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A COMPARATIVE GRAMMAR
OF THE

ANGLO-SAXON LANGUAGE;
IN

WHICH

ITS F0E3IS

AEE ILLUSTRATED
BT THOSE OF THE

SANSKRIT, GREEK, LATIN, GOTHIC, OLD SAXON, OLD FRIESIC,

OLD NORSE, AND OLD HIGH -GERMAN.

By FEANCIS A. MARCH,

LL.D.,

PEOFESSOE OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND COMPAEATIVB PHILOLOGY IN LAFAYETTE " METHOn OF PHILOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE COLLEGE, ACTUOE OF

NEW YORK:
HARPER
&

BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS,
FRANKLIN SQUARE.

187

I.

^//^.

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year i86g, by

FRANCIS
In
tlie

A.

MARCH,

Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern District of

Pennsylvania.

\3\

PREFACE.
The Anglo-Saxon language College for many years in the
has been studied at Lafayette It light of modern philology.

seemed necessary to print, for the use of its students, general laws of phonology and syntax, with tables of analogous para-

and idioms. In preparing this outline work has led me to fill it up into a Grammar. Other Comparative Grammars have Comparative discussed several languages, each for the illustration of all, and of language in general this book is an Anglo-Saxon Grammar, and uses forms of other tongues and general laws of landigms, prefixes,
sufiixes,

for the press, love of the

guage only so far as they illustrate the Anglo-Saxon. The hope has, however, been cherished that the methods of Comparative Grammar might be exemplified more fully than they have yet been for our students, in connection with the early forms of our mother tongue, and that in this way the
Anglo-Saxon might be associated with the modern Science of Language, and share its honors. If this hope should be answered, the book may serve as an introduction to the masters in whose light it has grown up to Jacob GEiiiir, the greatest genius among the grammarians, whose imagination and heart are as cpiick as his reason and industry, and make his histories of speech as inspiring as poetry to Francis Bopp, impersonation of pure science, who never

who pursues his thread of thought with he loses it in the islands of the Pacific unfailing sagacity to Geokge Curtius, master of the new and the old, surest and safest of guides to Pott to Kuun and his collaborators. Special students of Anglo-Saxon must spend their days and
spreads his wings, but

till

first

nights with GREiisf, whose Glossary of Anglo-Saxon Poetry made possible a thorough treatment of its grammar, and

to whom this work is every where indebted. Maetzner, and KocHj and IIeyne liavc also been my constant companions.

1839133

iv

PREFACE.

Schleicher, Rumpelt, and IIoltzman I have used most in

phonology and etymology, Becker in syntax. There are a good many Anglo-Saxon Grammars.
in

The

Lat-

of -Cleric, written in Anglo-Saxon, is a valuable Anglo-Saxon Grammar, Other grammars, to the time of Rask, are mainly arrangements of the declensions and inflections on
the ground of external resemblances, with outlines of syntax. Some of them are learned works. Rask classified on the basis of the supposed stems, but with mistaken views. lations of the Anglo-Saxon inflections were fixed

Grammar

The

real re-

by Bopp in

In German, Anglo-Saxon has a fixing those of the Gothic. in the Comparative Grammars of Grimm, Heyne, and place
others,

and in the great English Grammars of Maetzner and


;

Koch.

The English still use Rask Hadley, in "Webster's DicIt is pleasant to remember that tionary, goes with Grimm.
Jefferson,

1^

who

started this study in our colleges in his Uni-

made an Anglo-Saxon Grammar. Labor has not been spared to fit this book for use. The ex amples have been translated; the citations made easy to verify; leading rules and groups of facts have been brought together; indexes have been made the resources of the printer freely used to make every thing distinct. Paradigms and the historical discussion of them are kept on opposite pages, so that they may lie before the eye together. The type has sometimes been varied for that purpose, and spaces filled with matter not strictly in the plan, such as the changes from Anglo-Saxon to Envei^ity"o"f Virginia,
;

glish.

Massachusetts
use at

I wish to thank William G. MEDLicoTT,Esq., of Longmeadow, he let me take from his precious collection, and ;

my o^^ti home, Anglo-Saxon texts not elsewhere to be had for love or money. And, finally, all those who find this book of value should join me in thanks to the Trustees and Faculty of Lafayette College, who were the first to unite in one Professorship the study of the English language and Comparative Philology, and who have set apart time for these studies, and funds for the necessaiy apparatus to pursue them.
Frakcis a. March.
Easton, October 25,
1

809.

CONTENTS
Stion
1,

IxTRODUCTiox

Historical.
PARI" I. PHONOLOGY.

Page
.

Section

Page

Section

Papj

General View.
10. 13.

35.

Assimilation
Dissimilation

Alphabet Punctuation

4
5 5

36.

22 24
25 2G 2G 26 28 28 28

37.

14.
15.

Sounds Accent

Compensation Accentual Changes.


Gravitation

38.
38.

16. Classes of
1 7.

Vowels

C
7

Classes of Consonants

38.
39.

Progression Precession

18.

Indo-European Vowel System.. Consonant System 19. 20. Changes of Sound


20.

8 8 9

Ablaut

40.

Mimetic Changes
EtjTnologic Changes.
Shifting

Laws of Letter Change


Special Discussions.

10

41.

Figuration*.
11
43. Aphieresis

21. Classic

Anglo-Saxon

SO
31 31

Voice 23. Vowels


22.

Anglo-Saxon
Northumbrian

11
11

44.

Apocope

45. Elision

26.

14

27. Consonants
31.

Anglo-Saxon

15
18
19 19

46. Syncope 47. Ecthlipsis


48. Prothesis 49. Epithesis 50. Epenthesis 51. Metathesis

31
31 31 31 31

Northumbrian Variatiox.

32.
.32.

Euphonic Changes Umlaut


Breaking
Assibilation

32 32

33.

20

Contraction.
52.

34.

20

SynjEresis

PART
.IS.

11.

ETYMOLOGY.
Definitions
59. Classification

33 34

64. Declension

3G

67.

Gender

37
38

Nouns.
60.

Case Endings

.34

Strong Nouns. 69. Declension 1.

VI
^'ection

CONTENTS.
rage
Section

88. Declension 2

44 48
41)

1G3. Personal Endings

82

Ueclcnsion o
'J

I.

Northumbrian

Paradi'jms. Strong Verb.


IGl. Indicative Tenses

Weak Nouns.
P5. Declension 4

82 8G

50
/<

1G9. Subjunctive Tenses


172. Imperative 173. Infinitive

Northumbrian 100. Irregular Nouns


101. 102.

8S 88
88 88 89

r>2

TroperNames Decay of Case Endings


Adjectives.

54
55 50 58

173. Participle 176. Potential


177. Other Periphrastic
178.

104. Declension Indefinite


1

Passive Voice

90
Verb.

05. Declension Definite

Weak
183. Active Voice
187. Passive Voice

106. Varying Forms 119. Participles


121.

58
CI
CI

92
91

Northumbrian

188.

Varying Presents
Syncopated Imperfects

94 95 95

132 Comparison
130. 138.

C2
GO
73

189.
190.

Pronocxs Numerals Verb.

Syncopated Participle

Weak and
191.

Strong.

Umlaut

in the Present

149. Definitions
157. Conjugations:

77 78 79

192.

Assimilation

96 96
98 98 99
112 117 118

197.

Varying Imperfects

158.
1.59.

From_A.blaut

198.

Summary of Variations
Table of Varying Verbs

1G0.
IGl.

From Contraction From Composition


Tense Stems

80
81

199.

212. Irregular Verbs

82 225.
82

Northumbrian

1G2.

Mode

Suffixes

22C. Weathering of Endings

Derivation,
227. Definitions 228. Suffixes 230. Stems by Variation 231. Formation of Substantives
240. 24G.

118 253. 119


253.

Preposition
Particles

130
132

122 2G0.
....

123 262.
125 2G3.

Conjunctions
Interjections

133

Adjectives A'erb

133 134
135

251.

Adverb

12G 2G4. Composition 128 2G8. Forms to express Gender

PART
272. Simple Combinations 278. Sentences, Clauses

III.

SYNTAX
137
139
141

Accusative

285. Figures of Syntax

290. In Objective Combinations... 145 293. In Quasi-predicative 147


295. In Adverbial

Nouns.
Uses of Case Endings.
286.

148

Dative
142

Agreement

288. Nominative

144 144

297. In Objective Combinations. ... 148 302. In Adverbial Combinations... 151


.301.

289. Vocative

In Quasi-predicative

152

CONTENTS.
Section

Vll
PagB

Page

Section

306. Instrumental

153

406. Kinds of Verbs

186 187

Genitive

407. Voice
411. Tense

310. In Attributive Combinations.. 153

187
:

314. In Predicative Combinations.

55
420.

Mode
421.

155 315. In Objective Combinations 322. In Adverbial Combinations... 158


Uses of Prepositions.
327. Eules
330. Table
of.

Indicative

190
191

158 159
172

422. 423. 427.


428.

Subjunctive In Subordinate Clauses, By Attraction

Adjectives.
301. Agreement 362. Strong or Weak

191 In Substantive Clauses..., 192 In Adjective Clauses 193


,

In Adverbial Clauses
Potential

193
195 190

173 174 175 175

435.

Pkonouns.
366. Personal

444.
445. 450.

Imperative
Infinitive

197
198

367. Possessive

Gerund
Participles

368. Article
374. Demonstratives 377. Interrogative

455.

200
,

177 460.
178 178
461.

Verbals

201

379. Relative 386. Indefinite


393.

Interjections Conjunctions.

202 202 205

395.

Numerals Adverbs
Particles Verbs.
Uses of the Verb Forms.

180 402. Co-ordinate 181 467. Subordinate In Substantive Clauses 182 468.
:

399.

184

470.

471.

In Adjective Clauses In Adverbial Clauses

206 207 207


208
.

478. Conjunctions omitted

401.

Agreement

185

482. Principal Rules of Syntax

..

209

arrangement.
483. General

Laws

484. Predicative Combinations

487. Attributive Combinations


491. Objective Combinations

214 214 216 218

493. Adverbial Combinations

219

Clauses
495. 495.

Co-ordinate

220

Subordinate

220

PART
496.

IV.
223 225 226
227 228

PROSODY.
Rhythm
222 222 222
223 223
503. Alliteration
509. 511.

498. Feet

Common

Narrative Verse

499. Verse
501. Caesura
502.

Riming Verses

512.

Long Narrative Verse

Rime

514. Alliterative Prose

Indexes of Words and Subjects

229

ANGLO-SAXON TEXTS
CITED IN THIS WORK, AVITH THE LESS OBVIOUS ABBREVIATIONS.

Adrianus and Ritheus,

Ettmiiller, 30. jEdeUrirht, jEdelred, jEdelstdn, Alfred, LL., Laws in Schmid.

Domes dxg, Grein,


ment, Ex.
445.

i.,

195=The Day of Judg-

Durham Book. See Xorthumbrian.


Eddmund, Eddwine, LL. Laws in Schmid. Eddgdr, Eddmund, Poems, Grein, i., 355.
Eddfjdr,
Ecnbert, Confessionale
et
Poenitentiale, in

JEdeUt&n, Alfred, verses about, Grein,

i.,

352, 35T. jElfric, Grammar, in Somner's Dictionary. jElfric, Colloquy, in Ttiorpe's Analecta. Alniosen, Grein, ii.,350=;Religious Poem, Ex.
46T.

Analecta Aiigh-Saxmiica. B.Thorpe. London, 1S46. Andreds, Grein, ii., 9 Verc, i., 1. Apollonms of Tyre. B. Thorpe. London,
;

1834.

Azarias, Grein,
St. B.

i.,

115

Ex.

1S5.

B. Thorpe, for the Record Commission, 1840. Elene, Grein, ii., 105 Vera, ii., 1. Ettmiiller, Ang.-Sax. poetse atque scriptorea prosaici. Quedl. et Lipsise, 1850. Ex.=iCodex Exoniensis, page and line. Exod,::=Exodus, Thwaites.
;

Laws of England.

= St, Basil, Hexamerou. Kev. H. W. Norman. London, 1S49. = Beda, Ilistoriae ecclesiast. Anglorum. Bid.
Smith. Cantab., 1T22. Bid. ^= Beda, Historic ecclesiast.

Anglorum.

Cantab., 1644. B.=-Beovmlf, Grein, i., 255. JSof.=Boe</'M.sdeConsolationePhilosophiae. Cardale. London, 1829. JWet. =;Metra in Grein. BotHchaft des Gemahls, GveiD,i., 246 Fragments, Ex. 472-475. Bijrhtnoth, Grein, i., 343.

Whelocus.

Feeder Idrcpidds, Grein, ii., 347=A Father's Instruction, Ex. 300. Fata Apostolorum, Grein, ii., 7 Verc, ii., 94. De Fide Catholica, Thorpe's Analecta, 03 Horn., i., 274. Pinnsburg Ueberfall in, Grein, i., 341.
;
;

Genesii, Thwaites. Gnomici versus, Grein, ii., 339, 346. Grein, Bibliothek der angelsiichsischen pocsie in kritisch bearbeiteten Texten und mit vollstiindigem Glossar herausgegeben von

C.=Caed7non. One figure denotes the line in Grein two, the page and line in Thorpe.
;

C. W. M. Grein, Dr. Phil. Cassel and Goettingcn, 1857-1864. Graff, E. G., Althochdeutscher Sprachschatz, etymol. und grammatisch bearbeitet. Ber-

London, 1832. Ch.=Chaucer. Wright. Percy Society. London, 1847. Ckrint (Cynewulf's), Grein, 149 Christ, Ex. 1-103. CAr. Chronicle, Anglo-Saxon.

lin, 1834+. St. Gregorius,


ii.,

Thorpe's Analecta, 44
Grein,
ii.,

Horn.,

= To

116.

Jesus

Gnd.=GMl&c,
1848.

71=The Legend

of

B. Thorpe.

St. Guthlac, Ex. 104, 107. Sf. G.=Life of Guthlac. Goodwin.

London,

Cnut, LL. Laws in Schmid. Codex Diplomatieim An^i.-Hax. J. M. KemC ble, for the English Historical Society.
vols. Loudini, 1839-1848. Codex Exoniensia. B. Thorpe, for the Society of Antiquaries of London. London, 1842. Codex Vercellensis. J. M. Kemble, for the ^El-

London,

1S61.

neptateuch, Thwaites. Uickcs, Ling.Vett. Septentrionalium Thesaurus.

Colloquium.

fric Society. London, 1843-56. JEUric, in Thorpe's Analecta. On the EnCrseftds 7nanj!(J, Grein, i., 204

Hlodare, LL. Laws in Schmid. Hollenfahrt, Chri.tti, Grein, i., 191=The Harrowing of Hell, Ex. 4.'>9. JJom.=Homilies of .^Elfric. B. Thorpe, for

Oxon., 1703-1705.

the

.(Elfric

Society.
ii.,

London,

1844.

dowments and Pursuits of men, Ex. 293. Hom., ii., C&dhert, Thorpe's Analecta, .Vi
;

Hymns, Grein,
Ine,
i/o6,

280.

LL.

Laws

in Schmid.

132.

Cyrus, Thorpe's Analecta, 88


Daniel, Grein, i., 94. Deiirs Klape, Grein,

Oros.,

ii.,

4, 5.

i.,

249=Dcor the

Scald's

Thwaites; Horn., ii., 446. John, Thiu'pe or Northumbrian. Josue, Thwaites. Thwaites Judith, Grein, i., 120
;

Thorpe's

Complaint, Ex. 377. Deuteronomy, Thwaites.

Analecta, 141 Juliana, Grein,

il^ttmiillcr, 140.

ii.,

62

Ex.

242.

Klaije dcr

Fmu,

Grcin,

i.,

245=Thc

Exile's

R. (?.=Robcrt of Gloucester.

Th. Heamc.

Complaint, Ex. 441.

London,
2 vols.
365.
ii.,

1810.
i.,

New York, 1S66. Kveia, Das heiligc, Grein,


Kood.Verc,
1S47.
ii., 815.

