 51 has the subjunctive usually, but ai

'-

an oath, where Attic also would have the optative,

Co

(here indirect discourse),

and al
is of

Se tl

02,
occurrence.

CoO, Dl7; and in the numerous Phocian very frequent

and Delphian manumission decrees the optative

The

optative, beside the subjunctive, occurs also in


(e.g. no. 62).

Corcyraean, Achaean, and in the Northwest Greek

In Argolic, the archaic nos. 76 and 78 have the optative only, and
this occurs in

some

of the later inscriptions (but in no.

81 the opta-

tives are in indirect discourse).

In Arcadian, nos. 16 and 17 have

the subjunctive only, but in no. 18 there are some examples of the
optative.

Even
is

in the

same clause the alternation


e.g.

and optative
2.

not infrecpient,

or el

In relative and temporal clauses of future time, the predomiof the subjunctive is

.
Delph.
,

of subjunctive

el

8e

See also no. 18.6, note.

nance

Tean

curse, no. 3,
11.

where

6< with the


is

even more marked.


optative

Noteworthy
is

is

the

used in the curse

proper,

1-34, while in the postscript

warning against harming


11.

the stele on which the curse

inscribed,

3.5-40,

we

find 09

av

with the subjunctive.

There are a few examples

of the optative in

Cretan (Law-Code IV.14, and a few others), Locrian (see above),


Delphian, and elsewhere (see 177).
3.

But

in Elean the optative is uniformly

employed

in condi-

tional, relative,

and temporal

clauses.

For examples in conditional


In the later no. 60 the sub-

and

relative clauses, see nos. 57-59.

junctive also occurs, but with future perfect force.


4.

In

final clauses
.
.

eae<

,
. .

^<;
fi'.

the optative occurs,


. . .

e.g.

Heracl. Tab. 1.53

h<;
. . . ,

8fC.
,

Lesb. no. 22.13

7nXeaL

KUTaypevTov

<? Ke

ivoLev.

But

it is

very rare, and most dialects have only the

subjunctive with or without av


indicative.

(,

Ke), or

sometimes the future

128
177.

GREEK DIALECTS
There are some examples
of

[177
tlie

with

optative in conII,
. .

ditional clauses, etc., as

pp. 482, 453), e.g. Locr. al

he ['9]

VOLTO, Ach. '

,
,
Epid.
is

sometimes in
vyu) vlv

Homer (Kuhner-Gerth
(no. 50.4), Cret. at (no. 84.60),

eirei

^, , '
Corcyr.
Infinitive

Delph.

ei

ye-

airoSotev.

The Imperative and the


178.

Both the imperative and the


by
side in the

infinitive are freely used in

prescriptions, often side

same

insciiption.

In general

the infinitive
scriptions.

more frequent

in early, the imperative in later, inof the optative

For the Elean use

with the same

force,

see 175.

AVORD ORDER
179.

peculiarity of

word order which


in the phrase

is

worthy

the position of

<?

before

<;

of

mention
Se

is

This

is

the regular order in the

West Greek

not only with Att.-Ion.eai^


e

,
.

Lesb.

rt?,

dialects, as contrasted
et

but with Arc.

Thess.

()

B'av

<, Cypr.

Boeot.

Se

Boeotian has also, though less frequently, the

West Greek

order

SUMMARIES OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SEVERAL GROUPS AND DIALECTS


180.
to call attention to the

The following summaries, while not exhaustive, are intended most important characteristics of each group
These are indicated in the
briefest

and
the

dialect.

manner, sometimes
always to define, always
is

by a mere example,

sufficient to identify, but not

phenomenon

in question,

and these

brief indications are

to be interpreted in the light of the sections to

which reference

made
of the

in each case.

Of peculiarities in vocabulary only some few

most striking are mentioned.^


repetition,

To avoid needless
liar

many phenomena which


but are

are pecu-

from the standpoint

of Attic or Attic-Ionic,

common

to all or
1. 2.

most

of the other dialects, are usually omitted, e.g.

Original d unchanged. 8

from
from

,.

11.

41.1

12.
13. 14. 15. 16.
^=

3.

ae. 41.1

4.
5. 6. 7.

,, ,
Apocope

Absence

of z^-movable. 102

of prepositions. 95

TTo'Xios, etc. 109.1

acc.

17. 18.
19.

'<;
8. 9.

etc. 119.2,.5
154.;}

Infin.

-/Aet*.

3 ^9

pi. eOev,

ehov, etc. 138.5

20.

10.

,^^. .
=

= . 163.9 = ei 134.1 13 = 11 86.7 = 66 = 22 h aLop'y6<; = LopJ. 44.4

. .

. ^. .
49..")

li^a

r}i'.

163.3

21.

(xlossary

EAST GEEEK
Attic-Ionic
181.

Important characteristics

of Attic-Ionic (1-7 specific Att.-

lon., 8-9 in

common with Arc,


list

10 with Arc.-Cypr.)

exhaustive

of peculiarities Avould also iuolude proper


in,

names which

are peculiar to, or especially frequent

a given dialect.

129

130
1.

GREEK DIALECTS
from

[181

6.

e^eaav,
3

2.

Quantitative metathesis
etc.). 41.4,

(?

',
el.

etc. 138.5

7.

sg. iniperf. of

.
p.

163.3

43

8.
9.

Conjunction
Particle
ai^.

134.1

3.

v-movable. 102

134.2

4.
5.

, ',
182.

?7/, ace.

-ea<?,

-.

119.2,5

10. Iniin. -mi. 154.1 11.

etc. 132.1

Very

early loss of

50

Ionic

The

chief characteristics of Ionic, as

compared with
only (notably

Attic,
1,

are as follows.
8, 9, 14,

Some few

of these are Ipnic

also

20, 22),
all

but most are

indeed to

except Attic,

common to various other dialects, some bemg repeated here from 180 to bring

out the contrast with Attic more fully.


are not general Ionic, but are
Ionic, are included.

few peculiarities which

common

to all branches except

West

1.

from
ea, eo,

even after
eot

e, l, p.

14.
15.
1 6.

pi.

2.

usually uncon-

= Att.
Suffix -?709

3.

ev

4.

5. 6. 7.

^ ,,
Crasis of

tracted. 42.1,5,6

= Att. -<. 164.1


75 h
13.1

= 0, from IV cent. on. 42.5 o, (), , + = , = Att. as

17.
18.

--

19.

94.1

20.
etc.

' 8
t'po?

{<;)

beside

Att.

8.
9.

= Att. . 81 = Att. pp. 80 = Att. iav, .


-,

54 with a

21.

22.
23.
134.1 h

= Att. = Att. = Att. = Att. meaning =


Glossary

. .
163.8

etc. 139.2

te/jo'?.

. .
= Att.
160

-stems, gen. sg. m. -ew,

-,
24. 25.
26.

, .
135.7

^.

113.1

49.1

125.1

in

49.2

10. 11.
12.

-, -. 108.1

gen. pi.

-,

dat. pi.

-{).

41.4, 104.7

7roXt9, TToXios, etc. 109.1,2


-eos, etc. 111.3

,
t^u<>

Biop'y=Att.-opy.'4i.4:

() =
Att.

Ait. ear

27.

13. fit-verbs inflected like contracts, as

, ..
144

^.

11

Glossary

188]

SUMMARIES OF CHARACTERISTICS
is

131

183. East Ionic


1.

further characterized by
ao, eo

Psilosis. 57.

2.

av, ev

from fourth ceutury

ou. 33.

3.

Short-vowel subj. of
184.

Chian.

teristics,
1.

which are

pL

2.

Inflected cardinals,
also

Note
a.

, ,,
-aorist. 150.

The

dialect of Chios contains a

few special charac-

of Aeolic origin

8,

etc.,

with

from

77.3.

etc. 116.

call aloud, as in

The

Aeolic doubling of nasals (73


IleXivvatov in

mountain

Chios and the promontory "Apyewov opposite Chios,


in an inscription of Erythrae.

also in the personal

name

wise Aeolic
of a

is

the Phocaean Ztovv(atos), 19.1.

^
81

Homer.
seen in the

ff.) is

names

of the

Like-

All these features are relics

time when the line bet\Aeen the Aeolic and the Ionic colonies was far-

ther south than in the historical period.

185. Central Ionic differs


losis, etc. (183).

from East Ionic in the absence


i.e.

of psi-

Note

also the restricted use of H,

only

from

a, in the early inscriptions of

some

of tlie islands.

4.6.

186.

West

Ionic, or

Euboean,

differs

from the other divisions

of

Ionic as follows
1.

TT as in Attic, not pp as in Attic, not


5i

.
.

5.

2.
3.

^ .

80
^ei6.

etc. as in Attic,

not

-', gen. -.
Proper names in
Central Ion.

,, . ,
rovrei,

124

108.1

7.
-j]l,

-49,

gen. -<?,

4.

-ei,

-oi

from

-coi

(in

Ere-

as often in Attic (East

and

tria

about 400

B.C.).

39 a
8.

-).

109..5

elv beside elvai. 160

187. Eretrian.

In addition to the other Euboean peculiarities,


is

the dialect of Eretria, seen in inscriptions of Eretria and Oropus,


specifically characterized

=
188.

due to Attic influence.


Attic influence.
Ionic was the
first of all

by the rhotacism

of intervocalic

as
is

60..3.

The use

of

av (Oropus), iav (Eretria)

dialects to yield

to Attic influence,

and

after the fifth century there are

few inscrip-

tions that are wholly free

from Attic forms.

See 277.

132

GREEK DIALECTS
Arcado-Cyprian
1

[189

189.
1.

Special characteristics of Arcado-Cyprian


iv.

^
:

iv

10

5.

= rt?

(but Arc. usu-

2.
3.

4.

?= =
190.
Infin.

Gen.

sg.

-.

22
6.

ally

).

68.3

7/>'?. 135.6

Off

= ohe.

(but Arc. usually


134.3

7. 8.

Dat. with

).

-< =
e?

, -'.
123
before

e|, etc.

136

49.2
\'arious

Characteristics
(1

other dialects
1.

m -.

2.
3.

=
6v (uv)

.
154.1

common

to

Arcado-Cyprian and
AeoL, 7 N. W.Grk.)
i
:

Att.-Ion., 2 Ion., 3-0


9.

cons.

(l)ut

75 h
10.

^ypi" ^^^o e|). 100

22

Masc.

-stems, ace. sg.


sg.-?;).

4.
5.
6.

= am.

6,

22
11.

(Arc. also voc.


te/3i^9

108.2

op

ap. 5 of contract vbs. 157

= ie/3eU9, etc. (but usual


-779,

/Lti-inilect.

only in Arc). 111.4


12.

7.

iv {iv)

= ek.

135.4
ec,

Subj.

-. 149

8.

,
191.

spurious

. 25

13. Article as relative. 126

Noteworthy

ings

which

poetical,
1)

In Arcadian and Cyprian,


jn^aye?' or imprecation.

alone,
2)

In Arcadian,

number of words or meanknown only, or with rare exceptions, as mainly Homeric. Some of the most strikmg examples are
is

the considerable

are otherwise

share (also Lac), o2(f)o^

temple,
3)

(but see no. 16.21, note).

In Cyprian,

<^< (also Lesb.


on (Hom.

,,,'
possibly Thess.

,,

sttmmon,

meadow,

\^'\),
134..')).

graze), cBe, vv (also Boeot.

road,

Ijarrjp,

hoi'der

1 Several of the characteristics cited below under the head of Arcadian or of Cyprian, for wliich corresponding forms are kicking or ambiguous in tlie otlier dialect, probably are also Arcado-Cyprian. See also 199. 2 In this and sindlar captions ".special" is not to be taken too rigorou.sly. Some few peculiarities of Avhicli occasional examples are found elsewhere are included, e. g., in this section, Iv = which is regularly found only in Arcado-

Cyprian, but of which there are a few examples elsewhere.

195]

SUMMARIES OF CHAEACTEKISTICS
Arcadian

133

192. Arcado-Cyprian characteristics.

See 189-191.
(1,

193.
Lesb., 5
1.

In

common with
6, 14,
el.

various other dialects

2 Att.-Ion., 3, 4

AeoL,

15

West Greek)
12. Infin.
13.
-ev.

Conjunction

2.

3.

4.
5.
6.

7.

^
=
Pass, infin.

Particle av. 134.2

-. () =
80

. .
etc.

134.1

153.2

pi.

imv.

-.

140.3

14.

155.2
135. -j

the latter). 61.G


15.

142

16.

.
inscr.

(but also

49.3

until. 132.9

17. Peculiarities in the use of

8.
9.

etc. 77.3

the spiritus asper.


sg. part.

Ace.

pi. -09,

nom.
78

18.

/ in early

5Sa,d initially and


lost beinitially

<}.
10. Dat. sg.
11.
-ot.

after cons.,

but
;

106.2

tween vowels

Subj. Sedrot etc. 151.1

tillaboutoOOB.C. 52,53,54

194.
1.

Special Arcadian
sg.

Gen.
3 pL

fem.-au(Tegea). 104.2
77.3

2.

-.

3. 4. 5.

= -. = Se/ca, Se/co, heKOTov


3 sg. mid. -Tot

Numerals

6.

. ' .
=

in

. . '. 8.
9.

7.

= 22, 95 = irXeov. 113.2


134.2 a

.
=

139.1

elK

10.

= -/co-

11. 12.

117.2

123

^.
=
68.1

144

49.1,

61.5

195. External influence in the dialect.

The

fact that

and

agreeing with Cyprian, are found only in one early inscription

(no. 16),

while

all

others have

and

is

probably due to exSee 275.

ternal influence, though not specifically Attic.

The Tegean
sg.

building inscription (no. 18) of the third century shows some few

Attic

forms, as irXe'ov instead of

once gen.

-,

etc.

From
dian

the latter part of the third century on,

when

the chief Arca-

cities

belonged to the Achaean, and for a time to the Aetolian,


is

League, the language employed in most of the inscriptions

neither

184
Arcadian nor Attic
Kotvrj.

GREEK DIALECTS
of

[i95

but the Doric, or in part Northwest Greek,

See 279.
B.C.,

But the decree


dialect.

Megalopolis

(I)itt. Syll.

258) of

about 200

though showing a remarkable mixture

of forms, is

mainly in the native

Cyprian
196. Arcado-Cyprian characteristics.
197.
1.
i

See 189-191.

In
e

common with

various other dialects


7.

from

before vowels. 9.3

Dat. sg.-o,-abeside-oi,-at. 38

2.

Glide sound after


as Ijarepav. 56

3.

=
Psilosis.
Trettrei
^

.
57
-TL

expressed,

8.
9.

Ace.

\,
3
pi.

sg. t/are/aav etc. 107.1

-epos. 111.1

74 i

10. 11.

/care^ijav. 138.5
av. 134.2
,

4.
5. 6.

kc

= reiaei. 68.1,2 12. f in all positions. 52-55 Occasional omission of intervoc. and final . 59.4
Special Cyprian
sg. -ov. 106.1
6.
7.

198.
1.

Gen.

wai indeed.
e

132..5

2.
3.

etc. 109.4

= et.

sg.

mid.

= -TO.

22

8.
9.

Suf

4.
5.

= ya, etc. 62.4 = eVi'. 135.8


199.
It is

,8
134.1
-os in

ppera,

= 88.
55

162.11

uncertain whether the infinitive should be transcribed with


-05, -os,

-ev

or -v, the accusative plural with


to the contrary,

or -o(v)?.

In the absence of

any evidence
cadian.

we assume

-cv

and

agreement with Ar-

But the dative singular is to be transcribed -01, in spite of Arc. -01, on account of the frequent omission of the final (38); and the third plural ending is transcril)ed with -, not -(v)at, in spite of Arc. -/, on account
of

(59.4).

200. All dialectic inscriptions are in the Cyprian syllabary.


inscriptions in

The the Greek alphabet, beginning with the Macedonian

period, are all in the


1

Given under
to

tian, althougli this

phenomenon

head because of the agreement with Thcssalian and Boeoagreement is accidental, Cyprian not shariuj; in the general wliich tlie Thessalian and Boeotian forms belong.
this

205]

SUMMARIES OF CHARACTERISTICS
Aeolic

135

201. Aeolic characteristics,

common

to Lesbian, Thessalian,i

and

Boeotian (6 also Delpli. etc., 7 also Arc.-Cypr., 8 also Arc.)


1.

Labial instead of dental in

4.
5. 6.

= irevre,
2.
3.

etc. 68.2

pe

= = pi.

Perf. act. part. -/, -01^x09. 147.3

Dat.

pi.

Patron, adj. instead of gen.


of father's

sg.

7. 8.

po

name. 168

= pa, Sepa- =

' -.
114.1

18

etc. 107.3

etc. 5

49.2
^

202. Aeolic characteristics,


(4-7 also Arc.-Cypr.)
1.

common
in

to Lesbian

and Thessalian

Double liquids and nasals


etc.

2.

, ' (')=. Glos77.1, 79

,
etc.

4.

/At-inflection of contract verbs.

74-76,
5.
6.

157

6=
/ce

= =

. .
6

22

sary
3.

7.
i

134.2

203. Aeolic characteristics,


also
1.

Arc,
3

from

before vowels. 19

common

to Lesbian

and Boeotian

(2

Cret., etc.)

143

2.

.
^

135.5

204. Characteristics
{of

common
1,

to Thessalian
is

and Boeotian only

which, however, only

which

Homeric, belongs to the Aeolic

elements of these dialects)


1.

Infin.

16

etc. 155.1

5. 6.

^<;.
eXef e

166.2

2.

3.

et

4.

^ <^.
pi. -vQt etc.

139.2

= elire

in

the

official

=.

language
162.")

of decrees.

Lesbian 205. Aeolic characteristics in

common with

one or both of the

other Aeolic dialects.


1

See 201-203.
See 214.

In some cases only East Thessalian (Pelasgiotis).

13G
206.
1.
77,

GREEK DIALECTS
In

[20
(8, 9

common with various


ei,

other dialects
7.

with Arcadian)

= spurious
-d,

ov.

25

Article as relative. 126


Infin.

2.

Final

-, - =
57

-di,

-, -,

8. 9.

-.
=

153.1

3.

4.
5. 6.

,
Psilosis.

from end IV

cent. on. 38

10. Pass, infin,


104.7, 106.4

Dat.

pi.

-^,-^.

11.
12.

-,

^
pi.

Perf. infin.

^;.
f.

-. -.

147.2 155.2

etc. 111.1

Early loss of
etc. 108.2

50

Masc.
207.

-stems, ace. sg.

-,

gen. sg.

-,

Special Lesbian

i.

,
'=
OTTC,

from

2. 3.

?,

4.
5.

. , ,
vi,

(1
pi.

in part Elean)

as ace.

6.

Infin.

pi.

77.3,78

7. 8.
9.

Infin.

etc.

17

imv.

,-; -.
/ce/9i/ai',

etc. 154.2
etc. 155.3

140.5

etc.

35

ore. 132.9
etc. 129.2

10.

'?
in the

Recessive accent. 103


(rarely Att.)

= 7r/3v-

ravif. Glossary

208. External influence in the dialect.

period on

and very few


ore beside
in inscriptions

From

the Macedonian

of the inscriptions are earlier

there

is

usually some admixture of


side

forms, as
etc.

beside

6v,

be-

But

main the

dialect is

employed
tury
B.C.

till

about the middle of the second cen-

Its use in inscriptions of

Roman imperial times

(cf.

no. 24)

represents an artificial revival.

See 280.

Thessalian

209. Aeolic characteristics in

common with

other Aeolic dialects.


210.

See 201, 202.

West Greek and Northwest Greek


and
226.1,4,8):

223.1,2,4,0,
1.

Retention of
(-Tt

2,

. ,.
from
-VTi),

not quotable, but

, ', etc.

in

3.

4.
5.
6.

^
= =

one or both of the

characteristics

(cf.

beside

.
etc.

142
13.1

135.4
(rare). 85.1

61

116

7.

at, toith

with

ace. 136.3

213]
211. In

SUMMARIES OF CHARACTERISTICS
common with
e Ijefore
e).

137

1.

from

'
67

various other dialects


(but
9.

Psilosis in article. 58
iuit. till

a
B.C.
a. 41.4

oftener
2.

9.7

10.
-ei

about 400

Final

-a,

-ov

(from -),

11.

Gen. sg.-do, usually

(from
3.

) = -de, -, -.
78

38

12.

Gen.
41.4

pi. -aovv,

usually -av.

e?

= e|

before cons. 100


etc. 77.3

4.
5.
6.

13.

\,
8<;.

-ctos, etc. 111.1

Ace.

pi. -09.

TT

7. 8.

'?
=

= 7.

86.2

beside

14. Plural inflection of

as

114.2

15. Ni/co/cXcas etc. 166.1


16. Article as relative. 126

. 84
In

212. 213.
1.

common with

Boeotian only.

See 204.

Special Thessalian:

ov

=.

23

11. 6v (rove,

2. 3.

Gen.sg.-oi(butsee214). 106.1

,
=

etc.)

123
12.

(but see 214). 68.4

Relative use of
131

,
132.0

4.

More extensive apocope than in any other dialect, namely in


ov,

5.

Consonant-doubling in

,
6.

, . 09, 8,
7,
etc. 19.3

, 7, ,
95

13. 14. 15.


16.

Trep,

etc.

". ^? .
78
68.2

.
49.3

134.1

Sl

7.

3 pi.

,,
Sta. 7

17.
18.

etc. 138.5
8.

3 sg. mid.

Larissa only. 27
9.

pi.

mid.

Larissa only. 27, 139.2


10. Infin.
etc.

only. 27, 156

^ '

ehovKtiiM,

19.

= hav'xya =

20. 21.

= 164.9 = ajopa onarket-place {d'yopa being =

. . . .
68.4

= = =

65,

75

164.6,9

etc.

22.

often used in place of

Larissa

23.

'

()

as title of a state or
official

municipal

138
214. Differences

GREEK DIALECTS
within Thessalian.
is

[214
of

The form

Thessalian

which

is

best

known

that of Pelasgiotis, represented mainly

by

inscriptions of Larissa,
(213.8-10),

which show some

special local peculiarities dialect of Thessaliotis,

Crannon, and Phalanna.^

The

represented mainly by inscriptions of Pharsalus and Cierium, differs

from that
not
-e^ev.

of Thessaliotis

two important

respects, 1) gen, sg.

of o-stems in
-eiv,

-,

-,
The
not

not

-ol,

2) pres. infin. of thematic verbs in -ev,

early inscription, no. 33, from

Thetonium

in

the neighborhood of Cierium, shows, in addition to these two points

)
find

of difference, xi?

/ci<?,

dat. pi. of

consonant stems in

(xpe-

not -eaat (as at Pharsalus as well as in Pelasgiotis), hvX5-

not

-,

uncontracted gen.

sg.

in -ao, gen. sg. of father's

name

instead of patronymic adjective (?see no. 33.1, note).


-ot, -ai,

Late

inscriptions of Cierium have dat. sg.

thougli at Pharsalus

we

-,
on

-a, just as

in Pelasgiotis,

and in
* in

points to

84

beside

-ai,

-. On see 81 .

()8,
An

no.

33 iu raya beside iv
no. 33, see

From Histiaeotis and Perrhaebia the material is very scanty. From Magnesia there are a few fragmentary archaic inscriptions,
but most are late and in the Attic
Phthiotis
clusively,

(.<;

what was only natural to expect, that its dialect was also Thessalian. But nearly all the inscriptions date from the period of
Aetolian domination and are in the Northwest Greek
(279).

. "

early inscription of

IG. IX.ii.l99) shows con-

Many

of the characteristics cited in the preceding sections are

as yet attested only in the inscriptions of Pelasgiotis, but, except

where there

is

evidence to the contrary as stated,

it is

to be as-

sumed

provisionally that they are general Thessalian.

For the
forms
B.C.,

points of agreement are

more pronounced than

the differences.

215. External influence in the dialect.

Occasional

appear in the inscriptions of the third and second centuries


especially
irepi,

,,

,,

gen. sg. instead of patronymic

1 Keally in Perrhaebia, so far as tliis was recognized as a distinct division of Thessaly, but in the part near Pelasgiotis.

219]
adjective,

SUMMARIES OF CHARACTERISTICS
(not
ei),

139
dialect as a

'^

(nut

^),

etc.

But the
end

whole

is

employed
B.C.

in inscriptions until about the


later.

of the

second

century

and occasionally

Boeotian

216. Aeolic characteristics in

common with

one or both of the

other Aeolic dialects.


217.

See 201, 203.

West Greek and Northwest Greek


and
226.1,2,8):
7.

223.1-10,
1.

2. 3.

fiKOLTi

',=
tt).

fLKaTL, etc. 61
ecKoai. 116
etc.

with a

8.
9.

116 a, 117

4.

eireaKevai^e etc. (but oftener

10.

".
. ,{.. =
= , =
el<i.

characteristics

(cf.

=".
13.3

13.2

5.
6.

,
t

142
=^ ol, al.

11.

iv

.
21

114.1 132.2

135.4

122

12. 13.
at,

0/.^09. 158

'/9
218.

=
In

ie/009.

13.1

with w. ace. 136.2


(20,

common with
e

various other dialects

mainly

Boeotian)
1.

from

before

2. 3.

spurious

ov.

rr in TT in
etc.

4.

<;,
82

5.
6.

,
9

= C 84 initial = e'f before cons,


220.1). 100

7.

irptayev'i

8.

f between vowels

.
till

, , ,, ^.
25
9.2

11. Dat.

sg.

-ai

(-),

-ol

(-v).

104.3, 106.2

etc.

81

12.

-ios, etc. 111.1


etc.

13.

121.4

14.
15.

etc.

122

(see also

pi.

aveOeav, avSiav, etc.

68.1

16.

.-(-).
60;$

138.5

140.3

about about

17. Perf.

450
9.

B.C.; initial till

200B.C. 50,53

18.

()
out

146.1

Nom.

sg.

m. -a beside

-.
in

etc.,

with-

163.6

19.

etc. 166.1

105.1

20. Consonant-doubling in hypo]>1.

10. Gen. sg.


-do,

m. and gen.
(but

coristics.

89..")

). 41.1

21.

Patronymics in -^?. 164.8


See 204.

219.

In

common with

Thessalian only.

140

GREEK DIALECTS
(221) also belong here

[220

220. Special Boeotian.

system
1.

2.
8.

'? <;, ,
ia<;

before vowels. 100


69.1
etc.

Most

of the peculiarities of the

4.
5. 6.

rjveyKav. 144 a

124

Hypocoristics in

.
-et.

\175

108.2

221.

The Boeotian vowel-system. The most

striking

and obvious
peculiarity

characteristic of Boeotian lies in its vowel-system.

One

consists merely in the retention of the original sound,


of V as u.

namely that
ov,

But even

this led to a

change in spelling to
Attic value of
ii

while

on the other hand the


diphthong

with

its

as a basis
o,

used to indicate approximately the sound, probably


oi

was which the


peculiari-

had come
changes

to have.

See 24, 30.

The other

ties consist in

of

diphthongs to monophthongs and of more


as eventually prevailed

open to closer vowels, such


led to the

everywhere and

Modern Greek pronunciation.

The

chief orthographical peculiarities, with the approximate date

of their introduction, are as follows


L

=e
L.

before vowels.
L,

9.2.

Accent. B.C. (in the epichoric alphabet

, ei,

l)

= =. =. 01 = V. lov = v. v = OL. et = OL.


L

29. 26.
16.

V cent.
" " "
"

B.C. (in
B.C.

the epichoric alphabet

i,

et,

h)

About 400
"

"

24. 24.

30. 30.

350 300 250

"
" "

(but great inconsistency in the spelling.

=v
till

and

oi

= ol

also fre-

quent
(rare)

near end of III cent.)

II cent.

"

222. External influence.

in the Aetolian League, there are

Northwest Greek

.
of

Although Boeotia was


are

for a short

time

no Boeotian inscriptions in the

But there

some
and

the dative plural of consonant stems in

-,

and the appearance


(159) in

(85.1)

^ 8<; 8,
as
is

scattered examples of
(atyoi';) etc.,

some

late inscriptions of

Orchomenos

also probably

due

to Aetolian influence.

The

influence of the Attic


tlie

siderable toward the end of

third century B.C., and


in

tions or portions of inscriptions are wholly

becomes con-

some

inscrip-

e.g.

the formal

224]

SUMMAKIES OF CHAEACTERISTICS
But most

141
of the

contract in the Nicareta inscription (no. 43.VI).

inscriptions are substantially dialectic until the second half of the

second century

B.C.

223.
1.

'
ot,

WEST GREEK
etc.

General West Greek characteristics


Retention of

2.
3.

() = . = -.
116 with
etc.

(Cret.Tropri), YloreLand the hundreds in in hav, TV, and some other words which show the change to in the East Greek dialects. 61
12.

-,
13.
14.

in the verb-endings

-tl, -vtl,

in pi-

=
Fut.

,
=
=

etc. 132.7

etc. 138.3

4.

5.

,
,
=

116 fi, 117.2


etc.

-'.

But
with

restricted in

But

restricted

in Argolic. 142

,.

15. Fut. pass,

But Cretan
16. 17.

122
=: lepo<^. 13.1

6. 7.

"<; =
Cretan

(')
=

8.
9.

10. oTTCi
11.

,,, . ,
etc. 132.6

"Apre/ii?.

But
IS.

.
Heraclean. 141
145
act.

endings.
114.4

rerope<i

<.

116

"A/are/it?. 13.2

ya. 13.3

19.

e/xe'o?

114.1

20.
21.

etc. 132.2

= , etc. llS.4:h = e/^oi), etc. 118.3 5 = 61.6 = 49.3

22.

Word-order

. .

179

.
it is

Although only a part

of these characteristics are actually quotable

from every one

of the West Greek dialects, some indeed from only a few, probable that, except for the divergence of Cretan in 5 and 7, they were common to all, and that the absence of examples in any dialect is accidental. Thus, forms like are attested for Phocian and most of the Doric dialects, but there is no occurrence of a first plural form in Lo-

<;

Rhodian only from the time when had been introduced from the just as it was at Delphi before the end of the fourth century b. c. The early substitution of the forms of the numerals and the rare occurrence of the personal pronouns in inscriptions, account for the incomplete rei)resentation of 2, 3, 16-19.
crian and Elean, and in
1).

The

first

also Thessaliun (210),

ten of these characteristics are also Boeotian (217), several and a few also Arcadian.

224. There are various other

phenomena wliich

are

common to the

West Greek

dialects,

but are not confined to them even in the widest

appHcatiou of the term. Several of those mentioned in 180 are often

142

GREEK DIALECTS
= el, ?}? =

casually referred to as " Doric," e.g. ai

,
that

eOev,

,
[224
a).
;

but none of them has any claim to be regarded as specifically

AVest Greek, with the possible exception of


a.

from ae

(41.1

with

Even

of the peculiarities cited in 223 some consist merely in the reten\\

tion of the original forms


Tot, Tttt'or

hich must have been universal at one time

pron. datives like

and

still

existed in East Greek in the his-

torical period is

may prove

to

shown by their appearance in Homer. Some others also is, so far as we know, be of wider scojje, e.g. ottcl, since
But
so far as the present evidence of inscriptions goes,

only Attic-Ionic.

the peculiarities given in 223 are distinctly characteristic of

225.
is

The declension
to

of

nouns in

-eu?

with gen.

sg.

West Greek.
ace. sg.

common

Delphian and the majority, but not

dialects.

See 113.3.

The

pi.

im^

all,

of the

is

common

dialects except Cretan, but the distribution of

= =

to all the Doric

and

e.g.
(72).

Doric

does

not coincide at
140.3,4.

all

with the East and West Greek divisions.

See

There are various peculiarities wdiich are AVest Greek in a

limited sense, but demonstrably not general

West Greek,

= <;
use of
of

(125.1),
(49.3),

(121.4),

- = -' ',
The

=
(162.1,3,4) is

(Glossary),

,^
=

in certain verbs (162.1), of

AVest Greek, but

how

wide-spread

,
.
ace.

(133.1),

The and
is

not yet clear.

NoRTH^vEST Greek
226.
chief

characteristics of

Northwest Greek

as distin-

guished from Doric, including however some which are not com-

mon
1.

to all the dialects of this

group and some wliich are not

strictly confined to

them, are
Boeot.,
135.4
6.

iv

= ek.

Also Thess., and Arc.-Cypr. (tV).


etc. (El.

ttuvtois

etc., dat. pi.

But

in

2.

-^).
7.

Also Boeot. 158


3.

etc.

But
85.1

rare in Delph.

Delph. only late and due to the N.AV.Grk. 107.3 reVopes etc., ace. pi. El.,Ach., but not Locr., and rare in
Deli)h. 107.4
at,

12
4.
5.

VT, Delpli. hevre

= '. No

8.

with w.

Also

Booot., Thess., Meg., Lac.


136.2

example in

El. 135.4

231]
a.

SUMMAKIES OF CHAEACTERISTICS

143

less definitely

There are various other peculiarities the scope of which coincides even with the Northwest Greek dialects proper, but the spread of

vhich in the northern part of Greece is noticeable, e.g. masc. -stems with nom. sg. -d, gen. sg. -as (105.1, 2 i) patronymics in or-ov8as (164.8), proper names in (166.1). Note also the peculiarities common to Boeotian and Thessalian only (204), most of which are not Aeolic.

-?

Phocian (Delphian)
227.
228.

West Greek

characteristics.

See 223-225. See 226.

Northwest Greek
:

characteristics.

229.
107.3,

AeoHc elements in Here also, perhaps, the words


(also Horn.)
Sect).

poetical),

Horn.)

,
all

the earlier inscriptions.


(also Thess., Cypr., (also Boeot.

and and

230. Other characteristics, mostly in


dialects
1.

initial till

about 400

B.C.;

11. 12.

intervocalic only in a
cent, inscr. 52,53
2.

VI

Pecuhaiities in use of
asper. 58

3.

4.
5. 6.

7.
8.

9.

10.

231. External influence in the dialect.

353-325
of the

Aetolian domination (278-178

mixture

. , .. .. . ,.. ,,)
135.6 h

'^. =
etc.

,
,c
96,97

13.

,
spir.

14. eVSo?, 15.

.. , .
{) =
=

common with various

other

125.1

^,

'.

132.7

133.3

133.4

(beside

')

.
159
(?,

16.

pi. perf.

in -an. 138.4

\
=

89.3

17.

75

18.

.4 =

Intin. -ev. 153.2

161.2

etc. 164.1

19.

ivvea. 42.1

20.

42.5

he

114.7

21.

158

121.4

22.

(late). 163.9

124

The temple accounts


is

of

B.C.

show

plain evidences of Attic influence.


B.C.)

AVith the

new element

added, that

Northwest Greek
(e.g. dat. pi.

(see 279), resulting in the striking

seen in the numerous

144
proxeny and
first

GREEK DIALECTS
iiianuniissioii

[231

aud second centuries

Boeotian influence, as in
Stiris,

near the Boeotian boundary, and the si)eUings


in a decree of the Phocians.

,,
decrees,

some

of

them

as late as the

A. D.

There are even some few traces of


(t

= eZ)
(=

from

),

immediately following the Aetolian conquest are in the pure Attic


but the dialect was gradually resumed, in the mixed form
it

,
1.

The Amphictionic decrees

which

shows in the other classes

of inscriptions.

Locrian

232. 233.
234.

West Greek
In

characteristics.

See 223-225. See 226.


:

2.
3.

. ,().
Northwest Greek

characteristics.

common with

various other dialects


6
5.
6.

() , 7() ,
^< =
=

44.4
inter-

initial

and sometimes

7.

. ,
=
d

vocalic. 52,53
4.

8.

SeiXopai

Peculiarities in use of spiritus asper. 58 a,

.
133.3

etc.

95

once. 135. G

?>

75

235.
1.

Special Locrian

Assim. of

in
66

.{)
100

i(X)

'.

Xi/u.eVo?, etc.
2.

=
236.

4.
5.

accordiiuj tow. gen. 1^^.^

12

fOTt beside hoTi. 129.2 a

The only
is

inscriptions in the pure dialect (nos. 55, 56) are


fifth

both from the early

'
Greek
237.
238.

century and from western Locris.


later period,

All

other material

from a much

when

the Northwest

was used,
(107.:5) is

at least in western Locris.

See 279.