Klipstein, L. F., Analecta Ang.-Sax.

liebhuhn, Grein, Reimlied, Grein,


352.

237

=A

Fragment, Ex.

14.3:=The

Holy

ii.,

137=Riming Poem, Ex.

Layamon, Brut Madden.


LL.z=Laws

3 vols.

London,

in Sclnnui, q. v., or Thorpe. Ancient Laws and Institutes of England, etc. 2 vols. For the Kecord Commission, 1840. Lcechdoms, etc. Rev. O. Cockayne. 3 vols. London, 1864-66. Bi mannii Im.^e, Grein, ii., 142=:A Fragment,

Riehthofen, K. von., Altfriesisches Wijrterbuch. Goettiugeu, 1840. Riddles =z liaetsel, Grein, ii., 369; Ex.470,

uud angelsiichsisches Lesebuch. Giesseu, 1861. Ruine, Grein, i., 248=The Ruin, Ex. 476. Runenlied, Grein, ii., 351.
Salomon und Saturn, Grein, ii, 354; J. M. Kemble, for the iElfric Society. London,
1848.

etc. Rierjer, Alt-

moral and

religious,

Verc,

ii.,

79.

Leo, H., Alt- una Angelsiichsische Sprachproben. Halle, 1838. Luc=Lc.=Luke. Thorpe or Northumbrian.

Mrc. =Marc. Thorpe or Northumbrian. Matthew. Thorpe, North., or Kemble. Cambridge, 1S5S. llenologium, Grein, ii., 1, or Hickes. J/cf.=Alfred's Meters of Boethius, Grein,
295.

Satan (Crist und Satan), Grein, i., 129. Schmui, Die Gesetze der Augelsachseu. Leipzig, 1858.

Screadunga Ang.-Sax., K. G. Bouterwek. Elberfeldte, 185S.

Ii.,

3[6d

mannd, Grein,
313.

i.,

210=Monitory Poem,

Ex.

Seat, St., Life of, in the Hist,

Eynesbury and London, 1820.


j^'icodevnis,

St. Neot's.
of,

and Antiq. of G. C. Gorham,


Hepta-

Seafarer (Seefahrer), Grein, i., 241, Ex. 306. Seelen, Reden der, Grein, i., 198=:A departed Soul's address to the Body, Ex. 367. Somner, Dictionarium Sax.-Lat.-Angl. Accesserunt jElfriei abbatis grammatica Lat.Sax. Oxonii, 1659. St. B.St. Basil. See Basil. St. G. See Guthldc.
Thorpe, B., The Anglo-Saxon version of the Holy Gospels. London, 1842. See also

Gospel

Thwaites's

teuch.

Northumbrian Gospels.
Gutersloh, 185T.

C. G. Bouterwek. Surtees, 1854-1863.

Analecta and LL.


Thwaites, Edw., Heptateuchus, Liber Job, et evangelium Nicodemi, Historiaj Juditli fragmentum. Oxonias, 1698. Traveler's SongV Idsid The Scop's Tale, Grein, i., 251, Ex. 318.
Vercellensis Codex.

Numbers, Thwaites.

Orm.^Ormulum, K. M. White.
ford, 1852. Oros.=^0rosiiis,

2 vols.

Ox-

Bosworlh.
;

London,

1859.

See Codex Verc.

Panther, Grein, 1., 233 Ex. 355. Pharao, Grein, ii., 350=A Fragment, Ex. 468. Phoenix, Grein, i., 215; Ex. 19T. Psalms, Grein, ii., 147. Thorpe. Oxonii, 1835. Spelman. Londini, 1640. Surtees Society. London, 1843-44. P. T. S.=Popular Treatises of Science. T. Wright. London, 1841.

Mannii pyrde, Grein, i., 207=On the various Fortunes of Men, Ex. 327.
Walfisch, Grein,
i.,

235-Wbale, Ex.
;

360.

Wanderer, Grein, i., 2ob Ex. 286. ir;d= Vidsid. See Traveler's Song. Wuivier der Kchr'ipfung, Grein, i., 213 Wonders of the Creation, Ex. 346.

= The

V prefixed, marks a root prefixed, marks a suffix;


;

alent tn; means akin to; spect as one.


:

< or > placed between two words when one is derived from the other, the angle pointing to the derived word < may be read .from, > tohence; = means equivretorji'ther icith;

-(-

suffixed to the

number
is

of a page or section
:

means and

-suffixed, marks a prefix or stem; the following, elsewhere -\- means

over words indicates that they are to be treated in some


See page
3.

LANGUAGES OFTENEST MENTIONED.


yl

.-.?.=Anglo-Saxon.

Celtic.

Irish. Italian.

Danish. Dutch.
English. French.
Friesic.

/:,.=Low. Latin.
Lettic.

O. A'.=01d Norse. O. S.=01d Saxon. P. /S'.=Parent Speech.

Romaic. Romanic.
Sanskrit.

Lithuanic.

>f.=Middle.

German.
Gothic.

Norman.
Norse.

Saxon. Scandinavian. Semi-Saxon.


Slavonic.

Greek. //.High. Indo-European.

0.=01d. O. Fri^s.=0]d Friesic.


0. H.

G.=01d High German.

Swedish. Welsh.

GRAMMATICAL HELPS
JE? /Vic. Grammar, lu Somner's Dictionary. Becker, K. F. Organism. Fraiikf. a. M., 1841.
T/j.

Uarkncss,

A.~A

Latin

Grammar

for Schools

Gnechieches Wurzellexikou. Benfey, Berlin, 1839, 1842. London Tfu Sanskrit Grammar. Benfey, and Berlin, 1863. 2 F. Vergleichende Grammatik. Bopp, Ausgabe. Berlin, 1857-61. Bopp, F. Glossarium Sanscritum. Ed. ter-

Colleges. New York, 1SG5. Haupt, Jf.Zeitschrift fiir deutsches Alterthum. Leipzig, 1841+.

and

und Flexionslehre der altgermanischen Sprachstiimme. Paderborn, 1802. InstitutionesGrammaticas AngloIlickes, G. Saxonicse et McEso-Gothicae. Oxonioe, 1088. tia. Iloltzman, A. Veher den Umlaut. CarlsBerlin, ISO". ruhe, 1843. Boswsrth, J. The Elements of the AngloSaxon Grammar. London, 1823. VeheT den Ablaut. CarlsHoltzman, A. ruhe, 1844. Bosworth, J. A Dictionary of the Ang.-Sas. Lanraage, etc., etc., with the Essentials of Klipstein, L. F.A Grammar of the xVngloUei/ne, JIf. Kurtze Laut-

Anglo-Saxon Grammar.

Die Vier Evangelien in Koch, C. !<'. Historische Grammatik der euBouterwek, K. W. alt-nordhumbrischer Sprache. Giitersloh, Cassel glischen Sprache. Weimar; 1863 and Giitting., 1865; and is still itnflnished. The Introduction has a learned dis1857. cussion of the Northumbrian dialect. Kuhii, Adalb. Zeitschrift fiir vergleichende Child, F. G. Observations on the Langna2:e Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete des of Chaucer and Gower. Mem. Amer. Acacf., Deutschen, Griechischen undLateiuischeu. and in Ellis's Early English ProBerlin, 1S52-|-. 1862,1866, nunciation. London, 1809. Kuhn, Adalb. Beitr.age zur vergleichendeu Corssen, ir. Kritische Beitrage zur lat ForSprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der arimenlehre. Leipzig, 1S63. schen, celtischen, und slawischen Sprachen, Corssen, W. Ueber Aussprache, Vokalismus herausgegeben von Kuhn uud Schleicher. und Betonuug der lat. Sprache. Leipzig, Berlin, 1868-t-. 1859. Latham, B. &'. The English Language. 4th 4th edition. edition. London, 1855. Crosby, .4. Greek Grammar. Boston, 1848. Liming, H. Die Edda. Mit altnordischer Ciirtitis, Georg. Grundziige der griechischen Grammatik, etc. Zurich, 1850. Maetzner, iTd. Englische Grammatik. BerEtymologic. 2 Auflage. Leipzig, 1860.
;

London,

1838.

Saxon Language.

New

York, 1853.

De Nomiuum Griecorum Curtiita, Oeorg. formatione. Berlin, 1842. Griechische SchulgrammaCurtius, Georg. tik. 7 Auflage. Prague, 1866. De Vere, M. Scheie. Outlines of Comp. Phil. N.Y.,1853. Studies in English. N.Y.,1866. Diefenbachj L. Vergleichendes Worterbuch
der gothischen Sprache.

lin,

1860-1S65.

early Literature. New York, 1862. Massmann, U. F. Ulfilas. Mit spraehlehrc,

Marsh, G. P.

The English Language and its

etc.

Stutt<rardt, 1857.

Frankfurt

Meyer, Leo.Vergleichende Grammatik der griechischen uud lateinischen Sprache.


Berlin, 1861-1865. Lectures Mailer, Max.

a.

M.,

1851. Dietrich, Prof. Fr., in Hanpt's Zeitschrift. JXez, F. Grammatik der Romauischen Sprachen. Bonn, 1856-1860.

on the Science of
London,
1S04.

A Sanskrit Grammar for BeEktob, Elizabeth. The Rudiments of Gramgiuucrs. London, 1866. mar for the Euglish-Saxon Tongue, first Pott, A. J*. Etymologische ForschuuMU auf dem Gebiete der Indo-GermauiscEeu given in English, etc., etc. London, 1715. EttniUller, L. Lexicon Auglosaxonicum cum Sprachen. Lemgo, 1833+. 8YN0P8I OKAMMATICA. Quedllub. Ct LipS., Ra.sk, Erasmtt-s. A Grammar of the Anglo1851. Saxon Tongue, etc. Transl. from the Danish by B. Thorpe. Copenhag., 1830 LouFowler,W. C. The English Language. N. Y., 1864. don, 1805. Orein, C. W. M. Sprachschatz der angel- Riimpelt, H. B.Deutsche Grammatik. Mit eiichsischen Dichter. Cassel and GottinRiicksicht auf vergleichende Sprachforgen, 1861-1864. schung. ErsterTheil. Berlin, 1860. Grein,C.W.M.k'b\!i\\t, Reduplication, etc. Schleicher, Aug. Compendium der verCassel and Giittingen, 1S62. gleichendeu Grammatik der Indo-Germaiiischen Sprachen. Weimar, 1802; 2d ed., Grimm, ^.Deutsche Grammatik. Gottin1806. gen, 1819-1840. Grimm, ^A Gesch. der deutschen Sprache, Schmeller,J. A. Heliand odcr die altsiichsische Evangelien-Harnionie. Mit WorterLeipzig, 1853. buch und Grammatik. Mon., Stuttg., et Guent, ^.English Rhythms. Lond., 1838. Uadley, J. A Greek Grammar for Schools Tubinga;,1840. and Colleges. New York, 1864. Schubert, //. A.-S. Arte Met. Berlin, 1S70. Uadley, J. A brief History of the English Somner. See Anglo-Saxon Texts. Language, in Webster's Dictionary, edition Whitney, ]V. Z>. Language and the Study of of 1S65. Language. New York, 1867. Analytic JIaldeman, S. S. Orthography. Wilson, 11. H. Sanskrit Grammar for early Students. Lo-;don, 1841. Philadelphia, 1860.

Language. Mailer, Max. " "

London, Second Series.

1S61.

INTRODUCTION.
1, During tho fifth and sixth centuries, England was conquered and peopled by pagans (Saxons, Angles, Jutes, etc.) from the shores of the North Sea the center of emigration was near the mouth of the Elbe. The conquerors spoke many dialects, but most of them were Low German. Missionaries were sent from
;

Rome

(A.D. 59V) to convert thcra to Christianity. The Roman alphabetic Avriting was thus introduced, and, under the influence

of learned native ecclesiastics, a single tongue gradually came into use as a literary language through the whole natiou. The chief seat of learning down to the middle of the eighth century was amonor the Amiles of Korthumberland. The lanc-uage was lona;
Its Auis now called Anglo-Saxon. ago was the reign of Alfred the Great, king of the West gustan Saxons (A-D. 871-901). ^It continued to be written till the colof the Anglo-iSTorman, had loquial dialects, through the influence

called Englisc (English), but

diverged so far from it as to make it unintelligible to the people then, under the cultivation of the "Wycliflate translators of the Bible, and of Chaucer and his fellows, there grcAV out of these dia;

lects a
2,

new classic language the English.' The spelling in the manuscripts is irregular, but
period

the North-

umbrian is the only well-marked dialect of the Anglo-Saxon, as old as its classic (10th century), which has yet been explored.
it.

The Gospels and some other works have been


is

printed in

The common Anglo-Saxon


3.

sometimes called West-Saxon.

After the period of pure Anglo-Saxon, there Avas Avritten an

It has few strange Avords, irregular dialect called Semi-Saxon. and syntax are broken up (12th century). but the inflections 4. The former inhabitants of Britain Avere Celts, so unlike the

invaders in race and speech, and so despised and hated, that they did not mix. There are in the Anglo-Saxon a handful of Celtic common names, and a good many geographical names the relation of the Celtic language to tlie Anglo-Saxon>is like that of llio
:

lanfun^-os of the aborigines of

America

to our present English.

INTRODUCTION.

5. The Anglo-Saxon Avas shaped to litevavy \ise by men wlio wrote and spoke Latin, and thought it an ideal language and a large jjart of the literature is translated or imitated from Latin
;

authors.

It is

cised a great influence on the


tlio

not to be doubted, therefore, that the Latin exerAnglo-Saxon if it did not lead to
:

introduction of wholly new forms, either of etymology or syntax, it led to the extended and imiform use of those forms

which arc

like the Latin,

and to the disuse of others, so as to

draw the grammars near each otlier. There arc a considerable number of words from the Latin, mostly conuected with the Cliurcli three or four through the Celts from the elder Romans. G, There arc many words in Anglo-Saxon more like the words of the same sense ia Scandinavian than like any w*ords which we fmd in the Germanic languages but the remains of the early dialects arc so scant that it is hard to tell how far such words were borrowed from or modified by the Scandinavians. Before A.D. 900 many Danes had settled in England. Danish kings afterward
; ;

ruled

it

(A.D. 1013-1042).

Saxon.

The Danes were

Their laws, however, arc in Angloilliterate, and learned the Anglo-Saxon.

Of course their pronunciation was peculiar, and they quickened and modified phonetic decay. It is probable that they affected the spoken dialects which have come up as English more than the Avritten literary language which Ave call Anglo-Saxon. 7. The other languages sprung from the dialects of Low German tribes are Friesic, Old Saxon, and, later, Dutch (and Flemand Piatt Deutsch. The talk in the harbors of Antwerj), Bremen, and Hamburg is said to be often mistaken by English These Low, German languages arc sailors for corrupt English. akin to the High German on one side, and to the Scandinavian on the other. These all, with the Moeso-Gothic, constitute
ish),

the Teutonic class of languages. This stands parallel with the Lithuanic, the Slavonic, and the Celtic, and Avith the Italic, the the Hellenic, the Iranic, and the Indie, all of Avhich belong to of languages. The parent speech of this family

Indo-European
family

Its seat has is lost, and has left no literary monuments. been supposed to have been on the heights of Central Asia. The at the head Sanskrit, an ancient language of India, takes its place Theoretical roots and forms of inflection are given of the flimily. by grammarians as those of the Parent S]:)eech, on the ground that they are such as might have produced the surviving roots and forms by knoAvn laws of change.

INTRODUCTION.
8. The following stem shows the order in which these classes branched, aud their relative age and remoteness from each other. At the right is given the approximate date of the oldest literary remains. The lanQ;ua2;es earlier than these remains are made out

like the

Parent Speech
each

that

is,

roots and forms are taken for the

which and forms of all the languages which branch from it, but not those peculiar to
language at
period,
will give the roots

the other Ian2;ua2;es.


A. Indo-European. Parent Speech. 1. Indie. B.C. 1500. Sanskrit Vedas.
2.

Iranic.

B.C. 1000.
B.C. 200.

Bactrian Avesta.

O.
4.

Hellenic.
Italic.

Before B.C. 800.


Latin.
4th Century.

Greek.

Teutonic.
Bible.
G.
7.

JIoeso-Gothic

Celtic.

Slavonic.

8th Century. Dth Century.

Bulgarian

Bible.
8.

Lithuanic.

IGth Century.

9. The following stem shows the manner in which the languages of the Teutonic class branch after separating from the The Gothic (Moeso-Gothic) died without issue the Slavonic.
;

Low German

is

nearer akin to
k.

it

than the

High German

is.

The

branches of the Scandinavian (Swedish, Danish, Norwegian) are not represented.


A. Teutonic.
a.
/).

Theoretic.

4th Century. Germanic. Theoretic.


Gothic.

r.

Scandinavian.

13th Century.

d.
e.

High German. 8th Century. Low German. Theoretic.


14th Century.
Tlieoretic.

f. Friesic.
fj.

Saxon.

k.
i.
/.-.

Anglo-Saxon. 8th Century. Old Saxon. 9th Century.


Piatt Deutsch.

/,

Dutch.

Uth Century. 13th Ccntuiy.

PAET

I.

PHONOLOGY.
10.

Alphabet.

The Anglo-Saxon
Roman

alphabet has twenty-four

letters.

All but three are

characters: the variations from

the

common form are cacographic fancies. P \> (lliorn), and p d (edh) is a crossed d, used for the older J), (wen), are runes. oftcnest in the middle and at the end of words.

Old Foniif.

SOUNDS OF LETTERS.

5
fj

The most common ave ^ = and, 11. Abbreviations. ~


(that), X

=])oet

= oitcte

(or),

and

for an omitted

or n

as, l;)a=]iam.

.but in

(-^) is found in Anglo-Saxon manuscripts, none so regularly used as to make it an objective part of an Anglo-Saxon text. It is found oftenest over a long vowel sometimes over a vowel of peculiar sound, not long seldom, exseems to cept over syllables having stress of voice. Sometimes it
12.
; ;

An Accent

mark nothing but stress. JVIost of the English editors represent the Germans generally print Anglo-Saxon it by an acute accent
;

with a circumflex over all single long vowels in the stem of words, and an acute over the diphthongs, as bruder, freond. In nsed tl\is book, to guide the studies of beginners, a circumflex is long vowels and diphthongs, and the acute accent (') over For accented consonants, see 19. vow^els only to denote stress. The Anglo-Saxons used one dot (.) at 13. Punctuation.
over
all

the end of each clause, or each hemistich of a poem, and someModern pointtimes tliree dots ( : ) at the end of a sentence.
inji is Gfcncrallv

used

in lu'inted text.

14.

Sounds of Letters. Voicels:

like

Q
15.
first

PHONOLOGY. CLASSES OF VOWELS.


Accent.

The primary accent


:

in pronuncialiou is
;

on the

syUablc of every Avord

brod'-cr, brother

un'-ctld,
:

uncouth.

The first syllable is mostly the root, or a prefix defining it but prefixes of verbs and particles are relational. See ^ 41, 4. Proof of accent comes from alliteration, rhyme, the mark (^ 12), progression, and other phonetic changes.
Exception
1.

Proper prefixes
a't,

in

verbs and particles take no primary accent;

sucli are &, an, and,


or, to, |nirh, un,

be, bi, cd, for, ful, ge, geond, in, mis, oil, of, ofer, on,

under, pid, pider, ymb,

together; on-gean', again.


(a.)

ymbe an-gin'nan, begin; aet-gad'ere, So some parasyntheta onsseg'ednes, sacn^cc.


:

But parasyntheta from nouns, pronouns, or adjectives, retain their accent: and'-sparian< and'sparu, answer; in'-peardlice< in'-peard, adj., I'nward; ed'nipian< ed'nipe, renewed. Such are all verbs in and-, ed-, or-,
found in Anglo-Saxon poetry
(i.)
;

many adverbs

in tai-, etc.

Many

editors print as

compounds adverbs

+ verbs, both

of which reford,

tain their accent.

Such are those with

aefter, bi, big, efen, eft, fore,

from, fram, hider, mid, nider, gegn, geS,n, gen, to, up, iit,pel. Exception 2. The inseparable prefixes S-, be- (bi-), for-, ge-, are unaccent-

ed

a-lys'-ing,

redemption

be-gang', course.
fall

(Parasyntheta from verbs.)

on the tone syllable of the lighter may of a compound or on a suffix: o'-fer-cum^-an, overcome ; heofpart
on-steor'-ra, star
16.

A secondary accent

of heaveyi

,'

h'^r' end' e^hevn-'mg

leas' ttng',]y'mg.

Phonology.
re, e, i, o,

Peimart Vowels: SiiOET Vowels : a,

a (guttural),
u, y.

Classes of Vowels.
i

(palatal),

(labial).

Long Vowels Diphthongs ea Breakings:


: :

{Open., a,

ce, e,

close.,

i,

u, y.)

a,

^,

e,

i,

0,

il, }'

(ia),

eo

(io), io.

{Dialectic,

ai, ei,

en, oe, 6e, oi.)


(io), ie.

{g-sc-row), ea (ia), eo (io), ie, ea (ia), eo ea (ia)< a, eo (io)< i, ie. {h-l-r-roio),


a-umlaut.
i,

Umlaut:

from
to
:

i-iimlaut.

u-unilaut.

u,

n, u, ca,
e, y,

eo, a, o, u, ea, eo,


y,
a', e,

n,

i,

e, o.

y,

y, t,

f.

(o)ea, eo.

Pjrogeession

Precession u a-series: e e o u-series e Contraction: from ca+a,


Descending.
i,

1st term.

Ascending.

a,
i

a?,

a, ^e,

i-series:

u
ca,

la
c
xl

eo,

ca

a-j-a,
o,

ca-fu, co-fa, eo-fe, co-|-u,


eo,
u-f-i,

{Reduplication,

to
fj.Q,^^

a,

c6,
u-j-6,
6.

c6,

^52.)

j_l_j^^

u-fa, n-fa,
o,

u + o,
o,

to

eu,

o,

u,

CLASSES OF CONSONANTS.

Summary of Phonetic
A-Gkoup.

Groups.

Weaker.

Stronger.

8
Parent Speech
Sanskrit.
.
. .

IS,

Indo-European Voicel System.


1

n u
V

ai

1
i

ai

au uu
o
A

e
ai
t, ft, 01

i
<

an
OU, U, OV

Hellenic.

V
ai, SQ
)

au,

jju

au,

Italic
i

"i
II

ci, i,

oi, oe,

tl

Gothic.

....-<
/

ai,
A
t',

au
O
A

i,
)

ai ei

u,

an

ci

ill

{
\

ai

au
p. 7,

Ancrlo-Saxon
(

For short vowels, see Summary of Phonetic Groups, For long vowels, see next table.

Teutonic

Long
A

'Votoels.

[Short voicels unsJdfted.)


ai

Gothic

Old Saxon ... a


-n

rriesic

e
.

Anglo-Saxox
English

ffi

u u A o o

aa
6 A a
cti

ei
i

in, il?
iu, ie, 11
la, tl

e,

AA a
a

A i i i i
i

*_J^

eo, }%
ee,
io,

Old Norse ... Old II. German

German
19.

ee a a a

oo
u

u,

oa
ei

ca

ou
\', \L

no u

6, ei
e, ei

au ou o, au
6,

iu, io,

tl

ei

eu,

ie,

au

Indo-European Consonant System dh d h bh t p gh g d dh p, ph 1) bh Sanskrit k, kh, k', 9 g, g' gh, h t, th C S^ TT T c Hellenic ft 7 x b f(b) d d(f, b) ]) t Italic g c, q h(g) f 1) d 1) Goth. & A.-S. h(g) k(c) g l5(d), d t z t d O. II. German h(g) k(ch) g(k) f(v, b) f b(p).
Parent Speech
. . . .

(j)

P. Speech Sanskrit Hellenic


.
.

n
ri, ii

n
n,
r

ra

m
m
ni
A'

r r
P
r

1 1

V
j
s,

sh=s'(s')

7
n

X
1 1
1

/
J
'^
1,

Italic

V
s(z),

G.&A.-S. n(g) u lO.II.G.


.

n n

r V

J-

U, V,

ni

s(r)

Grimni's Lav\

From Parent Speech to Anglo-Saxon, or from Anglo-Saxon to Old H. Gei~man,or from Old H. German to Parent Speech. Change each smooth
1.

mute
2.

to its rough,

rough

to middle,
io

middle to smooth.

From Anglo-Saxon

Parent Speech, or from Parent Speech


to

H. German, or from Old H. German


smooth mute
to its middle,

Anglo-Saxon.
rough
to

Change

to

Old
each

middle

to rough,

smooth.

CHANGES OP SOUND.
20.
I.

Changes of Sound.

Variation
1.

exchange of one sound with another, in Evphonic: through the influence of other sounds
:

the same word or phrase


fa) ^ '

Qualitative ^
,

through influence of the kind of ^ ^ ( Assimilation. sound which follows or precedes. .'{ ^ Dissimilation. , s ^. ^ ^1. /I c of vowel through influence ot z, (rj) Ciiange
:
. ,
.

w,

(6)

Change

or a in the following syllable of vowel through influence of con.

Umlaut.
Breaking.

sonants
(c)

Change
of
z,

of consonant through influence

Assibilation.

influence (J) Cliangc of consonant through of other consonants,

through the (b) Quantitative which follows or precedes


:

weight of sound

Compensation.
quality.

(a)
(h)
2.

Change of quantity or Change of accent.

Accentual: through influence of accent


in a certain (a) Strengtliening accented syllables

Gravitation.

(b)

way Weakening unaccented syllables Here also may be placed as appendix.


Changes
in root vowels which, in the Teutonic

Progression. Precession.

languages, have the verb


3.

come

to distinguish tenses of

Ablaut.
like

Mimetic: through influence of other


(a)

words:

Conforming

to other words, in declension, con-

jugation, etc
(b) Simulating etymological relations
(c) Sundering, bifurcation,
4.

Conformation. Simulation.

dimorphism.

Etymologic

uninfluenced by other sounds in the

same language

.....

LmUverscMehing. Shifting.

II. Figuration: change of form without change of sense, by dropping, adding, or changing the order of sounds.
1.

Dropping(a) Beginning a word


(b)

Apothesis. Aphaeresis.

Ending
:

Apocope.
before a vovrel

(c) Witiiin
(rt) {Ji)

Vowel Vowel

Elision.

before a consonant
syllable

Syncope.
Ecthlipsis. Prosthesis.

(c)
2.

Consonant or

Adding: (a) Beginning a word (b) Ending (c) Within


C/tin/ging
I lie

Prothesic.
I'anujofjc.

Epithesis.

.",.

urdtr of

letters

Epenthesis. Metathesis.

10
IIL Contraction:
1.

LAWS OF LETTER CHANGE.


drawing together vowel sounds
to avoid the hiatus,

Complete: (a) Witliin a word


(b)

Between words

Synaeresis. Crasis.

2. Iiicoij)lctc:

a partial rhythmic union, so that the two vowels sen'e as one syllable in poetry (a) Witliin a word
:

Synizesis.

(b) Between words

Syualcepha.

Z,aws of Letter Change.


1.

2.

A vowel A vowel

may may change

assimilate a vowel

by "umlaut.
before
33. to a

32.
I,

to

its

breaking
j).

r, h,

or p,
or a

m, f, and
3.

after c (sc),

f/,

or

Between two vowels a surd may change mute to a continuous. 35, 3,


If a

sonant

4.

surd

follows a
35,

sonant, gemination

of the

surd

is

producecl.
5.

A.
is

If a

surd precedes a sonant, the sonant surd of the same organ. 35, Jj.

changed to a

G.

A mute

7.

before another consonant may change to a continuous of the same organ. 35, 4, h. Before n a surd or m^ite may change to its cognate nasal.
35, 4,
c.

8.

A vowel

may change

to a

consonant

of the same organ

to avoid the hiatus.


9.

Between two

10.

may change to a mute. 36, 2. One of two contiguous mutes may change to a continuous, one of two continuous to a mute. 36, 3, 4,

36. vowels a continuous

11.

A
A

consonant

lengthened by
12.

may be dropped and compensation.

the preceding vowel


37.

13.

may be dropped and the preceding consonant compensation. 37, 2. Gemination, when final or next to a consonant, is simplidoubled by
fied or dissimilated.

vowel

27, 5.

14.

Apothesis

found of a syllable of inflection, and of an unaccented stem vowel final before a vowel before /, ??, 0' f?, ct, St; c, //, ?, 7?, and other consonants. 44-46.
is
; ;

15.

Ecthlipsis
/, s ;
liquid.

is
r/,

found of
/, /,

of

c7,

d, ct, s, st, before st; of n before d, p, mostly between vowels or before a

47.

VOICE SHORT VOWELS.


16.

H
are used
foi-

Epithesis, epenthesis, aud metathesis


ccthli2)sis

euphony. 49-61. 17. Synaeresis may occur after change of to u. 52.

of

or

/i,

or the

the folks at home do not is an ideal no direct description of the pronunciation of speak with Anglo-Saxon but we have Greek text Avritteu phonetically and know that they Anglo-Saxon characters (Hickes, Pref., xii.-f ), were sounded nearly like the corresponding letters in the Latin of the missionaries. These characters represent only the most There must have striking varieties of sound, and those vaguely. been very great diversity in the folkspeech. The view given in
21.

Every
it.

classic

speech

We have
;

to a practical manual. general or ideal, as seems suited of the laws of the language, and its relations to An examination other languages, Avill suggest further remarks. ^ 14
is

22.

Voice.

chords

Breath made sonant by vibrations of the vocal ligaments which may be stretched across the wind-pipe.
is

The

quality of a

column of ity containing the vibrating for i, Ave breathe or blow into a flat ;
U, into a bottle without a neck.
23.

vowel depends on the general shape of the cavair. For a, the tongue lies
narrow-necked bottle
u.
;

for

Short Vowels.
palate
a?,
;

The simple vowels are


i,

i,

Pure a

may
and

be gradually changed to
to
i,

if

the tongue be slowly raised to-

ward the
^

if

the lips be slowly closed.


it,

Between a
i

are

e; between a and

is

o; between

and w

is

y.

The vowel sounds shade into each other like colors. In any word or stem the same short vowel is found in all the Teutonic tongues, and any changes are explained by umlaut,
the language. breaking, or other phonetic laws working within a is found before a single consonant In Anglo-Saxon a, ee.

followed by a, o, u, e<a/ before m, , and in some foreign words. Before m, n, it also suffers assimilation to o: man'^mon; before a consonant combination beginning with I, r, A, it breaks to ea :
before a syllable containing i or e ^, i-umlaut aealm, psalm to load; u-umlaut changes it changes it to e: liladan hle{de)st, to ea : bealii^ bale ; in other situations, words having a in other
;

<

languages show a regular shifting of to m ; thus, in monosyllables ending in a single consonant: ^a?e, back; in polysyllables before a single consonant followed by c: bwcere, baker; before

12

LONG VOWELS.

or 8 : consonant combinations, especially those beginning -with craft. In the folkspeech the sound of must liave varied crix'fl,

through the shades of sound from a in father nearly to a m fiat on the one side, and to o in hot on the otlicr. Accented d often changes in English to the sound of a in name, through progresmdken > make. viacian sion, i-umlaut, or shifting This is i-umlaut of ; temia^i, iMnc ; a-umlaut of ^ Jielpe. rtn<root MI}), help; or a light toneless sound which may be the ghost of any sound out of which the blood has ebbed through The same word gravitation gife, Gothic gibos, gibdi, giba, gift. is sometimes written with le and e, or ea and e: dseg^ cleg, day; In the folkspeech the sounds varied from nearly seaJi, sch, saw.