In the

few inscriptions from eastern Locris the appearance


noteworthy.
Elean

of datives like

West Greek
In

characteristics.

See 223-225.

Northwest Greek

characteristics.

See 226.

239.

common with

various other dialects

241]
1.

SUMMAEIES OF CHARACTERISTICS

145

, =

= spurious

et,

. 25
60.1
(late).

14. Ace. pi.

2. 3.

Psilosis.

88 (also

4.
5. 6.

pp

)=.
80

57

15. Dat. pi.

84
16.

Ehotacism
59.3

of final

?.

17.

Loss of intervocalic

18. Tot, 19.

, ^. .
-ai<i,

-aip, -oip. 78

(but usu-

ally -069). 107.3

7.

8.
9.

10. 11.

12.

. . <6 . 8\ .
init.

even before conso-

20.

. .
135.3

-$. = = roSe, =
153

111.1

113.3

122

133.

naiits,rarelyintervoc.;late

21. Infiu.

-.

= =

51-55
74 ?

22. 3 sg. subj. -; 23.


subj. in

Omission of
etc.

in

ea

. (//). ). (^,
149
151.1

31

24. 3 sg. opt.


25. /xi-forms

(-hate). 152.4
,

75
ft

Nom.

sg.

reXeara. 105.1
106.2

26.

'()

8.
.
137

avXait

157 i

13. Dat.

Si.

-.

, yey
66

240.
1.

Special Elean
10.

2.

= . 15 = not
e,

only before

p, l)ut
v, etc.

11.

after p, before final

12 with a
3.

TToXep

4.

"=
62.2

.
-eiw

12.

. ,,
=
aveu?

etc. 94.9

= afeu,
/ca

and used w.

ace. 133.(), 136.4

18

?;

13. Opt.

w.

in

commands;

(only in earliest inscr.).

also subj. (late). 175


14.

5.

=
/tieji?

6.
7.

Dual
A'^erbs

. 8,
in

(late). 85.2

112.3

8.

.
163. .5

Opt. regularly in fut. conditions etc. 176

106.0

161.1
9.

=
241.

(-) = -.

influence.

In the amnesty decree


B.C., a/3

second half of the fourth century


tion

(),

given up, as in

, ,, , ,
15.

For peculiar words and meanings, see, in Glo.ssary,

, 8, 8,
(no. 60),
is,

ypa-

epaevairepo^.

from the

from ep

with one excep-

ipaevairepav (note also

146
ipaev-

GREEK DIALECTS
=
earlier pappev-),
is

though pa from pe
(earlier
;

technical sense,

the usual
(no. 61),

) 8 (),. ^ < ^,
aud
irepi (earlier
;

[241
witli
its

apocope),

seen in

has

usual form
in its

the characteristic Elean words

and

have given place to


has
never

hnrXaaiov, and
first

The Damocrates decree


B.C.,

from the

ap,

not

half of the third century

ep,

and shows considerable

vocabulary,

e.g.

[),
Some

^.
in both

influence in the

On
sist,
is

the other hand most of the characteristics of the dialect per-

and, in contrast to earlier inscriptions, the rhotacism of final 9


of the differences

uniformly observed.

between these two

inscriptions and the earlier ones are due to chronological and local

variation within the dialect,


intervocalic
;

in no. 60

e. g.

not

,=,

not

,=,
it is

loss of

dat. pi.

(not

-)

in no. 61 subj. in prescriptions.

Even

in the earlier inscriptions

there are some indications of local differences, but

impossible

with the present material to define their scope.

The
of Elis

definite substitution of the Attic

in public inscriptions
B.C.

belongs to the end of the third century

Doric
Laconian
242.
243.
dialects
1.

West Greek

characteristics.

See 223-225.

Other characteristics, mostly in

common with various


reflex. 121.3

other

= spurious

i,

25
9.5

9.

2. 3.

from e before vowels. h from intervoc. . 59.1


Pdiotacismof final?

4.
5. 6.

7.

8.

. /.
= =
61..")

10. 11.

Adv.

(late). 60.2

U2.:h(,{]

(late in inscr.). 164


49.1,

12.

,^..
etc. 133.0

haT,

13. Infin. 14.

= -. 153

113.8

pi.

imv.

-^.

140.3

49.3

initial till

later

about 400 B.C.; intervocalic in early inscriptions 50-53 sometimes

248]

SUMMARIES OF CHARACTERISTICS

147

244. KOLvrj iiifluence.

Inscriptions from the second century B.C.

,
nos.

(from the fourth and third there

are not even in the Doric

is

very

little

material) and later


in the Attic

(278),

but substantially

with but slight dialectic coloring.

On

the revival of the use

of the dialect in

some

inscriptions of the second century A. D., prob-

ably representing crudely

what

still

survived as a patois, see notes to

70-73.
Heraclean

245. 246.

West Greek
In

characteristics.

See 223-225.

common with
et,

\"arious other dialects

1.

2.
.'3.

4.

.
6.

'^. ,. .
i

spurious
e

. 25

from

before vowels. 9.0


5

.
8.
9.

6
49.4

11.

12. Infin. -eu. 153.2 13.

. ,.

nom. 1.
114.0

75

.
-.

125.1
133.1

initial,

but

witli

many irreg-

pi.

imv.

140.8

ularities.
7.

50

14.
15.

Peculiarities in use of spiritus


asper.

b%c,d

247.

Special Heraclean

1.

'^,
146.8

^.
147.2

2.

yeypayjraTaL,

.
4.

7.
248.

,62.')1>
influence,

. ?. ^
107.:)
5.

/.

148

eWe?

= ovre'i.

163.8

146.4

16. Article as relative. 126

eppijyeia

6.

7.

.
Thus

^.
142 a
rpei<i

146.1,

113.2

forms appear
tlie

now and

tlien in the

- - ^ ,
Heraclean Tables, especially in
T/049

numerals.

beside

re'aaape^,

beside

beside

rTop<i,

for

from

eiKoai, beside

el

beside al

et

with

hoi beside roi.

us
249.

GREEK DIALECTS
Argolic

[249

not

8,

West Greek
142.

characteristics.

See 223-225.

But

8,
other

250.
dialects
1.

Other characteristics, mostly in

common with various

2.
3.

,
ta/jo?

Intervoc.
iu<;,

toA,andlost. 59.2
etc. 77.3, 78

11. 12. 13.

with

lenis. 58 ^

4.

=
135.6

7/?9, before dentals.

14.
15.

5.

<;
;,
i

. ,
ace. sg. 118.5

vlv ace. sg. 3 pers. pron. 118.5

etc. 164.3
ei,

16.

6.

= spurious
times. 25
e

some-

17. 18.
19.

7.

from

before vowels, some-

times. 9.7
8.
9.

20.
21.
135.5

<<;
=
f in

etc. 5

22.

10.

all positions
;

in earliest
initial
till

inscriptions

23.

about 400
251.

B.C.

52-55

,
78.2,
B.C.,

{) = <^
note

. ^'.
',
3
pi.

.
avevv

125.1

evhoi. 133. , i

avev. IZZ.Q 138.1

Iniin. -ev. 153.2

imv.

-.

140.3

163.8 164.4

preside. 55
he

banished.

No. 78.5, note


official
title.

No.

There are some differences between the dialect


of the inscriptions of

of

Argos

and that which appears in most and other


the east.
cities of

Epidaurus

the Acte.

But these

are mainly,

if

not wholly,

fact that Attic influence was earlier and stronger in and the retention of Thus the loss of intervocalic are characteristics which persist in Argive inscriptions till within the second century B.C., but of which there are only a few exam-

due to the

ples from Epidaurus.

In general, Attic forms are frequent in Epi-

daurian inscri})tions of the fourth century

and

Early inscriptions

of

Mycenae have

in contrast to Arg. eV?,

e?

and

(less

Cf. Cret.

l)eside

, )
probably
78.

later.

Fi'om

Hermione in -, -?.

are also fmuid genitive singular

and accusative plural

259]

SUMMARIES OF CHARACTERISTICS
Corinthian

149

252. AVest Greek characteristics. 253.


1.

See 223-225.

In

common with
12

various other dialects:


7.

evdeiv

= eXOelv.

2.

3.

4.
5.
6.

7
254.
ov.

= 4\. Glossary = 112.3 <; = Hypocoristics in -.


etc.,

. '.

',,'.
3
pi.

Syrac. 133.4,5
140.3

8.

imv.

-.

49.3

9.

in early iuscr. in all posi-

tions
B.C.;

init. till

about 400

165.7

sometimes

51-55

in various colonies. 107.3

Special Corinthian.
28, 34

Very early monophthongization

of et

and

255.

After the early but brief inscriptions in the epichoric alpha-

bet, there is

but scanty material until the third and second centhe admixture of

turies B.C.,

when

forms

is

considerable.

Megarian
256.
257.
1.

West Greek
In

characteristics.

See 223-225.

common with
89.3

various other dialects


4.
5.

\\<^.
ev

2. 3.

= eo,

late. 42.5

initial in

cent.,

but lost

6. 7.

258.
1.

3.

? '?, ^, .. ,
Special Megarian
,

between vowels.

\=\.
2.

^==. .
sg.

Gen.

m.

etc. 105.2 h

112.3

Glossary

Glossary

etc. 48.5

128

20.

Apart from

the difference of vowel, the words are peculiar to Megarian

and

Ionic.

259. Except for the early inscriptions of Selinus and a few others,

the material

is

from the end of the fourth century or

later,

and

shows

influence.

150

GREEK DIALECTS
Rhodian

[260

260.

West Greek
lu
0.

characteristics.

See 223-225.

261.
1.

coiiiiiKHi

with various other dialects


6.

V
?;,

42.5
ei,

2.

spurious

in

some

7.

words. 25 a
3.

8.

lepo^

with

leuis.

58 b

9.

4.
5.

oTTU?, ui9. 132.1

=
262.

10.

,
pi.

,. .
imv.

= ]. =

133.6

-.

140..3
161.2

etc.

167

Glossary

132.9
-fteii^. 154..").

Special lihodian: Infinitive in

/crotW, denoting

a territorial division like the Attic denae,

is

found only in lihodes

and Carpathus.
peculiar to lihodes.
263.

as the highest officers of the state are

influence shows itself to a slight extent in the fourth


B.C.
is

century
later,

]\Iost of

the material

is

from the third century or

and

in the Doric

?]

(278),

though with frequent reten-

tion of the characteristic infinitive in

-.

In this mixed form


peculiarities still
a.d.

the dialect

is

one of the longest to survive,


first

many

appearing in inscriptions of the

and second centuries

Coan
264.
265.
1.
ei;

West Greek
In

characteristics.

See 223-225.

common with

various other dialects


7.

0. 42..5

2.

.3.

4.
5.
6.

. ,
8\ .
vord.s. 25

spurious

ei,

.
=

in

some

8.

Aor. suhj.
Infin. -ev;

9.

.
133.6

150

also in contract

49.1

75

10.

Ace.

pi. -09

heside

-.

78

11.

-io<i,-r\,

hut early

-, -.

^
113.3

verbs. 153.2,3
-t'TO).

3 1. iinv.

\.

140.3

Glossary

266.

There are no very early inscriptions, and only a few even


B.C.

from the fourth century

The most important

of these, the

271]
sacrificial

SUMMARIES OF CHARACTERISTICS
calendar (nos. 101-103), already shows some
ecKa<;

151
forms,

as iepev<; beside
etc.,

,
1.

beside

<;, ace. pi. rpeU,

but preserves some forms which are never found later


(later

as

leprjL,

always

-et,

-,

specific Ionic

forms in use in Cos, as


is of the third

?,

etc.).

the material

and second
Theran

centuries,

.
. .
78
133.(3

beside

There are also some

Most

of

and in the Doric

as described in 278.

267.

West Greek

characteristics.
\\T.th

See 223-225.

268. In
ev

common

various other dialects:


7.

eo. 42..5
et,

Ace.

pi. -09.

2.

,( = spurious
words. 25 a

3.

from
/

4.
5.
6.

lost in the earliest times. 50

pp

80

269. Except for the numerous, but brief, archaic inscriptions,

.
54

.
WiU

ov, in

some

8.

9.

= =
Subj.

135.-3

10.

etc. 151.1

11. Infin. -ev;

also in contract

verbs. 153.2,.3
75

the material

is all

from the period


of Epicteta

of

influence.

The longest
of the

inscription, the

{SGDI. 4706), exhibits most

characteristics of the dialect, but also

many
late,

forms.

The
and

inscriptions of Gyrene,
1,

though

have regularly

=
nom.

spurious

ov,

and show some


(111..3),

special peculiarities, as
(157).

ace. pi. of

270.
TO/',

West Greek
and
In

271.
1.

2.
3.

4.
5.

, ,. 7^=7'.
= spurious
from
e
ei,

common with
ov.

"

Cretan

characteristics.

not

".
6.
7.

See 223-225.

But

ol, al,

not

various other dialects:


Psilosis.

25

57
till

etc.

54

init.

III

cent.

B.C.
;

from

before vowel. 9.1


49.2

49.3

8.

'

sometimes

in-

tervoc. only in cpds. 50-54


etc. 77.3

152
9.

GREEK DIALECTS

[271

273]
273.

SUMMARIES OF CHARACTEEISTICS
Cretan, as

153

commonly understood and

as described above, is
is

the dialect of the inscriptions of CJortyna (which


fully represented) Cnossos, Lyttos, Vaxos,

by

far the

most
the

and the other

cities of

great central portion of Crete.


as Central Cretan.
lect is

This

is

also

known more

specifically

Eastward, at Olus, Dreros, Latos,


;

etc.,

the dia-

much

less

uniform

and in the inscriptions


cities of

of cities of the

eastern extremity of the island, as Hierapytna, Praesos, and Itanos,

and again
istics are

in those

from the

the western extremity, as

Aptera, Cydonia,

etc.,

many

of the

most striking Cretan character-

wholly lacking.

Hence the terms East Cretan, usually


But there is no sufficient and Central Cretan are
they reflect to any

reckoned from Hierapytna eastward, and AYest Cretan, from Lappa


westW'ard, are sometimes employed.

ground

for the belief that the East, AVest,

fundamental divisions

of the dialect, or that

degree the various constituent elements in the population.

The

East and West Cretan inscriptions, the latter very meager, are comparatively late, and

show

a large degree of obvious

influence,

partly Attic, partly the Doric

of the other islands.

The
and

absence of

many
due

of the

Cretan characteristics

may

well be, and

probably

is,

to external influence,

which was

felt earlier

more strongly than in Central Crete, where, especially at Gortyna, most of the peculiarities persisted until Eoman times. However, an
actual divergence of development, for
least not apparent, is to be recognized in the treatment of eo, wdiich,

instead of becondng
(42.0
c,

nia

(', ,
lo,

which external causes are


in close,

at

appears as

in open, syllables

d), e.g.

at Hierapytna, Allaria,

Cydo-

also at Aptera, Oleros).

There are also a few other


the early

local variations.

period,

it is

we had ample material from highly probable that we should find that in
But,
if

the main

the characteristics of Central Cretan were also general Cretan.

SURVR^AL OF THE DIALECTS. GROWTH OF VARIOUS FORMS OF


Not only in earlier times, but also, in most parts of Greece, long after Attic had become the norm of literary prose, each state employed its own dialect, both in private and public monuments of internal concern, and in those of a more external or interstate
274.
character, such as decrees in honor of foreigners, decisions of interstate arbitration, treaties, and, in general, commuuication>s

between

different states.

Thus, for example, an honorary decree of a Boeo-

tian city
is

is

in the Boeotian dialect,

no matter whether the recipient


If

a citizen of Athens, Delphi, Alexandria, or Tarentum.


is

the

Eleans honor Damocrates of Tenedos, the decree


the time (no. 61).
If

in the Elean of
is in
is

Mytilene honors Erythrae, the decree


is set

Lesbian and a copy in this form


usual practice, examples
of

up

at Erythrae.

Such

the

which could be
is

cited

by the hundred,
and Cimoand

and any departure from which

the exception.

A
lus

decision of the Argives in a dispute between Melos


in the Argive dialect (no. 81).

is

And

so in general such deci-

sions were regularly rendered in the dialect of the arbitrators,

inscribed in this form by the states involved in the dispute, usually


at

home, but sometimes also in one

of the great religious centers,

The extant texts of treaties are, as a rule, in of that party in whose territory the text was found, and the dialect it is to be assumed that the version inscribed by the other party in its home was likewise in its dialect. Thus, for example, the monetary agreement between Mvtilene and Phocaea in the Lesbian version found at Mytilene (no. 21), the treaty of alliance between Elis and Heraea (in Arcadia) in the Elean version found at Olympia (no. 58).
as Delos or Olympia.

In communications between states using different dialects each


party employs
its

own.

For example, when Philip


154

of

Macedon

275]

VARIOUS FOEMS OF

155

sends certain recommendations to the city of Larissa, he writes in


the Attic

nian court,

which had long been the language of the Macedobut the decrees which the city passes in response are in

the Thessalian dialect (no. 28).

An

inscription of

the text of a decree of the Aetolian league in favor of Mytilene, in


its original

Aetolian (Northwest Greek

My tilene. contains

form, a copy of which

had been brought back by the Mytileuaean envoys, followed by a


decree of Mytilene in Lesbian, quoting from the former decree and
ordering the inscription of both.
sanctuaries of Greece are

The regulations

of the religious

drawn up

in the dialect of the state

which

has direct charge of them, no less in the great Hellenic centers

than in those of local fame.


decree wdiich
is

So, for example,

an Amphictionic

known

to us only in the

copy

set

up

at

Athens

is

in the Delphian dialect.

275.

In the period before the

rise of Attic as

the language of

literary prose,

no one dialect was in a position even to influence

other dialects except witliin narrow geographical limits.

Yet

it is

probable that even then external influence was not wholly absent.

There was no lack of intercourse to awaken consciousness of the


peculiarities of one's

dialect as

compared with those

of others.

Some

of tliese peculiarities, especially


all or

such as were at variance

with the practice of

nearly

all

other dialects, might

come

to

be regarded with disfavor as provincialisms, and be avoided in


writing,

and even in speech, or

at least less consistently observed.

For example, the Laconians and the Argives, who were well
aware that under certain conditions they omitted, or pronounced
as a

mere breathing, what was a


felt

in the speech of

most other Greeks,


to be exploited in

may have
was a
writing.

that this, unlike

some

of their other peculiarities,

sort of weakness,

which did not deserve


is

This would explain the inconsistency in the treatment of


(A or

intervocalic

which

to be observed even in the early


l)efore

inscriptions of Laconia

and Argolis,

any

specific Attic influ-

ence

is possible.

See

59.1,2.

agreeing with Cyprian

< and

The

fact that

Arcadian

and

/ca?,

are found only in one early

15(3

GREEK DIALECTS
1), while
all

[275

inscription (no.

uthers have
tlie

rU and

may

also be

ascribed to the combined influence of

a later period,

when

specific Attic influence is

was replaced by the usual equally marked peculiarities


of other dialects,

,
like

other dialects, just as in

more probable,

in spite of the fact that other


iv

iv

were unaffected.

The

Eleans gave up even in the sixth century their use of

for the

and

if,

as is likely, this
less in point.

was a concession in

spelling only,

it is

none the

276. Traces of Ionic influence are seen in the Doric islands,

though the

earliest evidence of this belongs rather to tlie history

of the alphabet,

namely the spread


eo,

of the Ionic

(4.6).

It is

not accidental that ev for


nental Greece,
Thera,
etc.
is

though occasionally found in contiof Ionic, in

the Doric

^. ^ '.
Even
of

mainly found, outside

Ehodes, Cos,

In Cos occur such specific Ionic forms as

and

in the fifth century the coins of the

lalysus

show

have even spread


277.

to Crete, e.g. at Itanos ev

The Attic
is

Through the medium of the other islands (278), some Ionic peculiarities
beside

= eo, o = ev, and

The foundation of the ultimate supremfact,

.
is

Rhodian

acy of Attic
century
B.C.

to be sought in the political conditions of the fifth

In this we refer to something more than the


it is,

important as

that in this period Athens

became the

intellec-

tual center of Greece


prose.

and Attic the recognized language

of literary

It is within the sphere of influence represented

by the conits first

federacy of Delos and the Athenian empire that Attic

made

advance as an ordinary medium


it is

of connnunication.

Of

all dialects

Ionic which shows the

first

signs of Attic influence

and

the

first to

lose its identity as a distinct dialect.


tlie

Some

traces of this
fifth

influence are seen even in


especially in the islands,

Ionic inscriptions of the

century,

and

in the fourtli century the majority of


of Attic forms,

inscriptions

show

at least a

mixture

and some, even


After

from the early part of the century, are


this,

su])stautiaily Attic.

Ionic practically ceased to exist as a distinct dialect, though


peculiarities are occasionally

some Ionic

found in

much

later times,

278]

VAEIOUS FORMS OF
this Attic, already well-nigh established in Ionic territory,

157

mostly iu proper names and certain conventional words or phrases.


It
is

in

some

respects modified

and spread, and which


specifically, the Attic

.
is

by

Ionic, that the

Macedonians took up
or,

henceforth termed the

,
in
it

and

more

The Macedonian
KOLvr)

period, indeed, forms the principal

landmark in
the Attic

the evolution of a standard language in Greece.

For

in places
this

was spread over a vast territory and permanently established which were to become leading centers of Greek life. Yet is only a stage, marking neither the beginning, as we have seen,
Excepting Ionic, and Cyprian, of which we
later record, the other dialects,

nor, still less, the end.

have no

though showing more or


use in inscriptions from

less KOLvrj influence,

remained in

common
later.

But eventually the attained complete supremacy both as the written and the spoken language, and from it is descended Modern Greek. The only imone to upwards of three centuries
portant exception
is

the present Tsakonian dialect, spoken in a


is

small portion of Laconia, which


ancient Laconian.
278.

in part the offspring of the

The Doric
itself,

In most

of the

Doric dialects Attic

influ-

ence shows

to

some

extent, even in the fourth century B.C.,


of modified

and there was gradually evolved a type


conveniently

Doric which

prevails in the inscriptions of the last three centuries B.C.,

known

as the Doric

retaining a majority of the general

with a tendency to eliminate local peculiarities, and with a strong

admixture

of

forms from the Attic

in the degree of mixture,


ties, e.g.

and the retention


at

the infinitive in

siderable unity,
distinct type of

.
is

. .

and

is

This

is

substantially Doric,
characteristics,

West Greek

but

In spite
of

of

some variety

some
is

local peculiari-

Rhodes, there

yet a very con-

amply

sufficient to

justify us in speaking of a

That the mixture


tention of

not a haphazard one


ei for at,

is

shown,

for

example, in
re-

the fact that the substitution of

resulting in the hybrid eX

side
is

by

side

with the

very general, while the

158
opposite, al
als

GREEK DIALECTS
civ, is unknown. show the forms of the Attic

[278

6/39
etc. for

type except in the accusative singular,

(, ) - 8 , , ^, . ,
e.g. ace.

<;

(or

<;,

rirrape^;) not

, ,
is

replaced by

but

',
is

-.
but
rare.

for

In -stems
aec.

we

usually find

'?,
in

,, ,
lepo^;.

The numerfor

. <;
fur

retained,

1.

?.

Nouns

follow the Attic


nom.-acc.
pi.

e.g.

ace. sg,

So Att.

is

usual, but Att.

'?
there

The substitution

of ol, al for

is

frequent, but

great variation in this respect,

and
Attic

oi occurring not

infrequently even in the same inscription.


quent, especially in verbs in

from

eo is fre-

-.

In some places, as far apart as

Rhodes and Corcyra, we


uniformly in
-eu9, e.g.

find inscriptions

which have the verb-forms


-stems in -eo? or
etc.

but the genitive singular of


etc.

Rhod. iy/caXoOvTaf
etc.

but
etc.

(SGDI. 3758),
Attic

Core.

7<;
is

but
in verbs

(SGDI. 3206).

from by the
ending
places.

also

wliich have

<;

more common
or

than in nouns.

In dialects

etc. (54),

such forms are often replaced

Attic, especially in the case of


-fte? is

';.

The

first

plural

generally replaced by

-, though

it

persists in

some

There are various other Attic forms which are not infrequent,
but

much

imperative ending
beside

.
less

common than

the dialect forms,

e.g.

beside

-,

beside

Many of

any intrusion

,
in

of the corresponding Attic forms, e.g.

verb forms like


(142),

/9
as a

,,
Att.

the dialectic peculiarities persist with scarcely

,
is

beside

= Att.-Ion. ,

etc.

, and

Doric future, future and aorist


verb-forms like

are almost

unknown except
whole
is

,when
the

in the very last stages

Attic

practically established,

sometimes

found as
color,

late as llie third

century

a.d.,

perhaps

279.

Doric

artificial, in what is otherwise the Attic The Northvest Greek This is very similar to the showing about the same mixture of Attic with West

but only as a bit of local

279]

VARIOUS FOEMS OF
But
it differs

159
it

Greek forms.

from

it

in that

retains

two

of the

most characteristic features


sonant stems in

of the

Northwest Greek

dialects as

compared with Doric, namely eV


-oi<?.

eh, and the dative plural of con-

The use

of this type is closely

connected wath
it

the political power of the Aetolian league.

We

find

employed,

in the third century B.C. and later, in Aetolia and in all decrees
of the Aetolian league, in

Western Locris (Naupactus


B.C.,

w^as incor-

porated in the league in 338

the rest of IVestern Locris some-

what
all of

later),

Phocis (Delphi was in the hands of the Aetolians by


B.C.),

at least

290

the land of the Aenianes, Malis and Phthiotis,


in the course of the third century B.C.

which became Aetolian

Without doubt it was also used in Doris, from which we have no material, and in Eastern Locris. In Boeotia, which was in the Aetolian league but a short time (245-234 B.C.), it was never employed, though there are some few traces of its influence (222).

The only extant decrees of Cephallenia and Ithaca, of about 200 B.C., are in this same Northwest Greek reminding us that Cephallenia, of w^liich Ithaca was a dependency, was allied
with the Aetolians (Polyb.
also for a time
4.6).

Parts of the Peloponnesus were

dative plural in -oi?

There is one example even as far away as Crete 159-138 B.C.), but clearly an importation. SGDI.4942 Aetolians had taken part in the internal wars of Crete, and Cretans had served in the armies of both the Aetolian and the Achaean

and Laconia.

(
The
different

under Aetolian domination, and the characteristic


is

found in Arcadia, Messenia

(also iv

= eh),

leagues (Polyb. 4.53).


inscriptions
of

this

period
of

from Acarnania, Epirus, and


Acarnanian,
Epirotan,
as

Achaea, including

decrees

the

and
de-

Achaean

leagues, are not in the

Northwest Greek

fined above (they do not have ev

= eh,

or the dative plural of

consonant stems

in -oi?), 1)ut in

the Doi'ic

At

this

time

at least the speech of

Acarnania and Epirus was not essentially


of

from that of Corcyra, nor that

Achaea from that

of

Corinth and Sicyon.

160

GKEEK DIALECTS

[280

In the Arcadian inscriptions of this period the native Arcadian

forms are wholly or in part replaced by West Greek forms, and


this
is

probably due in large part to the influence of the Doric


of the

Achaean

league.

But the Aetolians

also held parts

of

Arcadia for a time, and, as noted above, there are some exam-

ples of the dative

Greek
280.
of

plural in -ot? borrowed from the

Northwest

Some more

detailed observations

upon the time and extent

influence in the various dialects have been

made

in connec-

tion with the

Summaries

of Characteristics (180-273),

and

in the

notes to some of the late inscriptions.

What
given up

has just been noted in the case of the Doric

is

true

in all dialects,

namely, that
earlier

of the dialectic peculiarities

much

than others.

Furthermore

usual to find hybrid forms, part dialectic, part


future with Attic

contamination of

and

, and ?,
as

etc.

frequently,

,
it is

some are
e.g.

nothing unDoric

Boeot.

?, a

Heracl. peiKari, a contamination of

Boeot.

with dialectic present stem and

personal ending, but Attic

(pure Boeot.
e/c-

with dialectic case-ending, but Attic


Thess. ace.
pi.

Boeot.

(pure Boeot.

^?),
-ae,

'^<

'^,4<;

(pure Thess. ^ivv

but Attic stem

),
from

with dialectic case-ending, but Attic stem


Epid.

with Doric ending-/; from

*-.

Besides such hybrids, hyper-Doric or hyper-Aeolic forms are


occasionally

met with in late inscriptions, though less often than in Thus the Attic term (with original , when adopted in other dialects, was sometimes given cf. Dor. the pseudo-dialectic form e.g. in some late Doric and Lesour literary texts.

),

bian inscriptions, in imitation of the frequent equivalence of dialectic

retained in opposition to
lent, as in

Doric

on

Cret.

, , . ,
to Attic

Conversely the Attic form was sometimes

what would

lie its

true dialectic equiva-

Boeotian usually

rarely

Similarly the
Cf. also

and

its

derivatives keep

in Boeotian.

63.

280]

VARIOUS FORMS OF
Eoman

161

In

imperial times the antiquarian interest in local dia-

lects is reflected in the revival of their use in parts of

Greece vhere
in gen-

for

some two centuries previously the Attic


no. 24), Laconian
of
(cf.

had been

eral use, at least in inscriptions.

So, for example, in the case of

Lesbian

(cf.

nos. 70-73),

and

to

some extent
first

in Elean,

where examples
It is

rhotacism reappear in the

and

second centuries a.d.

impossible to determine in every case


artificial revival of

whether

this

was a wholly

a dialect which had

long ceased to be spoken, or was an

artificial elevation to

written

use of a dialect which had survived throughout the interval as a


patois.

The

latter is true of

Laconian

(see 277, end,

and note

to

nos. 70-73).

But

for

most

dialects

we have no adequate

evidence

as to the length of their survival in spoken form.

PART
The brief
lections.

SELECTED INSCRIPTIONS
its

introductory statement to each inscription gives


to several of the

provenance
col-

and approximate date, with references

most important

The

extensive bibliographies in these collections

make

it

unneces-

sary to cite the

numerous

special discussions in periodicals etc., except

in the case of a few recently discovered inscriptions.

For the abbreviations

employed, see pp. 281 ff. References to the collections are by the numbers of the inscriptions, unless otherwise stated, while those to periodicals are

by

pages.
It

has seemed unnecessary to state in the case of every inscription whether


is

the alphabet

the epichoric or the ordinary Ionic, since this

is

generally
It

obvious from the date given, as well as from the transcription.

may be

taken for granted, unless otherwise stated, that inscriptions of the


tury B.C. or later in the Ionic.

fifth cen-

tury B.C. or earlier are in the epichoric alphabet, those of the fourth cen-

Hence comments on the form of the alphabet employed are added only in special cases. The transcription of texts in the older alphabet is such as to give the student some assistance, without confusing what is in the original and what is a matter of editing. The signs and 0, when representing long vowels, are transcribed simply no matter whether the later spelling is , or ei,

e, 0.

The

spiritus asper,
*

when

expressed in the original,

is

transcribed

A,

leaving the use of


tli(!

as a matter of editing.
is

See p. 49, footnote.

The use

of

following signs
[ ] ( > ( )

to be noted.

for restorations of letters

for letters inscribed

by mistake, and

no longer legible. to be ignored by

tlie

reader.

for 1) expansion of abbreviations, 2) letters omitted

by mistake,

3) corrected letters. Obvious corrections are given thus, without adding the original reading. Less certain corrections are sometimes

commented on
often this
is

in the notes,

with citation of the original reading, as

are also obscure readings due to the mutilation of the letters.

But

not done,

it

being thought unnecessary in a work of this


apparatus of other collections.
is

kind to repeat the


- - - -

full critical

for a lacuna,

where no restoration
103

attempted.

16^
....

GKEEK DIALECTS
for a similar lacuna

[No.

where

it is

desired to show, at least approxi-

mately, the
ter.
I

number

of missing letters, each dot standing for a let-

In general, these are employed only for short lacunae.

for the beginning of each


for the
II

new

line in the original.

begimiing of every

fifth line in

the original.
sides, or

for the division between the obverse


II

and reverse
is

between

col-

umns. Used only where the text

printed continuously.

Ionic
East Ionic

Sigeum, Early VI cent. b.c. SGDI.5531. Hicks 8. Hoifmannlll. 130. Michel 1313. Roberts 42 and pp.334ff. The second version (B) is
1.

in Attic.
_

10

5
10

repa

^()\,
aev

^ \< ^^ \ ^^. 8 ,^ ?.
I

iav Se

7|,

\^

()\
11

'

he

^\^L<ye\UaL]v.

Kayo

e\hoKa

i-

e7ro||(ie)-

1,

Monument of Phanodicus of Procit,

ences are due merely to the absence of


signs for

onnesus, recording his gift of a mix-

and

in the Attic alphabet,

and a winestrainer, to the Sigean prytaneum. The pillar was prepared and furnished with
ing bowl, a stand for
its

or are accidental, as

in

A,

in B,

where the spelling


date
is

ei

at such

an early

as exceptional in Attic as

Ionic inscription at Proconnesus,

which was a colony of Miletus. The Attic version was added at Sigeum, which was already at this time occupied by Athenians. The divergence between A and the
corresponding i)ortion of
lect, e. g. Ion.
is

would be in Ionic, or dat. pi. A, in B, where the use of


ble
is

it

in

mova-

variable in both dialects.

2.

Decree of the council of Halicar-

naseians and Salmacitians and Lygda-

partly

Lygdamis

mis regarding disputes over real estate. is the tyrant wlio drove Herodotus into exile and
tion eventually expelled
It
is

due to the normal differences of dia-

a revolu-

=
crasis

Att. irpvTo.veiov^

to

with psilosis and consequent and uncontracted -eos in contrast Att. TO 'lifpop5s. So
is

in contrast to Att.

form found elsewhere.

,,
with
after
p,

and

from the

city.

probable that this inscription dates

an Ionic
differ-

Other

from a period when the citizens had ari.sen and restored the exiles, but had come to terms temporarily with Lygdamis. The disputes would then be concerning the property of the former

No. 2]
2. Ilalicarnassus.

IONIC INSCRIPTIONS
Before 454 B.C.

165

SGDI.5726. Ditt.Syll.lO. Greek Hicks 27. Hoffmann III. 171. Inscr.Jurid.I,pp. Iff. Michel 451. Roberts 145 and pp. 339 ff. Solmsen45. For the character T, see 4.4. Letters which, though now lacking, are found in Lord Charlemont's copy, are printed without the marks of restoration.
Inscr. Brit. Mus.R'ii. 886.

\
\[1]

7\\7

'7\88[^

? \
yrj<;

aho^

[]
evaL
exiles

" \ , ^ /
eirl
ot:[i'ja]

, '[]

[7]?

/?

[]
ayopiji,
|

ev

tep)}[i]

7\^\]<;

^ \< ' '/xi09


7\'^
[]|^9.

6\[7^0[. ]<;

7/3

\\
(cf.

, <
iv
is
'

8e

' ' ^
iirl

,5

10

/3|15

'||09
\.6\
8e
|

[e]||jO

6{){) ?
evaL.
|

68 ,
he

ot:|[i]a,

8
suits,

20

25

no. 22),

although this

be only tentative and subject to further litigation.


1.

nowhere
partially

stated.

Salmacis was a town

merged with Halicarnassus, and represented with it by a common council, though still retaining its own officials. Halicarnassus was originally Doric, but had already become Ionic in speech. Many of the proper names are
of Carian origin. 8
ff.
'

30
'

'

The phrase used in when A. and P. were commissionand

ers
is

has reference to future

not inconsistent with the view that

men constituted the incoming board at the time of the decree. 16 ff. 'Any one wishing to bring suit
these

The mnemones or commission-

must prefer his claim within eighteen months of the time of the decree. The
dicasts shall administer the oath (to

ers are not to transfer lands or houses

incoming board consisting of Apollonides and his colleagues. That is, apparently, property which had been in the hands of the commissionto the
ers for settlement, or

the one bringing suit) in accordance

perhaps in seques-

with the present law. Whatever the commissioners have knowledge of (e.g. through their records) shall be valid.' 22 ff. If one prefers a claim after

'

tration,

was now

to be turned over to

the prescribed period, the one in possession of the property sliall take the

the presumptive owners instead of to

the

new board,

in order to secure

an

oath (that

is,

he shall have the prefer;

immediate disposal of these matters, even though this might in many cases

ence in taking the oath

6$

cf

the use of

in the

Gortynian Law-Code).


166

30

, 1\ ,' ^7<; .
GREEK DIALECTS
8e
7'?'?
'<^<^'

[No. 2

\\] 6<;

eT^v\aL irapeovTO^
oirtve^
el
||

'

elvat

ore

.30

40

45

, '^ \ ^/ [^ \ 8, ^. \\\ , ', [']

elvai

\\
^

Tt<i

7r/30^/'}Ta|[t]

elvaL lepa

alei

eV

eivac e?

iXevOepov

eivai,

iiriKaXev

3. Teos. About 475 B.C. SGDI..56.32. Hicks 23. Michel 1318. Roberts 112 and pp.336 ff. Solmsen42.

A
5

'

10

, )
"? ^
[1,

'^ ^ ,'
yevo^

? '^'^^ iv

Hoffmann III. 105.

iaayeaOai

'

2 fragmentary] oVrt?
(rj
II

. ^ [']

\), ['\ [| |

The

dicasts shall administer the oath,

receiving a twelfth of a stater as fee,

allowed to return.' 41 ff, 'Of all the Halicarnassians any one who does not
transgress these things such as they have sworn to and as is recorded in the temple of Apollo, shall be at liberty
to prefer claims.'

and the oath

shall be taken in the

presence of the plaintiff.

Those who

held the property

and Panamyes were


have disposed of
it

shall be the legal possessors, unless they


later.'

(:

.32 ff.

,
'

when Apollonides
commissioners

d-ircir^pa-

3.

. (
:

96.2.

Imprecations against evil-doers.

not found elsewhere.


to

1 ff.

Against those

who manufac,

If

any one wishes

annul this

law or proposes a vote


to Apollo,

to this effect, his

property shall be sold and dedicated

and he himself
If his

shall be
is

an
not

exile forever.

property

adv. ace. as a community. 6 ff Against those who interfei-e with the importation of grain, contrasted with 1.2. See 42. G, 157 6.
ture poisons.

worth ten

staters,

he himself shall be

B3ff. Againstthosewhoresisttheau-

gold for transportation and never be

thority of the magistrates.

The

ei/ewot


No. 4]
yvo<i TO Keiv\o.

IONIC INSCRIPTIONS
iv Tecot
a[7ro/c]T[eyei[e]
.

167

^]
[etSjIa? 10
irepl 15
ti7ro||Se- 20

[;]()<? ^'()[]9

'78[
[ey

.]

[']
\oLVO

']|[;.
. .

?;

'\\

.]

[\] 7\^
\\'
|

7ro\^X[tv

[^][7/9

'?

7[/309]

^^
iv
ve\a<i

eVt

yevo^

"/? \^, < '^^


/cjja/coz/
|

^ .
/^]

eV

^^ ^?
}? <;
[|

[^<]

etjSa)?

irepl

Aiotatv, iv

^^^

^ ^.
'<?
|

\'%)

<;

25

yeyp\a7rTai,

y'vo<;

'^. [^6

() ^?,
Michel 1383.
'

30

35

40

4. Chios.

V cent.

B.C.

Roberts 149 and pp.343 ff.


-09
Tpe<i

SGDI.5653. Solmsen 41.

'pt

.
\

8ff.

'

. }^ , , \ ,\^^, ^
[%]'/)*
e<?

[]

AijXio

, '^^, \

Hoffmann

III. 80.

[]!/>,

\,

ioova
\\
eV

815

must have been a superior


is

official to

the ordinary evdwoi or auditors.

The

35

assembly at the Anthesteria, etc' ff. Against those who damage the

often an extraordinary

stele.

etc.:

aor. subj.

150,

official like

the

Roman

dictator, but

176.2.
4, Decree fixing the boundaries of a district called Lophitis, followed by provisions for its sale and a list of the

possibly a regular magistrate at Teos.

Against unfaithful and treason-

able magistrates.

The

restoration of
ff.

11.8-18

is

uncertain.

29

Again.st

purchasers.

magistrates

who

fail to

imprecations.

ably the regular annual magistrates,


like the

.?:
archons elsewhere.
31.

The

pronounce the
are prob-

,
0

dialect, see 1

For the Lesliian elements in the Chian 84 with references. For


short-vowel subj. like

-,
109.2.

see also 150.

For
is

vroXews, see

see 109.2.

(C 8)

the earliest example of

.:

'during the

(33).

168
20

CxREEK DIALECTS

'
ev

ol

[^\
|6?
[771^

.
?}?

7\8 <;
e?

7r\\e']vTeKa\_iSeK]\a

10
15

; )\\,

20 oTt 25

/ '\\

^
\\
]? 09
7r[o]Xt9
7rpta[/u-]

BiaTrel^yjravTe^ e?

^ ^ ^^

,, ^^ 7 '^^
7[

^^?,

[9 ^<;

,
11

Be

[No. 4

[er]

[]''-

iovTe<;.
a7ro/cX7^t||?;t]

6[9]
ft[a]|ta9
10

15

^ , /}?
8
?
/cat

, ' ., , 7 .
eWt

\\ '
?
11

?;

6:['7;4,
[]|9

'^

[]|7/7'

\_^
|

'779 7'^' ['\\ [/9][/>'](7 <'[][


1

ot:t'<e>a[9]

7ra[t']-|

/36[9]
20
/cat

25
5

^
.

[7][',
.

LOV

10 T[r/]]i'
15

[^ 8

'

7/709

. ^ \ ^ " \^^\8
|

\'^^'[^[^
[7]|

8^
[][/
(H)eo-

07/30709 :[4]||747/9

7^09

e'/x

Me\at'i'7;[t]

'A/CTi}t

Bta[9]

'

7[^\

[4[]9
it

[ -^
(^),
before the

\
|j

^^ 8 ^8 8^
ITf

||

'I|ke-

TOCK\^o]7re8ov

7;:|[]4/

eVo9.

the case of a lawsuit

from litigation. Whoever makesthe sales


invalid,
hivi shall the

the Fifteen are to bring

\$

curse,

council within five days and

make pub-

ivhcn he
tions.

makes
ff.

the ciistomar>/ impreca-

lic announcement of it in the villages and in the city.' C 1-8. If any one excludes the purchasers from possession or brings suit against them, the city, taking up the

10

There purchased lands and

houses:
cesiiis,

ters),

the sons of Annices, Ilison of Ilegepolis, for 5340 [staAthenagoras, son of Herodotus,

from

cause of those that are excluded, shall sustain the suit, and, if it loses, reim-

for 1700; from Thargeleus, Philocles, son of Zenodotus, the property in Eua-

dae for 2700;


Zi\^:

bursethem.

The purchaser

shall be free

, etc.

19, 20.

No. 7]
5. Erythrae.

IONIC INSCRIPTIONS
About 357
]5.c.

1(39
Ilicks 134.

' ^ ^ ] ' [^ ^ ^, \[~\ ,[\^ , ^


|

],^ ' ^^^, '^


Hoffmann
III. 9G.

SGDI.5087.

Ditt.Syll.107.

Michel 501.

["E5o|^ey]

;^.

][2^
Trje/ot

||

'E]/caT[o-

eirei

[[^0
|

elvac

)^

7\[^ <'[
ev

[7]?
\_\

at] aarrovhei,

elvai

eK'yovoi'i.

aj[7opi}]i
||

^
e?

[1
|

8e 10

[6|
|

iv

[^^.
||

15

jpayjr^ai

()

[e7rtfieXi;^](i'})yai

^?].
|

20

6. Naxos. Found at Delos. VII or Hoffmann III. 30. Michelll50. Roberts

^ ^, -^ ', ^, '
early
25.

Central Ionic

YI

cent. B.C.

SGDI.5423.

Solmsen46.

9]

\7]
Found
.

/'

(),
cent. n.c.

'

7.
off

Xaxos.
I IT

at Delos.

"

-^ [^.
S(iDI.5421.

or early

m an

33

Roberts 27

[t]o
5.

'.
as a sign for
etc.
7.

Decree in honorofMaussolus, the

and transcribe

satrap of Caria, to "wliose

memory

tlie

famous Mausoleum was erected by

his

widow Artemisia.
6.

15

On
I

the base of a colossal statue

ff.

See 136.9.

of Apollo at Delos, dedicated


ians.

by Nax-

Inscribed on an archaic statue of


is a,

am

of the same stone, statue and


see 32.

Artemis found at Delos. A and Ae, and for - from


original
).

used as

pedestal.
8.

For

but not for


AetwSi/cTjo
tlie

Burial law directed against exrites,

See 4.0, 8

a.

In

travagance in the funeral

like

and ()7;' the endings, as


like w in

meter

those enacted at Athens under Solon,

shows, have the value of one syllable,

Homer. See 41.4. The character which appears before in etc. is D, probably only a different!3,ted form of B, though some take it

and at Sparta under Lycurgus. With two exceptions

)
8 a.

(^,

used only for the - from See 4.6^ (or from ea, as
is

', ).


170
8. lulis in Ceos,

GREEK DIALECTS
Last quarter

[No. 8

cent.

ij.c.

....)93.

SGDI.

588.

I)itt.Syll.877.

Hoffmann III.42.

Inscr.Jurid.I,pp.lOff.

Michel398.

Solnisen47.

' ^] 7

Zieheu,LegesSacrae93.
Tcoy

[][.
ev

[
7[]

iv

[^<; \^]

^7\,
[;]|

T0t9

10

[ ^ \\6

7r\eO[l']

,
i^evai
||

,
[/]

] \7]
irXeovo^

[][4,

he 67 /3[]]/^. ' 6[]/[] [<;

-^^
|

^,
[]

[^

a^yyeta

[]/?^6

[^\^

15 ahr'\opaivV

[^[ '\\
20

:7}[?]
TTjy

[^ / .
\_

25 7[/30]?

7[
:

^^
.
:

[^ ,
'

\_\. []\ [^(\^


]/7
iXevOepov

'[|.]

a cloth under3. neath the corpse, one wrapped about it, and one over it.' 7.
'

llic

7[']^

' ,
[? ?
e

()8 [] / '^ ['\\


||

, [ 8, ? ?
ivSoae.
eireiTa

. ^
[

/Lt[|e]

'\\.

eXaiov

'\.

^^^ ['\ -

<<;

[t]ou<T[a]? [e]7rt

7]^'.

.
evai

[]

]\',

[]\ -

levai

yvvaiKat

\'\1

\_

]^[ \],
'

-all,

they are not to use a special cov-

ering for the bier, but cover


bier

and the corpse, with the cloths

before mentioned.
12.

perform

according to the ancestral custom.' By the law of Solon


sacrifice

The
bier
(1.

home, instead of being left at the tomb, 15 f. 'The house is to be purified first with sea-water by a free man, then Avith hyssop by a slave. But the resto-

the

ration

.:
9.

20.
of the
third,

[]^77[

^iijSJai'ra is

uncertain.

At Athens ceremonies

see 112.G.

'they are to

in honor dead were performed on the ninth, and thirtieth days. The

last are expressly


21.

forbidden here.

Directed against certain supersti-

the .sacrifice of an ox

13

f.

vas forbidden. and the coverings,


be brought

tious practices, the significance of which


is

not clear.

27.

dat. in -aij

like the vessels

10), are to

due

to Attic influence.

No. 12]

IONIC INSCRIPTIONS
yLt[e]8eW.

171
30
.

aWov

[\\'\ \[<;]
[^Ji^fi

[{;]9
I

^^^

evai

West Ionic (^Euboean^


9.

VII

cent. B.C.

SGDT.5292. Rev.Arch. 1902 1,41 ff.

.() '
10.

eiroieaev 'AfyaatXefd.

Cumae
III. 6.

in Italy.

VI

cent. b.c.

IG.XIV.865.

SGDI.5267.

mann

Tarat'e?
11.

^?
a.

Roberts 173.

'

\\,

Hoff-

Cnmae in Italy. VI cent. B.C. IG.XIV.871. SGDI.5269. Hoffmann


Roberts 177

III.4.

Solmsen 48.
rovrei AetO?

hvTTV ret
12. Amphipolis.

357b. c. SGDI.5282. Ditt.Syll.113. Hicksl2o. Hoff49.

mann III. 14. Michel 324. Solmsen

"^ 8\\7\ <^\ '^ /< ^ <^ ^ \.\, '^ |9 ?

,, ^?

^\ ' ^
e(<?)

^' ^ ^
elvai,

||

. ^ ,^. ' '


i7r\i8e-

'\^'.
|

Be rt?

'\

7\< |

15

20

9. On a lecythus, now in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, the provenance

ment

of his opponents.
this

Cf. Diod.10.8.

Among
against

number were
this decree

the two

men

of

which

is

not stated. Probably manuinscribed


in

whom

was enacted,

factured in Boeotia by a Chalcidian


potter, or at least

the

one of them, Stratocles, being known as one of the two envoys who were sent
Cf. Dem.Olynth. Amphipolis was a colony of Athens,but the population was mixed. Cf.
to Atliens for aid.
1.8.

Chalcidian dialect. Note the retention

-/ ),
11.

of intervocalic

in the proper

(which later became


in
this niche

though not

nos.

: see 124. hiw:


When Philip
347 P.C., he caused
tlie

In

of the tomb rests Le-

12.
olis in

.- .
name
Thuc.4.102ff.

At

this time evidently

the Chalcidian element predominated.


3.
:

cf.

</)7^,
:

1.24.

These

captured Anipliip-

are the only

West Ion. examples of eo =


ei

banish-

i;(33).

19,

for

, 39

a,.

172
13. Eretria.

GREEK DIALECTS
(A) End
of

[No. 13
b.c.

SGDI.o308.

A
5

10 9

'^ , ^, .' ' ^ "^ \ \ <, , \ , , ^ '^


Ditt.Syll.47,48.
ret

cent, b.c,

Hoffmann

III.19.
\

(B) middle of TV cent. Michel 341.

Seoi.

<;

14. Oropus.

Syll.589. HoffmannIII.2o. Michel 698. SohiisenoO. Ziehen,LegesSacrae65.

0Oi.

:[].
10
13.

.^ . ' ,^^
I

"^^

euepjT7]V

||

/c[a]t 7ral8a<i

eivalt

ttoXlv

11

'Hpa/cXetrof

elvat

eivai he

|[

411-402, or 386-377 B.C.

IG.VII.23o.

SGDT..')339.

Ditt.

lepea

lepo^v,

iireihav

hiaXeiirovTa

iv

iepoi

||

'

()

eiri-

77/||7;<,

This and no. 14 are in the Ere-

the Boeotian

trian variety of Euboean, for wliich


see 187 (60.3).

nian domination.
in Attic.
1 ff
.

and the .subsequent AtheBut from the end of

the fourth century the inscriptions are

A. Ships of Tarentum formed part of the Peloponnesian fleet wliicli defeated


tlie

The

priest evidently pas.sed the

Atlieniansoff Eretria in 411 b.c. and


tlie

winters in the town, leaving the temple entirely in the charge of the custodian.

so led to

Athenian

loss of Eretria.

Cf. Thuc.8.91,0o.

It is in gratitnde

for this that Hegelochus of

Tarentum

visitors

But with the end of winter, when became more frecjuent, he was

and

his sons are lionored in this decree.


is

B. This decree

later than A, but

expected to go to the temple regularly, never missing more than three days at
a time and remaining there at least
ten days each month.
it

was inscribed on the same


Tarentum, and possibly
14.

stone, be-

cause both recipients of honor are from


relatives.

lie

was

to see to

that the custodian took proper care

Regulations of the temple of

Amphiaraus at Oropus. Oropus seems


before

have been an Eretrian posse.ssion it passed into the hands of the Thebans in the sixth centuiy, and preto

and its visitors. 9ff. If any one commits sacrilege in the temple, the priest shall have the right to impo.se a fine up to the sum of five draclimas and take pledges of the one
of the temple
'

served the Eretrian dialect throughout

penalized.

If

such a one offers the


No. 14]

173

IONIC INSCEIPTIONS
irevre

. \^ ^ , , . ^ ,\ 8 8 , , \, , ,, 8\ ,
^ ^^ , .
et<?

h'

e/CTiWi

a.p<yvpLOV,

lepea,

()\
lepol

,-

IhieL

<;

iv

lepol,

15

iv

jive-

irepl
ei<;

820

he

______

11

25

.
the

\\

[^. \
amount

had

30

money, he must deposit it in the treasury in the presence of the priest. If any one suffers a private wrong in the
temple, the priest shall decide matters

inscribed, the

of the fee

been raised, and at the same time another provision, which followed after

more than three drachmas, but the more important cases shall be tried before the proper courts. The summons for wrongs done in the temjjle shall be made on the same day, but if
of no

had been abrogated 'The priest shall make the prayers and place the victims on the altar, if he is present, but, if he
in
1.

and erased.

24,

off.

the opponent does not agree, the case

may
16.

17.

.
treated

34a, 134.

8 :
go over
:

till

next day.'

who gives the At the festival each shall make his own prayer, but the priest shall make the prayers for the sacriis

not present, the one

offering.

for the several offenses.


see 43.

fices in

behalf of the state, and he shall

see

receive the skin of all the victims.'

19.

30

ff.

SO,

.
is

in

there

was no

21

ff.

by the god

'The one who is to be shall pay a fee of

restriction as to the kind of victims to

be offered, such as
flesh

often

made

not
off)

le.ss

than nine obols of current

temple regulations, but in any case the

money

(no bad coin was to be palmed and put it in the treasury in the

presence of the custodian.'


is

shorter

ably

crowded into a space where a word had been erased, i)resumSince the law was first

-.

was not
:

to be carried off.

not

Eretrian inscription of later date,which

never has

32
is

=
ff.

, (, ,

31.

for an

reads
Si

Upei

'

the

priest

to

have the .shoulder of each

35

8
174

,
8<;,

GREEK DIALECTS

[No. 14
el

"
_

6
. . .

a7r||o

______

40

^^,

7 \7
45

^
.
. .

)
VI

X\o'yov

^
Iv
:

.' \ ^ ,
7^
ev

< '?
(><;

. \, ^, <^ leprjov.

iyKaOevSetv
\

__

- -

iv

lepol

iv

||

<;, '
iv

iv
.

7|[/97;9

iv^aehova

Arcadian
15.

A.M.XXI,240fe.; XXX,65.

}
I

or early

cent. B.C.

SGDI.373.

Ditt.Syll.G25.

Roberts 237a.

/.
.

16. Mantinea. " cent. . c. Fougeres,B-C.n.XVI,.568f. Homolle,ibid. Baimack, Ber.Siichs.Ges. 1893,93 ff Keil, Gott.Nachr. 1895,319 ff. 580 ff. Danielsson,Eranos 11,8 ff. Fougeres,Mantinoe,523 ff For v\, which is tran-

scribed

15

[/] ' 8 ['\


tlien
'

see 4.4.

victim, except wlien there

and
38.

is a fe.stival, only from the victims offered

for the state.

30.

39

ff.

'The custodian

33. Up-(\ov.
is

.
'AXeav
[11.

2-12 proper names].


||

[
.

[]46.
:

the

women
6.

to the west, '


:

41.4

-7'[8

see

Ae

designated by

-.

37,

H, as in no.
15.

9.1.

Dedication inscribed on a bronze

to inscribe the

cymbal, which, according to the more


probable of two varying reports, was

name of each one wlio consults the oracle, when he lias paid his money, and
place
it

on a tablet in

tlie

shrine so
see
it.'

that any one

who
:

wishes

sleep in a

may

.
as

found near the modern Dimitzana in edvae Arcadia. Formerly read and ascribed to Thessalian, later

as elsewhere, those

wishing to consult the oracle went to

room
the

of the temple assigned

dedication reading
in

for this purpose (see following),

and
'

received

oracle

in

43

ff.

iv S(

dream.
:

the

men and women are to lie in separate places, the men to the east of the altar,

which the earlier (6, 22) is replaced by 10. Judgment against certain persons guilty of sacrilege toward Athena Alea, whose temple had been made the

. ,
=
is

But

the use of

confirmed by a later

aas


No. 10]

AECADIAN INSCRIPTIONS

, '^\4 9,
|

^ (<;) ^,8^ (). ?


ire
[

lepol,

ivai.
tepoi

'

[<? evuL

[ ]

,'
evai.
et

re

,
'
e[-v//']eTOt

175
|

ivai,

[eVjet

7[8]8[]
<yevo^
[e'Jaroi

[]
el

[']

TOT^e

:]|

'^
rot'

eiae

, [^ 81^
/^e,
et'cre

a^Xtrepioi^

e'cae

<

evai.

(^a|0^eV[o]

,\ ,[|

'20

et

||

()

25

elae

iajo-

et

30

||

rore

iepoT\

fe[p<yov
expect eU

]\
a).

scene of a bloody fray.


difficulties in the

Most

of the

iav.

reading and interpre-

18

':
ff.

We should

(134.2
151.2.

aor. subj. pass.

tation have been cleared up, but

points are
1
.

still

uncertain.

The following are adjudged guilty

towards Alea.
1

46. 1.
Iv

, \ .
,

epi.S0de, Att.

,'
Cf
,

[](
no. 17.4,

with the more usual

.
1.3 f. 1-5 ff.

some

and for the whole

4
the

iepoO

9jyov tovs

',
shows
oracle.

IG.II.814,p.281.

form of the name was a foreigner from Attic or Ionic territory. As such, and because his guilt was in question, his case is treated separately, and his penalty depends upon the decision of the
as
(cf.
1.

? ? . ',
acre/Seias

aorist,

and judgment upon the guilty parties as follows, namely that, having given up their inheritance, they shall forever be excluded from the temple, in the male line, it shall be well {propitious). But if any one permits
the goddess the judges, have passed

Inasmuch as we,

anything
it

else,

contrary

to these things,

shall be impious.
:

see

17-

30),

Horn,

imprecation, although
as elsewhere
lepbs Iv

-,
:

'[][8], 10. 22. 94.1. 22.


is

a formulaic expression,

retained here in the


the ordi-

nary prose word for day in Arcadian


(cf.

he
is

a &v. 58 a.

aor. subj.

95, 149.

no. 17).
in

Similarly

If
to

condemned by divine judgment

forfeit his property, this together with


the slaves shall belong to the goddess,

and

one shall divide (between the goddess

and

the state ?) the houses which he pos-

a Tegean The following imprecation shall pursue the sinner. Or, inread stead of [] from 30 ff. If Phemander [a]eTOL shall be ? is a murderer of either the men or the maiden who perished at that time in the temple, and the deed of that time loas not
inscription.

24.

sesses {on the heights, referring to

coun-

try houses in the mountains?).

[i

of prior date, in that case he shall be punished as an impious person. Apparently

a]v: uncertain, but

more

likely than

Phemander had

set

up an

alibi

176
35

GEEEK DIALECTS
e(?),

[No. 16

Tore

fp'y[ov

],

<;

yu.f

[].

el
||

Be irpoaaOa'yeve'i

ivat.

, ^
8'

17. Tegea. Early IV cent. B.C. Hoffmannl.29. Michel695. Solmsenl. Ziehen,LegesSacrae62. Alphabet transitional; E = e, 0=5, B = A; Ion.

hiepev TreVre

el

'

XeVTOV

evai.

\,

vaL

]?
tie

-^
translate

8
seize,
11. 11.

alya

el

ala/ce^e?

to the effect that the

deed of violence

may
II.

up,

but in

took place before he entered the temthe reading is ple. 34. l(s)

14-15 the seizure of small animals,


animals, seems extreme, espe-

contrasted with a tax of a drachma for


large
cially in connection

TOTEE, which some transcribe

^e.

But

^e

Ilom. ^ev

is

impossible.

The

with

18-19.

The
is

form

though unfortunately we can get this only by assuming that has been omitted by mistake. 17. Regulations of the temple of
to be expected
is ^s,

interpretation impose a pasture tax

on the whole more satisfactory, though

by
is

this too the expre.ssion in

14-15

Athena Alea. The


graphs,
11.

first

five

para-

1-20, deal with the rights

of pasturage in Alea, the district in

which the temple was situated and which was included in the temple property. The temple officials mentioned are the hieromnemon, the chief

by apparent lack of contrast. One must assume that the pasture tax was a fixed and merely nominal sum, and that the tax of one drachma for the larger animals was in excess of
strange,
this. IIesychiushas^yii0o|Oj3tov

which

is

parallel to

house-rent,

,
is

administrator of the affairs of the temple (also, in the plural,


tlie

board of

administrators), the priest, and the hierothijtes,

would be derived impose a pasture tax, and from this again, as if from -', the inij^osition of a
pasture tax. Cf. Solmsen,K.Z. XXXIV,

a minor official charged with

the technical details of the sacrifice,

437

though in some places this title came to be one of high rank. The Fifty and the Three Hundred were, doubtless,
civic bodies.

The
are

nected with
der,

,, 4
critical

wise

beyond the number allowed. 3. or a part. Tov probably an adv.


:

and

difficult

Avords

{, ,
ff.

^
is

harhor-dues, etc.

From

this

2.

'(-:

if he acts other-

intrans.), that

goes

ff.

uieixmngivittingli/, intentionally,

plainly con-

but there

no certain etymon.

feed,

halter.

Starting from

derived meaning seen in

fodtlie

the hierothijtes

may

pasture in Alea animals loithout blemish

one

(and so suitable for the sacrifice), hut

ARCADIAN IE"SCE1PTI0NS
177

No. 17]

8^

/xeS'

? '^
'

\<. \\ , < 88 ^, [~\\ ? 6[ , \^ < [^ '^ 8'^/[.


Et/c eirl

,
[
.]

^ \ ^' .'\ , , ^ , ',


el

'

iarrepaae, hvoheK\p

Tpnravayopato^
Iv

^ ee
|?

varepwi rph
el

'

'^'
[

eairepdaa^L Trap
Iv

>

8. ?

Xe'ye tiLepo-

otl

hav

||

Trepi^dpoi,
el

lvo\pev.

ee

eVt

el

'

6\\,

15

hiepa

'
|

el

'

,
11

, \. , 8
|

Et'/c

8
]|09

'

[
in a

. 8\
, 8'\\'\
left.]

20

25

30

Uavajopaiov

[3135 only a few words

for those not unblemished (and so suitable only for personal use) one shall

uncertain, but probably If one drives

wagon

to the sacrifice off the

high

impose a pasture tax.

He

shall not

go

road leading through Alea, one shall

beyond what he declares in his function


of hierothytes. That is, his official statement as to the condition of the ani-

pay afine of three obolsfor each (wagon),


etc.
:

mals
9.

is final.

&: .
struction.

58. hicpoOvTc's
,.
5
(.

7.
:

os
21.

.
:

aor. infin. i^ass.

dle force, to offer sacrifice. 95.


all

&

()

6..

5.
are to

with mid:

2(3 ff.

The

officials

78, 157.

make

arrangements for the

used like

20. Unless the Fifty or the Three Hundred approve. Ace. abs. con-

iroi<re:

Horn,

sence of &v

, .
173.

aor. subj. to fut.


Ildt.

:,
ff.

market, which was held at ancient festivals as at our modern fairs. Cf.
I)itt.Syll.(]r,3.09ff.

28.
is

-]:

temple.
cf.

probably to be restored thus, and taken as an adjective agreeing with


but the meaning
able
?).

.sec

174.

2y

For abMeanin<i

uncertain (sale-


178

GREEK DIALECTS

[No. 18

sen

TOL,

10

' ^ \ ^ ^ ^,, ^
18. Tegea. Ill cent. b.c. SaDT.1222. Iloffmannl.30. Michel 585. Solm2.
7j-e
.

\o

yii>j]roi

epyoi,

irepl

epyov

otl

ay

'^
|

8,
[

'.

<|

15

, /,
'.
6
ei

[[

epya,

() epyva
[]
epy,
||

lyKe^riprjKoi

apyvpiov,

' [/]
1

20

yv

, ,
|

epyv
|

.
| |

pyo,

yap[v^
yvevov

8,

^
1

II

pyv
18.

ei

,
loork, as re:

yeva
|

^,
:

Regulations governing building-

lohatever

money

he

may

have received

contracts.
ff.

and withdraw from


if any trouble arises between

the work, if those giv-

the contractors

on the same

gards the work.


as in

4.

from

the

time when, relative use of the article,


1.

14 etc.

Seel2"6.

6ff.

If

tracted for, or should destroy

.
ing,
'

any of the works conany of those completed. Note the change of mood. see 80. For 9. war
shall interrupt

introduce the matter, Att.

15 ff. If any one makes opposition to the allotments of the works or does an injury in d any ivay, etc. l St Tis, detached from verbal phra.ses, has come to be used independently in the sense of a simple indefinite, as is sometimes et Tis in Attic (e.g. Thuc. 7.21.5). Cf tl ri 1. 32. 18. o<rai
.

ing out the contracts so order.

ttoc-

with tohatever penalty seems best to them.

11.

Att.

form

20.

to the court

of gen.

Instead of sale of plunder the

word must mean here simply jdunderthe city being subjected to plunff.

21

to

suit the
:

amount of
not

this,

der.'

12

Hut

if

any one who has

made a

contract has not begun on the

boon shown to be the correct reading. ff. 'No more than two partners for any one piece of work, and no
contractor to have more

which

is

constituted

the penalty.

has recently

worksand war interrupts, he shall return

than

two

No. 18]

AKCADIAN INSCEIPTIONS

179

7\
epya
. .

8[^ [1] ''^ []^ ' 8)(<, ' [^ .' '

.
Be
| |

Se he
[rjt?
el

oirep

, ^ ^^ ,' ^, ^ ^,
|

iepcov
irepl

Se

, ^, eirl
11

irXeop

25

epya

wXeova.

Et
||

30

[']

Tt[?

epya

el

et

Teye'aL

et

'

'

^<?

' '.
||
||

'
[

0^
6

35

Lyyvo<;

Et

'

epjov
et're

etVe lepov

etVe

40

<;
|

<;

7. <;
pieces of

et

'

eVt

Et
the
'

'^

epyoL^

'

rt?

<^used imper-

virepa-

45

BeaTOi

epya

work without

unanimous

consent of the heliasts.

.
So

24.
:

1
be in:

Mlkos, like Cret.

vSticos, is

sonally with the dative of the person

any one who

loishes

may

former, receiving half the fine as a re-

ward.
Att.

fourth letter from the end

.
to the
else

2.

(11.

43,

28.
not

. , [<]
.
for

who is liable to suit. For ci.Aemn.ose'a^o^stheUtigants


SGDI.1432

,
37
ff.

, andDelpli. ej/St/cafo/xeiOi?/

subjected to suit

.^.

'If

the

a contractor injures any of


contract, he
it

tlie exist-

is

uncertain,

but probably

o.

See 157.

33

ing works contraiy to the terms of the

ff.

Owing
is

preceding lacuna, the ocOtherwise he {the con-

put

casion and intent of this prescription

not clear.

must at his own expense good condition as it was at the time of the contract. Otherwi.se he must pay the same penalties that are
in as

tractor) shall not be liable to suit

anyhe
is

fixed for other pieces of

work

over-

where

than in Tegea.

But

if

due.'

45

ff.

'If a contractor or

work-

pay double the amount for which the suit is brought. And the same person who was {the
subjected to suit, he shall
surety) for the work, shall be surety for
this fine,

man seems to

be abusing the works, or

disobedient to those in charge, or disregardful of the established fines, the

for

its

refers

back

to

workman may be
trial

expelled from the

payment. Iv not to

work, and the contractor brought to

-.

and

fined in the

same way

as

is

'

180
7;

; 6^
|

yeypajr^T^OL.

8[],
7
Tis Iv

^ ^

GREEK DIALECTS

^'^?
|

',
e?

[n.>. 18

'

Tay

kolvclv

yypaov ^^^

prescribed for those

sition to the allotments.'


:

for

11.17-10.
abs.

- ^^ .^ -?
who make oppo-

epyoi

yeypav\aL av^yy

\\.
ff.

7< ? ^
epyoi,
11
1

4<-

epyov etVe lepov etVe

The

giving out of the contracts and acis

50.

ceptance of proposals

conden.sed expression
Cf.

53

the .same thing.

'This general contract shall be

Tos 173. io-8oKais


51.

in force in addition to the .special con-

acc.

tract for the particular piece of work.

in

1.

IG.

Cyprian
The Cijprkin
Si/lhihdrij

Nearly all the Cyprian inscrijitions are written in a special syllabary. This consists of signs for eacli of the five vowels these being used where

no consonant immediately j^recedes, that is initially and for the second and signs for each combination of consonant and element of diphthongs

following vowel, as 7na, me, etc.

But there

is

no distinction between long

and short
aspirate.

wels,

nor, in the case of mutes, between surd, sonant,


ie

and

Hence the sign


stand for
<t

(the transcription with


?;,

is

a matter of conven-

tion)

may

re,

,,

, or .

Xasals before consonants are

not written, e.g.

li

().^

For a final consonant the sign containing the vow'el e is used, e.g. kase For groups of consonants the first is indicated by the sign containing the vowel of the syllable to which this consonant belongs. That is, its vowel is determined by the following in the case of initial groups and con-

sonant
also

+ +

licpiid

consonant

euve re (a sa tu

ples of other groups are rare."

,
(cf.

by the preceding
89.1).
a
r<i

in the case of licpiid

\\\
In ro

pntoUne
apyvpo,

sc la se

-,=
,

.,
patiri

consonant, and

Exam-

1 In the Greek transcription the mutes are distinguished and the nasal before are used, in accordconsonants is supplied in parentheses. But land , not r;, ance with the practice adopted for other inscriptions where the signs and are jiot in u.se. For .some uncertainties in regard to the proper transcription, .see 199. 2 We find me ma na me not = but i ki ka si ke ne to i se = na koto terekinija ripxvija, tij^etera- ma me nose =

se

= -fduaKTos,

$,

(,

-, -

No. 10]

CYPRIAN INSCRIPTIONS
are separated

181

Words

by a

special sign,

but this
is

is

commonly, though not

uniformly, omitted after the article, and sometimes in other groups of


words. In such groups a final consonant
often treated as medial, hence

tapotoUne

(/)

,
I

etc. \^ cent. i?.c.

19. Idalium.

Probably

SGDI.60. Hoffmann 1.185. Solm-

sen3.

The
is

first five lines

scription.

In this

only are given in the more exact syllabic trandenotes the word separator, not the line division,

which

indicated by numerals.
|

1 ote tapo toll nee tali one kate vorokonematoi kaseke tievese itoi pilokuporone vete itoonasako 2 ran pasile u se sa ta si ku po ro se ka se a po to li se e ta li e ve se a no ko ne na si lo ne to no na si kn po 3 ro ne to ni j a te ra ne ka se to se kasikenetose ijasatai tose tose itai a to ro pose ma iki 4 ma me nose mi si tone kasapai euvereta kai aneu ka se a po to li se sa tu pa si le u se na si 5 lo i ka se to i ka si ke ne to i se a ti to mi si to ne ka a ti ta u ke ro ne se to
|
I | |
|

venai
"Ore

e xe toi

etc.

()

'

< ' '0^/|] ?


()
<;
^

\ ^ .
perei ro

ijuTepav

^\, \<; '? /? {)0<


{)
tttoXlv ^FjSUXlov Karepopyov

Kerie/re?
2

avuyov

ijaaOai

avev

?
|

rot? KaaiyveTOt^

ri^Se,

(\) (\) <;

Sofevai

{),
<;

^
{)
1{)

1{)
4

{) \
'^

.(^)' {)
19.

Kaai'jp'Toi'i

'

()

eXei

()
||

"0(y)Ka(v)TO<i

Tep-^vija

76()

^^ {)
of the
i$.c.

10

Agreement

of the king

and city

between the withdrawal


nian expedition of 449

Athe-

of Idalium with

tlie

physician Onasikis

and

liis

brothers for the care of the


the siege of the city
tlie

wounded during

by the Persians and


This siege
is

inhabitants of

and the union of Idalium and Citium under the Phoenician king Melekyathon, about 3!)1 n.c
1.

the Phoenician city of Citium.


to be placed

cf.

He.sych.
is

-.

somewhere

Put

S.'Xjrov

here

not identical with

182

iravovLov
12 e

14

!
18

20

22

24

26

^ ^ ^, -^ ^^ \
I8e
Treiaet

, <
<;
(/)
pijav

< ? ()
<'
^

GEEEK DIALECTS
areXev.
e

ai<i

^
/ca?