>

a drawling dci (as in ddrth, earth), through sound of German final e, French mute e.

e in

met, to the light

Tliis simple sound holds its ground well but a-umlaut i. sometimes changes it to e : p(fect, weaves, pi. pefad; u-umlaut and breaking both change it to eo : Urn, limb, pi. leonm ; feohte, It exchanges in Avriting with y, and sometimes with ea: fight. miht, myJit, meaJit, might. Perhaps an .a-element was in some Avords creeping in, as in English long i (=a+z), cniht, Northum;

brian cnaiht, knight. This is ti'eated as u-umlaut of a, or a-umlaut of n, or an O. assimilation of a by in or n : roclor, Old Saxon raclur, heaven

curon, coren<icora7i, chose, chosen; comb, comb. it varied from o in not to nearly u in fall. U, y.

In folkspeech
in

Like

-i,

u holds

its

ground.
;

It

changes

writing with

and probably varied in folkspeech from xt in nut to nearly the French %i. y is i-umlaut of u and ea, sometimes u-umlaut of i, exchanging with eo. It was a favorite letter with the jjenmen, and is often found for /, and sometimes for e, w : cyni?ig, king; eald, ylclest, old, oldest;
o on one side, and

y on the other

ceorl

> cyrlisc,

churlish

lyden,

leclen,

Latin

gyst-sele, gvest-sele,

guest-hall. 24. Long"

Vowels. Two like short vowels uttered as one sound make a long vowel: aa=:u, ii = i, uui=ti. Long vowels are produced by compensation, progression, and

contraction.

long sound

is,

however, different

in quality as well as quantity

from

its short.

The

the organs. er of unlike vowels: tiuCjiuv from npuoitiv; nor do

anticipation of the double utterance affects the position of given long vowel may, in fact, arise from the coming togetli-

two

like

vowels alwa3's

LONG VOWELS.
:

13

te give n, oo give ov. The Anglo-Saxon long vowgive their long Greek a prolonged is not exactly a, nor els vary in kind (quality) from their short e prolonged exactly e. give the long mark, therefore, whenever the the vowel may be unaccentquality of sound is that of the long letter, though
;

We

ed,

and the sound obscure.

manuscripts
That a
is

is found in accent ( 12) and gemination in the presumptive evidence is also found in the origin and relations of vowels, and the analogy of other languages.

Proof of length
;

letter is not

accented
in

is

no proof that

it is

not long

but

when one

abundantly marked
J)e,

nouns me,

good manuscripts, it must be held long. The prohe are abundantly marked, and therefore we give them as

long, though analogy


in poetry, fall in

These words, however alliterate is perhaps against it. with a general law as to accented open syllables which has

a plain physiological basis, and the corresponding words are long in English, and were long in Latin.

Monosyllables ending in a vowel are long, except enclitics and are really affixes or prefixes to other words. proclitics, which

a corresponds

in part to

Gothic
:

^,

in part to

Gothic

di,

and

has oftenest passed into English 6

Gothic hdim-, Anglo-Saxon

ham, home, Gemi. helm; in pa, a, etc., it is progression of a. It varied through d in far, toall, Ger. mahnen, nearly to 6 in hoine. 2b corresponds to the same Gothic letters as d, but comes into English with the sonud oi ee : Gothic sdi-, Anglo-Saxon sie, sea, German see. It is i-umlaut of d, and simple shifting also, whicli may be stopped by a following m, n: hdte, hvbt{e)st, hivt{e(i), call,
callest, calleth.

is

edyto-: heran, hear.


duplications,

i-umlaut of 6: f6t,fet{e), foot, feet; simple shifting of It springs also from contraction of old re: ;

from lengthening of open monosyllables me, me from compensation: peii<ipcgn, thane: /i^, he; J)^, thee; and here also fj^<.fjer, ye; pe<^pec, thee; and other such perhaps pronouns. It likes in or n after it, and in such cases may stand It varied in folkspeech from nearly e in for an original a or A.
there to ey in they, with the final y-sound {ee) pretty plain. goes over to ee completely in English. (Progression.)
It

i corresponcls

to the

of other languages.

It has

risen
:

in

English under the accent to the sound of d + i ( 38, 1) hUun, It exchanges in the writing with -g, and bite drifan, drive. must have sounded much like it. 6 corresponds to Gothic 6. It springs from contraction of three a -elements, or two - elements and a ?<- element: fa.
;

i-i-

Dli'IlTliONGS. NOKTIIUMBKIAN

VOWELS.

hmi^/o/i, catch; gefcohan^gefeon^ \'c']o\cc', from progression: mona, Old IT. German 'mCtno, moon sona. Mid. II. German sun, soon. It liad the sound of o in t07ie, with a tendency in a labial
;

direction, Avhich has brought it to English oo. 08, 1. U corresponds to 'd in other dialects. It is often strengthened

from i( under the accent: 7>?1, thou; w^, now sometimes springs from compensation onild, Gothic mtwps, mouth. It changes in English under the accent to ou : hiis, house. (Progression.) y is i-umlaut of of co, and ofeil: nms, mi)s{e), mouse, mice;
;
:

?"?,

lijge

<

root ledg^

lie

25,

Diphthongs.
a diphthong.
;

hf/r{i)an Two unlike

<

root hear, hear.

38, 1.

vowels heard in one syllable


(la), eo (io), ie, are generally are often true diphthongs, and

make

The forms ca

called breakings

ed, id, eo, io, ie,

then they differ etymologically from breakings.


sec 33.

For Breakings,

ea,
high

ia.

= Gothic

dii

>
d

a'*

>

ht
n,

sitions: final; before


;

r, li,
;

m,

> ed. It is found in many po-*' p fred, lord; tedr, tear; hedh,
:
;

dream, dream

ledn, loan
:

bredp, brow.
;

It is also

found

as a <7-.sc-breaking of

gedfon, gave scedn, shone. It is an unstable combination, tending to d or to e English English The prevailing set is, ee, as more or less of the c-sound works in.

>

>

on the whole, to e: stedp, step-cir\, steep. It is also an assimilation of i, %, by p or ed, io = Gothic in. I: treop, Gothic triva, tree feol. Old H. German fUa, mud apparently also by Ji, g ; but in these cases a change of h, g, to p may be supposed plhan '^ped7i, depart frig, freo, free. It is a peculiar progression from i final (perhaps here also a labial sound is to be added) Ijeo, Old 11. German hi, bee. It often also springs from contraction, especially of the reduplication, exchanging with ^. It exchanges in writing with id. It is found
; ;
:

often for ed.

It

changes to

iX:

sxipan, sup;

an unstable combimust have had a peculiar sound or sounds to w > English ic in si(2) on the one side, and to nation, tending ^> English ee on the other. The prevailing set is, on the whole, to H. A similar sound is produced by (7-sc-breaking from 6: seed,
shoe
;

silcan, suck.

It

ie
26.

is

but the e is lighter, used for ed, ed.


is

Northumbrian Vowels. a
it

often used
e, i,
;

where Anabundant;
if^o

glo-Saxon has ea, sometimes where


SB interchanges

has

eo, u.
vn for e is

with ea: ml,


;

eall, all, all

for a? frequent

oe

for e frequent.

Assimilation of

< \oe.

CONSONANTS.
:

15

icu < loi^ is found tcosa, Anglo-Saxon pesan, to be ; tcictta, AugloSaxon pitan, to know; also id<iil: 5 ?<{/*, Anglo-Saxon siJf, self; sulfer^ Anglo-Saxon seolfor, Gothic silubr, silver. a is often wi'itteu aa/ it exchanges with <'ey is a i)rogression of , ea, before liquids. is found written aae. e is seldom

used sometimes for eo (lautverschiebung), oftGothic t^, oftenest for eel. 6e is i-umlaut of 0, or ^ not umlaut. represents Anglo-Saxon ea interchanges Avith eo, a favorite sound which displaces
i-.umlaut of o, is

ener for

ic,

sometimes Anglo-Saxon
eo
ic,

e, i.

ea

interchanges Avith
z,

eo.

io for
or

is

frequent

ea

for

le.

There are found ai for

ei for e

eu for eop, and


27.

oi.

Consonants.
:

The stream of breath


a

in three

main ways by contact bctAveen and the palate (a round surface against a the tongue and the teeth (a sharp against upper and lower lips (two flat surfaces).

is stopped in speech the root of the tongue hollow one), the tip of

flat surface),

and the

If a sonant breath be

stopped, the sonant letters, g guttural, d dental, h labial, are j^roduced. If we blow instead of breathe, a slight change is made
viz., the glottis is thrown open, the chords no longer sound, and the shape which the organs take at the places where they meet and part is varied hence the smooth, surd letters, c{k) guttural, t dental, ^j) labial. These are mutes. If the breath be not wholly stopped, continuous letters, i guttu-

tlu'oughout the vocal organs

and Enghsh Z dental, (English v) and 7? labial, are the stream be blown, h guttui-al, /), 5, dental,/, ///>, made; veil be raised Vv'hich labial. If, when the breath is stopped, the separates the nose from the pharynx, the resonance of the nasal
ral (palatal),

or, if

cavity gives
trills.

n in ng guttural, n dental, m labial I and r are Each consonant stands for two sounds: viz., the closing For a of the organs, c^^/ and the opening of the organs, ^;a.
;

fourth kind of stop, see Assibilation, 34. 1. A stop of the first kind, which will pass for a g, may be made any where from the very root of the tongue forward to the middle of the mouth. Some nations make their g in one place, some in another. Further forward it becomes impossible to stop with a humped tongue, and the tip comes into play. This may be touched, so as to make a d, any where from the Just where front .(/-stop, or even further back, to the meeting of the teeth.

g and d
to tell c
habit.

run into each other


all

is i

consonant (English

gutturals and dentals as


if,

one.

from and possiI)ly the Sec Assibilation, 34.

Some tribes count ?/). The Sandwich Isla,nders have to be taught Roman populace may have had a similar

10
2.

GUTTURALS.
h,p,
ct,f. are

tives of

pronounced as spirants, but are, liistorically, representawere once pronounced as separate letters (c. ch as kh in icork-housc), and hence are called rough or aspirate mutes, g., See Table, a name retained in historical grammar bv their representatives.
c/j, til,

dh, ph, which

SS

17.

3. r is described as a trill ot the uvula in the Northumberland burr, and ^ as a trill of the side of the tip of the tongue in English and German No trill is heard in English in America. In r the tip edges of the tongue of the tongue is raised and moved slightly vviiilc the breath is poured over
;

It.

In

the tip

is

raised to the dental stop, and the breath issues freely be-

tween its sides and the cheeks. 4. Gemination is the doubling of a consonant. Physiologically it arises from an analysis of a consonant by whirli the sound made in closing the stop
is

united with the foregoing vowel, and t'mt

made by opening
:

is

united witii

the following vowel.


i.

Or

it

arises from combining

two complete consonants,

e.,

shutting and opening the organs twice


in

bac^--/iitclien.

The

last is sela.s-

dom heard

English.
It is

Historically

it

springs from gravitation (^ 38) or

most common with liquids and s. A real gemination can not occur at the beginning or the end of a word, nor before a second For the orthographic rule in Anglomute, nor is it easy after a long vowel. Saxon, see ^ 20, Rule 13. Double o-is written eg, double/, bb.
similation (^ 35).
5.

Dissimilated Gcminaiioji.

When

gemination of a nasal

(nz, v) v.'oulJ

occur before
veil,

/ or r, the trill calls for so

much

breath that

and that changes the latter half of other cases a continuous consonant or vowel
ance
:

m
%i

we drop
into d.

the nasn!

into b, of
is

In some

dissimilated for force of utter-

ss'^st,
;

iwiiymp, nii^nt, t^ig,

or

p~^vp,

are found

spindcl

<Cspinl 28.

timber<^timr, Goth, timrjan.


:

^^28,36,81.

Gutturals
<3,

English before

c has given place in c, g, h, i, n. {Palatals) to h (a graphic change merely) or to ch ?, y,

This cJi appears in late manuscripts, and tlio (Assibilation, 34). assibilation was doubtless begun in the folkspeech earlier; but
the

new sound does not show in the alliteration, and should not be given for Anglo-Saxon c. The assibilation of sc> English sA, is excluded for similar reasons, ct^ht, 3G ; ciycc, 37;
cg

= gg,
g

51. a;, 37 ; 5C conies into English as


;

in go,

give ; as

clg in

lation, 34)

as

in youth.

It stands in the place

edge (Assibiof J (= En-

in three places: (1.) glish y) of other languages

lowing Avords: gc, ye; fjeta\


geogud, youth
yes
nis,
;
;

gcr.,

Beginning the folyear; gedra, yore; geoc, yoke;


; ;

geol, yule
;

gist,

yeast

git, yet.

geong, young geond, yond Compare Sanskrit juvan, Latin

gcsc,

juvc-

Gothic jugg, German jung, Norse <ingr, Anglo-Saxon geong,

iimg, English young.

DENTALS.
(2.)

17

"Within Avords in the place of i {=j) before a vowel in ininserted hijie nerian h>Jige, love tierc/aji, to save to till. inserted eardian eardigecm, ge for i: hii hig^ they. (3.) Final
flection
:

English y. nounced we
:

All these changes seem natural if g in these words be pronounced as the it is certain that these words were at all times often so pro-

find lung in Anglo-Saxon as well as geong, nerian as well as But words like geong alliterate abundantly in Anglo-Saxon poenergan. and not with other kinds of words betry with words beginning with g hard, while in Norse the words beginning ginning with io, ia, or another vowel with i, J, alliterate only with vowels. It seems certain, therefore, that this
;

ge sounded more

like a hard

than like e or

before a vowel, which

was

It is better to accept the fact that a guttural breathnearly the English g. who wrote lufige, than ing was inserted between the vowels of lujie by those to try to simplify the phonology to soften out the g and j run into each

other.

Words
in

in

g g

hard
:

in

Anglo-Saxon run

into
;

in

Old English, and


;

re-

English forgitan, foryctcn, forget gifan, yeven, give geat, g These are dialectical variations, but real differences of 1/ate, gate, etc. In Anglo-Saxon g had such sounds as in modern German. sound.

turn to

They were both

represents the guttural rough (ch) and the simple breathing. both are now given in the folkspeech originally
;

guttural is not, however, recognized as separate in alliteration or otherwise in the literature of the Anglo-Saxons any more than in the English, and may be omit-

in the dialects of

England.

The

ted from the literary, though not from the comparative grammar of both. It is sounded in initial hi, /m, hr. hyg, h yp, 35, 3 A ^, 35, 4, J ht ct, 36, 3 ; h dropped, Apocope, 44
;

Ecthlipsis, 4Y.
i

x producing breaking = hs. consonant goes into g, from the most forward utterances of

<

<

It is found it is distinguished by being not so tight a stop. sometimes, especially in foreign proper names, alliterating with g, and should then be pronounced like g. n in nc, ng (Goth, Greek gg), is the English guttural nasal.

which

29.

Dentals

{Lingucds)
st

t,

d, J),

ct,

s, I, r,

n.

t<dd,

3C,

< td,
d
for

35, JB;

< sd ; < d,
t

d between two

Assimilation, 35. vowels seems to indicate a disinclination

to begin a syllable with d: ld<ld; dd<Cdi, ^ 31 : d and J) are not uniformly used in any of the manuscripts; there were certainly
real

two sounds,

as in English,
is

The uniform use

of7> beginning-

words and
sounds

elsewhere

calligraphic, not orthographic.

The

yet be made out; compare 194, a; 41, (3), English surds indicate A.-Sax, surds, unless they spring from other

may

18

LABIALS.NORTHUMBRIAN CO>SONANTS.
had most influenced
the'

dialects than those Avhicli


;

Anglo-Saxon.