[No. 19

(), {) Kaaiyverov
'

()
ireSijac

Kaacyveroi^f e

().

/3|?

Sofevat

7re(XKefa<i)

7re(XKfa<i)

\\\ {)\
^iaXavija\i

{) '^ 8() ()
Tep\^^VLja

^ ^
| |

^<;

()

K^evija

6()

To.'i

<;

'{) () ()

<

(^)

7() 7(),

'
e

(/)
iepe-

1()

At/ret'^e/xi?

(),
TatSe
e

Tep^vLja
e

v\fal<i

ctTeXija

09

apyvpdlv 7re(XeKfa^)

()
28 30

09

8,? ? 8
,
()
(^)
is

8 ]
11.

Treiaet

' 7(<;)
peinja

()8,
1()

{)

voja

,8 <8
{). <;
'
|

poL

< ^. < ^
ufal<i
fa-,

? .< /^
|

{) (). [/ .
?
11

]? \, () {) 7() ,

'/?

7\1-

e%ey

TO{v)he,

()
i.s

(cf.

20, 21)

and

probably
iravoviov
:

but

tlii.s

very uncertain.

plantation or orchard.

with
ing

all

agreeing with

not coordinate. So in
ace. pi. agreeing with

]
(11.

salable products (wtos),

6()

being disregarded, as
1.

10.

29.

Whoever
impiety

violates these agreements,


rest

adj.

may

the interven-

22

()
afl
is

18, 20).

6{)

^
:

shall be held guilty of

upon him, that is he an impious act.

is

For the force of 6, the formation of which is wholly obscure, see 131. But
it

and
d%

may
20.

also be taken as a conjunction

vifals

{6?).

possibly connected with

live,

vfaU forever, m.C). ^av and on the basis of a third by-form

{?).

Monument
and
38.

to Stheneias, son of

^,

Nicias and grandson of Caucus.


168f?,

See

No. 21]

LESBIAN INSCRIPTIONS
Lesbian

183

20. Cebrene. Accent. B.C. SGDI.;}07. Hoffmann 11.132. Roberts p.324.


Solnisen 4.

^^raXXja

'irl

, ^.
IV
cent.
8.

21. Mytilene. First half of

IG.XII.ii.l. SGDI.213. Hicks94.

Hoffmann 11.32. Michel

8olmsen5.

\av
8e

[^[ __-_---____|_-__J '^ \\'\, \

____

<;

'['\7]

/? ^, '
|

.^ ^^ \^
v[^p^^Lov

^1\^]

\\
[]
to

'^, , [^, '


7r\[e]|a9

, ; ^,
I

_______

^oTTi

Se

at]

'?

eh

Se

\_\\
ev

''

8[^;
[]||?

[^^ ^~

10

[^^

\{).

'
15

v8apeaTe[p]o[v'\

' 6 7['\< []

\{)

^^^,

21. Monetary agreement between Mytilene and Pliocaea. Coins of elec-

The Mytilenians
first (the cities

are to issue the coins

alternating eacli year),


into effect

trum, a compound of gold and silver, were issued by Mytilene and Phocaea,

The agreement goes


tilene

under

the prytanis succeeding Colonus at


4-5.

Myif

down

about

3.50

b.c, and
is

thesethat the inscription refers, though


the term used of

them

'Any one debasing the coinage

.
it

is

to

and Aristarchus at Phocaea.'

[ ']: ^,

is re-

sponsible to both cities. If at Mytilene,


the magistrates of Mytilene are to con_
stitute the majority of the judges. Simi-

larly at Phocaea.

The trial

falls

within

sixmonthsof the expiration of the year.


If

one
if

is

convicted of intentional adulis is

and in 11. 7-8, has the same meaning which is more forcibly expressed by in 11. 13-14. Another restoration is here and in 11.7-8. The arrangements for trial im_ mediately following show that the meaning required here is debase, not
correctly supplied here

]
the alloy,

[]

teration, he

to

be punished with death.

make

i.e.

.simply coin, as often

But

he

acquitted of intentional

wrong-doing, the court shall decide the


penalty or
fine.

The

city is not liable.

Moreover the electrum coinage of tins time and place was based upon a natural, not an artificial, alloy.
taken.

184

8e TTo'Xt?
20

.\
|

GREEK DIALECTS

['].
6
||

5 1^09

10

^^^ ^ '^ ^^ '


22. Mytileiic. S()(mafter.'i24

-^ \^]\^.

.,

'^ ^\.\ e[/x

^
35(J.

[No. 21

..

IG.XII.ii.O. Sr;DT.214. Ditt.Orient.2.

IIicksl(34.

Iloffmaim 11.83.

Iuscr.Jurid.II,pp.3iii.

Michel

sen6.

, ? ^[
[^,
[^^

ol

^\\<;

')^^^^

i'^v

'^^\ '

' 7[ , ^ 7'^\^\<; '^ \ '^


irrl

^8

^^

rat]
eirl

[^.

^^^

Solm-

iv

irrl

iv

iv

\^\
|

iv

iv

7]8 \' '^ [] ^^

\^,

^'^ [] ^ ''.
|

]^^
]

]9

Measures taken for the settlebetween the exiles who returned under Alexander's edict of 324 B.C. and the remaining citi23.

ment

of disputes arising

any of the property which those who remained in the city have surrendered
to him,

but rather those who surrenenter into possession of


it,

dered

it .shall

zens of Mytilene.

and the generals


erty to the one
exile has not

shall return the prop-

Most of the restorations adopted are by Dittenberger I.e. But in many cases others are equally
those preferred
possible.
1 ff.
'

who remained

in resi-

dence, on the ground that the returned

conformed

The

shall favor the

And the one who remained


ment.
guilty of fraud.

\$
Nor,
if

to the agree-

shall favor the

in residence

on the

returned exile on the ground that the

ground that the returned

exile

has been

who remained in residence lias been guilty of fraud. But if any one of the returned exiles does not abide by these terms of settlement, he shall not receive any property from the city, nor shall he enter into pos.session of
one

any one brings court and inspectors of justice, or any other magistrate, introduce it.' 13 ff. 'The
suit, .shall the clerks of the

officials

are to intervene
tlie

if

all tilings

prescribed in

decree are not carried

[ ^ \\ \\ 8 ^ ]\ , [ , ^ 6] [ ^
No. 22]

LESBIAN INSCEIPTIONS
'[aWa'\i'i

070<;
ev

<;

||

[ '^,
j

jeypaTTT^at, KaraypevTOV

'^\,
7]/?09

aOerevra

^
185

15

3\[

ev toll

hid'yoiev

^\\\6

ev

ev

|[9 |

[vrpo'cr^e eov-

ev

\\[7
[

'

eXeaO^ai

eiKoai,

ae\vv, ^]
eovTeaai.

\[. [

20

he

ev

irpoaOe

\\
\\[

\ovTOi he

ev

re

Kpivve,

\[, [
j

ev

~\

'\

irepl

ev

.
|

' -

25

avvaXXay^ai

Taj
Ke

Trepl

^ .[ . \[, ,
j

Ke

[ 6[^
\\

7 \[6

, [
|

]9,
[

ot]

Ke 6

,^ ^ /'

irepi 30

irepl

Ke

35

out,

and condemn any one who

dis-

ciled, or,

if

not, that they shall be as

regards them, so that there

may

be

no disagreement between the two parties and they may live amicably and abide by the decision of the king arid the settlement reached in this decree.' 21 ff. 'Twenty men are to be chosen as mediators, ten from each party. They are to see to it that no disagreement ari.ses, and in Ww. case of disputed property they are to bring it about that the parties shall be recon-

and abide by the terms which the king decided upon and the agreement, and dwell Kegarding 30-31 ff. in harmony.' questions of money, after the terms of settlement have been accepted as far as possible, and regarding the oath and
just as possible, of settlement

'

other matters, the

report to the people,

men selected who shall

shall

take

such measures as .seem advantageous, If the people approve the mattersagreed

186
ivSem]
\ai.
40

ev

OeoiaL

iirl

45

f>

10

yap

15

. ^' [ ^^ ]\] ] , ' ^


[eju^aro,
e|j[[e7reyLci^e

,
oei'yTjV

eovTeaat

\_1^

[ , ^[ ] \\[ [ [? \ ^ \'\. ^
\[<;
j

,
8]e

'

GREEK DIALECTS
[vre/at

<;

||

\ ^
eVjt
ev

[No. 22

\-

<yeve-

/cat]

yeveexioiat

[rjot?

09

^^

\_
|

^ ] ^
Ma/ceKXe[i-|[

a^yye-

23. Nesos.

Ditt.Orient.4. Hicksi 138.

the text of side

Between 319 and 317 B.C. TG.XII.ii.G45. SGDI.304. Hoffmann II. 129. ]\Iichel3G3. SolmsenT. Only A is given here, the more fragmentary being omitted.

']1

Trap
6

, [\
[

]
[

||

aTpoT[ajoiai]

upon, they

may decree

[] , ,
|

7]
the

/^

. [^\7]
^
|

[\ ] [

p'y

i^l'y]

'
for

same

privi-

leges for the exiles returning in

the

prytanyof Smitliinas as for the others.' 38-30 ff. When the decree has been
'

be made annually on the anniversary of the king's birthday in the presence of the twenty men and the me.ssengers. 2.3. Decree in honor of Thersippus

confirmed, the people are to pray that


the settlement
welfare.
to

may

be for the general

The priests and priestesses are throw open the temples. The sac riflees wliich were promised when the messengers were sent to the king are to

MaceFor the historical referencessee Hicksand Dittcnbcrger, I.e. There are some
for using his influence with the
city.

donians in behalf of the

forms, as
side

-^. ,

be-

No. 23]

LESBIAN INSCRIPTIONS
avvajaje.
I

187

[iyever^o Sk

^09]

Trap
11

< '\<
||

[? ]

[-^^

Tcoy

ei<;

[^^.

Karear

'\^\, ~\
Trpoehpiav

^ ^ ^, ' \\ ^^
Ta|[7yU.eVo]i<>

^ ^[^ ^ < \<;7[|


[^
'^[\'\,

,'^'\,[ '^^
|

'^\
et<;

Trepi

anoheiav

\, ,|

apj][p

aja-

20

et9

7]|[

rrape- 25
re-

evvoia<i

'

[^]'

. \\^
?
47.

' ^
he

^ ' ?
[
6

:]1
[eK^'yov^oiai, 30

<; 8\^\8^
6

<; 35
e'\v

7[[/]),

av8paj[a'P ^<;

<; ?
||

[\

\['\,

.'^'

'^'^

6 [/3]|77

, '
[7]7

lene.

^ ^^ ] , .
[/c]al

<;

[]-

40

)[/[7^']9

<; <;
avva^yaje
|

\^\

[^ <;

||

euayjeXia

(^<;

^'[]| [] Kev

45

50

'\^'^<^,
Labeo.
lectin

8
in
(5).

Therma, a place

\^

of marble from Lesbos near Myti:

This

is

a characteristic exam-

pie of the artificial revival of the dia-

ITopvoirias

temple of Apolio I'arnopius, the epithet being derived


IBoeot.

from

48

ff.:

,
:

site

of the

Roman

imperial times

With

the geni;ine dialect forms are

Lesb.

'Thersip-

^,-, ,
interspersed
etc.;

forms as

pus may also have the decree set up elsewhere in any sanctuary that he chooses and add to it a statement of

hyper-Aeolic forms as

, ,, 4,
77,

,
(cf.

280).

TrXd^eoj

(words with original


with

and examples of
(36),

late .spelling as

?,

not

a);

any

of his other benefactions.'

84.

Decree iu honor of L. Vaccius

-,

et

(21),

with

188
24. Cyme.

GREEK DIALECTS
Between
2 n.c.
-

'^
-

[/][9|
||

<;
10

', < '?*


15

,, ' \, ' , 8[/]


-

and

ev

^[)

[eya\o]7pe7e()aL
re

re

^^

^ ^ ',
[No. 24
1!)

a.d.

SG1)I.:311.

Hoffmann IT. 173.


ev

\[<; , '^<
-

ev

';

-|

<

\^

re

rrpovTrap'y

<
6
|

20

< <^ ' <;

, \,^ , \
7roXio<i
\\

7< '; ^,
ev re

<; 9

^
<?

evep-

25

'

'^
|

(66).
etc.

(iiiiin.),

the normal Mt-forins

\ ,
is

(155.8) are probably


(1. fj),

' ^ \ ,
ehvoav

-\

<;

Be

ei<i

||

beside

artificial.

if

correct,

,
tion of
(1.

with Att.
is

a contaminapass., like

-from the

30-37)

an aor.
e

infin.

indicative

graver).
find

The forms
rowed
.scribed

,, .
with
carried over

and Lesbian accent). But it is to determine whether in form was adopted such cases the as a whole or only in part (cf. 280), and moreover by this time little, if anything, was left of the sound of the So the s])iritus asper even in the
with
'

impossible

/?

.
the

(perhaps only by the ento psilosis,

transcription cho.seu
.sequence.

is

of small con-

With regard

we

but

15

ff.

Tie

deprecated

excessive

of the relative, being bor-

fi-om the

(126), are trail-

with
etc.);

'

throughout

(cf.
al.so

al.so

^'
fer

and one might

pre-

and deini-. r/od.s, of dedicating a temple and naminghim founder, thinking it to be enough to have observed the judgment and good
honor, suitable only to gods
will

and

(instead of

of the people, but the honors suitable

No. 24]
et?

, \ 8 ,, '' ^ \ ' '^ \ ^, ^ , '^ , ^, ,


ttoXlv SiaOeaiv,
'?;!^ iv

,
iirl
|

LESBIAN IKSCKIPTIONS
eh

189

8\
iv

je

'^, ?
^; ,

irpoehpiav,

Kev

iv

-^^

30

'

AevKiov

evepyeTav,

<;

eh

et||/coya'?,

i'y^pv
iv

i'

i'fpv

?
|

i^LXava

'^,
|

-^

^, ,
6
11

'^-

35

40

Kopayilav

/-^?,

<,
ayopav

p'y'av,

^^ . ,^ . ,
||

ivv

\^<^/
iv

,\ ?

45
|

avaypa-yp-ai

^/
||

^
]

,
||

^,
accepted tvith gratifica:

\, , ".
iirl

',, '
'wlionPolemon was priest
Augustus.'

\-

iv

50

55

r,o

to

good

tion.

47.

men

((
fie

tioiis.

5Gf.

name

of the tribe

of

Rome and

in tlie

nom.

sg., as in

Latin inscrip-

190

GREEK DIALECTS
Thessalian
Pelnsgiotis

[No.

mann
a.

25. Larissa. V cent. B.C. II. 42. Roberts 240.

lG.IX.ii.0G2-6G:5.

l.

26. Site of
ii.l()27.

a.
h.
c.

"^. ^.
unknown

SGDI. 343-344.

Hoff-

identity, southeast of Larissa.

V cent.

b.c.

IG.IX.

[][].
oveOe/ce

Yipovo<i

27. riialanna.
5

cent. B.C.

IG.IX.ii.l22f).
/ci?
|

Hoffmann

.5.

Nd/xo?.
I

At Ke
| |

/|;[]

10

'[]]/

^] [~\\\ a7r7re[ia|at]

%[/']k-

28. Larissa. About 214 b.c. IG.IX.ii.517. SGDI.345. Ditt.Syll.238239 (only the letters of Philip). Hoffmann II.IG. Michel 41. SolmsenO.

\ aj^euovrovv 'AvayKiTrTrot 'Kiriyeueo^ 'laaoveioi, 8[^\


\[7'\<;

^ 7 '' "?
3.5.

j(^aipeLV.

poi set

late inscription of

Tpos

6-[1][]

\.
168 f.

( $
up
to
:

i'yevovTO,

11

sc.
:

see 46,

586.

1234) reads
I

" \\ 5 Apollo of the

Aristion and his fellow

. 6See

,^ , \ ''
],\
6^
KXea/a^etot,
TroXet

^/?,
name
of a

an epithet of Apollo, ocis

52 b.

curs in IMiUarcli, and

^.
(cf.

month

in Thessalian

6
made

'?

the

and

Cretan.
28. Decrees of Larissa
in ac-

Phalanna (IG.IX. ii.


Kep8[o]iov
|

cordance with recommendations of the

ie-

or

6[]

38)?

Macedonian king I'hilip V, whose letters, dated 219 and 214 B.C. and written in the are included. The

No. 28]

7\
pov<i

%\
Tayovv

77 7[]
re

evTO<i

' ' <


err

\ ^''. ^
TrpoahelraL
,
|

THESSALIAN INSCEIPTIONS

191

'? ' 7\<; '< <; 8


ere-l

eVt

,
709

^<;, ?

<>

. '

^[]|[^
yap

'

\
:

, '
()
Ta<i
7roXt<i

"8 <<; ,'^ '^';,

||

, '. ''
<,
Sie
|

erof?

'AvajKiTr-

Xocira by
at-

10

12

Tro'^TeSeeTO

14

o(v)<i

^^
6

irep

ToDvveovv

6
Thessaliansatthistime were nominally
independent, but actually subject to

Macedonia.
10.

used, like Att.

specially summoned assembly.


:

eavToO.

-/ , ,
Cf. Polyb.4.7r).2.

(167.0)

is

:. . .

\ ' , ^
But
Cf.

10

-^
eypa-ijre,

18

-\\
20

ovypayjreiv

Cf. Ilesych.

in other Inscriptions
19f.

\.

only Aapto-aor (later)


:

/ -

choosing each the tribe to lohich


Troias

of a
tv-

ItJ.

he ivishes to belong.

gen. sg. with

So also

in

Other inscriptions of Larissa.

19.

two

? ]^

understood,

gen. sg.
Att.

traction to woias.

^ ,

192
iv
22

<'
"
\

GREEK DIALECTS
8va<i
"

ev

24

2()

peLV.

28

' '
ev Tave,
"

^, '^, ,, ,8 ^, ^'
|

^ 8,
[

,' ,,
ev lepov

\<

^FjTrtyeveo^ 'Jaaoveiot,

'
[No. 28

<

JvepSoiot,
'yavveiTei

TayevovTovv

.'50

32

34

. ],
CLvWeLTrelv,

, ' , , ,
et^irep

<

)
yap

'o'ye'ypaevav Toh Tayol^

eyeyovei

'^<
[

iroXei

eh

<;.

||

?;^

he

ypaa

\[^6
"

',
'['\
||

'

' [ei*?
|

!]^

()6
[^ ]
7pya

3(>

, [ '\

38

[^
ayopv
hv

iyo)

, -^
!

elvai.

pi. plpf.

of

4, (
28.

.
This

[^
'
:

[^ ,
ly
."

now attested from .some half dozen


It i.s probably due to the analogyof a<lverb.s like etc. 40. vcpUpouv: apparently equivalent,
.source.s.

fail.

Both word and ending are

classical.

38.

:.

iniss the viark,


po.stis

', ;/,

.20]

^|raLae'ua'i

'AXe|t7r7roi

<;

ev

<^ \< ? /,
<;

'
<;
\4[~^^0^
Kive^

THESSALIAN INSCKIPTIONS

193
"

\
iv

'^^ ^' , ' , \ \<


v7OJ\\['y'\paepov
irkp lepovv,

,
|

40

[^''\-\

/]

42

\_'\

11

iravTO'i

49-78].

ever of those ihat have been enrolled any meanpersons accuse.

<; ' {) ^. ' '. ^ .

\
29. Larissa.
in the

, '

" '^', ,

'^

6< '^ < ^^, 8 -<09>

7\^'^\

"
18.
|

44

"

'

"|.779

}\.pavvovvtot

^<;. \<;

TvpTOvvioc

^^?

[. 7992].

, 8<; <,
Hoffmann

<

?
6

46

48

[.
'79

II cent. u.c. IG.IX.ii.o.'33.

yioXOTOL []

20

apyv-

'

''^;
tSs
in

24

apyvpioL

language of adulation, to wip

ing not
(cf
.

1.

38)

and
Toj,

the decrees, both the one just previ-

, 41.

^.
bill

<( \.

136.1.
vol

Similarly

"-

lohorn-

another in-

.scription of Larissa

(1(}...)12.30).

29.

The whole
list

inscription of 44 lines

contains a

of manumissions, all in

43.

\.

the .same phraseology.


20.
inf\n.

ously passed and the present one.


so.

Cf.

Boeot.

vwirpb

5 \(,

aireiXevGepovo-Oiiv: perf.

with

$,

declared free.

194

GREEK DIALECTS

^
vovveiGi oi
II

30. Larissa. Late II or early I cent. .c.


[Nt/co]:Xea[?
I

IG.IX.ii.536.

^,' ^^ ',
]/3[)][9].
|

77<?, [\.

10-19].

^
||

XeiTopevovro'i 'Ayeilaia '3e[

Et/Ja/cXei8ai09,

, ^
| \

[No. 30

31. Craunou. IIcent.B.c. IG.IX.ii.4GL SGDI.361B. HoffmannII.54. Michel 302.

7\[,
^

[^'
- |

rovv

5
-

AvTLjeveioL,
-

[^],
10

[<;'\

7]?
15

^, .7[
Tv[vaoi

rayevo^VTOVP

\
'AvTijeveioL
/i]at /ca^'

\\ '?] ]<; ^^, ||']4, '[,


|

TevvaoL
'

A^vri^oveioL,

\[^^
|

20

/[]^
25

32. Phalanna. Michel 11-2 .

] [ [ '^\ [] ,\ \ ''' 86[ . ^ ^[ ?]. ,< [^^ ^'' ,\\'. ",, '^,
ttJot

\ ?' ) '
hehoa\eai,
|

ev re roi? TrpOTepo\v

-^
Ihhiav

Stere'jXet

evepyere^
/cat e]y

j^peiav

'? ']^ [^,


kolvov \ra^
eV
|

[eTraijveaai]

7[^'

']

()

iayovoi^
||

XoiJTra

\TOve

30.

Kefers to the Thessalian bullor


as

fight, the
it is

called in another inscription of

^^ ^' ,
\

?]

[
|[

^
']^
|

eaVTol

^]

ev

T]e[^ei]

ev

[^6

/ ]^'/

\ev

ev

Ill cent.

IG.IX.ii.l233.

SGDL1330. IIoffmannII.il.

oc

ove^OeiKav

31.

Decree

in

honor of Leon of Ma-

tropolis.

24.

in the con(?).

secrated places of the heights


in

But

Larissa, Ditt.8yn.671.

one suspects .some error of

the enaraver.

No. 33]

THESSALIAN INSCRIPTIONS
Tliesscdiods

195

33. Thetonium, not far froni Solmsen 10.


-9

Cieriuiii.

cent. B.C.

IG. Xll.ii. 257.

floiKLUTaL^

, ^' |

hv\opeovTO<i

SeTOVtot ehoKav

Kv rayd

^'\.

'
in
is

. .\ \\\
tol

yevet

Kevpepyerav

e\^^avaKa(h)hv.

-^
it

raybv

apyvpia

||

<?

iire-

eJTrot'e- 5

10

33. Decree of the Tlietouians in honor of Sotaerus the Corinthian, who had recovered the gold and silver objects that had been lost from the temple of Apollo. For the special dialectic
peculiarities,
5.

1, 10.

It is
is

obvious that the text as

stands

incomplete both at the


inscribed
in

94.7.

and peace. The phrase

':
see 214.
:

beginning and the end, although the

bronze tablet on which


is

it is

intact.

A horizontal

line

was cut
1.

the bronze to indicate that

did not

ov Kevfepyirav? See

belong with the following.


is

Either this

G.

Kiv

war

plainly the

'-

equivalent of the usual


(or

\4
is

one of a connected series of tablets, in which case 1. 1 forms the conclusion


of a decree given

on a preceding tablet,

\.), and

ex-

while the present decree was concluded

plained by the fact that in early times,


as also later in the time of Jason of

Pherae, the rayos was the military head


of the united Thessalians, appointed

on the following tablet or, as seems on the Avhole more likely, 1. 1 is the conclusion of the present decree, and
;

was added
bottom.
tion,

at the

only in time of war.

Jason of Pherae,

in boasting of the military strength of

, ^
no
it

the Thessalians on a

press this last

8>

8 -, 6 ..
war
footing, ex-

by

raybs

found that no space was


In this case
(cf.

- $ 6()5
hmos,

108.2) or, with correc-

when

Orestes, son of Pherecrates

^
read

top

when

it

was

left at the

0.1.8,9,12).

Tayia) and

was

/7(
So
(cf
.

(Xeii.Hell.

son of Philonicus, was


jective
(.see

?.

The use

would expect
time tohcn

of the gen. instead of the patronymic ad-

would be only another instance

in office)

were times of

war and peace

respectively.

But the

214) of divergence from the u.sual Thessalian. The addition of the grandfather's

use of the phrase does not neces.sarily


.show that the institution under which originated

name

is

unusual, but not unno. 20), likewise

precedented
the
u.se

(cf. e.g.

this

was in vogue at the time of inscription and, in any case, the


;

of vlos instead of the gen. alone

(cf.e.g.SGDI.1183,Arc.;Ditt.Syll.478,

Ta70sof

1.

8 is the municipal official, like

Stratus

irals

often

.so

u.sed in

Lesbian

the TayoL of no. 28.

and Cyprian).

vXiopos

occurs in Arist.

196

GREEK DIALECTS

[No. 34

, , ,^.
]6,

{'y)a[<;

[< ^ 7

34. riiarsalus. Ill cent. b.c. IG.IX.ii.234. SGDI.326. Hoffmann

^^. <; ^
||

7\[^
|

65.

<;
[

^^
^<}

e^o/LteW?

\'^'\

(Four columns of names follow.)

/' ^^, j

35. Temple of Apollo Ptous, near Acraephia. '^ cent. B.C. Br^al, M.S.L.VII,448. Holleaux, ibid. VIII, 180. Buck, Class. Phil. IV, 76ff.,437.

'^ ?/]'9
KaX/rol
Pol. 6. 8. G as the title of lar to the

woifeae

'^^.
35.

\
who

Boeotian

AttOQCjXovl

-^,

an official simibut nowhere else

than in this inscription as an eponymous


officer.

34. Pharsalus grants citizenship to

those

who have
Tois

assisted

it,

and

gives

epigram of four hexameter on asmall tile, broken at the bottom. Vs. 1. not siaiwe, but used in its earlier and more general sense of ornament, pleasing gift, about =
verses inscribed

An

land to each youth.


1
ff.

ois

'

to those

[]:
Vs.

have already from the beginning been


politically

use of

\,
associated
oil's
:

. ,
which

:
or

Cf. CIG.I,p.7, SGI)I.5507.

f[hea6\o],

cf.

fheKa-

no. 38 (526).
2. It is

(non-technical

possible that the second

not those who

letter is not

but

p, in

which case we

have already enjoyed citizenship), and have zealously assisted in to those

should read some such name as


(AVilamowitz).

war, just as to those


citizens of Pharsalus
ning.'

have been

rious restorations of the first .syllable

from the beginit is,

even as

Cf. SGl)I.21i)0

are of cour.se equally po.ssible.

already.

?
:

form is in agreement with and is either an epic patronymic or a


designation of the gens or phratry to
(a Boeotian;

serving just as aipreseui, SGI)I.18;)2.11

,
already chosen.
the district
Fields.'

with those


3.

known as the

Pop^iy

-, ()
'

in

, ^
In
5) belonged.

]The

eitlier case va-

note

No. 41]

BOEOTIAN INSCKIPTIONS

197

TO<i TO,

'^, -^, ' {)


'jop

36. A^ase probably from Tanagra,

{)
37. A'ase from

hiapov
Tlielies.

(\)
VI
cent. n.c.

Hcapov TO
38-39. Tanagra. \l
38.

. .
'
cent. B.C.

Urdiefi.
[re

.^

./3;(.1900,7.

.;^.1!)()(),1()7.

^
Trie.

cent. n.c.

IG.VII.593,606.
39.

epi.

SGDI.876,885.

40. Vase SGDI.1133.

of uncertain origin.

Probably

M.oya

?'

^
3.

'
ev
||

cent. n.c.

IG. VII. 3467.

,
Ditt.

41. Thebes.
Syll.120.

[Toil

6]/
the
of

Middle IV cent. b.c. Hicks 135. Michel 617.

pLOv\

6[
may

,
Vs.

Here stood the subject of

?
7[/31
in
:

\ ?
e'yu,
|

IG.VIL2418.

SGDI.705.

'\

ttJot

]'^.

^'
is

e7ro[Xe-

elsewhere, and,

if

the

correctly

The form
served
with,

names of the donors. which the final ov is preaiaposition

read, the dedicator was an Athenian or

Euboean.

ment with, or a noun


Vs.
of.
4.

/
:

be an adjective in agreeunderstood.

Hom.

65.

a rare imperative form

,
etc.).
.
.

Examples of the early spelland ae, 26, 30. For fhcKa- see \vith dat. see 136.6. 526. For
38-39.
oe

ing

40.

masc. in
(or

which occurs in Pindar, and in another Boeotian and a Corinthian inscription, and is formed, like by the

? -,
first

daughter of

, /,
(cf.
.

part of the

name

-.
-?
is

-d.

105.1a.

See 94.7):

The

identical with

that of the Boeotian

addition of a particle

pears in

Homer as

^.

town which apCf.

For the whole verse ending, compare h.Hom.l5and20, and Callim.1.96.


36. Cf. Paus.9.20.3
vaypg,,

6po%
\iyova-i.

,
as

in a later

iv

See

61..3.

:
of

Boeotian inscription.

et,

$. 58.
contributions for the

41. List

sacred

war (355-346 u.c). Byzantium


Note the retene

But here the epithet


found

^)

is
is

applied to Apollo.

was

at this time allied with the Boeo-

tians (cf. Dem.9.34).

the

same

tion of the older spelling

beside

198
5

^?,
<;.
}\.<;

^
\

''
|

GREEK DIALECTS

[... 41
irpiayee^: ^apoyjr

7/04[9]
10

[^ /3]'/?
SeKue^

15

6[]9 [/9].

20

25

^ <' [^' <9 ^9^-. \^ [] ^\<


|

," .

'AvaKTopte<;
|

\\

oySoeKOVja

avveSpoi

'7 ------

Teve\Pio<i\,

/, <; '^ ,
[^'^
||

7'<;,

apyvpta

[^

['\ \\['\. 8,
[7

-^^ \\\\ ------

-]|

Trpiayeie<i
||

['AJXe^ay-

[^\]
iv

irev-

/3;]]'9

avvehpoi

etvi^av

IG. VII. 2723.

42. Temple of Apollo Ptous, near Acraephia. Between 312 and SGDI.570. MichelllOo. Solmsen 13.

^ ' , ' ^
[^'['\
|

^^^, '77<;
]09
eZo9,
a.s

[/c]XeZo9

^ <, '^
||

\\\\'^,

0eicr7rie[tO9],

M^'^ ('^,

\\^
^^,
:

[']['\<;

,, '^, [] 479.
Cf. Att.

<; /[][]

30-1 n.c.

7rpt(r7s

beside

npiffyeies,

Attic

in

the dedication.

beside

and Attic

Att.

From

used like
used of a

gen. sg. in -ov beside -.


22.
article,

shrine made after the model of another,


as that of Asclepius modeled after the
(cf. Roberts II. 06. 13). Observe that in the case of the representative of Plataea the gen. sg. of the

relative use of the

unknown

in tlie later

Boeotian

one at Epidaurus

inscriptions.

See 126.

42. Dedication of a tripod to Apollo rtous by the Boeotian league. This is one of a series of four belonging to the

father's

name

is

used, not the patron,

same i)enod

*5.

8
or

(IG. VII. 2723-27246).


:

those ivho .^crve as

The same holds true in the other tliree dedications, and it is jjrobable that this is
adj. as in the case of the others.
jiot

official

representatives at

accidental, but that the Tlataeans,

No. 43]

BOEOTIAN INSCKIPTIONS

199

is.c. IG.VH.:3172. SGDI. Solmsenl5. The sections of the text are gh'en in the order in which they were inscribed (cf. 11. 30 ff.), but the numbering of the original publication is added in paientheses.

43. Orchoiuenos.

488.

Inscr.Jiirid.I,pp.276 i.,509

?,
Tot
ypayjrav

, , ^^
<
||

^ , .
f.
\

Between 222 and 200

^6\<; "/?
,

(Met)f(o)?

fiKaaTr]
||

:/37;<>

'^'\

^^

6
!

^' \\<;
Nt/ca-

,.

ave^

-,
1"
^^^

'?,

so long as.sociated politically with the

(1.

135, cf.

1.

1(5),

ivhich they persuaded

Athenians, adopted the Attic usage at

an early date.
43.
reta,

The Nicareta

inscription. Nica-

daughter of Theon, of Thespiae,

had

lent various

city of

sums of money to the Orchomenus, for which she held


it

against

certain notes, generally re(once,


1.

ferred to as as

? ).
When

some concession on her part. Finally the city pas.sed a vote (III) to pay the amount and take up the notes and the contract. When this had been accomplished it passed a
her to accept, implies

further vote (II) ordering

all

the docu-

55

f.,

These are recorded

in

be inscribed in a specified order. This was done as stated in I, which serves as a heading to the whole
to

ments

IV.

Xicareta ajjpeared at Or-

inscription.

chomenus to collect these {11.44ff.), the city was unable to meet them, and an agreement was entered into according to which the city was to pay her the sum of 18,833 drachmas within a certain time and the polemarchs were to
give her a personal contract for the

10

ff.

\.

that he

had a probouleiaua to present to the peo2)le, Whereasthe people had voted that the
treasurer in charge for the third period

of four months should pay


against the city, the

t >

Nicareta,

in settlement of the notes which she held

sum which

the city

payment. The text of the agreement is given in YII, and of the contract

() (--),
The sum

persuaded her

(to accept), IS, 833

drach-

written in the

mas, and that the polemarchs should take up the contract they gave for the
treasurer

in VI.

of 18,833

drachmas

is

more than the

total of the notes re-

corded in IV (17,585 dr., 2 obols), but probably less than they amounted to with the normal penalties for delayed

payment.

Jfor the phrase

money against themselves, they and the and the ten whom Nicareta selected, and cancel the notes against
of Xenocritus, and since the jwlemarchs

the city (maturing) in the archonship

had arranged

these

matters and th

200

-"re avvypacpov,

^^

^^ \<;

\7

, ^ ^'' -/?
GEEEK DIALECTS
^,
jj

ouirep

[\
|

\_'\

7<;

<;

\^'\

';

eV

7,
|

yov

av.)^y^P^i\^^ ev

()
'^

^, ? '? ? \^
8
|

(^^
<?

^'^

' ^ '^,
a^ujTU
Se/c[a],
|

[No. 43

<>

eirl

,-

11

(III),

()

40 ^^^

III

'',
/iey

*'g

7r[/9]ja/xe/5ta[?]

' '? ^ ?^ ^
'^^
''"^

^ ^ ^ . " ^, ,
'^^^'';
(VI)
/cr/

Te^eWo?
|

< ^'^ '^ (^ { ^)


Be
|

^,
\\

(^)

[']/
|

(11)

(V) :^

(VII)

(VIII),

67\_'\\_^,

'

11

78

[]9 el-

7rpo/3e|[/3]wXei;/xeVoi'

j|

[]^

<;

\'\

^/
it

'^ ? <; , ['\'[]


eiriBel,
|

Ni/capeVa?

^^'09

Baveiov

[:] )[)]
i\_v
Ls

?)

oU7re[p]

/;,

^most

treasurer had paid the


to the

money according

upon provided. This

the only satisof

phestus, be

40

. (
40-41.

agreement deposited with Theovoted by the people,


:

On

from

i-eo-,

see

etc.

factory interpretation

the

troublesome passage in the inscription,

though one

difficulty remains, the use

42.5.

of the singular

ff.

The polemarchs and

the treas-

should expect theplural.


until, oiiginating in iv

urer were obliged, with the assent of the


people, to give a contract against them-

selves in addition to the existing

until the levy for this purpose

136.

and note on
Cf.

this purpose.
ivevixdeiei,

28.43.

49. []: Cf, Iv for


:

.
11.

where we

iv

59, 60.

not

ivevixdei, is

declared

should be

made and

the

amount agreed

certain

by Baunack, rhilol.XLVIII,

' ^. ''' ^?^' '6'8 ' ? ?/ ^] ^? '^'^ -? (" 7\.'', '^. " ^ ^ . @], [^^ ; [, .

, ,.
|

^ [^ ^ <;
'^,
vevL')(^deiei,

No. 43]

BOEOTIAis^ IKSCRIPTIONS
iv ovro,

8'

\_^

'^\^ ['\ <

^'

e[/u.]|7rpa^t?

iv

'? ,['\\ &7<; '? 8\[^] ?


|

\\'
e^t

['

^ ^ ]^'^, ,
j
|

^4 \^[^^^ /^ ^ [^^'^^ ^^^^ 201


||

[^]

iv

<; ^^

[]

iv

<?

-.^^^,

',,

7\^].
^

;[]

vo<i

, ,^
i'yyv

<; 7[] Xio? Vf.

(^,

-'^|

i'y'yo

[]

'

||

^^^

i'y'yo -^'^,

aovvctXXay

<^^ ^

[

iyyo

0*}

'^

\\

[] [\'\(^,
|

iv

}?
....
is is

,^,

[]\8,
Ko/xir*

\\
the time

gQ

['\\,^^^^

413,

and

agrees

with uncontracted
as

date given at the end of each


of the loan

form.s found elsewhere,


(151.2).

50.

[],
Baunack
and
fell
is

not

heim, Bed. Phil. Woch. 1893,267.


expression throughout

[],
61

also after
ff.

I.e.

The

first date,

archonship of
(cf.

Xenocritus,

month

of Alalcomenius,

^^ "^
Cf. Thal-

( \\).

The

condensed.

,
the

{&$),

applies to all the following notes


11.

78

23, 50, 130, 151)

probably the

time at which they

due, while the

though dialect forms are retained in some of the proper names,

,
ff.

()

(/uetvos)

rSs

?.
is

The

text of the contract

in

/g>

,|^

,^,
'^
et9

, 8 [\ ? ' ^, ^, ^ ^,
202

(m)

Ni/co/cXet

6\'^'
Be

1^

?,,g^

7[4,]
re
I

^^
]^^
(38)

\,
''

j^

()
i^g''

J^i^

^m
^

Jjr

1^3^

' , ?, ^ ^' , ^^' -^ ^ ^ ^' . '^ 4, [] 4 ^ ' ,


|
|

, , ?. 8 .
e/c e/c

^ ,'^, \ \ } \ ^ ', ^. .
[No. 43
|

GREEK DIALECTS

"^;,
haveiov

||

etV

M-eKjao,
ITe-

TeXe-

^'' <^\ ^\ 6< ^^ [9]. rpeZ<i


e|7r'
!

'<;,

haveLOV

ot

e<yyv\oc

^tKaperai ev
eav he

ev

||

8 , ^/
\

[?;]

7\

xjirep

^ %
|

, \, Seeo ^, /cat

'^,

'

e'/c

kvo\<;~\

eK

^^.
|
|

8e

^lp\pe

^7,
^

[<?,]
|

&[]\7,

, 6<^
||

,
|

ptoyev

'E/J^o/>tei^[t']|ft)y

irapelav ohirep

7ro\[i]||o9

"\''\
ev

'7
oinrep

'F^^oevv o^epaepLv
""^'^^^

||

'^evop\

^)eL^n,

T/>[ta]|[oi'Ta

T/3t9,

'^'^
The

')^ [']'/
j|

ev

XaX[^o^evoL
j

<>
[

^4,
is
:

ee'y'y[^ov

o^e[]\
iijistakt;

j|

recti-

'76

Dailies of the first

two

sun-ties are

but with the

tiiird

the error

giveu by

io the uomiuative,

iied.

113-lU.

presents

%eL^nea.

evep
ovirep

^^,, ^ ^'^ ^^, ' }? ' ^, , ^ /? ^ ^ , '^ ^ , , &, % , , % \ '^ ^ ,


No. 43]

BOEOTIAN INSCEIPTIONS

203

^LKapera

'

ev

^'^ -]
eVt

[<'\
ev

iyiyovoL<;.

''-

^;'"'

'^,

<;

6[^\'^<;
ev

) ^4\\
(] he

apyovpiov

/[]
[

yeypap\ixe-

ev

'<^/

eOeXei [o']88[e]-\\
1()0
(83)

apjovpiov,

To\ep^oL

'Jp^o\evv

iy\<yovo

^evaLovpa,

II

o^epaep

1()5
(88)

o\_\e\o'\,

@eL7tee(^t').

^^^
ev

('^)\

[|

'apepeL

<evop
154
reta
to
ill

-[^,
ff.

^,
|

If the city fails to

the time specified,

^ ^'- ^
}?,
ev et-

170
,^^.

eVt

Tlo\eo

7'^
1G9-170.

'7
|

XaXoe\v

Ni-

eirl

.
:

pay Nicawill

it

have

memorandum
Pistocles.

tract

pay the amount stated in the conand the sum of the notes besides,
is

that

substantially double the

amount

loaned.

But

if

Nicareta refuses to ac-

cept the amount


tract,

named

in

the con-

as she

might do

in

order to

the treasurer in behalf of the city the

secure the exorbitant penalty for delay, she forfeits find

sum agreed upon of the notes {\).


cf.
11.

both contract and notes

pays a heavy penalty.

^
-/
1.

of paijintnt

Nkareta
(cf

(adnom. dat. 172) through the hank of


cancellation
22),

11.

172

ff.,

at the

and so payment. So bank of Pistocles there


Nicareta by Polycritus
gen.;

was paid over

to

14-15).

204

GREEK DIALECTS
li.c.

{No. 44

p.238.

5 10

15

20

25

,.4 ' ,, ' , '' '^^ ^ , '\ . ^, ^, ^


44. Lebadea. Ill cent. Michel 1:5 'Jl\
IG.VII.308:].

SGDI.425. luscr.Jurid.II,

^?

';

,'?

iv

AeySa-ll

ei|iyu.ei^,

irap-

Trarelp

'

peria

[] [?}]

||

iv

[]74
||

||/30?

/[]
|

76'[']:'

^!
|

}?

<;

()

45. Lebadea.

II cent. B.C.

IG.Aai.3080.

SGDI.430.

['

., /? ^^ 9 ^, ^ }
<? \^^

11

'

9
.
|

[/c]a^'

[-

\<;.

[<]

? ?, ^^'[].
y)!
. . .

^
,
both.

46. Chaeronea.

II cent. u.c.

IG.VII.3303.

SGDI.385.

:^<? '^
avTiOeiTL

Oepainjl^va^v
no. 47 (cf.

^ ?
|

aWei

'^

Michel 1394.

44-48. Manumission decrees, of which there are over one hundred examples from Chaeronea alone, all of about the same period. Even from the same year some are in dialect, some in the and some in a mixture of

nos. 46,

vavra no. 44), in

In those given here


itself in

ence shows
the f of
no. 44,

, $

48

influ-

Note
4.5,

(
ei

no. 44), in
no. 46

66
rdu
no. 4G),

47

(cf.

no. 45 (cf.

no. 47 (cf. no.

no. 44).

for u.sual

no.

4(5,

in

47 (see 30).

nos. 40, 47 (cf.

24.

Vor

For and

^ 5%,
from
oi

in nos.

no. 44, see in no.

no. 48),

rbv

48, see 22.2.

No. 49]

PHOCIAN INSCRIPTIONS

",

'';

, \ ?]
[

^^^

[cJttI

^^
'.'

205

?
5

7ra/9a^/3e[t]/ia.

47. Chaeronea.

II cent. B.C.

..3352.

SGDI.39.J.

/,

fihiav

\7,
avTe\i'i

[][;^/9
II.p.237.

48. Orchomenus. II cent. B.C. Michel 1393.

IG.VII.3200.

' <;.
229.

@ ^^] '
^'/^
[]
Early

\,",
|

||

",

fiSiov

\' ,, "^ ,
SGDI.497. Inscr.Jurid.

, , .
, '
\ |

^]

-|
||

5
|

Se

6 lapev<;

aovveSpv

Phocian

49. Delphi.

cent. B.C.

Tot
I
.

7[]
.
I

eVt T/3i^a

[]\\'

,
Delphian

SGDI.1683 (with II,p.722). Roberts

[-rrep]

(^)[]

[]
As
in similar decrees

[:a]jl

8<;

[]\< 87['\\

from other

ate effect, but

is

subject to various con-

parts of Greece, the act of manumission takes the


sale

ditions, such as

remaining

in service

('

form of a dedication or

at Delphi, e.g. no. 53) to

the divinity of the local shrine, thus

during the lifetime of tlie master (nos. 40, 47) or for a term of years (no. 44), payment of an annuity, etc. Cf.no. 63.
49. Statement of the disbursement of funds

securing religious sanction and protaction of


tlie

rights of the slave

who

by the officials of the phratry of

has purcliased his freedom. Often the manumission does not go into immedi-

the Labyadae, whose proceedings form the subject of no. 51.

206
50. Delphi.

GREEK DIALECTS
V
cent. B.C.
e<?

B.C.II.XXIII.Oll.

Ziehen, Leges Sacrae 73.

7\\

'
folvov
;

[]|/'
SGDI.2o61.

al he

hoi

Kepaierai
he

KaTulyopeaavTi

.
/cjlara

,,.

[No. 60

51. Delphi.

About 400b.c.

Ditt.Syll.43S (with

Michel995. SolmsenSG. Ziehen,Leges = (in contrast to Sacrae 74 (c and d). Ionic alphabet, but with F, and = j^) lengthened usually OY, but sometimes 0.
819f.).

lnscr.Jurid.II,pp.l80ff.

[o

Ao/a/co?]
I

'

[7r]o[Xt]|o?
5 Ta[|y

10

7]^6|
15

nected with the stadium, and Eudro-

mus, though otherwise unknown, was probably a sort of guardian hero of


athletes.

-, [\ \ \ :
|

hapaTav

/'[||]
'
|

Aahat

[;]|;

^^

<^\\4 hL\a^ aah[^av^ /?

7ohee ^h\t^a

/'
\

[/8][-^]6

Aaahv

]^]\

hopKov

[ev

v]e'[^\a

6\ '^. '[9

Atjjo?

."
and

ayada

50.

The inscription

is

on a wall con-

into the phratries

offerings for the

occasion were
5.

made by

the parents.

cakes.

Ath.3. 110 d, 114b

cites

meaning unleavened

wine.

expect

)= :

.51.

the Labyadae.

ready appeared

3.

ilated.

for the
dyev
is

trast to
is

the

, . ( 6 . . : -, , , , ^
Note
(12), es
^K TO (135.4),

Hence

the

interdiction

of

bread and says the word was used by


the The.ssalians.

and as in Homer.

( al-

where

we

The

at the

Delphian festival were of two kinds


(cf.
1.

25), the

or cakes offered

begin the sacrifice again.

in behalf of the

newly married wives

Regulations of the phratry of

that were introduced into the phratiy


their husbands,

The Labyadae have


in no. 49.
:

by

and the

of-

fered for the children that were intro-

toUs

So

l(i,

but usually
4.

97.1.

'(:
11.

uuassim-

victims

duced into the plinitryhy their parents. (>. / will collect and disburse, like Att.
:

Cf.

44-4()

used with

with

name

of the Delphian festival

corresponding to the Attic


at

which children were introduced

,
in

where

render account for, disburse.


no. 4Q.

con-

Cf.

10.

elsewhere una.ssiniilated,

as

1.

3.

96.3.

11.

ivill

impose the

oath upon the rayoi for the next year.


Cf. B.27.

No. 51]

Tat

" 8<; \\ 6< 8 \


PHOCIAN INSCKIPTIONS
Trap

207

?, ' ' <^\ 70\ / ^\ ^. \ ,


he

cnreWala ayev 'A7reX[Xat?

aWat
6

'^ ,^ \
haparau

iirl

[]|/470'

iv 20

rayov^
a7reX|Xata, 25

/| \!\^

.
6
j

\. ,^
?/,
23ff.

\\
||

Tat

\\ , ^ ^^ '

^ ', ' ^ 7||


70^||[
'

/ \ [^^

'.

8e
30

ayev

35

Taycov

40

45

50

55

\ []\
cakes), the

[14 fragmentary.

'\\^6

]|[

/jellfjo?

/]]? [[''\\ 7\, ]

[
Tlie
;

60

^^ ,- ,
'?
The rayoi are to
or the in the case of the cakes
(lit.

7[^'][9

-\
)5,
a.

7r]a10

tlieir

''

15
|

receive neither,

beside hS

haans A4(), B30, C19.

of the

See 58

38

f.

'Any one who wishes

nor the

to accuse the rayot of having received

unless the gens to which one

the offering at other tlian the stated

belongs approves in full session.


apijroval of the gens
in

(,

times shall bring the charge wlien


successors are in
tos
:

as in Elis

office.

'

45.
let

fi-

most Doric

dialects)

was a
body
with-

during the year, in the same year.

prerequisite to the introduction into

See 136.8.2).

the phratry, which

was the

larger
30.

note (for the twenty drachmas)


interest.
15

including several gentes.

out

A,

as also
53,

38,

C 19, but

Ao (de-

11-12.

monst.)

C 19.

Cf. as

A28

jy^omising.

They swear by

5().

Or

him sign a and pay

undertaking,
the gods of

20 T0i/[9 25

30

35

40

45

50

\ , ''. 8\\ \<^ , ^.^'', ' 7 \ / ', 7\ 4< ,, ^ , . \ ^^


208

GREEK DIALECTS
ai he

[No. 51

^]eou9

II

[]|:9,

8e

Tayol
'

:|[]
he

70|[]
\

'^,
[rjayol

|[]?

Traihrji^a

.
)
iirl

at

|[] '<; \^^]


he
||

a\[y^eve'

he

hev-

hpWa<i

h\aevv
7
ho

he

ey

Aaahv

eVt

hevTe
|

7^\.

h^va\L

aireWala

55

^)\,

^ ^ \'^
Tayol^iv

he

'| Aaha he
he
|

_____
C

,
he

hapa-

ho he

||

]<

^^ ,
ha^[pee,
hiKav
hiKai

[^^^,

^^

10

15

.
76|
:

^ ^

6'^'||[^. he^\,

hiKav

20

70\. ''

'|[?]

^. '
7reW|[e

hov

\ ^[\ ha 67][^| ' \, ^ ^ hpa^^, \\[h^ []


TloTeihavo^
hiKa-

^
hevTe
irXeov

'

he

, .4\ ^^ ^^
he Tayol

he

\ ,

KaTayope-

hiirXov

\['\

',

irep

\\

the city, phratry, and gens.

pay five drachmas, and


another in his place.

{the rayol) shall

probably established rites, tions, though tlii.s meaning of not (juotable. Cf.

.6$

ordinance,

,,

instituis

bring the case to issue by appointing

Whoever convicts

one guilty of an unlawful action shall


receive half the fine (cf. no. 18.24-25,50).

19.

1.

Oath of the person appointed

19

ff.

Law

concerning funeral
lulis in

rites,

to act as judge.

The mis.sing conclusion

Like the law of

of must have been the provision for such an appointment. ff. If the one

Ceos (no. 8), this is directed against extravagance, 20 ff. One shall not expend more than
thirty-five

chosen fails

to serve

as judge, he shall

drachmas, either by purchase

,
No. 51]

PHOCIAN IKSCRIPTIONS

rav 8e

7|[]

,
8'
\\'
II

',
'

^\\<; <;

, () ^'

\\'\

'^

[]' ' '


D
...
|

-----

\[],
[/Ai/yjo?

...

^ ., ^'^ '. 8] [ ] , , , \[ ^^
. ^ \^
TrXjeof
||

. 7\ ',

209

at 8e

25

'^-

/je|[y

30

hev

h'\e

^,

/?7||[];,

35

e|7rt

ha

40

[/cj'al

;[].-

45

'^^

50

[]

\\[],
on,
is

'|[

'|

or {in articles taken)

from

the home.

variously read and interpreted.


ff.
'

23-24.

The shroud shall a light gray color. For

see 31, and, as used of


cf.

apparel,

and

= If one trangresses anij of these things, he shall pay fifty drachmas, unless he denies under oath at the tomb that he has spent more.

)
11,

Ditt.Syll. 879.5.

{mourning
Polyb. 30.4. 5,

6$ = * 25ff.

be thick

and of

39
45.

There shall be no mourning

for the former dead, but every one shall

go home, except the near relatives.'


:

or

-^^
See

ff.

The read-

ing

is

uncertain.

100.

There shall be no ivailing or lamentation

29 31 33
ff.

ff.

( <9
hi

on the following day, nor on day, nor on the anniversary.

See Glossary, and

cf.

46

the tenth
:

in the

.: .:

cf.

no. 8.3-4.

cf.

no. 8.10-

same sense at Ceos. D 1 ff. Enumeration


feasts.

of the regular

ff.

Tats

.:

they shall not set the corpse

down anywhere at the turns in the road (but carry it straight on to the tomb without interruption), nor shall they

These are given in the order of their occurrence, as appears from the correspondence between many of them

make lamenta-

,
I.e.,

and the names of the months


BovKarios, 'HpaiOs, etc.).

For the

tions outside the house until they arrive

identification of these festivals, see Ditt.

at the tomb, but there there shall be a

ceremony for the dead


til

(? cf .
.

^)

unras

5-7. Those which occur notes. on the seventh and the ninth of the
'

the lid (?) is closed (cf

month

eopas,etc.).

But tlie last part, fromTiji-ir

.(

?.'

7-8.

.
'

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

0\ "[] [^]]9 ''^ , ' '^ ^, [^^\ < '"||9 "^ \\\ '^" ^ \^8\\ 7\ 8\ \\
Ttt9
aj[t

,,
\
'
|

7 ;[ < ^ ] '^] ^,
\_'\\

[ ^
210

GREEK DIALECTS
/c]jat

Seo^ei^ia
|

T/oa^tV|]ta

1[1\[^,

Se

ha^Lop\\yol

. .< ^^7\\\
Aiap/}[i]W
hiaprjia

,[No. 51

ye-

aWot

iravTek

[1]

\\^'\
\\

oSe^Xov,

oheXov.

TOiaSe

jeypairTai iv

[]\

yey

At
12
ff.

,
ff.

ajaiav

Feasts are also held if one sacri-

fices

a victim for himself, if one assists a


recently delivered of child, if

{in the sacrifices fur the purification of)

woman
victims,

some
days
is

.(,
and
absent.

there are strangers with

him

sacrificing

if one is serving as
is

the

name

of
five

theeponymousherogave to his daughter Buzyga. This mythical heroine is mentioned elsewhere (Schol.Ap.Rhod.l. 180) as a daughter of Lycus, whose

name
1.

37 (shrine of Lycus

official

appointed to serve
see 12), but nothing
this office.
.

or wonderful calf (a sort of wondercalf ?),

:
is

to be recognized in AvKelwi
?).

38.
is

(the

apparently the admirable

more
If,

but the allusion

(8
when
is

known about
:

cf

no. 49.

26-27.

22.

scure.

38

of course ob:

'

in

case of all undertakings, both private

they hold

holding

office.

29

an assembly, any official nom. sg. part, one


ff.

and public, for which one


fice

offers sacri-

or consults the oracle in advance,

These things are

Phanoteus on the inner side of the rock. The ancient city of Phanoteus (Panopeus) was perhaps the original seat of the phratry of the Labyadae. 30. cf. 11.30-31. Both and 'Pavoreus occur in other inloritten at

:
.

scriptions.

Tos

ancient rock inscription, stating what

See 46.
:

31

ff.

raSt

quotation from the

,- ?,

depends upon
of.

the one doing so shall furnish to the

Labyadae the victims mentioned


and
(or

(i.e.

in the rock inscription just quoted).'

sacrificing etc. in

advance

47.

.sc.

the reading being uncertain):


the

thefirst-fruits.

48

f.

(-

shall furnish

invite the

Labyadae

to

drink together.

.:

53]

PHOCIAN INSCRIPTIONS
To]i"?

8<;

'

aTrlayeadai.

^, , , , \ ,^ , ^ \6 ^, . [^ ^, |9, ^ ,, , ,' , . ^ ^ , ' ,^ ^


52. Delphi.

9
. c.

211

||

<;
|

['\

50

^Ajadat

7
oU

. \^ ,
Between 240 and 200

SGDI.2653. Michel 274.

'Ava^ayopov
iv

iyyovoL'i

^^ ,
V0L<;

areXetav

7()

roi'i 5

'^

euepyerai^

'?

<;

HeWvo?,

53. Delphi.

186 B.C.

SGDI.2034.

roiaSe cnreSoTO

^eoirarpa

'

yvvat/ceia

ah

apjvpiov

'

e^,

(viTe

[]\
'

1^

?. [|

aveyKXrj-

'

jeypaTTTai

11

10

49

ff.

?'

the other feasts


loith

53.

typical Delphian

one shall carry out in accordance


the season.
53.

decree, of which there are


1600.

manumission more than

See note to nos. 44-48,


all varieties of

They

Proxeny decree in honor of the poet Nicander of Colophon, whose writings included a prose work on
Aetolia.

show
tic

pliian,

mixture of DelNorthwest Greek and At-

,
and

elements, e.g. in this inscription,

At

this time the

Aetolians

Si)\.\mv.

^,
is

iovrwv,

^.

Nearly

were dominant in Delphi, and this shows itself in the language of the inscriptions. See 279. Note in 1. 5 the combination of Delph. with

always at
though
formal
witnesses.

this time, the older at, lap6s

are replaced

hy

el, iep6s,

by
list

oi,

({)

frequently retained in the

iepel^

beginning the

of

Aetol. ayuvoii.

])

20

' , ? ^ . ^ .^ ', /? ^'^' /^ ^, ^ ; ", 212

GREEK DIALECTS

[No. 63

<;

. "^
^eoTrarpav
el

<;

8e

iXevdepai

Kvpieovaai

\^,
irape-

el

Se

eVet

||

oVre?

7raaa<i

8<;

'.
||

el

Trepl

Treirolvi] pev

^ ^.

, ^,
",,
Exclusive of
is.c.

6<

<;

''^.

Del/jJii

54. Stiris. About ISO Michel 24. Solmsen37.

10

15

',^, , [], . , ^ [\]7 ' [ ^^ ^ , ^^'^ , ,,


A
[()]09

TG.IX.i.32.

SGDT.1539.

Ditt.Syll.426.

!\'\.

[rjcoy

[]6
[]?

6[^^
|

[]

7ro|[\i]i',

||

17.

having done any ivrong


her possessions.
in another of the

. '.
8^[]
:
|

[]/3

7roXtj[o]9
|

[]9
Cf.

\1

are convicted of
to

54.

Agrcementestablishing a

The derivation
(cf.
is

of

manumission decrees. from

and connection with most attractive, though fr/r^w has


77.2)

^
e.

-{)
Neopatra or

]||

[7]9

Xireia or joint-citizenship

between

tlie

*^6
tlie

Stirians

and

IVh'deonian.s.

10. IXcvOepa: free,

open
:

to all (of botli


all the

towns).

11

ff.

toxis kt\.

Mede-

onians shallbe Stirianswithequalrights,

original a, of wliich the

would be
llesycli.

origin of

' .,
not

andshnlljoinwith the city of the Stirians


inthe assembli/andin appointing niagistrates,

weak grade

Others conjpare

and

those ivho have arrived at


all

proper age shall try


before the state.

ruses ivhich

come

which

is

obscure.

18.

1<; Boeotian

No. 54]

PHOCIAN mSCEIPTIONS
evrl ev ev

213

\\ , ^^ '
[4]69,
|

.
,

epe\.ai, XeLTo\p'yv
8e

, ,^ . -, , " ,, ' \
[][/]^ eW

[, ]6
| |

20

7[[/]^

^^\
\_'\
[

'^^'^
he 6

||

[]

25

[TJcoy

[^\\

^<;

<;
||

11

30

?; \apeLV,
ev

^^^-

'

e7rava'y\^K\e<i
|

XeiTovpyelv

'^'^

MeSe\vov

ev 35

ap\^^ovTe^, ^evohi-

TrpaKTrjpe^,

lepel^,

epp^a,

40

el

^leevLv

/cjat e/c

ev

|['4

i^epa

XeeL.

|[]^
ev

'\\ M.eevav

[[/^]

^\ehevav eiev

'^ /'?
^\ee\vL'\v.
[

7[\~\.

ev

"'^]

''[]/
|

\
lepov

[ aO^oXLeaai \\
|

, a^0e\vv

oirOTepoL

[]

eev[v^o

\.
ev

, "

e/c

BatopW'^e-

45

Ke-

\''\

50

{)

55

[]'
60

|[[?]

eJpa-

7[|]

?,

'
for
also

^ , ^.
.
.
.
.

[^^^ /[]]'

7^

[^y^pa^|rvv
ev

e[pa'\\yL'vav.

()\ AXae,
|

AtXaiea.

p[^pe
irevTe

' \^
6[^'\\^
[^^]]|?,

ev
5

[|-

\1

55.

Tpeiav.

So

. 42 and

0^-

ing in Stiris.'
138.4.

4b-41.
5.

in

another Stirian inscription. Cf.


1.

32 witli Boeot.

See 231.

34ff.

- .:

for

ei.

^ as in
18
ff.

: -:

^/^ aXeesee

10

ev 15

85.1.

'tliose
.shall

The phratry

of the

Medeo-

whohave been

officials in

Me(U'on
office

nians, in distinction

from the

state, re-

be exempt from compulsory

hold-

tained

its

own

organization, and

was

214

GKEEK DIALECTS
Locrian

[No.

55. Oeanthea (Galaxidi).

1478. Hicks 25. Inscr.Jurid.I,pp.l80fE.

,
'Ei'
55.

346 ff. SolmseD34.

^
7r|et

? .^ ,First half Accent. B.C.

IG.IX.i.334.

SGDI.

Michel 285.

Roberts 231 and

jip.

() TuvSe

yeverai,
e(i')

'^)
iv

to I'eceive a subsidy of

money and land


the relations be-

from the

Stirians.

Law governing

tween the Eastern Locrian colonists at Naupactus and the mother country. This does not refer to tlie founding of Naupactus, which was much earlier. from the Colonists are called point of view of the mother country, but as here (iwifoifoi) from the point of view of their new home. The
Eastern Locrians are referred to etlmi-

ten out. Cf. also (in no. 56)

/), ^, {) ^, {!) , ,
(once

in

contrast to which iv

with original iv are always writti(s)

in view of

which the reading h6wo{s) (no. 55.2), which is generally though not
universally adopted,
correction.
is

not a violent
inscription

has so

No other Gi'eek many examples of


In no. 56
it is

as no. 55,

where
or

it is

uniformly employed before

po.

no longer used.
expressed by
in the genitive

Hypocnemidians (of which Epicnemidians is an equivalent), politically as Opuntians, since Opus was the seat of government, the two terms standing in the same relation as Boeotian and Theban. It is probable that one copy was set up at Opus, with another at Naupactus, and that the present tablet is still another copy, which with the addition
cally as

In no. 55 lengthened
El, lengthened

e is

by
always

singular,

OV

in the accusative plural.

But
25
d.

in no. 56

and 0.

See

No. 55, beginning in 1. 11, is divided into paragraphs by the letters

-.

No. 55 exhibits
repetition
(.see
1.

many

instances of

3, note),
is

and some of
1.

omission of what

essential to clear.30),

of the last sentence, stating that simi-

ness (e.g. the subject of

between colonists from Chaleion and the mother city, was set up at Chaleion, from which place it may easily have found
lar relations are to .subsist
its

and

in general the style of


is

follotving terms.

way

to Galaxidi.

In both this and the following inscription a single


letter is

5 . ()-
1.

tions

cnide and obscure. The colony to Naupactus on

94.5.

used for
in the in-

double consonants, not only terior of a word, as

often in sentence combination, as

So ^() ^() with assimilation of iK (100);

\(),

Ilypocnemidian Locrian, when he becomes a Naupactian, being a Naupactian,

both inscrip-

ha

the

.see

136.5.

\..

but

may

as a

()
etc.,

share in the social

and religious privileges (i. e. in the mother country) when he happens to


be present, if he wishes.

.similarly

If he wishes,

No. 55]

, .. ' , ^'^ ^^ " )7 , 8, ^^ ^ . ^ ^. , ,


LOCEIAN INSCKIPTIONS
Ovuv i^el^ev
215
^ivov oata \av^^av\etv
SeiXerai, Oveiv
yevo'i

Xfivy^aveLV /ce(8)
Te\o<i [|<>

avrov

h //?
[

heiXe-

/ce(p)

iv

|9

}7<;, ''
e

ev

e^jeZ-

^,

i(v)

ev,

avev i\vepv.

7\.

10

'^
e.

ev

<;.

/xt

'-

hoppov

iTrayeiv

'? 7^\
in
i.

15

he

may

share in these privileges, both

common

with the Western Locrians,

and those of the members of the societies, himself and his descendants forever. The colonists of the H. Locrians are not to pay taxes among the H. Locrians, until one becomes a H.
those of the people

they are not to be subject to any

special taxes as colonists.

al
1.

for subj. without

:
^j.

174.
is

9.

ho-iro

(-?

(also in

20), see
fjv

ev: a 3 sg.

Locrinn again. In there is probably the same contrast as in lepa

both terms refer to religious privileges. 3. Ko SciXirai. for the repetition


cf.

,
it
11.

6 \.
or Cretan
it is
11.

otherwise

known only
Hence

in Attic-Ionic,

other dialects retaining the original

See 163.3.
they (cf.

this

is

the 3 pi.

^v agreeing with the logical subject

thougli

possible that

K(o)

.9
also
iv
94.(5,

6 41 rayopai 20 100. If
IGf.,
11.
ff.

f.,

4.

Ki(8)

pro-

'4 6
I,p.28G.

',
the
11
ff.

preceding).
etc.

Cf.

Horn.

Kiihner-Gerth
to

Oath for the colonists

Naupactus, not
with the
device.

to

forsake the alliance

If they wish they

Opuntians willingly by any may impose

ff.

colonist

the oath thirty years after this oath, one

loishes to return, he

may

do so tvithout

taxes of admission

(to citizenship),

tians

hundred Naupactians upon the Opunand the Opuntians upon the Nau-

vided he leaves behind in his house


adult son or brother.

an

pactians.

If the H. Locrians
force,

are driven
they

from Naupactus by
return

.
14
ff.

11.

Probably here only a graphic


a).

for

'-

omission, similar to haplology (88

may

without

admission

taxes to the town

came.

They are

to

from lohich they each pay no taxes except

Whoever of the colonists departs from Naupartus ivith unpaid taxes shall lose his rights as a Locrian until he pays

216

GREEK DIALECTS

At
1

<pov ei ev

^, ,
^
^,
ho
et,

yevo^ ev rat

20

25 T0t9

30

, /^ ^ , '; ^^^. , ,, ,, ,,
ev ev ev TahopaL,

'^\^

eVei'

1^7(<;
<;
ev

?< ^
eL
e
ei,

,,

ev

TayopaL.

)?

'. ' (9) , avep


ei e

-^ ,
tjv einlfoi'E(f)

[No. 55

ev

yeveTa^i

Tev

' ev

Aoppol<i

'?

|||

^|

peKaaTov

einpoipov

Tleppodapta^v

ttoXlv

feo.

8\

eovTi

'

AoppcL

KpaTelv

apevov
may

.
own
laws,

ev

the
1(5

Naupactians his lawful dues. ff. If there is no family in the home,

as the law

be in the several cities

or heir to the property


nists

among

the colo-

of the R. Locrians. If any of them, under the laws of the colonists, return,
they shall be subject to their

in Naupactus, the next of kin


inherit,

among the II. Locrians shall from xohatever place among


crians he comes, and, if a

the

Lo-

29
II.
is,

each according
ff.

to the city

of his origin,

man

or boy,

who goes as a

If there are brothers of the one colonist to Naupactus,

he shall go himself within three months.

then, according to

Otherwise the laws of Naupactus shall 19 ff. If one returns from be followed.

Locrians severally
if (one

what the law of the (i.e. in each city)

of them) dies, the colonist

Naupactus to the H. Locrians, he must have it announced in Naupactus in the market-place, and among the II. Locrians
inthecityiohencehecomes.
,ever

shall inherit his share of the property, shall inherit


tlie

what belongs
.sen.se
is

to

him. Note

double construction with

22ff. IFAeuobviously

and the ^axers(i)robably the names of two noble


any of
the

according as the
not.

But many take

in relative sense,

though

or priestly families, the

becomes a Naupactian himself, his property in Naupactus shall also be subject to the laios in Naupactus, but his property
containing

6=

first

not otherwise attested in Locrian, and

understand
herit.

with

lating whic?i

it is

proper for him


colonists

,
TO

partitive or

as gen. sg.
this use is

transto in-

32

f.

The

may

bring

suitbeforethe judges with right of precedence, they

among

the II. Locrians to the II. laws,

may

bring suit

and submit

.' , , ^' '^/. ', ^ ,^


No. 55]

LOCRIAN INSCRIPTIONS
ev

217

7() <;

'^, .\
7-\\
<?>

/reo?

'^;

(). |69
ev
|

ho(TLve<i

35

pai'i

.7 8,
same day.
usually

BoKeei,

,8
Ls
(i.e.

re

'^

8
after

^^^, ev ;

^ '-

'?

40

^
is

to suits

against themselves in Opus on

-$). Some

correct to

the

This provision

in-

a by-form with
is

{)

'{),
possible.

but

E^

tended to secure for the colonists the greatest expedition in their litigation
at Opus,

hapiarai

=
Xa/3etv is

(cf.

Hdt.5.83).

)
34

due

to dittography (cf.

the ending of the preceding hoinves,

6 '$).
36
has

The omission

of eovn

may

be

the engraver's error, or simply ellipsis,

to

bring suit, as here,

though sometimes the opposite, while


is
(e. g.

such as is not infrequent in a clause of this kind (Kiihner-Gerth I,p.41,n.2c).


f.

usually to Submit

to suit

colonist to

Naupactus who

Thuc. 1.28), as here, though someas below,


1.

left

behind a father and his portion

times used of a magistrate, to grant


trial,

point

,
crian.

41

f.

f.

Who-

of the property with the father, shall inherit his share li'hen {the father) dies.

ever are in office for the year shall ap-

38

ff.

Whoever
to

violates these statutes by


is

from among

the

H. Locrians a

any device in any point which


agreed

not

One of the Locrians for the colonist, one of the colonists for the LoAoippSv

by both parties, the majority

//'

of the Thousand in Opus and the majority of the colonists in Naupactus,


shall be deprived of civil rights

applies

properly only to the appointment of


the
for the colonist, this be-

have his j)ropeTty confiscated. For the


spelling
the one

ing the important provision in contin-

uation of

the

preceding paragrai^h.
tares without cor-

who brings

and

shall

see 32.

41

ff.

To

suit the magistrate

Making
rection

the provision mutual was an

afterthought.
is

shall grant trial within thirty days, if

to

be read

',

with

days of his magistracy remain. If he does not grant trial to the one
thirty

hyphaeresis where

we

expect elision,

from
firos

and iwiaris, an adv. cixl. of for which we .should ex^^ect iwi-

bringing suit he shall be deprived of civil rights and have his property confiscated,
his real estate together with his servants.

ffTh or iTTieris (intervocalic always written, cf. 'Owbevn,

is

not

The customary oath

shall be taken.

The
real

voting shall be by ballot.

For

45

10

8 ^. . 9 '? , . ,, . ^ \ . 7, / <; ', . ,


88 '^,\., \
218

GREEK DIALECTS
fo\\tKtaTav.

[No. 55

hoppov

iv vhpiav

TeXeov

XaXeieot?

56. Oeanthea. Hicks 44. Michel

3.

cent. B.C. IG.lX.iii.333. Second half Roberts 232 and pp.354 ff. Solmsen 35.

SGDI.1479.

hayev

()

/-t'eSe

^aXeiea

() <;
()

(<;)

;] {) ()<; hayev
Ti(?)

'^' 111
fOTi

8{)

||-

Be irXeov
>

'^

iv OiavOeai

estate, cf.

the similar use


this

Locompact for the crians shall hold good in the same terms for the colonists from Chaleion under
46
f.