Assimilation by ?, 35 breaking by /, r, 32. r<5, 41 ; apocope of?*, 44; metathesis of r, 51.

but see 189, b. n, Ecthlipsis, 47. b,f\p, m. p begins only words of foreign b changes to /in the middle and end of words, except origin, The Old Saxon, Friesic, and Norse have the nib and bb < bi. same tendency to change the middle mute labial b to the contin^ nous /"in the middle of words, i. e., not to close the mouth tightThe Old Saxon and Friesic have both ly between two vowels. surd and sonant continuous forms,/ and English v. This AngloSaxon /"is written u {v) sometimes {/diicade, B., 1799), and it has changed in English to v : heauoci, heafod, head ; heo/on, heaven ; pulf, pidfds, wolf, wolves. The folkspeech had a sonant continuous labial, and it may be distinguished in the weak verbs. See The runic p is like the English lo, but must have varied 189, b.
S

and

z undistinguished,
:

oO.

Labials

^^,

now in England. In 'm\t'ia\ pi, pr (often end of words, it must have been spoken parasitic), with a nearer approach to closing the mouth. Bede represents it
in the dialects as
it

does

and

at the

in

Latin by vm, thS Normans by gu / the parasitic v, g plainly indicate a vigorous uttei'ance. It changes to u when final and pre-

ceded by a consonant bealu, genitive becdpes, bale. Latin u and were the same letter; the present separation of them was com:

11

come

pleted only in the 18th century, w is of German origin ; it had into common use in Semi-Saxon. Assimilation ofp and w,
;

35, 2 31.
(1.)

mm < mi,

37, 2.

Northumbrian Consonants:
Gutturals.

and g interchange: finger, fincer, finger; h, dringes, he drinks; cc and p: getreuad getiyccad / c c^ch, see h. g assimilates a preceding e or e to ei: deign,

Anglo-Saxon pegii, thane weig, Anglo-Saxon peg, way in such cases there may be ecthlipsis of g : maiden, Anglo-Saxon onvegor ^ > h : fifteUi, Anglo-Saxon fiftig, fifty g <ip : den, maiden driga, Anglo-Saxon pripa, three; g and i consonant have the
; ; ;

same

in hecdd, old, etc.

relations as in Anglo-Saxon, h. often before / and r ;


in Z((/e,
is

Prothesis of A
:

is
;

found
hroue,

hlddla, to lead
loaf, etc.

row; apothesis between vowels

Anglo-Saxon

/iZcT/",

Ecthlipsis

g^

the rule, and occurs elsewhere, c^ h and h, with a change of the h to ch, are common at the end of words: Anglo-Saxon mec^ meh, mech, me; occasional within
m.ichll,

words: micil, mihil,

much.

Bcda

uses

ct for ht.

EUPHONIC CHANGES. UMLAUT.


(2.)

19
apocope in

Dextals. t

for
:

is

found:

Jieafot^

head;

second singular of verbs

slvcpes

dx% sleepst thou.

is

common:

hselen <.hpelend, savior;

Apocope of assimilation of Id: maand d interchange:

iiigfallice,

manifold.
;

There
dit,

is

no

p; d

Ecthlipsis of d thou, agglutinates with its verb: d final changes to s: sjjrecestu for sprecest d\i^ thou speakest.

dagds^ dagds, days occurs when the pronoun

brodor, brodor, brother.

ci(oedas<,ci(oedad,thej say. dyz: bezere, ha^tist. Liquids. Apocope of n is the rule in the infinitive, and frequent elsewhere; Metathesis of r is before d,f, s, as in Anglo-Saxon.
ecthlipsis

more common than gen < byrgen, tomb


pounds. Labials. (3.)
feber,

ecthlipsis occurs in bgAnglo-Saxon epenthesis in efern, evening, and its comMetathesis of 1 and of n occurs, s d, see over.
in
;

<

suffers

For is perhaps English v. before n, and sometimes oe, is left unwritten tilfz=indf,\;o\f; oeg =icoeg^ -way. Prothesis is found tcoxo, ox ; and epenthesis smmder, sunder. Initial /m, su, do not contract with a following vowel, as in Anglo-Saxon,

Anglo-Saxon fefor., Anglo-Saxon deofol^ devil, where u

apocope: f?;;?, dumb, etc. w and ub : dioid, fever, f

b<f:
dioubol.,

>

are written n, nu,


:

lo.

Initial

except the parts of ciana, cnman, come.


before oe
:

Ecthlipsis of
;

to

occurs

coed.,

quoth

and between two vowels

final it be-

comes a vowel, or drops, or changes to g. The manuscripts are late, and the whole aspect of the
indicates a revolutionary period of speech.

dialect

EUPIIOXIC CHANGES.
VAEIATION.
32.
a,

Umlaut
or
i(,

is

a change of vowel through the influence of

>^,
The
it.

in the following syllable.

utter

conception of a sound tends to put the vocal organs in a position to conceive the later sounds in a word wliile yet speaking the No umlaut former hence the tendency to utter a sound between the two.

We

shows
(1.)

in

Gothic.

Old

II.

German has most a-umlaut

Norse, u-umlaut.

2i-umlaut. The
i,

conception of a coming a affects the utit

terance of

so as to produce the intermediate sound ey so

to o: helpan <.voot hilp, help; boga<iroot bug, how. It sometimes changes i to eo : nid, neodan, neath ; leqfad., live.

changes u

iX,

EUPHONIC CHANGES.ASSIBILATION.
1.

21
Parent Speech,

Historical.

These sounds are not recognized


earlier letters,

in the

Latin, Greek, Gothic, or other most ancient alphabets ; and hence, though they are now found almost all the world over, they are generally represented

by combinations of the

and treated as compound consonants.

as a matter of fact to have been contrivances to take the place of certain difficult combinations of the simpler sounds. Among the Indo-

They seem

European languages, the Slavonic have most assibilation of the Latin come next.
It

the descendants

was common
zi,

in the

fore a, o,

in the oldest

ci interchanges with ti befolkspeech of Rome remains of Latin. It is not certain whether this
;

springs from a dialectic adoption of the imperfect articulation common every where among children, or from some peculiarity of the Roman populace, e.^-., one like that of the Sandwich Islanders (^ 27, 1). When the Germans were
sifted over the
lations,

Romanic regions, the chaos of language favored the assibiand they spread in various modifications over Europe, as far as the Romanic speech had influence.

The English
Dentals.

has the following

ti^ tsh:

Anglo-Saxon /(?izan> English Z/on/j> English question.

/eic/j

Latin qiies-

Latin ?2aiMra English nature. (English u=zi-\-u.) ti>5/i: Latin nationis'^'EngMsh nation. Qi^dzh: Latin soZJ?arJM5> English soldier; Latin modulai/o?ii5> English modulation.

>

si>sA;
si

Ijdiim pensionis'y- YingWsh.

pension

Latin 5ecw?*u5>

English sure.

(=zy )^zh:

Latin thesaurus

> English

treasure.

zi Gutturals.

> zh

Anglo-Saxon grasian > English graze '^grazier.


Latin ca5/?-wm

ci^tsh:
ci^ sh:

^ Anglo-Saxon
;

ceasto-

> English
:

Chester {Win-cheste)-)
glish fetch.

Anglo-Saxon yecian,yei2a?i]> En-

Latin occa?2?/5> English ocean.


civil.

c^ s

Latin ct-

t77/5> English

sce>5/i.- Anglo-Saxon scacan'^ sceacan^FjUgVish shake.


sci
*

>s

Latin scientia

> English science.


e^g-i)

gi>^/cA; Anglo-Saxon ecg (stem "encn5> English gender.


:

^English edge; Latin


T/ort?.

gi>y: Goi\\\c gards Anglo-Saxon ,-ea?-(i> English i^dzh: Latin iocus > Italian gioco > English jo/ic.
:

The beginnings of the following arc in Anglo-Saxon sc before a and o has often changed to see in the oldest manuscripts sceacan for scacan, shake. The sound of sh for sc in O. H. German first appears in the eleventh cen:

tury,

and afterward rules

in

High German.

As

for the

Low German,

sh

is

22

EUPHONIC CHANGES.ASSIMILATION.

not yet in Dutch, but in Phitt-Dcutsch it has become common as in Englisli. There is no indication in the alhtcration that see is pronounced sh, nor can In the Anglo-Saxon of the, elevit be received as current literary speech.

enth century,

ch

for c begins to

appear: chihK^cild, child.

This

is

also

outside of the literary speech, and springs from foreign (French) influence. The other changes are still later, and more purely Romanic in their source.

German assibilation is sh, and that is later than classic Anglo-Saxon. Physiological. t-|-i: Hon in qucs{a.) Assibilation of Dentals. In t the to sound io as one syllabic tends to change i to y. tio7i. Trying in y the tip of the tongue is pressed to the upper gum, and the voice blown
only
2.

The

<

of the tongue is dropped to the lower gum, and the middle is humped up toward the palate, and the voice breathed. In tsh the tip is inverted and
tip

This is a compromise in turned up to tlie hard palate, and the voice blown. two points of view, as to the place of the stop (between the f-stop and the

y-stop), and as

a kind of stop (inverted tongue against hard palate but it is not a mechanical reroundish against a flatish surface see ^ 27) sult of an attempt to go rapidly through t-\-i/: it is a quite new way to make
to the
;
;

tion of d-{- i {soldier) is the

a sound which the ear will accept as a substitute for the two. The explanasame, except that the voice in cl and in dzh is

breathed instead of blown.


is

The

explanation of s

+ ^ {pension), and

of s-j-i

and d-{-i, except that in these last {grazier), the stop is not complete either in blowing s and sh, or breathing z and z?i. In the change of see to sh, the c goes to h, and only gives strength to the
the

same as

that of t-\- i

compromise oi s-\-y. {b.) The English Assibilation of Gutturals, as though dentals, springs from defective articulation. The root of the tongue never works as easily Children say, and Anglo-Saxon children said, tan as the more flexible tip. for can, tin for cin ; and chin (tshm) is a not unnatural compromise between When the organs are placed for y, or i, or e, the back of the tin and cin.

mouth makes the narrow neck of a


root to

bottle, ^ 22,

and

it is

hard to raise the


;

(k) before y, i, e, is always unstable and hence a child will learn to say can before cin, and will be more likely The most natural result, however, of the to compromise on chin than chan. and give the aspidifficulty of making this stop is to make an imperfect stop,

make

a c (k) stop.

Hence c

tongues.

rate h, ch, instead of c(k), and this tendency has prevailed in the Germanic From this aspirate a foreign influence easily leads to the assibi-

lated palatals sh, zh, etc.

compare 28
guttural

Aphaeresis of </ takes place in geard^ yard, a parasitic d (dj) precedes i, j in Latin words possibly a preceded in Italian the present sound of gi as dzh, in gioco<C
; :

Latin iocus, joke

Giove <C Latin love, Jove.

Latin proper names of this

sort alliterate abundantly in

Anglo-Saxon poetry with words

35.
alike.

Assimilation
It includes

is

the act

by which

letters

g hard. ^ 28. make each other


in

breaking and umlaut, as well as assibilation. Other chano-es of this kind are called assimilation in a narrower
sense.

EUrilONIC CHANGES. ASSIMILATION.


(1.) (b.)

23
32.

vowel may assimilate with a vowel,


:

(a.)

Umlaut,
;

peorod, pered, crowd puGothic vairilo, lips; naldiipe, vidiia^ widow; pelerds, peolords, not at all. las, nsellces<. needles <Cne + ecdles^ consonant assimilates a vowel. Consonants of each or-

The vowels become the same

(2.)

gan tend to change adjacent vowels to the vowel of that organ. Labials put the moutli in such a position that it turns vow(a.)
el

sound to or toward
a change of pa, o; to

ic.

The strongest
(pe),
pi,
;

is

p.
pi,

It

produces
ap,
ip,
;

pa, 6;

(po, u)

peo
;

pu, u

cap

eop

cpam, epdmon > com, comon, came Northumbrian posa, AngloSaxon pesan, to be pita ypeota, wise man piht ypu/it, whit
;

dedp,

Compare 52. Before m before f {p, b), ayea, iyeo: camb> (n), sometimes a>o, iyeo ; comb; himyheom ; e(://or>Latin apei\ho^v; g}fa> geofa, giver compare 32 -am'>-um, %1\,b. Note also the diphthongs, 25. The gutturals c (sc), g, place the organs so as to call out a

dew

tredp, Gothic triva, tree.

while h, parasitic -sound (breaking, 33),

and the Unguals

and

r, especially

when followed by another

consonant, had a burr

(ili-sound),

brian u: silfysulf, 26.


In Latin
spatula,
Xavrj
;

which brought a preceding i to eo ( 23), NorthumFor i> eu before A, g, see 25.


brings in
;

most,

?;?,

(TTrardXr}

Hecuba,

'Ek(1j3i].

b,p,f, sometimes: The dentals bring in


likes e before
it
:

nebula,
z
:

vi(l>i\r]

machina,

fii];

Masimssa, Maaavdaaris.

The r

camera, Kajidpa

cineris<icinis.

(3.)

vowel assimilates a consonant,

34. (a.) Assibilation,

Between two vowels a surd may change to a sonant, or {p.) a mute to a continuous h>g, s>r, d=pyd, gyp, hpyp, byf:
;

sloh, slogon, I slew,


;

they slew ceds, curon, chose cptved, cpscdon, dwell ; habban, hafact, have, haveth quoth bUgian, bitpian, to for seah, ssege, sdpe, saw, 197. consonant assimilates a consonant. This occurs in An; ; ;

(4.)

o-lo-Saxon mainly when, by composition, inflection, or apothesis, two consonants are brought together which can not be easily The most common case is the in the same

pronounced

syllable.

comino- to<^ether of a surd and sonant.

One can not breathe and

blow
(a.)

at once.

When

surd and sonant letters are brought together, the

surd assimilates the sonant.

2i

EUPHONIC CHANGES. DISSIMILATION.

A. If the surd follows the sonant, a gemination of the surd is produced. In this way Jf, ss, ss, are sometimes produced from
bf, ds,

ds: qfna}i<CLai\n ob-{-fero,

of-

fer
(

bliss
),

27, 5

< bltds, blids, bliss. And by simplifying gemination dst > 5^, dst > st hledst > cpidst > epist, quothest
:
;

hlest^ loadest.

Exception

(1).

dp

is is

often written

graphic rule that

</(/, according to the orthoalways to be used for p within a word


:

oppe, odde, or. (2). ndst changes to 7itst, according to the analogy of case J?, through the influence of the n, which supports

od pe,

the

d; gs

B.

ns, 130, c. cs=x^ a favorite letter ; tns If the surd precedes the sonant, the sonant is changed to
its

>

>

the nearest surd of


cd,

own
sr,
ss,

organ.
sd,
st,

Thus,
td,

hd,

7?c?,

fd,
ft.,

sd,
st,
;

to

ct,

M,

pt^

tt:

socde^soete^sohte

{^ SQ),

sought; stqyde "> stqyte, evecied


pisreypisse, of this
gretde
?itst:
;

cysde'yeyste, kissed

> grette,

greeted.

194; c^sd^cpst, chooseth ; After this analogy, gs'^cs = x, ndst >


drift, dr'iveth, ^
;

dnf{e)dy

agse'^axe, ashes; stendst^stentst, standest.

simplifying gemination ( 27, 5), final td'yt, std^st: blttd~ybltt, sacrificeth; hirstd^biTSt,\>wc^i^\X\', and after a con-

And by

sonant: ehtde^ehte, persecuted. In st^ssin piste^pisse,\{\?,t, the s is strong enough to take an explosive over to its continuous. another consonant may (5.) An explosive consonant before

change to a continuous of the same organ.


1.

The
This

explosive
it

is

a complete stop, and hence

it is

not easy to

make any

sound but s after


2.

in the

same

syllable.

fact

may work
:

Assimilation or Dissimilation, 36, 3.


beige, bllhst, bilhd, to
VLsk
;

gd^hd ;
(c.)

gstyhst

be angry; ng stands.

cs<hs: dcsie^ dhsie,


Before
nasal;

n a surd or fn^7nn, gn^ng: nefne^ nemne,

cd>hd: seedy sehd, seeks, Hask. an explosive may change to its cognate
unless; stefn'ystemn,

stem; gefrignciWy gefringan, Xo inquire. Compare () and (J) above. The veil is raised for the n an instant too soon, 27, 28. 36. Dissimilation. (l.) A vowel may change to a consonant to avoid the hiatus with another vowel; '></, u^p : ne-

riany-nergcm, to save;

lirfian^lif/iga?i, lirftgean, to love; hecdu, genitive bealpes, bealiipes, baleful. ComjJare 27, 5. a continuous sometimes changes to a (2.) Between two vowels

mute

d > d: prdd, pridon,

I writhed, they writhed, ? 35, 3, b.