And

,.
e

at

\*|'-'e
]

XaXeievi

iv

Trpo^eveoi, StTrXje/ot

i^a<i of

heXea^To 6

^
|[|

'^^.

off a foreigner from Chalcian territory, nor a Chaleian from Oeanthean territory, nor his property, in case one makes a seizure. But him who ynakes a seiz-

Antiphates.
56.

See introductory note.


tablet consists of

ure himself one

may seizeioith impunity.

The

two docu-

ments inscribed by different hands, as appears from the forms of the letters, which also show, together with the absence of 9, that both are later than
no. 55.
1.

The j^roperty of a foreigner one may carry off' from the sea loithoui being subject to reprisal, except

from

the harbor

The

first,

ending with

8, is

a treaty between Oeanthea and

Chaleion of the kind


or
is is

known

as
1.

It

If one makes a seizure unlawfully, four drachmas {is the penalty); and if he holds what has been seized for more than ten days, he shall owe half as much again as the amount
of each
city.

(the latter in

15).

for the protection of foreigners, that


citizens of other

If a Chaleian sojourns more than a month in Oeanthea or an Oeanhe seized.

Greek

states, visit-

thean in Chaleion, he shall be subject


the local court.

to

ing either city from reprisal at the

hands of

citizens of the other.

Such

The second document,


sists of regulations of
cities,

11.

8-18, con-

enforcement of claims was freely employed, so far as


reprisal or seizure in
it

one of the two presumably Oeanthea, regarding

was not

specifically regulated

by

the legal rights of foreigners.

treaty.

For graphic peculiarities see

ff.

The proxenus who

is

false to his

no. 55, introductory note.


Iff.

An

Oeanthcan

shall not carry

duty one shall fine double (the amount involved in each particular case). If

.
6

57]

ELEAN INSCEIPTIONS
irpo^evd

'<;

709 hekearaL
Ta<i.

<
=
men

\ 7 <
]

, '
fiSid
f\\aaT6v

apiarivhav,

iiri

()

'^
Elean

\<;, \ ,
ewe'
|

<^;.

^ 219
vlkv.

15

57. Olympia. Before 580 . c. SGDI.1152. Inschr.v.01ympia2. Michel ID"). Roberts 292 and pp. 36-4 ff. SolmsenoS. Danielssoa,Erauosin,80ff. Keil,Gutt.Nachr. 1899,1 oiff. Glotz,Solidarit6delafamilleenGrece,pp.24:8ff.

the

ing

tlie

.
who
is

Oappev

jeveav

(the judges in cases involv-

rights of foreigners) are divided

in opinion, the foreigner


tiff

plain-

accounting (or inthebody of the If any one maltreats one who is accused in a matter involving fines, let him be
held to a fine often minae, if he does so
loittingly.

. ?).

(dwayov

ewajwv) shall choose ju-

rors

from

the best citizens, but exclusive

And let the scribe of the gens


if he

of his proxenus and private host (v^ho would be prejudiced in his favor), ^Zteen

suffer the

same penalty

wrongs any

one.

This tablet sacred at Olympia.

men

in cases involving a

mina

or

more, nine

in cases involving

less.

inscription
tally.

The numerous interpretations of this have differed fundamenobject of the decree

If citizen proceeds against citizen under the terms of the treaty, the magistrates
shall choose the jurors

from

the best citi-

zens, after having

oath

(i.

e.

rors shall

sworn the quintuple oath by five gods). The jutake the same oath, and the

According to that preferred here is to do away with the liability which under primitive conditions, such as survived longer in Elis than elsewhere, had attached to the whole gens and f am ily of an accused
tlie

majority shall decide.


57.

person, also to prevent confiscation of


liis

This covenant for the Eleans.

property and personal violence, and

(An accused man^s) gens and family


and his property shall be immune. If any one brings a charge against a male citizen of Elis, if he who holds the highest office and the do not impose
the fines,
let each of those who fail to impose them pay a penalty of ten mi-

to prescribe the
alties

manner

in

which pen-

were
:

to be imposed.

,
of

this, the folio wing, see Kuhner1. Gerth I, p. 597. like Delph. = y^os, while yevea Dor. is the immediate family. be

--

nae dedicated

to

the Tlellanodica enforce this,

Olympian Zeus. Let ami let the

of good cheer, without fear, hence, as a technical term in Elean, be secure, im-

mune, just as the Attic


gin freedom

body of demiurgi enforce the other fines (which they had neglected to impose).

from fear (5^os) It is used persons and things. Cf. e[appos]


.

If he (the llelhmodica) does not enforce this, let him pay double tlie penalty in his

%
:

is

in ori-

in

another inscription.
FaXelo of the

refers to

220
at

5 TTOi

/eeO[i].

' ^ , ^ ^ '< ()^' '', .

' ,
ev
6
|

GEEEK DIALECTS

[No. 57

fdppevop FaXet'o,

Til

^0\vi)^ioL.

eVeV

ev

7[']'^

'' [^ '.
'.

,
TraJjp

/ret^O? |^[6], [' '\ [']|

58. Olympia. VI cent. B.C. SGDI.11-49. Inschr.v.Olympia Michel 1 Roberts 291 and pp.362 ff. Solmsen 39.
.

, \()
|

jov,

10

. ^
'().
.

') , {)<;

'\<.
(){)

/reVo?

'^

' .
9.

Ilicks 9.

ea

f '/3-

, /'^

()')^
Michel

196.

59. Olympia. VI cent. B.C. SGDI.1156. Inschr.v.Olympia 7. Roberts 296 and pp. 369 ff. Ziehen, LegesSacrae 61.

,
2.

,
him

following clause, which logically goes

with the preceding as well as the


lowing.

-
(cf.

but meaning
tion against

first to utter

an impreca-

some one

and then, since this was, or had been, the manner of introducing a charge,
simply

, ),
:

|[()].

{) ?
and
let

If
viosil-

years, beginning loith the present year.

fol-

If there shall be any need of loord or deed, titey shall combine loith one another
both in other matters in war.

they do not combine,


late {the

those

who

agreement) pay a talent of

ver consecrated to

Olympian Zens.
or the state,

If
let

7?7^.

See also no. 60. Like

any one

violates these writings, whether


official,

various other expressions in Elean, this

private citizen,

,,
.
.58.
:

reflects the essentially religious char-

acter of the legal procedure.


cf.

al

be held in the penalty here written.

.59.

This

is

the conclusion of an in\vas

no. 51

13-lC.

For

iwevtroi,

scription

which

begun on another

etc., see the

Glossary.

tablet not preserved.

This covenant between the Eleans

If he (some one previously mentioned)

and

the Ileraeans (of Arcadia).

There

commits fornirntion{?) in the sacred precinct,

shall be

an

alliance for one hundred

one shall make him expiate

it

by

No. 60]

ELEAN INSCRIPTIONS
areXef

<< 8[)8,
7()

8(8).
{),
TL evTTOtol

e^a<yp5v

fXav
T/9iV|Of,

e^a'ypeoL.

' ,
ete

221

8, a 8e
iviroLOv

(\)
{hiva^KOL he

(7){e'jV

60. Olympia.
]Srachr.l899,136ff.

Second half IV cent. b.c.

Szanto,Oest.Jhrb.I,197ff.

Danielssou,EranosIII,129ff. Mei.ster,Ber.Sachs.Ges. 1898,218 ff. Keil,Gott.

9 ,

Reinach,Rev.Et.Gr.XVI,187ff.
f^eveaip

Solmsen40.

^.

ipaevairepav

\,
and
be free

/cjar

.so

an ox and by complete and the Oeapos in the same way. If any one j^^onounces judgment contrary to the regulation, this judgment
the sacrifice of

from punishment

far as

purification,

concerns matters happening later than


the time of the clemiurgi under

Pyrrhon.

shall be void, but the decree of the people shall befinal in deciding.

Those next of kin shall not sell or send off the property of the exiles, and if one
does any of these things contrary to the
regulation,

One may make


which

any change in

the regulations

he

shall

pay
sold.
.shall

double

the

seems desirable in the sight of the god (136.8), withdrawing or adding with the
approval of the whole council of the Five Hundred and the people in full assem-

amount
like

sent off
stele,

and
he

defaces the

If any one be punished

one guilty of sacrilege. Several times during the fourth cen-

One may make changes three times, adding and withdrawing. The re.stobly.

tury B.C. the oligarcliy and democracy


alternated in
sulting banishment
It
is

ration and interpretation of the last

sentence,

In

used loosely where

an adjective
or
60.

But one shall not exile the children {of an exile) either male or female, under any circumstances, nor confiscate the property. If any one exiles them or
confiscates the property, he shall be subject to
trial

.
1.

{) .,
in

power in Elis, with reand recall of exiles.

is

uncertain.
is

probable that this decree belongs

4 the adverb apXavios (see 55)

to the

Macedonian period and perhaps


in

we should expect

agreement with

\
of)

refers to the exiles of 336 b.c.

,
It
is

were recalled
10.1 'HXetot

335 b.c.

tovs

a supplementaiy decree to another


is

^ '
Cf. Arrianl.

who

^.

on the same subject, as


in the first

shown by

sentence after the introduc-

tory formula, and the use of yevealp

before {in the

name

without modifier, which must be understood from the preceding.


lect as

Olympian Zeus on a capital charge, and any one loho loishes may Ining the charge against him with impunity. A nd it shall
be permitted, even in case they have exiled

On the diaearlier

compared with that of the


.see
:

inscriptions,
1.

241.
is

the singular

often u.sed

any, to any one

who wishes

to

return

collectively in the sense of offspring,

222

GREEK DIALECTS

'

10

' () ^. , yheL\ '^ 7 '^


70
6
he,
rojt/)

.^
he

at Se Tip

Troieoi,

aTTohbOTai.

^.
eTrel
[

/,'
he

^, ^ , , 8\
aire

[No. 00

\]\ -

aTrohoaaai

he

hi7r\\_a^atov

/cajl

61. Olympia.
39.

First half of III cent.

. . ' .'^ , \ , ^
Michel 197.
0eo/9.
I |

'
^

i$.c.

SGDI.1172. Inschr.v.Olympia

Tevehtop,

,
12-13.
cf.

/xe

descendants,
yivei

e. g.

Epir.

yevedi

of

yeveas

yevea (Oest.Jhrb.IV,79), both

usual
.

ral cf Mess, rau yvvaiKU re

.
4-5.
:
:

(SGI)I.1334), Arc.

ye
is

movable property for sale abroad. is dative of advantage or of

disadvantage, according to the interpretation preferred.


:

For the pluras 7ei'eas

(SGDI. 4080.07). Some take yeveaip here as members of the yeveai, understanding the.se as noble families, but
this
is

less likely.

note.
vop.

.:
5.

see 136.3

and no.

existence of
(cf.

Probably an error, for which the some such form as

6.

9-10.

,
It is

we expect

'57.2,

^ '['.
tJs lepoffvXos

ris

ypaa],
(cf.

in

S(il)1.5517.

\6=

an inscription of lasus,

probably from *5ea\os

Xos),

whence

perhaps

', ^, al

[^

through

the

medium
from

(\) may

\
is

*;.
that the

be responsible.

aor. subj. 151.1.

uncertain whether this

a provision in favor of the exiles, preventing tlieir property being disposed


of

by

relatives, or

one directed against

them, preventing the relatives from


selling the property for

meaning would be make the i. e. remove the tablet stele see 96.2. from the stele. For Gl. I'roxcny decree in honor of Damocrates of Tenedos, who is mentioned as one of the Olympian victors by I'ausanias (0. 17.1). On the dialect as com-

of a verb

*5eaXros,

According to another view,


tablet (cf.

Cypr.

5), so

;'

them or send-

pared with that of the earlier inscriptions, .see 241.

ing

it

to them.

In the former case


to the sending off

With
with gen., compare
06.66.

may
estate,

refer to the sale of real

1.2 for usual iwl

and

Lac.

with ace. in no.

^^ ,
No. 62]
|

'

NORTHWEST GREEK

INSCRIPTIOX
irXeiovep,

223
ev

cSiav

70
Tat
j

<yVop,

^,
|

II

Sia\\Se8KTat

virohe-yerai 10

evvoiav
|

^, . , ^.-,
evepyeTav

, ^, ^
||

TrXeiovep

15

evepyeTuip,

' \\
|

aX\Xoip

20

evepyeTaip

yap

ey\

epyaL

yyovop

uycova
||

> ^ .
|

^. '^
|

||

eya
|

ypaev

yyov6p

, ^^ .
\

yvoip,

25

30

35

||

Xoypop,

40

2 "< 02 ^\ ,
Northwest Greek
b.c.

62.

Thermum. About 275

..190,55

ff.

'AyaOai

-.

02
6Xoyo.
Sec 279.

^,

<; '^<; ''

Treaty of alliance between the is an example of the mixed dialect current


62.

west Greek
infln. in

.
3
pi.

Note

Aetolians and Acarnanians. This

the retention of original

at this time in various parts of North-

-, {),

imv. in
el

-,
a/,

,
e.g.

in aor.

but Att.

for

ov beside

west Greece, which we

call the

North-

eo (e.g.

but a-Tparay^ovros),

' 7\ ( ,. ^;
224

10

15

20

25

', ' ^ , , (, . , ^. <^ , ) :^ ,


lohaveo, Yihpvo
^

^\ ,^,,, , ,' , ,
he

^ ^^, , . ,
',

. ^
el

GREEK DIALECTS
ei9

[No. 62

he

j|

^'

ev

eairepav
Be

hirep he

epvv

{<;,
|

-,,
he

^Aypal^oi

W.Kapvave<i

alpedevTa^
he

7<

'. epvt, ^
hcKa irXav
TeXetov

,
re

AKapvdv\e<;
el

elev

he

'^\
ev
^

ele\v
ev
eir

<^>^\
ev

ev

ev

ap^ovTe^

ev he

%\

\.

he

ev

ev

{)-

KaWteo?

hee^pov,

Aahvo

" ,

\\^,

', ]^\, laaha


|

',
'

||

\\.<^

Olviaha,

'7[]|

/|9

Aaho,

Olviaha,

els

Olviaha,

[|

beside iv with ace.


'

(cis

AirwXiau

but

iv

beside

used of the citizen levies


tlie

in contrast to

mercenaries, Polyb.2.G5, 5.91,95,


Plut.Arat.32.

TT^ois.

10.

6^

and

24.

this

is

tlie

first

reference to
officials in

as mili-

Dor.

probably connected with ?!/, and so having the same


no. 112.22.

tary

the Aetolian league.


cf.

For the Achaean league,

4\,

force as the frequent aVXws

6-

$, e.g.

, '?,. ^, , ? ? , ? , <; .. ^ , ^ \ ^^ ^ , ' . ^


64]

LACONIAX INSCRIPTIONS
7re^Ot9

22

TOW

^<
I

'?,
|

lirirevaL he
ei

ev

iv

eVt

/?,

ev

el

8e

'^
ev

arepoi

eKarepoL

8.

||

ra<i

8e

^?
8e

30

[39-42 fragmentary].

63. Olympia. l^Icent. b.c. SGDI.4405. Inschr.v.01ympia2o2. Roberts


261.

['^], fav\a^
/it\e/ro[i

, , . ^ ,
|

88

'^

35

'

\_

[]

'|['

],

evve^

Laconian

'\ () :/^[?].

[]

\^^^

64. Delphi. Soon after 479 B.C. SGDI.4406. Michel 1118. Roberts 259. Solmsenl6.

[][ ]

'A^[a]i'[a]t[o]t,
|

63. This is the inscription mentioned by Pans. 5. 24..3, who reproduces it,

Ditt.Syll.7.

['\\7[]
I

7[],

",
|

:[][]//[6],
|

trijiod set nji at

Delphi after the battle

Hicks 19.

||

5
||

eliminating the dialectic peculiarities,


as follows

^,

fiwl

' /, & aea6uL,.


ZeO
TOis

KaUv

64. The famous bronze .serpentcolumn which once supported the gold

tripod was destroyed by the Phocians in the Sacred War, but the column remained until it vms carried by Constantine to Constantinoplc, where it still remains. AccordiS t Thucydides (1.182..3) and other.s, the Lacedaemonians, after erasing the boastful epigram of Pausanias, inscribed simply the names of the cities
of Plataea.

The

10

2Q
25

30 Xetot,

A
5

, ,,, , , , ',, , , , , , ^. " ,,^ .


226

GREEK DIALECTS
|

[No. G4

Meyape^,

'^',
|

||

Mu/cai/e?,
|

Ketoi,
|
|

||

Tei^iot,

'EpeT/3ie9,
||

||

noretSiarat,
|

Ku^ytoi,

,,
perea

Fa|

KeirpearaL.

65. FoundatTegea. Vcent. b.c. SGDI.4o98. Inscr.Jurid.II.pp.GOiT. Michel 1343. Roberts 257 and pp. 357 if. Solmseu 26.
rot

<;
/ca

ave||

\\

/c'

e/iei^,

09 7[9] () 7{) . ,
|

"
el

<yeveTa\t

'

'

t'o

'

{) ,

apyvave-

yvt.aioi, iirei

et

'

which had taken part in the war and had set up the tripod. On the retention
of
in

[^]5[^]',

niau form would be

65. Statements of

,.
for
(cf.

intervocalic

{yuicrioi,

),

that

see 59.1. Xote also which the true Laco-

Xuthias was not a Spartan proper, but an Achaean perioecus. But there is no

two deposits

of

money made by a
of Philachaeus,

certain Xuthias, son


for

and the conditions

their future disbursement.

The place

good evidence that the perioeci differed in speech from the Spartans at this time, and the retention of intervocalic and of antevocalic e (farea) is sufficiently explained by the fact that the document was intended for use outside
of Laconia.

of deposit

ple of

was without doubt the temAthena Alea in Tegea, the Greek

See 59.1, 275.

poses.

temples often being used for such purBut the dialect is not Arcadian,

A. For Xuthias the son of Philachaeus (are deposited) tioo hundred minae.
it,

If he

lives, let
it

him come and take


shall belong to his

and must therefore represent that of a foreign depositor. The most natural assumption is that Xuthias was from the neighboring Laconia, and we are
expressly informed

but if he dies,

children five years after they reach the

age ofpubertij. If there are no children, it shall belong to those designated by laio
as heirs.

Athen.6.233)

The Tegeans
laio.

shall decide ac-

that the Spartans used to deposit money

cording to the

with the Arcadians to evade the law against holding private property. It has been suggested, partly on account
of the

B. This was inscribed later than A, which was thereupon canceled, as shown by its mutilation. The Tegean

names (Xuthias, Philachaeus),

engraver
et

is

responsible for the use of


a/,

but mainly because of the retention of

instead of

the subj.

(cf.

149)


No.

.
sen 17.

6(5]

LACONIAN INSCEIPTIONS
ral Ovyarepe'^
el
I

yveataiI

he

/xe

el he

()\'^(^,

, , {) {) )
et

227

he

rol

'9

7ro^i/c||e9 10

Teyedrai hiayvovTo

66. Sparta.

B.C. SGDI.4416. Michel946. Roberts 2G4. SolmAnnual British School XIII, 174
I

^.
I

[^
ft'.
||
| |

viKaha^;

iviKahe
iv

['\
||

har ovhe^
|

TeTpaKi\y~\

[.^

^,

^evpiai

TTOl'
I

/ce/c

hvvia

. ^ ^ \^ ,
6\_'\\'\
/ce/c
||

^\\
['\

Uohoihaia

[/'.]

6<;

^' ^
^'\
/cet'
11

^']
|

.
| |

TeT[pafciv'\

KeXevhvvia
ho

'
|

eviKe HeXei,

iviKe
||

[
e/c
|

re- 10
]

15

Yiohoihaia
eVjAe/So/iai?

[i^viKe

ray
AiV-

20
25

e/c
[

KeXe^ eviKe

\^\.

/cat
|

his

30

eviKe

in contrast to

sion of A
liis

ill

/, /35 (cf.

of

A,

tlie

omis-

ries in

such a manner as never any one

58r/);

and

of those noiv living.

7.

With

own

blunder in writing

was

four-horse chariot,
11.

perhaps due to the Arcadian pronunciation (cf. 68. .3).


It is also possible

IG, 17, etc.

seidon,

with

that in

11.

10-11

we should

read, with-

etc.

out correction,
Arc.
sive
less
-Toi

.(}<)\^,
But the

with
pasis

foxos
in

ITom.

-rat (139.1).

hvvia:

with

understood as subject

honor of

natural than the corrected reading

12, 18.

usually adopted.
0i(\)\e7-, ratlier

For the reading


than

av-

59.1, 61.5) celebrated at Helos in La-

'07-,

cf.

the

conia and Thuria in Mes.senia.

attested in other dialects (89.3).

Seven times
oion mares

For
66.

see 140.36.

Record of the victories of Damonon and his .son. The portion of the stone containing 11. 42-94 was only recently discovered.

,
24.

hipohais

hi-n-irois

young mares.
the

usual form of the


:

$ ' $.

9.

reflexive as in

In

the

games of Po1.

elliptical genitive as in eiV

So

-.
iv
:

24.

11, 31. KeXev-

tlie

(20,59.1), games Eleusinian Demeter.


(49.1,

ivith colts (bred)

from

and

his oion stallion.


:

15 his
ff.
:

iv-

19.

being in

the

name is name of some

god-

ff.

viKahas

\.

Having won

victo-

dess or heroine otherwise

unknown.

35

^\\

.
I

228

GREEK DIALECTS

[No. 66

40
45

'"""]

[ -^
II

TaSe evUahe

'/.[:/3']<?]
|

Aide'^hta

\ [^ ]<;

evt/ce

||

^//'?
j
|

ho

50
55 [/c]at

||

eviKe

iviKe
iviKe
\

(50

()5

70 i/oy,

75

80 /cat

85 [/c]at 90

. < ^ , / , ^ [\ , /' , '?


/cat

iviKe
|

? ? ??
\

ho /ce[\e^]

tot' e'f

^
AiOehia
| |

/ita?]

/? <;
||

?
| |

[] [.
|

7/[9 7]()'
|

AiOthia

i'oi^

MaXeareta

t'oi^

j]

toy

'E^e/^teW

'/[/]

evheha
evixe,

htTriroc^
|

<; haa
/09
II

Avto?

. . . ,^
haa
iviKe.
|

. ||
| \

[SiJauXoz/.

/cat

||

iviKe

/cat
j

ha

||

./
\

eviKe
|

||

vhoha
/la/u-a

ha

eviice.

ivUe

eV

evheoha []7709
j

ho

ho

^
\ |

evUe,

||

ha.
\

||

ha

67. Taenarum.

Inscr.Jurid.il, p. 230.
5

/coe
I

10 /cat

.35

ff.
.

^ .> ^^ . ' ^?
[/c]at
|

'^,
|

iv

ho

\
/cat
||

evhefio-

IV cent.

B.C.

Transitional alj)habet.

SGDI.4o91. Michell076. Roberts 2G5c. = and once -.


|

/cat
|

Victories

won by

(cf

1.

40), evidently

I)amonon\s son
(cf.

11.72, 79, etc.).

The name

Tos) points to

an with an inherited
syllable,

^ ,
|

Nt'/cov

/'. A^vhnnrov
||
|

the usual form


to the

(cf.

is due to assimilation vowel of the second syllable.


:

44, 03.

Uapirapos

is

the

e-gi'ade in the first

which is seen in some of the cognate forms of other languages, e.g. Old Prussian emmens, but was hitherto unknown in Greek. PiObably the of

name of a mountain in Argolis where games were held. 49 ff. Victories won by Damonon as a boy. 54, 00. hia games in honor of Apollo Lithesius. games in honor 57.

of Apollo Maleates.

Cf. Paus.S. 12.8.

No. 70]

LACONIAN INSCRIPTIONS

68. Taenarum. IVcent.


Transitional alphabet.

. '' '';.
|
|
I

^
II cent.

i$.c.

SGDI.4592. Michel 1077. Roberts 265 (/.

= A and .

TlohoiSd^^vt
|

'
188.

229

5
|

,^^-

10

69. Thalamae.

Ber.Siichs. Ges. 1905,277

'8<;

' ^8
ho
6[e]pa)i,

/cat

70. Sparta.
|o<f

Koi

\, ^ ',
IVcent.
ff.

. c.

Annual British School

Ionic alphabet, but


[

<

\'\, ^.
ol

7rpo/3et7r||a/ia9
|

,^
,
|

Meister,

as well as

re

\
5

()
e[i/]

. d.

SGDI.4498. Annual British School


[

,356.

'6\<;

veiKuavrep

(at)

:[)]||^,

\^4

\eVt
5

GO
and

ff .

Victories

his son at tlie


hvirb

won by Damonon same games. 66, 73,

sthenidas the dedicator was a


father of the same

member

of the Council of Elders, his grand-

81, 90.

with ace. for usual

- with

name could not have


'

gen., as El.
07, 68.

with gen.

in no. 61.2.

the

Manumissions of slaves in form of dedications to Poseidon. dual forms of eirdKoe,


:

been living at the time. He was carrying out an injunction previously laid upon the grandfather by the goddess, which for some reason had been unfulfilled.

Koos

ivitness.

is

the con-

tracted form, of which the uncontracted

4
dess

ff

since the god-

occurs in another inscription of


the

same

class.

is

due

to the

analogy of consonant stems, to which nouns in -oos are not infrequently subject,
e.g.

had declared that Nicosthenidas should set up in the shrine a statue in honor of Andreas his fellow-ephor, and that he would then consult the oracle
ivith success.
. .

Att. xoOs (112.6), late

gen. sg.

6$,

.
like

vo6s,

nom.

pi. v6es

(after

,
(Att.

possible interpretations are equally dif-

The construction
is

unusual, but other

09.

From

the shrine of Pasiphae at

ficult in this respect.


clau.se

hov/crX.:

Thalamae, an oracle often consulted by the Spartan oflBcials. Cf. Cic.de divin. 1.43.96, Plut.AgisO and Cleom.7. The

name

), , , ^.
of the goddess
'

=
would

depending on

and

that he would.

,
For

infin.

loho

see 85.1.

was

whence the contracted Uaand here, with Lac.


cr,

These belong to a series, now fifty-odd in number, of dedications to Artemis Orthia by the victors in
70-7.3.

for intervocalic

Since Nico-

certain juvenile contests,

The

object

230

[^\\
71. Simrta.
5

^[()
II cent.

}i\avSpop
I

^ ('^)
72. Sparta.
73. Sparta.
\

^ '. / () \ 8 . ^ ^ \\
|

\.

'^
. d.
6
I

(\) .^ ^
GEEEK DIALECTS

[No. 70

^<;,

Annual British School XII, 368.


| |

(')
|
|

^eirl
11

/3-

II cent.

. d.

SGDI.4500. Annual British School ,355.


j

^^.
\

eirl

II cent.

. d.

Annual British School XII, 372.

/cejXoia

itself, was an iron which was let into a socket, with which each of the stone slabs is provided, some with two (as nos. 70, 73), or even three. Of the contests, one

dedicated, the prize


sickle,

to Herodotus, the Spartan

boy

in the

^ ,,,
is

^. ,
Cf.

third year of his training

was
is

called

This

is

from Dor.

=
from a
-ikos?

while
beside

called

not

diminutive in

-? (original or for

etc., i.e.

an actual chase of wild beasts, but

some The

athletic
i.e.

,
in

game

called the hunt.

musical contest.

variously spelled
\rja,

[], , \, \^, lirobably from the

was of course a The word which is

few of the dedications are in the and a few show Doric forms without the specific Laconian coloring, e.g. viKUaas. But most of them, like those given here, represent an artificial revival of the local dialect, that
ficial
is,

,
A

).

root seen in

?,

notes a nuisical contest. That the contests

,
is

arti-

as regards its use in inscriptions,

also de-

but probably reflecting, though only crudely and with great inconsistency
in spelling (e.g. in the use of
<r

were between boys

shown by

),

the use of

many

of the dedi-

cations, e.g. veiKaap rb

ning the boys^ contest in music


sg.),

and by the appearance of the /3the bands in \vhich the Spartan boys were trained,
ayop leader of the

or

'/

in their tenth year.

,
,

. (

the form of speech which


as a patois
ants.

still

survived

ivin-

dat.

among the Laconian peasSome of the peculiarities in spellbut of the


for
late period, e.g.

ing are not characteristic of Laconian


especially,
ei

in veiKaavrep etc.,
final

leader of hoys
to a gio^s

.,

in

^,

for
etC.

in

/3-

According

No. 74]

HEEACLEAN INSCRIPTION
Heraclean

231

74. The Heraclean Tables. End of Recent. B.C. IG.XTY.645. SGDI. 4629. Inscr.Jurid.I,p.l94ff. SolmsenlS. Ionic alphabet, but with ^, and \- = h. Only Table I is given.

. , \< , ^? ' ^
\

,, \<; ,, ? ,, ,
"? /3|9 9
fe
^
|

'

<;

'-

||

.7/3,

7 < ^?
Toy

? , ,8 . ??
|

/le

Hi^/pa/cXet'Sa?

haipeOevTe';

eirl

?
||

<; ^

^,

1\8<;

10

[cojojt^ai^

/cat

iv

,<;
ctyovro';
'
11

a/3^a/Ae|iOi

? ? .

hvirep Tlavho-

hiapw^

at

^
?

Be

<;

', '', ? ^ ",


Beta
|

/ca^
|

iyevovTO

epp-qfyeia^

,
of those
sureties
1-7.
etc.,

ev

15

74. The lands which were the property of the temples of Dionysus and Athena Polias having been encroached upon by private parties, with a consequent diminution of their revenue, two commissions were appointed to define and mark their boundaries, survey them, and divide them into lots. Table I contains the report of the commission dealing with the lands of Dionysus
(11.

who took leases, with their and the amount of the rental Table II, which is not (11. 179-187). given here, contains a report of thecommission on the lands of Athena Polias.
The groups of letters /re, ire, and the names of objects which served as emblems rplirovs, etc., are u.sed as symbols to denote the tribe and family of the person named.

,
II.9.

1-94), a statement of the regulaoflist

which the lands were fered for rental (11. 95-179), and a
tions under

18

11.
ff.

7'';' .
:

66.

201

of

arable land, 646-^ of brushwood, barren,

20

25

'?

7ta9
30

35

40

45 yeia^i

50

^, , ^ ^, ^ <; 7 ^ , ^ , \\^ '^ ^ , - , ', ^^'^. ^, ^^ ^ -^,? ^, ^ ^, '. ^- ^ ^ -^ \^ -232

GREEK DIALECTS
fk^

||

hevrepav

8,

<;

iv

||

8,

iye^vovTo
|

iv

BeKa Svo

^ ,
eirl

[No. 74

he

e?

eye-

evpo<i

ciyovTO^

htapav

yav,

iyevovTO

iv

? ippyea
| |

|[

ippya'i

\<;.
11
|

oyeyevevav
<>

yav

ippyea'

<;

-^, i

ippyea<;

hoyoova

'^1\, iv
||

7']9

7^'

^^^

iyavo
lost, i.e.

yav

and wooded, land.


been

30.

'
yav
it

ipp-

who had
(11.
:

appropriated

to

private

by private encroachment.

use
as

47

ff.).

49.

8($

This land the cominis.sioner.s restored to


Dionysus, bringing suits against those

suits

which had

to be tried

within

thirty dai/s,

Cf no. 55.42 and the Attig

. ^
No. 74]

HEEACLEAN INSCRIPTION

<;
ja ha
heKaaTOV.
Be

havra

[ 7]

<^
|

,
||?
htapav
|

233

[/']^' []|-

;|9
|

ha

'^(;

e?

eirl

eirl

Tiavhoaiav
htapav yav

|[

< ??
Xot?,

, ^ ^'
<;
ajovTO<;

ftSiav yav,

pthiav

';
e?
||

, heva

55

8e

hav<i

<;

"hiapcti^

"? "." hav ? <; ,


haKpoaKipiai^

'? ?

', ^? ';
pihiav yav,

, ?8 <;
eirl

'
||

pihiav yav (jav).

^ '? yav,
|

co

? ho8 ?

htapv

^, hooX\y
|

'?

hiapov TrXayo^
ftSiai yat

^/'
7\yypa'v
hooXy<;
" hiapo)^

? . ?

^-

65

haKpoaKipiav

,"
8',

? ?
?

< ? ? ," ' ? ??? ^."^? ?^


ya<i
hapv

<; ? <;^ '? ', ?


ho
hiapov
'?

70

^yypaev

/[^

^lyypaev

? h\apv

^[/

yav

ary) back

'

' ya
|

75

'

^
||

hoSov

'-

80

)6. Setting

it

(the boniid-

vaic land, so that

it

should not be covered

from

the springs onto the pri-

over with stones (which

were vashecl

85

^? ' '? ' ?


eVt
Se

234

GREEK DIALECTS
hdi

/'

'?
ho re

95

100

hov
<yv\

, hoa
105

, ,^ ' , , ,, -, , ' ^ , , ' ,'^ ^^ -^

^.
||

/ '? ? ^; - ' ?,
hca he
*

[No. 74

ctti

aveTriypo-

".
ho

heiTTa

hoKTOi

{),

||

eVl

''

heiTTa
|

\<^.

'^,

' ,

'.

[|

>,

ha

ire

h\ap

^, h

^.

poyov

'

ha ya

'.
down by
ble, like

the current)

and made

invisi-

the

former boundaries.
thresh.

102.

But

to

104.

. 39.

11

'vahpa,

h
111.
if

So usually, but al.so 11. 188-139, and


ff.

.some correct
:

iox

4.

10")

,,
1.

.:

they assiyn

another the landwhichthey

, ,. ^ , ^ ^ '^ , h . ] ,' ^ ^ ^, , .^
No. 74]

HERACLEAN INSCRIPTION

8
ha

rav ^av, hav

hoi

235

hol<i

hoi

ho

/3?

hoaTt<; Se

7'<\<

^^,

110

TOi<i

7\<;
8e

/re||Teo9

7
||

ha

ael iirl

,
iv

hoTi

ho

hav

^,

hvirep

ayovTa

iXaidv

<^

115

\'^,

ryav

120

h'ap'vv hov.

II

have leased, or devise


or those to
those

it

by

xvill,

or
it

sell

originally fixed.

The
in
it,

is

the the
Cf.

the harvest rights, those

who

take

over

re-bargaining,

hence

concretely
the rebate.

whom

it

has been willed, or


the harvest rights,

amount involved
also
11.

who purchase

155

ff.

be surety for the rentals,

shall furnish sureties in the

same manin the be-

fines, rebates,

ner as the one who leased


ginning.

it

108.

hoo-ris 8

'whoever fails to fulfill his obligations shall pay not only double the rental for the year, but also, all together with the first rental, whatever rebate, namely the decrease allowed in re:

\.

,
deter-

.
pos,

a Uelian inscription, B.C.

leasing for the first five years,

is

mined by

decree.'
it

To

insure leasing
neces-

the land again

was generally

sary to offer

it

at a rental less than that

,, :
$
iyyuovs
5k \oiirov,

( ^,?111 seems from


its

and judgments.

position to go with

as well as with

For the whole

1.

situation, cf.
II.

from

XIV, 432

^-

eXarrou

oi^e/Xet

"/, .

rfvpev

yij

120.

aor. of

occurs also in Pindar and Alcaeus and

7
/re'lreo?

lyeypaylraTaL, ev

'',
feTeo<;

125

^ ^^ ^ 7 ^^ . \< -, 8, , . ,
8\86,
Be
ev rat

236

GREEK DIALECTS

[No. 74

ferei

KarehLKaadev

heicaaTOV,

'
|

eXaiav

apyv-

11

a'yypayjrat

'

Soy
ei

vypev

Tcve^

\
130

yey

'

vypa^frv
htapaL

ev

9
<?

'
135

' ??? ^ \? 7() ' ^ , ^? ? /^

<; ?
'

,. ^
yat
ho
||

/?

y8a^^a

? '? -

, .,

7|7^^'?

,
in or

is

probably the form of


to

all

dialects ex-

and canals which run through


they shall not dig deeper nor

the lands

cept Attic-Ionic, where eneaov shows

make a

which does not fall under the usual conditions (61) and is
a change of
not certainly explained.
KdcrOcv
:

dam

122.

8are
Cf.
:

have been condemned,


in

hereby condemned
1.

advance.

trespasses,

from

130

ff.

Ttts

$.
171.

128.

i.e.

, ',/ . -' breach in for the water, nor shall they

dam

off the luater.


:

the.se be-

long

^7),
Att.

with prothetic

-, -

(Horn, also

etc.
etc.
e.

from f^pyoj, while from The spiritus asper is


are

the ditches

found mainly, as here, with the formg

No. 74]

HERACLEAN INSCRIPTION
Tat yai hai

hiapai ydt

<;
Be

<;

' , ^ ^. ^ ,
TreWe
ev

'
Se

. ' ,8, ^, , , - '^, ' , . ,\


|

ovhe

aWov

eaael

al he

hvTroXoyo'i

htapav yav

<\
ev
Se/ca
|

237

iv

eupo?

140

TrevTe

<;

y^ovTL

'

' ,. ^ ,evo . ^^
<;
|

, aeev

ev

hol<i

e eer|-

eyeva

<-

\^\
,
'?

ev

ev

145

hvTToXoyoL

'?

<;

vTToypayjrovTat

||

, hXoyo
|

.eLv
''
beside
:

aTTo\eavei,

^, ' ' \,
^^peiav

'

evpev

ev

aei.

hoi

150

ovTe

'

'

yfXv
KapTreveaOai,

in

137.

^, e.g.

same type

^
8c

lack of reduplication, as also in


Ionic (Hdt.) and later Attic.
:

(8^
Att.
a.s

^.

;,
out of

etc.

149

ff.

perf. subj. of the

Cret.

(151).

what

.
11.

the lessees shall not

For

mortgage the lands or make a payment (perhaps jsay afine)


eithei the

he
:

lands or the buildings

112, 141, cf.

etc. in

thereon.

14(5.

But they
i.e.

shall use

Note that when a mute is changed to an aspirate by a following A the latter is not written. So also
ai
1.

10 jiid

they wish for the conMrnrtion

152.

of the farm buildings,

the

238

GREEK DIALECTS
'^'^^;
ael

15 8e

8
IfK)

^ ? 7^\

\//
Se

^ \'\ ^
]

^,
ii>

areXe?

AevTepo^

'. .
.

Ho

hoalaci

^'

, '^

ha

[No. 74

''.

?
heva

^ .

hu^irep

<;

6<

,<^
| \

165

\\
.

ha

^ ,' ?}
ha
ho
|

.^
|

'',

<;

170

'^' || ha hvpv ^,

^,

^ ' < ^ , ' ,


hvap'a<i
'],
|

,' ',
^.
?
ho

\^vhXvo
hhvp-

hav. hpa

hvp-ova

No.

7]

ARGOLIC INSCEIPTIONS

ev
||

yjnXaL

/^<;

SpeoL^
lyejpaTTTai.

' '^239

ev

'^

8e

ev

aei eirl

peev eve
huTToXoyot

\\ 77 8\ '^

^\8.

^ .' ^^ ^ %

'.'^ho

'

Sev- 175

'^^^,
Se

jeypaTTTai.

180

8
irevTe
||

ha

Be

pe

< .
pe

heheova
^
|

ho

^//
IG.IV.492.

. ^
|

11

'

is5

%.-

Argolic
75. Mycenae.

Probably VI ceut.

pahapha
eyevTO

^."
75.

eV

^^ " ^.

B.C.
^

e?
''

elev

Fhrasiaridas ofMycene ions sent


to the

goddess.
is
is

by Athena

suppliants of the city

As the nature of the request unknown, the nieaniiig of the reply

in the magistracy {or priesthood) of An-

obscure.

Is

and Pyrrhias. Let Antias and Cithius and Aesrhronhe {judges?). Certain citizenshadsenttothesiirineof Athena petltioiiing aid, and Phrasiaridas returned to them with the reply of the
tias

Ueras

is

witli
else-

ace. of persons, as in

Homer, and
iv

where;

cf.

Locr.

<}^^
intcr-

no. 55.20.

Frankel, IG.IV.492,

prets otherwise,

namely was

sent as

suppliant from the citadel.

240

76. Mycenae. Early

At

sen 21.

' ,
77. Argive Ileraeiun. Early
cent.
ff.

KpLTSpa<i

^ <; .
V cent.
b.c.
eie,

GEEEK DIALECTS
TG.IV.493.

[No. 76

Solmsen 22.
e?

Tlepae

jo-

()

. c.

IG.IV.olT. Michel 801. Solm-

The Argive Heraeum


ho

[H]a

.{)

1,197

\V\apa
appereve,
|

'Ap'ye\[i'\a^.
||

?, \\.
roiSe'
|

\\4<;

7G.

// there

is

no body of demiurgi,
shall

support.

the hieroninemones (appointed) to (the

and
no.

/
S.V.

\['\<;.
here, cf. ai/dpias

For the collocation

63,
of

heroum) of Perseus
decreed.

judge between

7.

the parents according to

what has been

The hieromnemones consist


which the

This

is

only the conclusion of

resentative of each of four tribes, of

an inscription which must have been on the stone which once rested upon the
base containing this line. Pausanias reports a heroum of Perseus on the road

,
Byz.

tive presides, the 'TXXeis,

are the three tribes

all

Doric states, while the

from Mycenae to Argos. It is probable that boys were employed in the cult and that disputes arose among the parents with regard to their appointment.

attested only for Argolis.

Tpeh,

For

Tots

the stone has

'Hpa/cX^ofs.

' ' . ',


common
Cf. Steph.

of a rep-

whose representaand the

to

are

/;'5
'.

ws
78.

11.

On

the face of the stone, just

An act of indemnity for the manof Athena,


Avith reference to

below the inscription, is a rectangular cutting, with dowel holes, evidently intended for the reception of a tablet. This was the while the
(probably only an error for

agement of the treasury


probably
cific

,
'

irregularity

some spewhich had occurred.

),

"Without such an act, persons

who pro-

properly support, pedestal, refers to the

posed or put to vote a proposition to use sacred funds for public purposes

whole stone in which the was set, and which would itself be called a
in Attic.

In several inscriptions

from the region of the Euxine


of

,
is
ei's

actually used as the equivalent


e.g.
Xei/zcoO

were liable to puni.sliment. Cf. Thuc. Hicks 49.45 ff. In the matter of the treasures of Athena, if any magistrate calls to account the council under the presidency or any of Ariston or the body of
2.24, 8.15, Ditt.Syn.21,

treasurer, or if

any one entertains or

eh

Ifpbv

(SGDI.3078,
is
is

brings suit on account of the subinission


(to the assembly) of the proposals or on account of the action of the assembly, he shall be banished and his property

Mesembria).

This use

doubtless of
closely allied

Megarian
complete

origin,

and

to that .seen here at Argos, though with


loss of the original

notion of

be confiscated to the treasury of Athena.

.8]
^']

78. Argos.

[S]eaaup5v

heveKa

,
631.

"
9.

^ . ., ^
VI
or early

ARGOLIC INSCEIPTIOliS
V cent. B.C.

241

IG.IV.554. Michel 583. Solmsen 19.


<Ti9>
[e
\

'

[]

()
e
e

? \\<;
ha

TXo<i

hL'^oL\

] ]^[e 5

8e

79. Olympia. Roberts 81.

or early
20.

V cent. B.C.
I

SGDI.3271.

Solmsen

eTToifehe

KapyeidSa^

^
cf.

Inschr.v.Olympia

'.
Hicks 150.

80. Olympia. Early Michel 1087. Roberts 75.


Ta(p)'y[et]oL aveOev
81. Cimolos.

cent. B.C.

SGDI.3263.

Inschr.v.Olympia 250.

,
6

Aifl

IV

cent. B.C.

IG. XII. iii. 1259.

Michel 14.

hpiov

' '^\ .\\^^ '^,


| \

Ionic alphabet, but twice

'
=

9.
SGDI.3277.

II

The council which


(tlie

is

in

office shall

en-

immune from
order of words
dalas

prosecution.

force (the confiscation), otherwise they

selves be liable to
1.

(cf.

better to assume simple dittography.


2.
:

of Argive officials

^ -Goodwin
op

(
L. quisquis)

members of

the council)

them-

Athena.
corroborated,
as a
it

-, $.
'^
see 164.4.

Thuc.1.57 t^s

For

.For the

Until the existence of a


is

is

the

body are mentioned by


:

Thuc.5.47.11.

9GG.2.

T^Xos

hVKa KaraGco-ios
dejiosit ion

, .
3.

besides, else.
:

79. Atotus made this, an Argive and an Argead, son of Hagelaidas the Argive. Apparently the father of Atotus was of the Macedonian Argeadae but had moved to Argos, and his son proudly joined both titles to his own name. See

'9

cf.

El.

Roberts

I.e.

Quite otherwise Ditten-

no.

.57.

ff.
:

berger (Inschr.v.Olympia) and others,

on

who

take 'Apyeiadas as the

name

of an-

arcountof the
posals,
i.e.

of written prothe formal introduction of

other sculptor.

For the

crasis in this

a measure before the assembly, or (consequent) act of the assembly. This


refers to

and the following inscription, see 94.1. 80. Inscribed on a helmet. The Argives dedicated to Zeus from the spoils
of Corinth.
It is

some measure sanctioning the


Those
or
for

not

known

to

what

irregular use of the treasure.

war

this refers.

responsible

the

introduction

gi. Deci-sion of the Argives in adis-

passage of such a measure are to be

pute between Melos and Cimolos.

242
10

GREEK DIALECTS
\

.\
[</)]ey?

at
\

15

\.\\[]^.
82. Argos.

^,

10

15

20

,, <\ ^ ^ [^ '^ ,
),
.

'?
7^9

?. ^?, '; ?, '^\\/?, ^,


Ill cent. B.C.

. .

^Apyeloi

YioXvai'yav,

7;|/3/, [/3]<?
||

TreStdv.

.^ ,\
7r[e]/3t
11

[Xo. 81

[^'^,
jpo-

B.C.H.XXVII,270ff.; XXXIII,171
|

ff.

avedev

'/[]'?

7po0e[e9]

.
^^

[^,
iv

7\\

^<
[^eta?]
e/c
|

T/ay-

/'-

\\<;
7'

686

\\6

jreBaya-

jov

[^']|9

"

"

"

^'^^^ '^^''

"^ ['\<

\^^^,
Wev

\^\
[11.

[7]'9

7|[]

epaeva

11

evae\

22-25 fragmentary].

cent. B.C. ICt.TV.914. Ditt.Syll.i):i,S. SolmEpidanrus. End of Ziehen, Leges Sacrae 04. Alphabet transitional (form of tlie letters = , ncA^er , no gen. sg. ;ind OV). mostly Ionic, but
8.3.

sen 2o.

[Tot
5

7
/cajl

'\
(rVT'pas

<; ^ 7[^9] [] ^^ ' ''

, \
the
etc.:

e\paeva

15.

82.

From

Apollo incntioned by Pans.2.24.


2
ff.

desiiination of
C>

, ?,
:

devripas.

Sec 97.4.

ramp

leading to the shrine,

,
and
the

the temple of the Pythian

area; have rearranged the altars and


the colossi, have leveled the area, built

tiu!

phratry or ^ens.

a stone

loall

by the

.,

strengthened

the doors of the temple,

ff.

Have had made and put


ivith

in place,

cups and a silver beaker.


uncertain.

and dedicated The re.s-

!).

accordance

the divine oracle,

toratlon of the words following


is

the Om}>hnlus of the Earth, the colon-

nade, the enclosing wall, the altar


stone conduit,

83. Regulations for sacrifices in the

and

the ... above it;

Asclepieum. Forthefrequentdoubling
of con.sonants
.see

have had

made

in the oracle chamber a

89.4,
6.

treasury, which can be locked, for the


offerings; have constructed all the road,

see 140. .3

101.2. For For other com-

nients

.see

the Glos.sary.

No. 84]

hevTepov

\<;

86 ] , '^ 88.^
TJ[oi,]

8,

, , ^ , ', ^ ^ ^ & ^
3

AEGOLIC INSCKIPTIONS

243
10

'

<;

hovTO

88. \
[|

'

:[9
epaeva

15

20

'8.

OeXetav

eVl

\
25

'

^[^<; [^'
\1<;
|

8,1^

30

. \^\\ . ^ 6 . []
802.

84. Epidaurus. Late Michel 1069.

IV cent.

b.c.

IG.IV.951. SGDI.3339. Ditt.Syll.

[7]^.]

[^ejot

'^\['\

eu[^]u9

'^/."

. <; ^ , ',^ [^. ' " , ^ '^^^


8
ev

^? \
iyeveTO,
|

^<;
5
[e]7r7/3ct-

6<;

/'[^]?

fyaa^Tpyi

11

<;, [^.

^<;.

^],
8i

'

84.

One

of several stelae found in

the Asclepieum recording the cures ef-

^ .
TTj

fected.

a. PRns.2.2~.

ivrbi

n\iovs, iw

-/-^~/

,.^
'
yeypawTai
be e|

tic influence, e.g.

contraction
pi.

',

.
Tlie dialect

- '

(!.

Lengthened is etc. ways on, and e usually et, but we find p6s beside xeip6s, and (25 ,
3. irtvff'irr]:

8
el

<;

10

usually

rarely

ai,

etc., ace.

6).

al-

see

58

c.

2.27.1

^
5.

ivTOs
:

ef/it,

see Glossary.

Cf. Paus.

ff.

The words on

the votive offer-

shows considerable At-

ing form a rude epigram, hence the


'
15

244

GREEK DIALECTS
vlv

, ^ ' . < ^^
el
I

\^^,

erL

70|[4]^ 7\\\

eyKVo^

'
^
';
debv

[No. 84

iTriTeXetv,

iy

Be

Oeov, el

yevoiTO

virep
el TLVO^ 20

70leev
virep
eiTLTeXelv.

6![],
||
|

6[] eiSe
Xe'yeti^,

eSoKei eTrepwTriv vlv

< ,

ev
'.
atv
eSoKei

7.

? '^

epv

25

virohieavpe

Xeiv

teal

30

|0']7[]9.
35

, \] \[ ^ [ ^.
7nypa
'

^ ^ ,8 , ,
eKTelvai

aKpaTel<i

' '
<,
iv

irapeu]

^,
e^eX-

\^'^.

[^yeo

^^^. '\['\ eyae8v [^ ' e^epv


Oeov
,

[7r]tVa/ca9

avy-

eirl

'

eva eKTeiveiv

[rjai/
||

eirel

deov

ev

"

yevoeva

eXe. [?] -^^

[][]9 \^ ' " "" 0[' [vy


e'poev

\'\
vyirj

'
'^e
|

[] [;]
|

\J'\epov,

Oebv.

'epp^oa

SieyeXa

eyae8oa

[] \\

40

ev

[9 ^eo eh ['^ ] voeva, e


poetical

'].
,

^
]69

apyvpeov,

,
u\Tre\p
vlv.
.

yt yvea

||

8-\
6

eSOKei

eo

heo \^*

yevoeva

[^yL

e^rjXOe.

decoi

7poeao

[' .
elirai^Ta
|
|

27,28.

85
who

for wliicli elsewhere


:

of.

89.8.

for the god, looking nf the hoy's father,


Ixide

4:j ff

Tfien the boy

acted as torch-bearer

if he obtained

him promise that he (the boy), what he ivas there for,

No. 84]

ARGOLIC INSCRIPTIONS
irarepa

\ \, ? ^ 9
[eKeXero, ttoJi

lyeh

[^ .
[
|

'

e^]a7riVa9 " vTroheKO


elirelv.

? ,
".
'
eXeye
eiSe

245

706/36^9,
he

^-^

iv

45

{jytrj'i

7^['.

^ [ ]? ^ . ' \^ ] , ^. ^^ ,8 ]\ , , ' \< , . '] , '^


|

4<

,
et?

[iJaev
6

\\[^yaa

[] , [^ ] \\ \\\';, ] \, ^
-^
ihoKei
/ca]t

iirei [/ca

'^]

50

eh rjov
h\e

\\
|

'\\\
''],
|

'|[[/;

']^

55

eh

[,
[

o^^lv elhe

iSoKei

^[]

el

^ ' '
'

^]

\
|]

(>0

^\
|

'^^
[][[:

]
6

, ' ," . ' '^, .

^(^)\

"

[]\^

"

'

<^

.;" ^^
^

eXe'yov
r)
:

65

)-

70

looidd within a year


offerings for his cure.

make

the thank-

00.

6\, '
||

\.
(50.

.
75.

75

see 177.

see

280.

When he had not even any rudiment of an

246

GREEK DIALECTS
oyjrt^

[No. 84

80

.[, ()7 > .^. [ ''^ \, < \\ \ |!^, \,


'[8'\
et[9

ihoKei

deov
ei?

tl

e7re]tTa

Stayayovra

85

'"? .[
7[].
[<?

eVet eyeveTO Trepi

'

Toy yvXtov

eJTrea/coJTret
|

'?
Toy

\^.\.

7<;

hyi?]
et?

^
7

90

95

. - ,. - ^
eyeoLL
eh
BevSpeov tl

SevSpeo^

^ . -'. . 8
6

8 , ", []; ."


7r]tWiy, eXvireiTO

'

eiSe

Toy

:[7],
[]
"

yap

6 iv

yX6v,

et9

lepov.

i^aipev hyii) Toy

' yeyev
eTrel

)]?

, , \
'
|

7| ,^ yevova

', "-

ave-

\<;

-jre-

yeyevevo
|j
|

yi

100

105

.^^ ,/? ^y - ^ . . . ' ,


X6y'^av
6

^ yav
ey

yv. yotaevo ' '} ^.

yt

ey

'-

yevo.

.
\4.
97.4).

yvo

it,

yXX^

||

/'i^PjX-

ya\ova
for
i.e.

vylv

y[]ov.
Or read

eye, but only the place

the

empty
to

eye-socket.

102.

must understand

while with

^$

refers

() \$

(cf.

we

. ^^ ^ . . . ^ .' , ^ ^ . ' ^. ^ . ^ - . '


|

^^ . ^ '?, <; /^? , ^ <; .< ^^;


No. 86]

COEINTHIAN INSCRIPTIOisS

247

irpo

110

iraif

[]9

<^<;

iyeveTO.

VttO

Sei-

115

8e

iv

etc

etf

',

8,

i^eyepdeU

8e,

veavia

||

120

eu)v

Sidyeiv

ihelv

iv

toll

^,

ev

^/
|

^.

\^\

vTr[o\

iveKa11

.
*.
open
e

^.

(^

^^
Corinthian

[9]

85.

125

[^]?

Corinth.

Early VI cent.

. c.
. c.

IG.1V..358.

SGDI.3114. Roberts

Apevia ToSe
86. Corinth.
a.

[^'\,

/'[9].
.\211,217,329. SGDI.:3119.
YioTihafov\j,

, [].
Early

cent.

' aveOeKe

.
C.

\YloT~\ehapdvi

. .
^=
e)

\.

85. Tliis

and the following illustrate

They

are mo.stly votive offerings to Po-

the Corinthian differentiation of

or

() and

(transcribed

and contain the name in both uncontracted and contracted forms, as


seidon,

close e corresponding to Attic spurious

orgenuineet. See28.

The epitaph forms

a single hexameter. Cf. nos. 87-90. 86. From a lai'gc collection of i)ottery fragments found near Corinth.

.
5

Uoredafovt and

nominative

onl}' tiie

,
is

but

in

uncontracted

the

See 41.4. For Ile^afo^ev


syllable

(c), cf.

Ileipatov Xen.IIellen.4.r). Iff.

Probably
error.

in the

iir.'st

an

248
87. Corcyra. Early Solmsen25.1.

GREEK DIALECTS

[No. 87

cent. h.c.

IG.IX.i.8G7.

SGDL3188. Roberts

98.

, 8 <; 16< []9 <


<yeveav

14<
yap

Hviov

ef

'
'
roSe

IsleveKpaTeo'i

roSe

'

', 8<;

[^>

'^?.]
'

evl

ivOuv
irovede.

/[]4

88. Corcyra.
99.

Solmsen2.j.-2.

89. Corcyra.
Solnisen 25.3.

90. Northern Acarnania (exact pro\'enance unknown). IG.IX.i.521. SGDI.3175. Roberts 106.
{j)6{P)e

/ {) '
Early
cent.

i$.c.

TG.TX.i.SGS.

SGDT.3180.

'

Tohe 'ApviaSa

'

{) .

'

^"

Roberts

'

cent. u.c.

lG.IX.i.8G9.

SGDI.;319().

Roberts 100.

'B.evpapeo'i

<?

Trepl

<?

yaf

. \ , ^.
eirl
88.

'' cent.

B.C.

87.

Monument of

Menecrates. This
89.

and the three following are examples of metrical inscriptions composed in the epic style and with retention of several epic words,

See 76
89.

6{),
-afo

i.e.

ivl,

-, -,
and
pi.

rected from

:.
6.

-.
:

cf

3.

-():
.

also MAeifioy, no.


cor-

See 32.

But, since assimi-

lation of

to

(cf.

Germ. Lamm,

in-

flectional forms, e.g. gen. sg. in -oio

(105.2), dat. augmentless verb forms.

and

in

-,

Eng. lamh as pronounced) is not otlierwise attested in Greek, this is probably beformed with another suffix cf. Lat. tumulus with a side

--;
105.2

{--

4. The restoration is that suggested by Dittenberger, IG. I.e., but is of

io-suffix).

course uncertain.
tive sense as in

6.

-:

oo.
-ai.
6.

gen. sg. raasc. in

transi-

Homer.

1)2]

MEGARIAN INSCHIPTIONS
Megarian

249

'\^6[^~\

'[7][]//
|:[^

, ]?, ^ ' \[ 91. Selimis.


cent. B.C.

Michel 1240.

Roberts 117.

IG.XIV.268. Solmsen 21.

SGDI.3046.

Ditt.Syll.751.

<; 8

[At]a

<

[]

^.6\ivOi>\^tiol

[] [] []|[]/
|

^'[a]ay

[] [] ['\[,

['\. [<^

1.\\\

8<;

]'

' '^[]-||
5

iv

\, ' ^ ' <


(.^926.
['EJTTt

]^
'

^^,

']

eV]

[9 7][\^]''?

e/iey.

92. Decision of the Megarians. Epidaurus. Between 242 and 234 B.C. SGDr.302r). Dltt.Syll.452. Inscr.Jurid.I,p.342. Michel 20.

'

iapev<i

Me7/3ei9

^^ ]' ^. \^7^
[toJO
|

AljiaXem,

iv

'

[vrepjl

'[']

|[[4]/
[em]

'91.

statues to the gods


to victoiy.

The Selinuntians promise golden who shall help them


Instead of an express conis

Zevsfirst.

carelessly used for accusative,

^ 8
:

< ",

nominative

an enumeration of the gods who usually assist them, the implication being that they will continue to do so.
dition, there
1.

93. Decision of the Megarians, appointed by the Achaean league to arbi-

trate in a territorial dispute between Epidaurus and Corinth. The date must fallin the period between243B.c., when

Through

the help of the following


victor}/.
2.

gods do the Selinuntians loin

Through Zeus we conquer,


Ares.

. ^.
making
these

Cf. Pans. 1.44. 3 Upbv


:

- ^ - ?,
etc.
:

Cf

5.

Demeter.

Achaean and 223 b.c. when the Megarians abandoned it for the Boeotian league, and is still further limited by
the Corinthians joined the
league,

the

name

of the strategus. lapevs


:

Persephone.

1.

ff.

And whenthereispeace,
shall set

from
89.3.

-^os.

111.3.
see 58
6.

statues in gold

names, we

and engraving them up in the

eTr'iapeOs,

For the psilosis in see


3.
:

4.

name

gen. sg. in

-eCs

of a harbor

temple of Apollo, writing the

name

of

and promontoiy north of Epidaurus,

'
250
10

GREEK DIALECTS
8e

Me7/3t9

\[^ }\\ ] \[]['\<;


eva
iirl

^J7t8apv

,
^

.<;
8e

\^ ^
|

7\6<;

[]^
|

[^
|

||

', aireaTetXav

[No. 92

<>

'AXieiov

<?

'!

7
Xeiav

TOV

]|

ratj?

< 7
20

'
7
TOf
25
'
II

"
iirl
|

hirep

"^

<;
[9

,-

<;
eVl

<; 7
hirkp

vTre\p

[]

^'

'At'eia?

6^|7/>[]

<; '<

Aiyi7r6pa<i
iirl

^
;{0

[ /3 [] ^ ,'^
'\
<;

|
\

]0

HeTpai eVt

<; eirl

[ \ ,-^
?
iirl

'[]<;

<^
iwi

hirep

and

referred to

4.18 (Spiraeum).

masc. in

So 'Apalas 1.22, 11. but also the u.sual form in 13 f The confusion caused by the iden-as.

)
.
of those
.

[] [^'\ () '7[]^/

\\[''\<

ewi
11.

^. \[ ]
|

['\

iirl

[]

[There follow,

32-96,

tlie

names

of the arbitrators

appointed to lay out the boundaries for them.]


tity

by Thnc. 8.10.3 (correcting and Pliny,Nat.Ilist.

with the feminine form


Aiynrvpas
20.
1.

is

19.
6.

?:

by
pas

tSls
1.

21 beside

gen.sg.

105.2

arranged according to the three Doric tribes, contains the characteristic forms
etc.

,,

32ff.

-ci.

shown

Tlie list of names,

See 42. 5


No.

9]

RHODIAX IXSCEIPTIOXS
Rhodian

251

93. Camirus. YI cent. b.c.

/ ' \<;
Zei'(S)

IG.XII.i.737.

SGDI.4U0.

VLV

'
|

hiva

\^
j

.
[

eti]

*
[|

94. Camirus.

, ^ ,^ ^, ? , .^ '^ . '^ ^^ \ .' } , ]


||

[8
iv
|j

cent. b.c.

IG.XlI.i.707.

SGDI.4127.

\8.

Syll.449.

95. Camirus. IV (or III) cent. b.c. Michel 433. Solmsen32.

IG.XII.i.694.

SGDI.4118.

Ditt.

"ESo^e

? <; ?
|

ev

'

lepov

/"}?

^^|

ev

TOLL

iv

SeiKvveiv

ev

||

ev 15

ev

'

lepov

lepoiroioi

93.

": .

62.2.

Zv(S)
^\$,

Si':

^. 97.4. Hesych. 'Kes

arxursed.

Cf.

both those on the island and those on the mainland. For the latter cf. from
the Periplus of Scylax,
iv

reXewj

and,

for the first part of

the

compound,
original

Xdws

in Archilochus.

94.

'-

island of

.
:

'it

The

neighboring

(see 42.2)

was under

grave.

The

meaning of tlie word (from cf. X^xoj) was resting place, whence either
grave or the usnii\ place of recreation, The last words are to be read, club.

*,

the control of Camirus at this time,

yet evidently sustained a relation to


different

with resolution of the


95. 1

ff.

crasis,

demes

of

The names of the or Camirus are to be inscribed,

(
G.

from that of the other demes.


:

.see

160.

is

used by late writers, but

not in classical Attic.

ff.

(-

shall give out the contract


is

to the

one who

willing to furnish the

stele at the lowest figure.


252

GREEK DIALECTS

7[\],
tl
i$.c.

,
i

[]

[No. 95

[ ]Ditt.

Syll.560.

"^

96. lalysus. IV (or III) cent. Michel 434.

ICx.XII.i.GTT.

elire
5

\\

10

15

20

No'yu-09

25

30

35

'' .

, '. ., , , , ^ , , ,
||
|

,8
Tol<i

'\a\vaioL<i,
[ |

'<;

lepov
|

<;

, 7\,
|
|

[]]'

'; '< \ \
SODT.lllO.
|

7\
|

eVo|[8ou
|

[?]

'^ ,
|]

otl

\7

'\\

97. Khodian (?) inscription from Abii-Symbel in Egypt. VII or VI SGDI.52G1. Ilicks 3. Kobertsl80. Ionic alphabet, but with15. c. = ; in u, h, = A and in c (and probably in i), = A in/( = ;). =. out
cent.
a.

'i'ypa^\rav,
90. 4.
Ilelios

'^ '()^ ^' .:. '8


(^)()
Lindus.
as iroXios
:
|

and tlie nymph Kliodos, who was worshiped with divine honors by the Rhodians. Cf. I)iod.5..56, where
the
7.

name appears
:

as
also

on another inscription, marble from Lartus, a place in the neighborhood of

. 4

a daughter of

pi.

forsg.

18.-

the

name given

to the acrop-

<3 -.

oUs of lalysus.

Cf. Ath.8.300 ev ry

97. Inscribed

on the

legs of

one of

Abu-Symbel by Greek mercenaries who had taken part


the colossal statues at

/? ,,. "..' ? ^ ].
99]

RHODIAN INSCRIPTIONS
vh
6
[

253

Kep/cio?

()7()09
6

11

C.

(7.

'^ ^?[^.
yu,'

h.

' ''/9[6]9
- -

ho

6(9)

"^ ^ ^^?.
'
6
-

e.

- -

/.

Ha7eae/3/Lco[9].

g.

.
i.

^' ^ ^()'^\^
^[).

1{)

[]

7[
<
5
|

98. Gela.

cent. B.C.
|

99. Agrigentum. Second half SGDI.4254. Michel 5.33.

,
in

TrpoeSpevovaw;
\

>
ev
this.

SGDI.4247.
i^Troiec.

III cent. n.c. (before 210).

||

',
|

)
:

IG.XIY.952.

7rpoajopouvTo<i

an expedition up the Nile under PsammetichusI (004-617 B.C.) or Psammetichus II (594-589 b.c), probably the latter. These mercenaries were from Asia Minor and the adjacent
islands
(cf.

avrlovs
pes

TToXXoc.

those whose

low, there are two lonians, from Teos and Colophon (6 and e), and one Rhodian, from lalysus (c); / is also Doric, and h Ionic (on account of the movable). The main part of the inscription
(a),

' ,.'-/. | ', . $ '^^- - -, ^, ). ,


:
For
.
ble.

stands for the Egypwhich is applied to the stretch of water between the first catvis aract and Elephantine.

3.

KipKios

tian

Eerti,

as far as the river


see 132.4.

let

them go up.
94.1,7.

Hdt.2.154

vis
:

5.

complete restoration
:

is

possi-

ot

ijXaffe

aor.

of

<5

Tlie peculiar spelling

is

perhaps

yap

due to

a.

confusion between the two

Among

.systems of writing

known

to those

who

names

are inscribed be-

wrote these inscriptions,

1)

>?,

2)

A,

and

=.

Similarly

be/xi, i.e.

in a

The ran

inscription.

98. Beginning of a hexameter.

For

Tlatafo
in

see 105.2 a.

as well as

i,

is

clearly in Doric

and may well have been written by one of the Rhodian mercenaries, though
there
is

nothing to prove

99. Proxeny decree of Agrigentum honor of Demetrius of Syracuse. In view of 1. 11 and of the fact that this inscription was found at Rome, being evidently the copy given to Demetrius

7<;
10

15

javTivoi<;

20

,, ,. ^ ^, , ^ ' ^^,"< "' /? , 8 8 ^) ^ 254

GREEK DIALECTS
|

^
Kapveiov

[No. nn

[]<;
11

virep

"^

(^)\
'';
|

pt

avaylyeX-

}<;

7|0/36

e?

(^8
e/c

ayadcuv 7rapaiTLo{v)

yeyoveiv,

8e

||

iari

irapaheho

'\\,

iv

ayadai

'^ 8

25

<
(1.

8
,

100. Rhegiuin. Michel 555.

cent. n.c.

. '? 1>
{- .
:

24), it appears that he was resident Rome, and his services probably consisted in some dealini^s with the Roman
in

', , IG.XIV.612.
SGDI.4258. Ditt.Syll.323.

.
8e

^ ,'^
'
Se
\

8-

vpjTiv

^. Trpoyey
|

]Sloo,

after the analogy of

etc.

(76

6),

occur
15.

its

in several
:

inscrii^tions.

see 147.2.
col-

senate in behalf of Agrigentum.


8.
:

loo.

Rhegium vas a Chalcidian

decree of the

ony, and in the few early inscriptions


the Ionic element predominates.
after

()
is

in the sixth period of two months, at the

But

very end of the month Kapmos.


the

10.

destruction by Dionysius of

Council,
in
1.

for

which
signifiis

employed
14.

cance of the following numeral

(,

clear.

for

, ,,
3.

The
:

Syracuse in 387 b.c. and its subsequent restoration, there were continual changes in
of its
its

7<

not

population.

Some
if

new

inhabitants must have been

with

ei

furnished by Gela or Agrigentum,

.
70?

101]

. '^'? ' '/ ' ' ' ^; <; '


COAK INSCRIPTIONS
255
*

iirel 6

evvov;

rat

TTo'Xei,

ra^

KaXoKayaOia^,

evepyerav

<

VKev

() ? '^

8e

8.
sen 33.
101.

et?

^ 8'^ 8 ,
arpara'yop

'^
eh
he

iv

iyyovov^

SiaTeXet ei?

'l?yL\\vv.

Coan
101-103. Cos. Late TV or early III cent. B.C. SGDI.3C;36-.3038. Ditt. Syll.610-G18. Michel 71G-71S. Paton-Ilicksjuscr. of Cos 37-39. Solm-

[The

first six lines

lated that only a small part can be restored.]

~\
iepem
lepav,

[^ []
lep\oTroLol

, ^'
[']

and most

of the

seventh are so badly mutie<?

8e

[]\

[ayoSe
10

iv ayopdi

[<;
we may judge by
inscription,

]!; ['\['\<;,
not merely Doric,
infin.

\ 4][]' ? ^. [/[;]
||

['\L\_y^ov^i,

[y
tlie

o'\y

which

but contains the Rhodian

and the word otherwise known only from inscriptions of Gela and Agrigentum. The Rhodian influence in Sicilian Doric seems to have been considerable. Cf. at Tauromenium, SGDI.r)228.18. 1. unex'ijlained and probably an error of Some kind. 2.

,
is

the language of this

the rites and ceremonies appropriate


to

each day of

year.

101. Selection of the ox

and other

preparations for the sacrifice to Zeus


Polieus,

day, the twentieth of the

which occurs on the following month Batromius (cf. 1. 47, and no. 102.11). 8-19. After the tribes had each selected nine oxen in a manner prescribed
in the

preceding lines (apparently one

refers to a small select body, probably

mediating between the council and the


assembly.
101-103.
Cf. Ilesych.
iv

? ^.

Portions of a sacrificial

calendar, in which were enumerated

from each ivara or ninth part of the tribe), they were to drive them to the agora, the Pamphyli having the precedence, and there unite them in one herd. When the priest and the iepohad taken their places at a table, the Pamphyli drove up to it the three

256

GREEK DIALECTS

15

' [, ' '^ , , 7 ^['] \' [^ '[ '? ^^


9

Be

[ , '? ^<; rpe^h [, 9 [1


"

?'],

^]^

, ^

[.

[]7, [
<?

[ |]7
a'y[op'\\av

[<

]
|

20

^ ^./ , /

[];<?

[]|^<?
][\'\[

eireiTa

76\[

\^\<;

,'
[]<?,
25

ayopevei
[o]i9

^]." [\'\, va'yopee []'[ 7\]


|

30

) []^
finest

]epe<;

., < ' ' , ^ '[ ,^


',
vTTOK^y-yjr^et,
|

lepa

lepa i^

iepoTroi^ol

]
|

T[ai]

'

eirel he

ev

ajopai [^||],

hirep

evhe^io[^

[/]

Katoi

oave

|]{)
"

'(7)

eireiTa

' [ \\
[:]||7'
If

'
it is

epaevo

[^
:

[7]/)0

these

oxen for selection.


tlie

none of

diately,

described at this point, be-

chosen, the Hylleis drove up

fore

tlie

Dymanes, then the Pampliyli again and so on in rotation until all twenty-seven oxen had been presented. If still no choice has been made, they select an additional ox from each the third part of a tribe, and unite these with the
three more, tlien

ox chosen for Zeus. viits tamehj. Aor. subj.


:

,
ff.

a priestly official, occurs only here, and, in the small in the form
island of Pserimos,

--,

1.

narration returns, in

<^5,

[]
1.

23, to the
sul)-

150.

-ycpca-

the

title of

others.

Tiien the choice

is

effected, fol-

The elsewhere, a body


Calymna.
offers

between Cos and were here, as

of officials in charge

lowed by vows and a i)roclamation of


the choice.