EUPHONIC CHANGES. COMPENSATION.


(3.)

25

The former
same organ.

explosive sometimes changes to a contiuuous


35, 4,
h, 2.

of

tlic

hdyfd., ctyht, (jtyht, ttyst:

habba7i, hcefd,\ia.ye,ha.d', soctey so hte, sought; dgaji, dhte^ own,

owned; motdeymotteyinoste, must; jnttey piste, wist. become explosive; hsyx (4.) One of two continuous may cs? ( 28, h) feax. Old H. German fcihs, hair Idyld: beald,
:

Gothic hcdps, bold ; let seldom occurs fekt, falleth swld, house. The former sonant becomes a surd in ddy{tdy)t ( 35, (5.) in the third singular of Acrbs (Conformation) stenddy stoit, B)
:

standeth.
(6.)

In Latin and English, -al and -ar inSuccessive syllables. to keep I or r from successive syllables stellar, solar, terchange
:

The former assibilation is liberal, literal; so coerulean<,coelum. The former often smoothed in America: iwonunciation, 34.
aspirate
87.
is

not smoothed in Teutonic as

dropped and the vowel lengthened at the same time. 1. Before d,/, s, preceding with ecthlipsis of n, a change of a, e, i, u, y, to 6, e, i, H, i) : tod. Old H. German zand, Latin dent-h, tooth soft, Old 11. German Old H. German Jeans, goose oder, other ; sod, (jos, scnfti, soft

Compensation.

it is

in Greek.
is

(l.)

consonant

sooth

hosu,

company
2.

mUd,
;

hUsl, '^d.
;

so genedan, sptd, sid,fif, ilser, cUde, Ude, With ecthlipsis of g, mostly before n: pa>gn^
;

psen, wain pegnypen, thane

regnig'yremg, rainy pign'ypin,


;

food fsegr yfier, iddeyeode, went.

fair
3.

ssogde

> svcde, said

With apocope of c, tneC^me, me pecypB, thee; higyheo {?), they; feohyfeo, fee; ge {<Cger), ye; me (<jer), to me; pe {<:^per),to thee; pe (<7;>er), Ave.
(2.)

ligd g, h, r:
;

> Ud,

lieth

see
;

A consonant
;

the same time


d,f, g,
I,

i is

rn, n, s :

doubled and a following vowel dropped at dropped with gemination of a preceding b, c, habian~^ habban, have recian^reccan, to rule;
is
;

bidiaW^biddan, to
gan, to
lie
;

\i\^;

spefian'^ sp)ebban, to sleep; ligian^lic;

teliaWytellan, to tell fremia^i'^fremman, to frame ; chjnnan, to clang cnysian cnyssan, to knock. clgnian. After a long root syllable neuter -? drops, and i of stem (3.)

>

>

-ia
1.

weakens to

e,

or drops

secia?i

> secean, s^can, to

seek.

Speech naturally runs in pulses; a certain length of time and a certain volume of sound is pleasantcst between the pauses or accentual beats. The
tendency of speech to preserve this rhythm by lengthening the remaining letters when one is dropped, or shortening all letters when a new letter is added,
is

called

ty

Compensation, and the name is extended to all adjustments of quantiand accent which restore the rhythm after the adding or dropping of letters. ac2. In the pronunciation of Latin according to the English method, an

26
cented vowel
ter

EUPHONIC CHANGES, GRAVITATION.

in any syllabic before tbe penult is shortened in sound, no matwhat may have been its original quantity while such a vowel in the penult has the long sound. The same law prevails in the Homauic portion of
;

English:
ulous.

brief, briefer, brev'-ity

The whole body

; admire, admi'-rcr, mir'-acle, miracof words conform to what was the fact in the larger

number of Latin words. It shows that a long accented syllable followed by two unaccented is more than the natural length of the rhythm. This force
of compensation is not so plain in the Anglo-Saxon portion of English, and we do not know enough of the pronunciation of Anglo-Saxon to trace its efword with an affix sometimes has a lighter vowel than fects with accuracy.

the kindred

word without one:


;

/c^?i, servant, /;^nc, maid-servant

bera,

bear, hiren, bearish

but the change


kind.

may

be (almost) always explained from


46.

assimilation of
3.

some

Unaccented syllables show compensation.


:

voice than two short syllables follows an accented syllable, the old accent often moves forward, or a second accent is given admire,

When more

admird'-tion; 7nir'-acle,mirac'-ulous ; Icg'-ible, leg'-ibil'-ity. is to be seen most clearly in the Romanic portion of English.
4.

This law

Compensation acts

in

connection with Gravitation.

^ 38.

38.
ters.

Gravitation

is

It is seen in the

the tendency of sounds to accentual cenlengthening of accented syllables, and the


It

lightening and final disappearance of unaccented syllables.

goes on

in all languages.

A. Vowels.

Rule
?',

I.

Progression.

Under

the accent the


d.
;

simple vowels ,

u, lengthen

by prefixing a and

Mixed vowels and breakings move to their latter element diphthongs ed, e {a-\~i), eb, and all whose former vowel is long, move to their former vowel
:

>z;

6; eo, eo'^u, 6; diphth. ca>e, etc. eo<?, ea<iau, often go to e, ^^ 203, 204, 41, 33. (fl.) Accentual effort opens to the a-shape the neck of the bottle shaped for i or ii, 22; too much a weakens to u or i; aaa^aati, 6, etc. eo<i, ea, are in unstable equilibrium.
ea,
;

(a+M)>z<; y (M-}-i)>i;

ea^d,

an unaccented syllable the progression of simple vowels is reversed also a goes to o, ti, or i, then to ey i goes to e ; ii to o and e/ & disappears. In the Parent Speech were the following series: (1.)
II.

Rule

Precession.

In

a,

a-\-a=d, d-\-a=da.

i, ai, di.

u,

aic,

du.

In An2;lo-Saxon the followintj series are found:


a-series
:

EUPHONIC CHANGES. GEAVITATIOX.


scdn'y shone
ledg,
lie,
;

27

\/sci?i^ scmmi, seem, sbiue, shone

lied;

}/ siic^

si1.can, sedc,

suck, sucked;

\/ lug^ leogan, sei> shine

(ee=^)

(English td-\-i); mils^mouse (English ou d-\-xi)\ ^et/>teeth i?wf tooth (oo =?:?) ; /iyrn>hear (eaz=i) w?ys>mice
;

>

(^>C>d4-); ieaM>buld; e^>all; sceotow> shoot; hedm^ beam; 5eo>bee.


Descending: y/hif'^luf'ode, luf'dde, luf'ude,
;

luf'ede, loved;

pidgcd^ptdgil, pidgel, Avide spread landsceap, landscipe, landscape; Apri'lis^ A'preUs, K^\A\ (Gothic ?nm, Old H. German mari) mere, mere (sea); (Sanskrit madhn) meodit'^meodo'^ Old Here also belong many forms of verbs English mede'^mead. now accented, but formerly unaccented hhide, bunden<^ }/ hand, bind, bound; for a fuller exjilanation of which, see Ablaut, 158; also nearly all the affixes of declension and conjugation, for which
:

see Etymology, as referred to in the Index.


(2.)
I.

The changes
II.

in

and

and changes

the Anglo-Saxon series may be compared with Rules in other languages given on page 8, ^ 18 >tP, o,
:

lautverschiebung as in Greek and Latin

dyie,

e,

same

da^dii
I.

(Rule

I.)

(Greek); aic'^H (Rule I., Latin) aiiy-hc (Rule I. Greek fv)~^e6 by a-umlaut in stems of verbs and nouns, and by conformation elsewhere (^ 32, 40), Sana^ a' skrit has 6, Friesic ia ; du 'a metathesis to breaking to con(Latin);
;

><3 (Greek and Latin); ai>t, Rule

I.

di>d, Rule

>

> >

form with e6 (Friesic d)


skrit in

changing
i
i,

^ 23, e.

series already shows itself in Sanu and i; i and u to e was not yet in Gothic. See In Latin and the Romanic part of English, a in open syllables
.

The descending

to

goes to goes to

before r, to e

in close syllables, to e
it

before
;

I,

io

u;

e often
;

but before r or in close syllables

remains

facio,

efficio, efficient

pater, Jupiter; pario, aperio, aperient;

damno, condemno, condemn;


;

salto,

exsuUo,e\\i\i; lego,dUigo,*\'\\\gGni\ z?i/e?-o, infer in accent originally on the prefix. ^41, 4.)

correctum, coxxeci.

(Lat-

(3.) The changes from Anglo-Saxon to English take a new start, and are wholly analogous to the original series of the Parent Speech. (4.) The first lengthening of i and u by progression is called guna (masculine strength), a term of Sanskrit grammar; the second is called vriddhi feminine increment).
(5.)

The

with progression

various kinds of assimilation and sound-shifting work together the result of the whole upon the vowel system of the An;

glo-Saxon

is

shown

in

the

summary on page

7.

B. From Gravitation also springs () the gemination of a consonant ending an accented syllable the common cases have been mentioned under Compensation ( 37) ; {h) also the dropping of
:

consonants in unaccented syllables, and some Aveakenings, 41,

b.

28

EUniONIC CHANGES. MIMETIC CHANGES. SHIFTING.


39.
40.

Ablaut.

See Etymology.
arc those occurring through the in-

Mimetic Changes

fluence of other words, g 158.


1.

Conformation.

The words of
;

all

form

in inflection to the majority.

The Anglo-Saxon nouns have gone

languages show a disposition to conover

to a single declension in

go over
2.

to the inflection of the

Simidation.

The feigning a connection with words of similar sound


:

English and the strong verbs, one after another, weak.


is

an important

fact in
It

row grass.
3.

English and other modern languages asparagus~> sparprobably had just as full play in ancient speech, but its effects
is

can not be so surely traced.

Bifurcation

the separation of a
;

troth; ivake, ivatch

See carc-crn, ^ 229 frx, ^ 254. word into two borne, born ; truth, There are hundreds of flour, jlowcr ; balsam, balm.
;
:

words
is

in English produced by this kind of fissiparous generation. Where it produced by a foreign word coming into English in different ways, it has been called Dimorphism ration, reason.
:

of contrast also operates to sunder different words of similar sound, especially if one of the words have odious associations: grocer <.
4.

The law

grosser; cucumber < cowcumber ; boiKbile.


41.

Shifting {Lautverschiehimg)

is

a change of sound not due

to other sounds in the language. Changes in climate or modes of life, mixing nations of different stocks, ease of utterance, and more obscure causes, affect the adjustment of the vocal organs to

the mind, and so shift the speech of nations. The current corresponding sounds in several of the Indo-European languages are

given on page

8.

Tiiere was a gradual weakening of the vowels in (1.) the ancient languages. The Sanskrit a shifts to a, t, o, in Greek, and to , 6, *, 0, ii., in Latin ; ic shifts to o / i to e. Ease of ut-

Vowels.

terance and consonant assimilation


This movement
is

work together for

close vowels.

modified by assimilation, compensation, and gravitation, but in long periods the shifting is plain ; a weakened vowel can seldom be found in Sanskrit where the full form is in Greek or Latin. The short vowels are not found to shift in

The movement Saxon we have


tc

of the long vowels

comparing one Teutonic tongue with another. is found on page 8. Within the Anglo-

referred to this shifting in speaking of

>?,>(?,!> '<,

>

g,

(2.)

ed e, CO ^, ea>e, eo>e. Consonants to Vowels. In the

>

>

table,

^*> 2,

v>w,

are noted in
;

Anglo-Saxon; they occur also in Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, etc. ^]>ti and /> ^ are common in the Romanic languages Latin collum'^ French col^
:

cou, neck

Latin planus
is

> Italian piano, plane.


:

Compare

35, 2,

b.

The
^ 34.

movement

sometimes reversed, as when a nation moves northward, or

northern peoples mix with a vowel-speaking race

Anglo-Saxon

(/<Ci-

EUPHONIC CHANGES SHIFTING.


(3.)

29
is

Consonants to Consonants. Regular shifting


:

to weak-

er consonants

middle
35,

gutturals to palatals, labials, dentals ; smooth to Surd to sonant, mute to continuous, to middle. rough
to

3, h.

A. Shifting
to another
:

a co-ordinate consonant.
Latin
liqyus, wolf,
(i.)

\vKoq.,

(a.) One smooth mute One middle to another


:

ykvKVQ (metathesis), Latin dulcis, sweet, (c.) Rough to rough. to spirant geseah, gesepen, saw, seen ( 35, 3, J) j/jut, {d.) Spirant
:

Latin semi,

(e.)

Liquid to liquid
;

Anglo-Saxon
Latin

esol, ass

German

Latin asimcs, Gothic asilus, kind, Anglo-Saxon did, child ;


:

pnmum,

Anglo-Saxon

jiluina,

plum.

These

shiftings are

occasional, or dialectic.

B. Shifting to another consonant of the same class : (.) Grimm's Law, lautverschiebung by eminence (see

19).

With
came

the progress of the Teutonic tribes northwestward they to use for each smooth mute the corresponding rough, for a

rough the corresponding middle, for a middle the corresponding smooth. This first shift is believed to have been completed during the third century and here the Gothic, the Anglo-Saxon and other Low Germanic, and the Scandinavian languages rested. The High German went on, and shifted in the same way a second time so that since the seventh century it stands in the same relation to the other Teutonic languages that they do to the rest
; ;

of the Indo-European family.

> g> k Lat. homo, A.-Sax. guma, man, O. II. Ger. komo ; g > k (c) > ch (h) Lat. ego, A.t >th, dh>d Lat. tres, Sax. ic, I, O. H. Ger. ih. Dentals Lat. dentis, A.-Sax. prt, three, O. H. Ger. drt ; d > t > th ? (z) Lat. A.-Sax. tod, tooth, O. H. Ger. zand ; th (Lat. f >d>t A.-Sax. deor, deer > O. H. Ger. tior. Labials p > f > b ? fera, pedis, A.-Sax. fof, foot, O. K. Ger. fuoz; b>p>f: (f):
:

? (h) Guttukals : (c) (h) od, head, O. II. Ger. houpit ; ch (h)

>ch

>g

Lat. caput, A.-Sax.

heaf

0/p,

\^viX.

Lat. cannabis, A.-Sax. henep, hemp, O.H. Ger. hanaf; f Lat. rater, A.-Sax, broder, brother, O. H. Ger. p^^uodar.

>b>p

Lithuanic, Celtic,

of rmigh, mutes to middle is a regular weakening in Bactrian, Slavonic, and not infrequent in Greek and Latin. That of smooth to roiujih (the use of parasitic h) is occasional in Sanskrit, Persian, Greek, Latin, and abundant in Old That oi middle to svvmth is a strengthening peculiar to the Teutonic, and an enigIrish. ma. Americans seem to hear foreigners use it freely in talking English. Germans and h, d are heard as k, p, t, Celts use more surd breath and less sonant than wc. Their
(a.)

The change

r/,

their

" as aspirates. K(h)ill the poys," says Fluellen (Hen. V., iv., 7). This suggests the hypothesis that Celts adopted the speech of invading Teutons, that their Celtic pronunciation of it as heard by the Teutons became current, and that climatic influences and alk,

p,

30
literation

riGUKATIOX. AriliERESIS.
ssince,

made the chaugo thorough. The Teutonic instinct for preserving distinctions when the rough weakened to middle, they would incline to change the old middles to preserve the correlation. There are many exceptions to Grimm's Law: 1. A letter is often lixed by combination with another: d in 7u1, Id; t in at, ht,ft. 2. Rough kh, ph, often early changed to continuous h, /, and rested, 27, 2. The whole shifting of the High German gutturals and labials is thus disturbed. The corresponding letters, as oftcnest
helped,

found,

may be

seen in

19.