19

of religious matters.

Upa
Cf.

.
:

the

in addition the sacrificidl cakes

choice of the ox to be sacrificed to Zeus

(prepared) /roHi a

Polieus having been disposed of, a similar

procedure is to be repeated for the choiceof anoxtobe.sacrificed tollistia;


and, as this sacrifice takes place imme-

rected from
as

. , .
48.

(/-.
31.

29. -'
=

cor-

whole burnt-offering, in this case, a pig.

No. 101]

7
7
vavT<i

Kriv\ei Be

7[9]
/30i<?

][4}][9]
e7ri^fe[TW

[ ^ ^, , ^ ) [ '

.^<
6\^

e'iTt[aTrevK\ovTe^

COAN INSCRIPTIONS
^a'y[^ovT\e^<; 8e

,
[:]'
35

257

\a^p^^ovaL

' [\^
eVet

'[^'||/3 8]e

\\^]| |

\^,
\_^ /|]

iviavTLa

te/oew]

6[ '
-

[ou9

[.

^Jut;

aTrovha\y aoLvo^v

^ ^ ^ ^, ^, [ '
lapev\^'\
.
.
|

'^ ' <


II

] 7[^'\,
^

ia\_pe\\v'\<i

<;,

<
?;

['^'\

[8'\<;

[:|].
6

'8
'

le\p'\a

'

|]9
^/.[,]

' ^,\ , [^ , \, , '^, , 7[^^ . , ' . . ^


6
,

\^^8

. ^ [] , ,
7^ [\'\

, ,

[
,

roi? eVre-

40

^'^^^
|

45

hep

evhopa

ivSe'pe-

[^^'\

50

[]

[^^ |0[9] ['\


|

\^\\^

55

[^

Cf. no. 102.12


:

44.
11.

? (<
:

43.

the eudopa are lorapped in the skin.


is

during the night.


:

136.8.

The reference
victim

to certain parts of the

pi.

140.1.

irpoa:

wliich

after

slaughter

are

yoptviro)

sc.

iapeh.

4G.
off.

wrapped up

here in

literal sense,

carrying

Cf.
iK-

special offering.

55-56, and no. 102.10


48.

cvSopa

ivSe'pc-

. 4.

9^
:

in the skin

and made a
tois

Cf. Ilesych.

^-

cheese-shaped, that

258

GREEK DIALECTS
iepd Trape'^et

[No. lOl dvet

GO

'- [ ^^ ^ . ' 8'^8 ^^ [/]| ' . [ ] :'/[ . [ ^^ ,


^

']

[]\
dvet

oh

ie[pev<;

[|/]

<;.

'Emrat Me[Xai/]ia

lepev<i

ye'pi]

[]\\

eV<?

oh

reXea

'

[/catji'ai]

iepv<i

iepd

'

yepy

"E/c^Ta[t

'\.

t]e[pe]i'9

\_

102.

].\^'^

.^ [ ' ' [^\ , "


|

ap^^'

'^

]|4

'Peat

'

'

7]||^

10

1)

\ , ^^ \^^
', .\ [^] [^,
TOii

'. ,

'[]

[] ^^
|

\_^\

^.[1^
/ca[t]

[^\^'\

20

\ ,, ,
II

'

,,
6

||

[]/09

Toy

'^^
etc. in
is

/|[]'
is,

^^
due to the co-existence in the case of and gen. sg. -eos and -ens).

as cheeses are

now made

the sliape of a slender cylinder.


:

vovos. 01.

eOffo in

no. 102.3 etc.,

from

in Cos, in

other Coan inscriptions),

(iO.

The spelling eo

of the spellings eo

(cf.

original eo (e.g.

KXelov,
iv

' ,? [
[]
|

^'\,

, ' [^ 88 , ,'^ \" \ , , , ? ^], .


a

No. 104]

THERAX INSCRIPTIOKS

\1

'\' ^
^

8\<;

'

\ ^ \\ [']!6
259

^'6'[, ]|
eXat

Ovei

[] <;

25

[][9

['\
?]

[\''\

[8]
[

...

...

103.

\'\
||

[|'.

'^]

|[9,

[<; ]

ol\e^

<0

4>

'Upa-

[]

lepa,

.[]

||

1\.\[] }'\ < [) ^'^ .' ^.


'?
['

||

l^epa

-\

10

15

104. Thera.
a.

', *^,
:

h.
C.

"AyXdv,

d.

102. 17. Trap

104-106. Nos. 104 and 10) are epitaphs, while no. 106 belongs to a series

, ., . ?, ..
Theran
VITcent. b.c.
IG.XII.iii.762.
sc.

SGDI.4808. Roberts

2.

long to the oldest period of the alpha-

bet,

when

there were no signs for

and

, which were indicated by

and

of inscriptions cut in the solid rock

and

or pA, in consequence of which even

mostly of obscene content. They be-

was sometimes indicated by

Oh (as in

260
105. Thera.

GREEK DIALECTS

[No. 105

106. Thera.
a.

Tlhi8i(7r)'7ri8a<i

'7\^<^.
c
107. Thera.
sen 28.
^

^ ^()'; ^ "^? ^.
cent.
li.c.

TG.XlI.iii.7o3.

SGDI.4809. Roberts In.

cent. B.C.

c.

. '< ?}? ',


IG.XTT.iii. 5:3(3.
b.

SG1)I.4787.

Solmsen27.

raSe

?.

eveoo-

'7().

IV

or early

cent. b.c.

TG.XII.iii.Suppl.l32-i.

[^
[^
I

^\\<;

7/|9 ^Ayopav
^\\_\
IG.XII.iii.-452.

Solm-

11

108. Thera.

IVcent.n.c.

SGDI.4772.

Sacrae 127.

'

[]7^

.
*? ayaOai
ey
rifice,

Ziehen,Leges

'Ayoprjiot';

109. Thera. IV cent. B.C. IG.XVI.iii.436. SGDI.476o. Ditt.Syll.630. Michel 715. Solmsen29. Ziehen, Leges Sacrae 128.
5

Ovpoi
[

/ ^^
ya^;
cf.

/9'.

7\' \

10

ey
||

Even at was completely lost,


no. 105).

, $,
'

this early time

KXea^o/jos, 'Op-

inoie.

month Artemisius they shall offer a sacand at the Agoreia (name of a festival) a banquet and sacrifices in
front of the image.
109.
the
1 f. Boundaries of the land for Mother of the Gods. This was,

'

ox,

ayaOov

||</9

107. Agloteles, son of Enipnntidas

and Lacarto, was the first to honor tvith a Carnean banquet the god {Apollo Carneus) on the twentieth of the month in
lohich the

doubtless, land dedicated to her service

Ayopai were celebrated

(cf.

'AyopTjLois no. 108).

But the words from


up
to the

a sacrifice.

by Archimus, who also promises 6 ff. In the very first year


a medimnus of wheat,
instead of

to Seiwvi^ev are variously in-

(as well as thereafter) they shall offer

terpreted.
last

The

inscription,
is

two words,

metrical (tVo iambic


SeiTTvtfei'

-:
an

trimeters), hence

without augy

mentand with the


For
108.
sec 58

Att. -Ion.

movable.
of the

but with retention of the Doric ending, Avhile is completely

4\.\)

c,

116.

Attic, likewise
no. 108).

On

the

twenty-fourth

/.
(cf.

^^

etc.

no. 108),

{ci.'

See 136,9.

No. 110]

I,pp.;552

93

If.

a'yev.

, ' ^ '\ . , . , ^ ,
CRETAN mSCRIPTIONS
261
j

Cretan

110. Gortyua. Ycent.B.C.


ff.

SGDI.4i)91. Hicks 35 (only I) Inscr.Jurid. Michel 13o3. Solmsen 30. COiiiparetti,]Mou.Auticlii III.pp. Merriam,Am.J.Arch.l885,32iif.,lS86,24ft:.

'?

he

110.

The famous Gortynian Law-

are not

much later than

the Law-Code.

Code. Although conveniently so designated, it is not of course a complete

in the The proper transcription of Law-Code is in certain classes of forms

code of laws, but a series of regulations

uncertain, since there

is

evidence of

on various subjects, complete


as

in itself,

both

at the beginning shown by the and the unused space at the end of the
last

from inscriptions which contain a sign for . Such are the ine

and

finitives of contract

verbs in

-EN

(-^i'

column. The state of the alphabet which and (there are no signs for

or -v?), and the infinitives in


.

-MEN

{- or - ?) The earlier inscriptions


with
while the have ivfoiK^v, have The later ones with transcription followed in our text is that which accords with the forms of
the earlier inscriptions.
tive

are not distinguished from

See 4.1),

and . the forms of the letters, and


ir

the direction of the writing

), are such as are usually characteristic of

{-

,.
^,
The

the sixth centuiy e.g., but the

prohibi-

general style of the writing, precise

has been transcribed uni-

and
is

regular, points to a later date.

It

formly

although the inscriptions

now

generally believed that the de-

velopment of the alphabet was slower in Crete than elsewhere, and that the Code is of the fifth century b.c, probably about the middle of it. There are also other inscriptions from Gortyna
containing regulations of
series of seven

beside often have which have before words beginning with a vowel (93). The same inscriptions show that
aor. subj.

transcribed, not

etc.

should be so
etc.

7<
is

See 150.

I.1-IL2. Disputes over the ownership of a slave or one alleged to be a


slave.

a similar

character but on different subjects, one

columns being known sometimes as the Second Code (SGDI.


4998).

I.l

ff.

Whoevei

about

to

bring suit

in relation to a free
shall not

man

or a slave,

make

seizure before the trial.

Although a sign for is lacking in the Law-Code, the had already been used with this value in an earlier period, is regularly so used in the inand scriptions of the "North Wall," which

If he makes the seizure, {the judge) shall condemn him to a fine often staters in the case of a free man, five in case of a
slave, because he seizes

decree that he release

him, and him within

shall

three

[No. 110

202
5

GREEK DIALECTS
Treyrjle,

pai<;.

10

Se

ayei,

Xayaaai

iv
| |

eXevdepo

[]

8\ \^'\^ < [:]|'

[\a'y'\aai,

^,
Kpivev.
8\_

ayev,

1
20

25

30

, , ,^ ; .4 ^
j|

iXeiidepov

<;

^^. <; ^,
6

/Cjo[t]yev,

iXevee[p]ov,

^,

eXevdepov

^'^
'

Kpivev.

; .,,'
|

]|-

8\

\-

[]

Tre\y'\T

huX\ov']

'

kg-

VLKV

Xayaaei

\^^
man

days.

But

if he does not release him,

the one in jjossession has been defeated,

a fine of a stater in the case of a free man, a drachma in the case of a slave, for each
{the judge) shall
to

condemn him

he shall release the free

within five

days, and he shall surrender the slave.

If he does not release

{the free

man) or

day

until he releases

him; and as

to the

surrender {the slave), {the judge) shall


decree that {the plaintiff) have judgment

For

time, the judge shall decide under oath.

the use of the genitive in


see 171.
11.38.

eXeve^po,

{ )
=
Att.

against him, in the

Similarly
Ob.serve the

case of the free

m an for fifty staters and


until he releases

a stater for each day

clear distinction in

u.se,

here and elseKpivev.

where, between StKaSSevand

Tiie

him, in the case of Hie slave ten staters and a drachma for ewh day until he
surrenders h im.
after the

former

is

used where the judge pro-

nounces formal judgment according to the law and the evidence, the latter where he acts directly as arbiter. Cf 11 S. But if one e.specially XI.2GfE. denies making a seizure, the judge shall

But at the end of a year judge has pronounced judg-

ment, one

may

exact three times the

amount
fines,

(i.e.

three times the original

instead of the accumulated fines


less,

for delay) or

but not more.

As to the

decide under oath, unless a ivitness


tifies.

tes-

time the judge shall decide under oath.

is

If one party contends that a man a free man, the other that he is a slave,

The purpose of
to be to

seems prevent the accumulation of


this last provision

those

who

testify that he is

a free

man
if

fines out of all proportion to the value

shall be preferred.

If they contend about


is his,

of the slave.
third
(i.e.

a slave, each declaring that he

a witness testifies, (the judge) shall declare judgment according to the ivitness,
but if they testify for both or for neither,
the judge shall decide under oath-

as a take accumulated fines). The word occurs in another Cretan inscription (SG 1)1.6000 I), where its
of the

Some

meaning

When

'

is

equally disputed.
:

25.
170.

gen. of time.

' ,^ ', ? 8 , ,
No.

no]

CRETAN INSCRIPTIONS
XayaaeL,
8e

263
|

[
e

e?

<;.

'

vaevei 6

eXevOepov

09

,
At

][] i[^ypa^{)va. \_'\<; \<; '[:]'?,


viKaOei,

()9

7|

\\ \
eXevdepov

\^~\ ayet

\<
|

[] [^]?

<;
3.
See Glossaiy.

eXevOepov

alji

\,
poLKeav, irevTe
y ear,
ff.

., , \ , *
\\,
evrt

he

he

7ohL
he

,vaevti
e

.
iv
||

e 35

40

|)-

ivi- 45

().
olireL,

, {^).

50

\\

55 II

eXevOepav

'

heKa

'

he

fOLKea
YiOt

hapKvav^
slave)

he

f[ol^iKv^ poiKea

\>\\t

anniversary.

38

of a member of the

If the slave on

case shall be tried after he (the official)

? |,
6
[

\
5
the

whose account one


uge in a temple,

is

defeated takes ref-

has gone out of


he shall

office,

and, if defeated

{the defeated party),

summoning

{the successful party) in the

pay what is ivritten from the time when he made the seizure. But
there shall be no penalty for seizing one

presence of two witnesses of age and


free, shall point out {the slave) at the

temple where he takes refuge, either him-

for him; but if he does not make the summons or point him out,
self or another

condemned for debt or one who has mortThe penalties fixed. gaged his person. in 11. 47-50 and their relation to the

provision in 1.36 are variously understood. INIany take

he shall

pay what

is

written.
11.

If he does
34
ff.)

and

as

not even (referring back to

sur-

referring to the value of the slave.


II.

render him {the slave) at the end of a


year, he shall

2-45.

Rape and woman,

adulteiy.

addition (to

pay the simple fines in what is stated in 11. 34 ff.).


pay
the simple fine
(i.e.

II.2ff.

If one commits rape upon a


or he shall

free

man

pay one
son or
TheOTr^-

If

{the slave) dies while the suit is being

hundred
ratpos,

staters; but if

upon

{the

tried, he shall

daughter) of an aw iraipos, ten.

withoutany additional fines for delay). (see Glo.ssaiy) If a member of the makes a seizure, or another {seizes the

one

a eraipda

{)
who

\vas not a

or society

member of made up

of citizens, occupied a social position

264
10 e

15

,,
8vo

poLKeav, 7r[eV]Te

7|'

'

20 TQ<i

. ] , ^ ,^^ .
GREEK DIALECTS
|

[No. 110

evhodihiav hokav al

ararepavi
[ojSeXoV,

Se

8e

iv

'^, 8 6\
e ev

88[]

8\-

8\.

i^KevOepav

oXirev

iXeuOepav

avhpo';,
25

30

35

\ 77 ^ .

Be

aXXveOpaL iv

40

^ . 7\
iXevdepav, BtTrXel
Be
irevr

, \
alXeOec iv
|

e iv

||

he

Karaaraael

Be

aXXvaeTat,
irovei

Be

i7\apevov,
45

' aireTaipo

, ,
Be
eirl

Be

\<;

^ ,
i\v

(\),
irevWe.

KaBeaTal\\^

^
,
Be
ff.

ivatXedevTO^
|

eev

Kped-

iXo\vTa

irevTov

et
e<?

Be foiKelo^

aTepov

eXev,

'
foiKeus.

At

avep
eie

[/ca]t

[]]^

,
ff.

\^'\\'\,

him as they
the one

|9 \,
lo'ish.

e.

eKev,

midway between

the iXeoOepos and the


are meant.

36

If one declares
shall swear, in

Possibly the

that he has been the victim of a plot, then

11 ff. If one violates a household slave by force, he shall pay two staters, hut
if one that has already been violated, by

who caught him

day one obol, but if in the night two obols; and the slave shall have the preference in the oath.

a case involving a fine offifty staters or more, with four others (literally himself as a fifth), each calling down curses

tempts to

If one athave intercourse with a free

IG

upon himself
othei-s,

{if he testifies falsely), but

looman
shall
fies.

to the distress

.
i>e

pay

ten staters if a ivitness testi:

iirfiri pcrai

28

ff.

One

.6

shall

of her relative, he

with two an a case of a serf the master and one other, that he took him in adultery and did not lay a plot.
in the case of

in

.45-.44.
11.45
ff.

Rights of the wife in

announce

be-

the case of divorce or death of hu.sband.

fore three ivitnesses to the relatives of


the one caught (literally caught in,
i.e.

If a

man and

wife arc di-

vorced, (the wife) shall have her

own

in the house of the father etc.) that

property

loith

which she came

to her

they are to

ransom him
if

ivithinfive

days;
loit-

husband, and the half of the produce, if


there is

but to the master of a slave before two


nesses.

any from her own property, and


has woven within
is,

But

he

is

not ransomed,

it

shall

the half of whatever she


{the house),

in the power of the captor^ to do with

whatever there

and five

. no]
fOilv

7
/3[9

^ . , , , ^< \ , , .^ Trepei
7ra/3||eXet
1

| , \ . , \ '^ , , . /^7\] "\ , ^ <;


I

<;
6

irevre

, ,
avep
irepoi
[

CEETAIi INSCRIPTIONS
kotl
6

265

evviraveL

avep

[atVijjo? /ze

^,
otc

<;

^^
jjj

art,

ei,

so

ei

<? \^^\<;

\_]

^^^

'

irapeXei,

'

()8,
6 6

\_'\^,
yvva,

15

avep

Xei

fa

dah

aveS

20

'

II

[xjat'

^]

^'\\ \\ :[^]
Trepoi, v\8lkov

:a/97r[o]

,
<;
shall

.7\
6

fv

,
to the

7| yvva \<; '^.


8\'\
:

fa

';

v8l\kov

'
25

ac ej^lpaTTac

, ^
'

'

30

fa
|

35

husband is the cause of the divorce. But if the husband declares he is not the cause, the judge shall decide under oath. But if she carries off anystaters, if the

see 101.1.

III.2G, 34

by

attraction.

50.

liere

and
:

i.e.

olnvos, gen.
Kpeios

III. 14-15.

thing else belonging to the husband, she

17

xpijtos

from

xp^eos, gen. sg. witli

ff.

If a

pay five

staters,

and whatever she

if the wife wishes, she

man dies leaving children, may marry again


may
have given her, acin the pres-

carries off

this she shall return.

and whatever she purloins But as regards


(the

holding her

own property and whatever


is toritten,

her husband

matters which she denies,

judge)

cording to what

shall decree that she take the oath of

ence of three ivitnesses of age and free,

denial by Artemis, {proceeding?)

But

if she takes
it

Amycleium to the archer-goddess. If any one takes anything away from her
after she has taken the oath of denial,

thechildrcn,

27

ff. And of the produce in the house she shall share with the lawful

he shall
itself.

pay
off,

five staters

and

the thing

heirs.

If a stranger helps her carry


he
shall

the heir at law, a short expression for

things

pay
off.

ten

staters

wi
ols

and half

the

amount which

(he judge

swears he helped carry

49,

i'Le (. 37
to

^. );
ff.

,
anything belonging
shallbe a matter for
trial,
:

to

cf.

V.21-22
or loife

If

man

wishes

make

gifts, {it is

permitted)^

40

45

,. , ^, .
avep
e

266

GREEK DIALECTS
e

hvoheK\a

Be

8 8
e
|

hi

50

<?
55

eTreXevaui
Be

, ,

fa

KV

'

irepoL, evB\iKOV

.
[No.

no

IV

5 /cea9.

7. TOC
10

15

20

25

6, ' <; , '


eVt
|

. , ;. ^ , ^, ' ,
jvva \\[']['], eireXevaaL
al Be
e

^, 6\\
Be

rot a\vhpl iirl


eirl

arejav

'

6<;
Te|/coi

\<;
Kepevovaa,

tol

oJlTTfie,

[].

[||

/xe

BeKaeTat,

eirl

tol rja? poL-

al Be

tol

.
.

\,
-epov

\^

eTTeXev||

'y\uva

'^4,

/^

et[e]

()

['\

||

. ^' .\
\,
e

opei,

{)

foiK^ea

'

either clothing or twelve staters or

thing of the value of twelve staters, but

not more.

nical term for certain kinds of gifts.


III. 44-1 V. 23.

'
some-

^'
ring.
to

-'

.^ ,
?
:

this

is

the regular

word

for

perhaps a tech-

being house in this inscription, f not occurhousehold (V.26) and


IV.14ff. If the man has no house which she shall bring {the child), or she

Disposition of chil-

dren born after divorce.


III. 44
child,

does not see him, if she exposes the child,


there shall be

If a divorced wife bears a she shall bring it to her husband


ff.

no penalty.

d[i]

.:

this

conforms to the readread


/xe 'i[e]

at his house in the presence of three witnesses.

ing of the stone, tliough the elision of


the
e

If he does not receive it, the child shall be in the power of the mother either
to bring

of ^e

is

difficult (or
?).

with aphaeresis
tati ve see

For

with the op-

up or to expose ; and the relatives


it.

177.

and

witnesses shall have preference in

IV.23-VI.2. Partition of property

the oath, as to whether they brought

among

children and heirs-at-law.

No.

no]

CRETAN INSCRIPTIONS

iiravavKov e^ev
TOL ev
a\t

8\
e

al he
Se

tl<;

eypaTTUi.
, ev Tac{^)

, <
Tt(9),
|

^
267
evfoi-

30

^<;
ra
||

, .
eVIlt

KeL

Kopat foiKiov,
eVt

poLKeo^

ei,

<

Oak

<;,

Ovyarepavi

' ',
[']
jvva
rajlt

^[^]4
'[7/].
eypaTTai.

\ ['],
e
||

\ :/3[']7, ' < |


70^[]/,,
ei'[e,

evei,

\<;

35

[]^\<
6[T~\eia

hoTO
eTrea^^evae,

\ 4,
Kev,

he

Xe|t

iraTep

^ ?
.
|||

40

anre[p]

45

,
[

\aKev

hev
oTeiai he 50

he
he

aWa
6

(nro\av\^Ka\-

V
5

vev.

7\[] [], \<


avep

a\\t

[]760 [7]/ 6 ['\\(<)


ho\VTO'i e

'

e\_v^hiKOV

^.

\,
the one

^
33
ff.

,
'

'7[']

a{a)he\7nol he
TeKva,

4 ^ , -^\.[]7^\
7^||,

airoXavKavev,

he

'

ei

10

eKe[v'\

he

eKev

ahevinal

|
eKev

\.
et
{of the chil-

\\
at he

peaa.

at
|

070
if

^,
is

IV.29ff. But

any one

dren) should he condemned to

pay a fine,

who has been fined


ais

shall have his

%
22
ff.

\\\.

TeKv\(x 15

ei

,
it.

20
|

he

25

when Cyllus and

his colleagues of the

{subdivision of the tribe) of the

Aethalians composed the

63,

these

portion taken out and given him as


written.

which are

xoomen shall share in the inheritance, hut against those {who received gifts)
previously no action shall he brought.

not occupied by a serf residing in the


country.
the

if

44

ff.

And

the property of

mother shall be divided, when she

whom

If there is none of these, those to it falls according to the source of


receive

dies, in the

same way as

is

prescribed

the property shall

But

V.l ff. for the property of the father. Whateverxooman has no property cither
hy gift of father or brother or by promise or by inheritance, as

there are

no heirs-at-law, those of the household who compose the /cXSpos (i.e. or serfs attached the body of
to the estate) shall have the

{was written)

money.

268
elev

e\Kv
30

35

. \ . >\
7\<;
8e
,

GREEK DIALECTS
f
|

40 ael

45

50

, \^ . ^ ^, ^ ^ \ ^.,\\ 8
<;
At

^
errl

^,

^
- -

[No. 110

\ 7\\^

^,

XeiovaL
Se

^^
^

||

evaeiet, e a\yei

jrepet,

Kpe'to^

<;

at

\6

[a]t []||

/xe

avvyiyvoaKovTi

Kpe-

7\ '.
6
Sdei,

10

? / ,
|

\.

^
it.

11

'\() /'
ff.

15

^^ . ,
eXd^ydepovi
e

8\^8

^.

|]|

\' ,
e

Xei.

7|,

^
||?
34.

' ^,,
|

28

If some nfthe heirs-at-law wish

to

oftheprice.
cf
.

divide the property,

and

others not, the

judge shall decree that helowj to those wishing


they divide

all the

property

taken by some as

.:
82.

' 7/3||[],

.
:

|'
at

?
:

aor. subj.,
tva-tLii

3(5.

iv-aeiei

(),
et

but
in-

to divide, until

If any one, after the de-

more probably iva-dii (eiju') with stead of i from the indicative.


:

39.

cision of the judge, enters in by force or


drives or carries off anything, he shall
08.

VI.

= <^,
1.

as in Hdt.2.

subj.

without

pay

ten staters

and double

the value of

174.

the object.

In the matter of live stock, produce, clothing, ornaments, and fur-

VI. 2-46. Sale and mortgage of family property.

niture, if they do not wish to

make a
divid-

VI.2ff.

As

long as the father

lives,

division, the judge shall decide with ref-

erence to the pleadings.

If,

when

one shcdl not purchase any of the father's property from the son, nor take a

ing the property, they do not agree as to


the division, they shall sell the property,

mortgage on

himself has acquired or inherited, he

and, disposing of

it

to

whoever

offers the

may

dispose

most, they shall receive each his share

'

of,

it.

But whatever
if
;

(the son)

he wishes.
((nd
it

14

f.

is

written

'
110]
e
j

CRETAN INSCRIPTIONS

'^, \
e
l,

Tat yvvaiKL,

7<;

9.

, , 4 ,4, , '
he

'<
[]<;
e
[

, '\ ^
269
/[]^
|

\
rot 20

ei^ilSiKov

2
30

he

<;

^
he
|

Kp^eo<i

'

7\\,

ejpaTTat.

ai he
|

II

he

[]

a7roho[e)9ai

eTraiveaei

iirl

35

' \^^
a^ohL
6

eh

hXo^^

. , . ', ^ ,\^^ , 7\. . ,'


^/^^,
e

7^\
h

hiTrXeiav

? [/,
'

a'oh\evov

40

ei,

\~\

45

h\^vav<i'\
Tt|<>

7\\
h

50

\^'\ \^'\
||

\'\,
[]
what
clear,
is

hiKaaWav
|

55

VII

otherwise
Cf.
1.

otherwise than is written.

proper.

37 and VIII..54.
:

ai,

but the
tlie

The general sense is restoration and precise


'

since the inscrip-

interpretation

is

uncertain.

Perhaps,

tion of this law, contrasted witli top


irpbeea,\.2-i,ininatters of previous date.

with

reading of
do

tlie text, if

one

is

sold into hostile

So

in IX. 15

and XI. 19.

25

ff.

But

if

forced
if they

(to

so)

hands and some one, upon his demanding it,


his exile.

the opponent denies, with reference to the matter about which theij are disjmting, that
it

ransoms him from

51

ff.

But

do not agree about the amount,

belongs to the mother or the


it

or on the ground that he did not


to be

wife, action shall be brought where

belongs, before the judge where

it is

pre-

scribed for each case.

ransomed, etc. 55 ff. Something is certainly missing between the end of VI and the beginning of VII, either
overlooked by the stonecutter
ing, or possibly
in

demand

VI.4G-VII.15. Repayment of ransom.


Cliildren of

copy-

mixed marriages.

Responsibility for the acts of a slave.


VI.4(5ff.

' ransomed person shall

added on the original substructure, which is not extant.


tween a male slave and a free woman,

VII. Iff. In the case of marriage be-

belong to the ransomer, until he pays

270
reKva.
5

GREEK DIALECTS
al he
I

he

10

'

9
e/c<?

a iXevdepa

eirl

<?

;[|.9
|

iXevdepoi aj\opa^

,
eKaelev,

iXevOepa
et

, 8\\ 7^\<; \{).


rov hdXov,
|

'^
tol

.
eKev.

[No. 110

yeverai, i

15

7[\0^

6.

7|[]/3[]
TrpeL'y\J,^aroi.
20

7\\, []
ahe\TTLo\i

25

,
'
free

7\<.
eKev

^^'^

^^ , ,'
67() 7|4
e/c?

7[)' ahLKe\KeL e

,
e?

[]

Tr\epaLoaeL

fCKaeKOVT

\-

evhiKov

he

vceeh he

he

TrXt'e?

''

,
When,
ter

67%().

he
t'e(^)^ai

:7[]
[e]?

07'(^)^

eTrlt

[^

^^^.
he []^-

ee^

|-

the status of the children depended on

.1)-.24.

The

heiress.

whether the slave went

to live

with the

lations for her marriage

Reguand the disdaughcf.

woman, thus

raising himself in a

position of her property.

measure to her condition, or whether the woman went to live with the slave.

in default of sons, a

9.

ehv

,.

becomes the heiress

10

ff.

If

TraTpoCxosTrap^^vosIIdt. 6. 57 with Stein's

one having purchased a slave from the market-place has not repudiated the purchase within the sixty days, if the slave

note, Att.

has wronged any one before or after, the one who has acquired him shall be
liable.

husband, who becomes the virtual head of the family, is determined by fixed rules. The person so determined, the
groom-elect,
is

(,
6

the choice of a

known

as

\
.marry

The purchaser

was allowed a certain time within which, upon discovering any faults, physical or otherwise, which had been concealed, he might repudiate the purchase. Not until the expiration of this period was the purchase binding, and the purof a slave

.
whom
marry
oldest.

(=
it

the one to

falls to

marry) or simply
shall

VII. 1

ff.

The heiress

her father'' s brother, the oldest of those


living. If there are several heiresses and fathers brothers, they shall marry {the second) the next oldest (and so on in suc-

chaser liable for the acts of the slave.

For the use 4998. VII ai


if

of repaiow, cf. also


77

the meaning in both passages to be dis-

SGDI.

cession).
ers, but

If there are no father's brothsons of the brothers, she shall

But some take

that one {ivho is the son) of the

pose of abroad.

If there arc several heiresses and sons of brothers, they shall marry [the

No. 110]

CRETAN INSCRIPTIONS
et e
|

* ^\ ^ , \ ?
Be
|

. , '; . , ? '(). 6\

, ^ , ^ , ^{)
,
\
|

^^ ,
Trpeiv
6

, ,,
.

271

[]- 30
ai
he 35

'

eirLKapTria'i
oirviev.

6
|

he

67\()
et

^
Xet

\\-

40

6<;

[]:[][9]

\^'\\

'\(),

\,

'

[]1

Xejt
|||

67{)

\-

,
[']9
<;

45

50

X]e[i

<\,

7/3||[]/
|

55

'

07ri^ie(^)^|ai

7'[]9

6{) ^', 7\
OTihxi

\ \^\ ^ 6],
35
ff.

\^^ ?

() 7\\ [ ^',
6()[^^

6{),
to

\ . \\ ,
6['\,
||

\
Xeioi

eVviII

\ \\ ;

5
{e),

6\

20

25

second) the second {in order) after the son

who ask for her hand.


elect) his

"VIII. 7-8.

But

If the groom-elect, being a minor, does not wish

of the eldest (and so on).

they shall give to him (the rejected groom-

marry

{the heiress),

though both are

of marriageable age,
the

all the property

and

proper share of the property, If one becomes an heiress after her father or brother has given her (in

20

ff.

income

shall belong to the heiress

until he marries her.


not

47

marriage), if she does not wish to remain

ff.

If he does
the next in

married to the one to wh-rm Ihcy gave her,


although he
is iviiling,

marry

her, as is loritten, she with


sliall

all the

property

marry

has borne children, she may, dividing the

succession, if there is another.


there is no groom-elect,

But if she may marry

property as
of the
tribe.

is written,

24.

any one of

the tribe she wishes, of those

subj. like

etc., 151.1.

then, in case she

marry another
:

perf

30 at

35

40

45

50

' aV[o]/309
55

^{), \ ,, , ^^ ? , ;, ^ ,
\jpaTTat
ete,

272

[]04 07(^)^[ ]?
avep

'/9]|6.
[]6,
hk

'?
67{)
/u.e

GREEK DIALECTS

[Xo.

no

['^]|^[.][?].

Be

7\\[^ 67(),
||

et,

at Be

at eypaTTaL.
eie,

'

OTTViev

()

he

eU,

at eypaTTai.

'.

'

et e

e?

|9

/6[][ ?]
['\

[]

[|

[]<
et.
|

['

BtapC\a[vKa]v\v
ete

[^]|[]9

at

'

ai^[o]poi

7|/3,
\\

,
'

10

.\ \ ^
Trap

[^
ei,

\7() [^ 7()[^. ' ' [7]/3, ^/ \'\


\

'Avep

peaa

^/ / ^^
|

]| [:|]/ :[^/9
[/ijel*

^ [ ^ ()
[_'\
\\\

7[-

-|
alt

eie,

Ka\TaXi7rei, e

15

TaaTaael

[]

' <> ,
eypaTTat,

7[/3'']'''[

.
20

at

'

'[|^

7['\\

25

\
At

? 7/3[]|

, ,^ /cai

[ [. 7[, //?
'

||

eiriKaTaaTaael,

]'.[

/i.Jei',

[]9

a[i'7r]i

/^[]^',

oire

eypaTTai.

'[]:]|^[]?

\<
money

,
[^^
(?),

:]['?
(.?)

7[^]]
fraud

?, 7/|''
or another

IX.24-X.32. Various subjects. IX. 24 ff. // one dies who has gone

given as security or has been guilty of


or conspiracy

surety or has lost a suit or owes

{stands in such relations) to him, one

No.
to

TTOVLOvrov.

<; \'.<;
76()

lacking]

, ,, , , . ,^ \ ,
no]

CEETAN INSCRIPTIONS
6 Se

273

TO ivLavro

at

TToXiareveL,

;||9 <\ 8<; \\,

SiKaBSerd

[a]7ro7r\5vio- 30
|

Be

Bipeawi

Be

BiKaBBerd

irepa^L

'[:]4
|

{)
[

? 6\ <|
|

7\\.<; ^:]|
(S)e

35

,.

'

40

<,

'; /3\'
e|?
[11.
||[

e e9 Trep[a'\v

45

evS,

7/9[]

707['\.
,

, \\
^';']
[~\
ol

50

^]

,, ^
timony.
{?),

[]

['\
15
tl<;

11

'

\6

ap'yvpov

apyvpov

\<,
person

shall bring suit against said

be-

fore the end of the year. The judge shall render his decision according to the tes-

If the suit is xoith reference to a judgment won, the judge and the recorder, if he is alive

and a

citizen,

and

\< ' . . < , ^^


Be
|

^^ ['],
at
|

1-9, and most of 10-14,

20

e?

25

|1

latter with

-,

probably only an error,


obscure, but the most
is

for

-) isuncertain. 28-29. The third


1.

letter in

29

is

probable reading

with
ios
ff.

w as

in

11.48,

and with

used like

iKeivos as in

VIII. 8.

43

the heirs as witnesses, {shall give testi-

momj), but in the case of surety and pledges and fraud {?) and conspiracy
the heirs as witnesses shall give tes-

If one has formed a partnership with another for a mercantile venture {and does not pay him his share), or does not

pay back
a venture,

the one
etc.

who has

timony.

After they have

testified,

{the

50.

contributed to

for ks {=fts)

judge) shall decree that {the plaintiff),

before following

(97.4).

5.S.

when he has taken oath himself and


likewise the witnesses, has
the simple amount.

\.

whichever course the complain-

judgment for If a son has gone

ant demands, either to take oath of denial or. X.15ff. 'Special legacies are

surety, while his father is living, he


the property
subject

and

to fine.

meaning of
vos (cf. in
11.

|35 ^, ^, /7/626-27.

which he possesses

shall be

not to exceed the value of 100 staters. If one makes a gift of greater value, the
heirs, if

The

precise

and

staters

they choose, may pay the 100 24. and keep the property.'
Kpios
:

35-30

the

to

no purpose, invalid.

30

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274
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