Other cases of shifting may be ings in Anglo-Saxon and elsewhere g


{b.)
;

i > g, h > > h, d > s,

g",

strengthen-

> r,

d>

1,

b>f >v,

Most of the cases in AngloAveakenings. Saxon have been referred to in 35, 36. There are three systems of accentuation 1st, (4.) Accent.

common

the grammatical, in Avhich the accent is given to that syllabic which last modifies the general notion, i. e., to the affixes and prefixes of inflection

2d, the rhythmical, in which the accented syl; determined by the number and quantity of the syllables in the word ; 3d, the logical, in which the accented syllable is the
lable is

of those expressing the main notion, i, e., the root syllable or The earliest Indo-European a prefix of composition defining it. languages are least straitened by any one system ; but the first is
first

in its greatest

vigor

the Sanskrit acute

may be

given to any

part of a word.
influence,

The Greek and Latin came under the rhythmical


time used the acute only on one of
alto-

and

in the classical

the three last syllables.


logical, 15.

The Teutonic languages became

This shifting of accent is a fundamental fact gether in the explanation of Ablaut and many other phonetic facts in Anglo-Saxon and all other Indo-European languages.

FIGURATION.
42.

tion

The dropping of sounds is mostly connected with Adding of sounds without change of sense ( 38).

gravitais

rare;

but the shifting of accent ( 41, 4), or the handing over a word to a race with different habits of speech, or even the bringing together by syncope or ecthlipsis of difficult combinations of letProsthesis is mostters occasionally calls for euiDhonic additions.
ly

gemination

similar
is

words

or conformation with ( 27, 4), -or parasitic ( 33), Metathesis in which the added letter is significant.

mostly euphonic and dialectic. 43. Aphaeresis is found of unaccented


in Jd, hn, hr,

e,

ge ; of c in en; of
:

and elsewhere; of 7;*


;

m pi, pr, pu
;

hisceop
;

< Lat.
like
;

episcojms, bishop

pistol <
;

Lat. ejnstola, epistle

gelic

>

geclddod

>

yclad

> clad

cneO

> knee

hl(1f> loaf; hnappung

APOCOPE. SYNCOPE.rEOTHESIS.EPENTHESIS.

gl
;

> napping
plisj)
els

hrwfn > raven


;

( 31)

yyini

< Lat.

hymnus, hymn

all syllables of inflection. The vowand r in the pronouns, and ^, A, m, n, s, may droj"). See Declension and Conjugation. 45. Elision is found of the stem vowel e, i, and of final e Avhen two words arc drawn together: scceany secan, seek; pergkmy

protan, 44. Apocope is found of

> lisp
to e

root.

go

and drop

clyniany dynncm, clang; hiitan <ihe-\-'dtan^'\:)\xi', pe?*(7rtn, damn nun <,ne+ cin^ x\oi\q; nahban < ne -\- hahhan, uol have; nies<.
;

ne -\-pces, was not.


4G.

Syncope

is

found of an unaccented stem vowel before


e,

less often before f?, </, st ; sometimes before /, n, r ; and other consonants ; oftenest when the consonant

is
;

y, ???, p, followed

by a

syllable of inflection

engel^ englds, angel, angels


;

Jieofon^
;

heofnes,
dctn{e)de,

heaven, heaven's

deemed;

hicf{e)st,
;

pmter, pintres^ winter, winter's licef{e)cU hast, hath; miinec^ mitnc,

monk

hdllg, hulges, holy

mdd{u)m, gem

pid{e)pe^

widow

cpiOciic, quick (?). ecthlipsis. 47. Ecthlipsis is found of d, d, s, st, before st ; of n before d,f, s; of d, g, A, ?",p, mostly between vowels or before a liquid:
/i^e(f?)5^,

Syncope often brings on

loadest
;

burstest

for n,
;

//,

cpi{d) st, qwothest; e?/(5)s^, choosest; 37 fedper (Gothic fidvor), four ;


;

bi7'{st)st,

pegn >

pen, thane
est,

freogan'y freon, to love; te6han'> tedn, tug; ner{i)savest; niUcm~;>ne-\-pillcm, to be itnwilliug. Mostly assim-

ilation
48.

i consonant (y), and p by blunof h, g, ge, n, s, is found in AnApparent prothesis glo-Saxon or English, but probably springs from conformation with the many words beginning with be-, by, ge-, together, an,

and gemination. Prothesis is found

of h,

der ( 31).

an,

its,

out
;

Edward

Nanny, Anna.

meltan, smeltan, melt, smelt nadder, adder Ned, So in the French espace < Lat. spa;
;
:

tium, space; conforming with words beginning with Latin ex-: Real prothesis eclore, exclure < Lat. exclaudo, excludo, exclude.
is

pretty
49.

common

in

Greek:

6(ppvc

(Sanskrit bhri(),

brow;

uTrtip,

star,

found of e; of b after m; of d, t, after oi, I, after a vowel. Those of e and n are cons, formations of declension and inflection, whidi see: lam{b), lamb;

Epithesis
t

is

r ; of

after

and n

tyran(t); len(d); moul(d); aftbr(d); niids(t) of verbs. See 27, 5. -s{t) second singular
50.

betpnx{t) ,\>QU\\xt

Epenthesis
before ry
c,

is

found of a vowel between two consonants,


before
;;v,

e.g., e

o, v,

??,

/>

of g, n, p, between

9 OJj
vowels
s;
;

METATHESIS.CONTRACTION.
of

d
s,

after ,
</,

(especially followed

by

or r)

of

after

of

before

s,

d ; of/ between
t,

of r before

M,^), and after

a short vowel; of2> between

a consonaut and following ej and ?, r, or d, g ; of /> between and ?i, s, or t: meter <^'L^i. mc-

Jos^, bosom ; gllsnian glisten ; beal{o)trum, meter ; bosom meolc, milk (Latin midgeo^ Greek ajutXyw, pcs, bale's ; meoliic Sanskrit J?;?-.7') ; li/fi{g)cm, love ; gife{n)d, gifts' ; i?^w bugan,

< <

>

>
>

biipan, inhabit ( 221, 224,

e)

punor y Jmnder, thunder;


;

bal{d);

sam^ balsam
sample;
chief;

glisnia^i

>

glisten

niJdegale, nightingale

e(n);

Sarmende
;

K'Lz.t.

Sarmatw ;
;

myrt(l)e

ct?cfe

could

has, hoarse

spadii^ swarth

co(r)poral

< French

capordl Kcajy,

chal(d)ron; ir^c7/7ma > bridetimber (Gothic tiinrjan), t'lmhev ] ^zemo/ > nimble ; scogroom ; llmbos<Liiit. scolgmos, a thistle; nemney- nem2)ne (Chaucer),
cart(r)idge; part(r)idge;

name; glim(p)se;
51.

> empty. 27, 5, 33. found of Iipywh, spy^ys, gnyng, ??> 5W, 5C>cK, sgyx; of a vowel with a following I or r when a mute precedes of a vowel with a preceding I or r when a mute precedes /ip% white (graphic only) ; pvesjw, psejyse, Avasp peg7i,
eie^/^
is

Metathesis
;

peng, thane clmisian, chesnicm, cleanse ; Jisc yfix, fish ; dscian, dxian, ask; axe (Gothic azgo), ashes; beorJit, JryA^, bright tdel, idle (graphic) grves^ gxrs, grass ; osle, cusel (rare) ; so iriian,
; ; ;

rinnan, run.

CONTRACTION.
In the Teutonic languages the hiatus is not generally avoided by contraction, but by elision or epenthesis ; or it stands. is found in Anglo-Saxon after ecthlipsis of g or (1.) Synreresis
52.
h,

and the assimilation of p to w. unlike vowels meet, a mixed sound is produced in which the open vowel predominates a, o, 6, with another vowel become 6/ II, e, lengthen the preceding vowel i drops; a-{-a=d;

When

ii-\-a=^o ^'

t-{-a=:ed
;

{I

breaks): fdhany-fon, take; gefeohany-

gefeon, rejoice

gefeohe

> gefeo ;

teolian

> teon,
;

tug

freogan >

freon, love;
fair
;

cpdmony cudmony comon, come; fvegeryfm',


;
;

slay

sdply said, soul epic > cuic > cue, quick sleahan > sledn, cpam > com > com, come pihan ypedn, grow. the root of verbs; w-\-d, (2.) The reduplicati'on contracts with
;

&-\-ed, di+o, give eo,

form.
(3.)

which shifts to S; vb-\-a, m-[-ea, x-]-sb, conSee Inflection, 159. For traces of synizesis, synaloopha, and other contractions

in

Anglo-Saxon poetry, see 509, 510.

PART

II.

ETYMOLOGY.
I.

DEFINITIONS.
and history of words. and derivation.

53.

Etymology

treats of the structure

It inchides classitication, inflection,

54.

A Word
:

is

mixed nature
55.

it is

an elementary integer of speech. It has a thought on one side, and sound on the other.

Notional and Relational.

An analysis

of the words

of the Indo-European languages gives two kinds of significant sounds: (1) those co7inoting qualities: e. g., of acts, as eat, sit,
go, Jcnow, love; of substances, as icet, red, quick; (2) those connoting relations: e.g., of space, time, subject, object; as here, The first are called notional ; the second, there, then, me, he.
relational.

56. Radicles are elementary relational parts of words. They are generally single sounds oftenest a consonant sound. The labials connote subjective relations oftenest; the dentals, object-

ive and demonstrative

the gutturals, interrogative ; the nasals ; often connote negation ; the vowels, oftenest simple limitation. Radicles are found (1) as the essential part of words which de-

note relation (prepositions and adverbs) o-f, ^a-l, by tz-p, up of; xa-id, with; a3-t, at; t-o, to; l>tCr, there; 2>a3?me, then ; sp-<^, so ; hp-icr, where ; hp-a3wne, when ; (2) of words which de:

note persons or things directly as having the relation connoted by the radicle (substantive pronouns) m-^, me \)-ii., thou \\-c,
:

he

of Avords Avhich define, as having certain relations, objects denoted by other words (adjective pronouns)
;

B-eo,

she

(3)

VHrin,

thine; \fixit, that; sp-27c, such; hp-a??, what; (4) united to roots to form stems, see 58 (5) united to stems of nouns or pronouns as factors of relation (case-endings or adJ)-?,
;
:

mine;

verbial affixes)

smides, smith's
;

there

payinan, thence
;

sec GO

leafas, leaves; JdxQ., him pwr, ; (6) united to stems of verbs


;

as factors of relation

(inflection endings):

com, am;

li/Jiast,

lovest
57.

lifflad, loveth.

Root

is

an elementary notional svllablo.

few arc

34

CLASSiriCATlON. DlXLEXyiON UF NOUNS.


;
;

formed by onomatojic from noises hrlng, ring few from sounds naturally exjiressive of feeling:
ter
;

has, hoarse

hleah-tor, laugh;

jyop,

whoop

or vocal gesture

st,

whist

s?a-nd

some are
:

a growth from the radicles, and descriptive primarily of being or motion in the direction or mode connoted by the radicle 2nnian,
to put out; ?/;>pan, to ojoe?i (=:raise v})) ; /aran, to larc {=go fort/i) ; most roots are the expression of an adjustment of the mind and vocal organs to each other, according to
to

go

in

ilti^u,

which the mind


a given state.

in a certain state

tends to put the vocal organs in

The diffusion of the roots and radicles through all the Indo-European languages, and their perpetuation from the earliest ages through such complete changes of the superficial appearance of these languages, shows that there must be some stable adjustment of mind to organs in this family of nations.

A comparison

with other races shows that

it is

an extension and modification

of a less definite adjustment belonging to the original constitution of man.

58. Stem is that part of a noun to which the historical caseendings, or of a verb to which the personal endings and tense

Sometimes it is a root, but generally it is signs were affixed. formed from the root by one or more relational suffixes -^/man, think>stem mem, man; -y/sM, bear > stem su-nu, son; -\//wy*, stem
:

hifia

> Ivfian,

to

love, lufigende, lover.

For case-endings,

see

60.

II.

CLASSIFICATION.
Noun
(Adjective),

59.

The

parts of speech are the

Pronoun

(Article,

Numeral), Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, and

Interjection.

III.

NOUNS.
in

DECLENSIOX.
GO.

A
;

noun has
the rest

different

forms (cases) in different relations

the sentence.

The

variable final letters of a

noun are

its case-

endings
61.
(1.)

is its

theme.
relations of

The case-endings in Anglo-Saxon mark the Six cases nominative, genitive, dative,
:

accusative, vo-

cative, instrumeyital.
(2.)

Three

numbers:

singular (one object), lylural (more

than one), dual (two).

CASE -ENDINGS.
(3.)
:

35

62. In the

Three genders masculine, feminine, netiter. Parent Speech there is only one set of case-endings,
:

as follows

SiMGULAE.

Plural.
)

Dual.

Nominative....
Vocative
Accusative
Genitive

sas

\
(

(Stem))

am
as

ams
saxus

Nominative (no Nominative Independent. Objective (no Possessive or


sign). sign).
's,

Englibu Equivalent.

aus
Locative
i

of with
jective.

the oh-

svas
)

Dative
Ablative
Instrumental
(1)

ai

at

|'bhjams^
)

in with the obto or for with the fromobjective.of or out


jective.
Avith objective.
)

>
)

thjams
S

Instrumental

(2)

a bhi

\.\.i

byor withwitli
objective.

63. The endings are formed from the radicles (^ 56), and are plainly connected with pronouns and prepositions in Sanskrit and other languages. (a.) The nominative s is connected with the demonstrative and article
:

Sanskrit sa, sa, tat ; Greek 6, ), to ; Anglo-Saxon se, seo, p&t. only with masculine and feminine nouns, and is a quasi article, as

It is
if,

us^d

in

An-

(For glo-Saxon, se cyning (the king) were written cyning-se^ njnings. the use of the article to mark a subject, see Greek Grammars Crosby, ^ 487,
:

4; Hadley, ^ 535.)
(6.)
;

neuter

(tat) is early found.


;

etc.

The accusative 7n appears in the Sanskrit mdm, ma, me ama, this, a vivid conception of any suffering object is expressed by the same sound which is used for one's self as suffering object.
(c.)
se,

The

genitive s

is

connected with the demonstrative sa, Anglo-Saxon

The prepositions and marks personality like the s of the nominative. and adverbs of this radicle oftenest mean tcith, together: Sanskrit safia,
sam,
ge.
sa, etc.,

So the

genitive s

corresponding in use with Greek avv, Latin con, Anglo-Saxon marks a personal adjunct, then any adjunct. The

original
(d.)
that),

form was perhaps .yam, which shows in the plural. locative i appears as in in the pronoun (Sanskrit tasm-in, in and is connected with the preposition in; tiie plural svas is formed

The

on another pronoun
(e.)

Sanskrit sva, Latin se, Greek f self is connected with abhi, by, as appears from the pronoun, Sanskrit tu-hhjam, Latin ti-hi, to thee, and from the plural bhjams. (f.) The ablative t is connected with the demonstrative ta, the, and its
:

The

dative

ai

force in prepositions and adverbs

may

be seen in Sanskrit, Gothic, Anglo-

36
Saxon
ut, out

PHONETIC DECAY.
of; the Uinbrian tu, to, out of; Latin -tus {cwlilus, from Variations of the dental radicle are also found in Latin -de, undc,
;

heaven).

whence

indc, tlience

Greek

-6n', from, etc.

(g.) The instrumental tt is from the demonstrative radicle a, and bhi from the labial radicle: Sanskrit l)hi ; Greek -^i Anglo-Saxon bi, hy (^ 63, c).
;

(/j.)

The

plural sign

is s,

and

is to

be connected

in

sense with the prepo-

sam, together icith, mentioned in connection with the genitive. This is strengthened by insertion of the pronominal am in the genitive sdms, and The dual is a lengthening of the plural. the dative and ablative b/rjdms.
sition
(i.)

The

genitive singular and nominative plural are head-cases.

04.

Phonetic Decay.

Sounds whose meaning


:

is

not vividly

felt

come under
last

the influence of gravitation (^ 38)

they weaken, blend, and at

When tribes speaking different dialects mix, the cascslough away. cndings are half caught, and decay is quickened. By this process the LidoEuropean languages have been losing their inflections. As it goes on, diversity of declension arises,
(1.)
in

two causes of which may be mentioned

Different a consonant.
effect

own
of

Endings of the Stem. Some stems end in a vowel, others Under the operation of euphonic laws each stem has its on the endings. The Comparative Grammars discuss the effect
stems (Schleicher gives
fifteen sets

many

different

of paradigms).

In the

Teutonic languages the vowel stems have held the original case-endings most firmly, and are called strong the stems in n are called "weak other
; ;

consonant stems conform


(2.)

Gender.

they melt
ings. inine

away

40), or are irregular. (a.) Names applied io females use long vowels and liquids; the strong consonant endings, and attain vowel or liquid end(J^

Again, all words having such endings tend to assume the habits of femnames throughout, and become grammatically of the feminine gender.

The separation of neuter from masculine is not so thorough-going. special form is needed to distinguish inanimate things as acting, or as addressed hence the nominative and vocative are not distinguished from the
(5.)

No

take inanimate things in the lump; hence neuters tend to use no plural sign, or to use an ending like the feminine singular, as an abstract or collective form Latin Greek, Latin, -ci; Anglo-Saxon, -n, etc.
accusative.
:

We

neuters plural frequently become feminine singular in the Romance languages Greek neuters plural take a singular verb. The neuter is a masculine with the activity out; the Sanskrit grammarians call it kliva, eunuch.
;

(1) it represents a tendency to use different (c.) Gender has two aspects sounds for relations to males from those used for similar relations to females,
:

or to inanimate things

(2)

it

represents the tendency to couple together

words (nouns, adjectives, and pronouns) agreeing in their terminations. From the first point of view there can be but three genders many lansome have none. From the second point of view guages have but two
; ;

may be as many genders as there are sets of terminations some languages have none; some, e.g., the Congoes and Caffirs, have many. (</.) There was originally no sound as a sign of gender in the Indo-Eurothere
;

pean Parent Speech.

It is

denoted, however,

in

the earliest remains by long

DECLENSIONS. RULES FOR GENDER.


vowels, especially il,Jd'^i, for feminine nouns; by some neuters, and indirectly by other case-endings.
force,
-t in

37

the nominative for

It

has been a constant

and

in the

showing itself more and more through all the changes of the language, Anglo-Saxon affords a natural subdivision of the case-endinjis.

There are two classes of Declensions of Anglo-Saxon nouns: Strong: those which have sprung from vowel stems. Weak that which has sprung from stems in an. (2.) There are four declensions distinguished by the endings of the
Co.

(L)

Genitive Singular

38
6.

DECLENSION FIRST. A-STEMS.


Neuter
arc

names of

wife, child
:

diminutives
;

many

general names
;

and words made an object of thought p'lf, wife hearn, cild, child mwgden, maiden; ^r.Tj, grass; q/e<, fruit; corn, corn; ^oW, gold. 7. Epicene Nouns have one grammatical gender, but are used for both
sexes.

Such names of mammalia are masculine, except of a few


mus, mouse (feminine)
;
:

little

timid

large and fierce birds are masculine ; others feminine, especially singing birds nihtegale, nightingale ; large fishes are masculine, small feminine ; insects are feminine.

ones

G8.

Cases
alike.

alike.

(l.)

The nominative and vocative

are

al-

ways
(2.)

The nominative,
and

plurals,
{2>.)

(4).

{on).

The a or ena. The dative and instrumental plural end always in um The instramentals are etymologically datives, except -^, -^,

in the singular of all neuters genitive plural ends always in

accusative, and vocative are alike in all and sti'ong masculines.

DECLENSION
Stem
CO.
I,

I.

in a.

Genitive singular in es.

Here belong Masculines,


els,

monosyllables, derivatives
sty oc,

in

m,
I,

?^,

ters,
in

nd, r,p^ic'^Oy monosyllables, often with be- or


rd, d, d,
t,

h, ng,

e,

ere ;

Neu-

(/e-

prefixed, derivatives

n,

70.

r,2?ytcyo,
I.

d,

t,

h,

e,

incle.

Case-endings from stem a -{-relational

inative in

suffixes.

Nom-

Masculine.

Neuter.
scipa, ship.
scip.

Stem.

pulfa, icolf.
pulf,

Theme
Singular.

.
.

Nominative
Genitive

pulf,

loolf.

scip.

pulfes,
pulfe,

of a
to or

xcolf, icolfs.

scipes.
scipe.

Dative
Vocative

for a

icolf

Accusative .... pulf,


pulf,
.

a
0,
bj/

wolf.
toolf.

scip.
scip.
"

Plural.
Genitive

Instrumental.

pulf^,

or with a wolf.

scipe.

Nominative
Dative Accusative
Vocative

pulfds,
pulfc?,

loolves.

scipw.

oficolves.

scipa.

pulft, to or
.
. .

for wolves.

scip^^m. scipt^
sci^u.

pulfas,
pulf(?5,

zuolves.

Instrumental.

pulf;,

0, wolves. by or loitJi, icolves.

scipwm.

COMPARATIVE ETYMOLOGY.
Sanskrit.
(J

39
Old Saxon.

Greek.
iTTTTO,

Latin.

Gothic.

Old Norse.
ulfa,

a9va,

equo,
horse,

vulfa,

wulfa,
wolf.

SiNGCLAR.

\ho}'se.

horse.

wolf.

wolf.

Nominative.,
Genitive

a^va-s
a9va-sja
dijva-j-a

Vn-To-f
(tTTTro-to
)

equu-s
^

vulf-s

wulf
(

ulf-r
)

..TTTrov

^1"'

^"^^"^
vulfa

wulba-s

1 wulbe-s
wulba, e

"^^"^ f
ulfi

Dative
Accusative...

(Vtti^

equo

Vocative Instrumental

a9va-m a9va
a9va.

'iinro-v
'iTrire

equu-m
eque
{Ablat.)

vulf vulf
{Dative.)

wulf
(^Xomin.)
-svulbu

ulf
(Nomin.')
(^Dative.)

Plural.

'nrTru-tpi.

Nominative..
Genitive
Dative...

a9va-sas

(tttto-i

equ
(

(e-i-s),

vulfo-s
,
"^'ulf'-'

\vulb6-s, u-s

ulfa-r

equu-m

a9va-n-ara
a9ve-bhja3
a9va-n(s)

'Itttj-wv

j (.equo-rum

\_

"wulbo, a

ulfa

i^

(ulfu-m

(Locat.)
'iniro-vQ

equi-s

vulfa-m
vulfa-ns

-wulbo-n, u-n

Accusative...

equos

wulf6-s, a-s

ulfa

The Old High German has loulf, wulfcs, iculfa, wulf,tviilfu ; ividfd,wulfo, wulfwn, wulfd. The Old Friesic has fisk,fisk-is {-es),Jis/c-a (-?', -e),
Jisk; fisk-ar {-a), fiska, fisk-um {-on, -em),jisk-ar {-a). For Parent speech, add the endings in ^ 62 to the stem.
VI. Changes in Endings, ^^ 38, G4. (a.) The stem-vowel -a in Gothic and Antrlo-Saxon does not blend with the terminations as in Latin and Greek, O but drops. This declension is thus become analogous to the Latin and Greek consonant declension (Third) compare the singular genitive and plural
;

nominative, and see iroiinv, homcn, 95, a, and proper names, ^ lOl, h. For original forms, see ^ 62. {b.) Case-endings. Genitive -as'^-es, Nominative -s is weathered, ^^ 62, 64. Singular.

Dative -aj>-a>-e, precession, 1^ 38 sometimes -e> Accusative -flm> ^ 62, 64. Instrumental dceg, day. -a^e, 18, or a-hhi^ Lithuanic, Slavonic -a-mi'^ 0. H. G. -11, Goth, e S. -e, ^ 62, 63, 251, IL, b. (in hvc, sve,l>e, hvadre, etc.)> A. Plural. Nominative a-s{a)s^ -as has farther precession to -a5> -es> -s
precession, ^ 38.

ham, home

A. -Saxon and English. Genitive -(5)am(5)> -a, ^ 64. Dative as in .bhja(m)sy -rajas'^ -mus'^ -mr\> -m; bJi^m nasalizing the labial
in late

Lith. and S\diW.-mus,-mu; -am> -w??z, labial assimilation,^ 35, 2, a; precession to -on, -en is found. Accusative -ans'^ -as, compensation, ^ 37. has best preserved the original case-endings, and has (c.) This declension transmitted to English the possessive and plural signs.

from masculines in this declension in having no proper Their plural ending is -a in Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, and in O. H. Ger. and O. Nor. Gothic -u in O. Sax.,0. Fries., and A. -Sax. sometimes found in A. -Sax. (North.) -0 is com(a.) The earlier -a is mon sometimes the -u drops, precession, 38 fidcra (w), wings brimo (),
72.

Neuters

differ

plural sign, ^ 64.

waters

gebcdu, gcbcd, prayers.

For

-ra, -ru, in

wgra, eggs, see

82.

40
73.
2.

STRONG NOUNS.DECLENSION

I.

STRONG NOUNS.DECLENSION
3. Shifting.
4.

Long monosyllables. Stem .... j'orda, n.


word.
.
.

U-umlant.

5.

Gemination.

daga, m. fata, n
day.
diri

hiida, n.
slope.

terra,

m. spella,
spel

n.

vat.

tower.
tor

speech.

Theme

Singular.

pord
.

fwt fxt
fxtes

/did

N.,A.,<!^V. pord

da-g

hlid
hlides
hlide

tor

spel
spelles
spelle
spclle

Gen Dat
Inst

pordcs

dwges
da'ge

torres
torre torre

Plural.

porde porde

fxle
fivte

dwge
dagks

hlide

N.,A.,6fV. pord

fatn
fatk

hleoda
hleodk

(-1-)

tor7-As

Gen
D.

spel

porddi.

dagk

{-i-)
(-i-)

torrk
torrmxi

spellk

Inst...

pordum

dagum

fatnm

hleodam

spellum

7. G.

Stem
-ga.

in
8.

Syncope.

Stem

in -ha.

Stem.

tungola, m.
star.

tungola,
star

n.

bedga, m. mearha, m.
ring.

hoJia,

m.

horse.

Theme.

Singular.

tungol

tungol

beag
he dig), h

mearh

hough. Iwh

N.,A.,dfV. tung-ol,-ul,-el,-l

Gen Dat
Inst

tung-oles, -ules, -eles, -les

hedges

mear{h),g,- hoh, ho meares hos

tung-ole, -ule, -ele, -le

hedge

Plural.
^

tung-ole, -ule, -ele, -le

hedge
bcdgks

meare meare
mearas

ho
ho
hos

*'

'

d-V i^' ^

^""5'"^^^^' -w^as, -elks, -Iks

'\n.tung-ol\i,-ol, -ul,-el,-l

Gen
D.
<5j-

tung-olk, -ulk, -elk, -Ik


1.

hedgk tung-olam, -ulam, -clum, -lum hedgum

meark
mearxim

hok

hoam

i).

Stem

in

-pa.
cneopa, n.,knee.

10.

Stem+er.

Stem .... hearpa, Theme. hearu

m., grove.

<Tga, egg.

Singular.

cneop
cneop, cneo cneo-pes, -s

mg,

plur. seger

N.,A.,

df-

V. hear-u, -o

Gen Dat
Inst

bear-pes,-upes,-opes,-epes
hear-pe, -upe, -ope, -epe

Plural.
N.,A.,
<Sf

hear-pe, -upe, -ope, -epe

cneo-pe,
cneo-pe,

wge
leg-er-u, -ru

V. bear-pks,-upks,-opks,-epks
bear-pk, -upk, -opk, -epk

Gen
D.
<5f

cneo-pu, -p, cneo-pk, cned

xg-er-k, -rk

I. ....

bear-pnm, -vpnm, -op\im,


-ep\xm.

cneo-pwm, -um, -m seg-ex-Mia, -rum

STRONG NOUNS.DECLENSION
V4.
(1.

I.

41

Common
;

forms.)
:

Like />M//decline strong masculines not here;

after otherwise described


recels, frankincense

dd, oath
;

d&l, part

stdn, stone

cyning, king

Like scip decline S7idp, snow, etc. hldford, lord strong neuters not hereafter otherwise described col, coal dor, door gcat, gate gebod, bebod, bidding gebed, prayer gebrec, crash ; gemet, measure
:

gefeoht,

fight, etc.

(a.) Derivatives in -ad, -ed, -els sometimes drop plural -as: monad, months; hxled, heroes fxtels, bags so those in -r and -nd, 87, 100.
; ;

(6.)
(c.)

For datives in -d, genitives in ^ena, see 5 93, 94, 83, c. Stem -e- is sometimes inserted conforming with stems in -ia:

fisceas<ifiscds,

fishes,
(rf.)

85.

Themes
;

in -sc

may

suffer metathesis, especially in the plural

Jisc,

fiscds^fixds,

fishes

tmc,

tvuxds, tusks, 51.

75.

ter monosyllables long


fire;

neuter, 37, 3.) Like pord decline neuby nature or position ban, bone beam, infant fyr, leaf, leaf; lead, song; speord, sword; pif, god, good; ^or5, horse
(2.

Long monosyllables,
;

wife, etc.

V6. (3. Shifting, Like d.rg or fxt decline monosyllables 23, 41.) with root x<^a: masculine crxft, craft; gxst, guest; hpxl, whale; mxg, son neuter bxc, back bxd, bath fvzd, path fxc, space stxf, staff;
; ;

crxt, cart. frxd, fringe (.) The shifting of fi to is stopped in a or M of the ending, 35, 1.
; ;

blxd, blade

the plural by the assimilating force of the

77.

(4.
;

U-umlaut,

inclosure

Like hint decline brim, water; ^ 32, 3). This umlaut is only occasional. /i'm,limb, etc.
^ 27, 5.)
;

gehlid,

78. (5.

Gemination,

Stems having gemination


ax, etc.

simplify

it

according to Rule 13, 20

bil, billes,

79. (6. Syncope, ^ 46, 37.) Syncopated may be words ending in an unaccented short vowel before a single consonant masculine ensel, anfrel
:

caldor, elder; dryhten, lord;


setel,

monad, month; heorot,


;

stag, etc.;

neuter
pundor,

throne
etc.

wonder,
118.

yfel, sign masc. and neut. heafod,, head


;

evil

beacen,

tdcen, token
;

leder, leather

segen, sign, etc.

80. (7-8.

Stems

in -ga

and

-ha.)

For ecthlipsis of h, see Like mearh decline feorh, plur.


fcoh,
n. fee, pi. n.

47.

For g'^h and h'^g, see ^^ \\,Z,b, For contraction hods^hos, see 52.
;

neut. /eo?-A, beings, etc.

fco
in

hreuh, pleoh, etc.


:

Like hoh decline and with a similar contraction,


sxs, sea, etc.
n., ale
;

stems in a long vowel


81. (9.
etc.

ed, eds, river

5;',

Stems

Like bearu decline ealu, -pa.)


;

See 100. mealu, n., meal

Like cneop decline treop, n., tree peop, m., servant, etc. (a). After a consonant p final shifts to m>o,- and before a vowel may have quasigemination in vp; this m may then have precession to o>c. Similar are Sanskrit
;

imave8<jsunu, son

O.

II.

Ger. palawe8<^palu, bale. -er, ^ 228.)

82. (10.)

Stems strengthened by
;

Like
in O.

xg

decline cealf,
-ira, kelb, kclb-

calf; ctld, child


{a.)

lamb, lamb.
is

similar interchange of stem -a with -era


:

found

H. Ger.

ir, calf,

O. Fris. kind-er-a, children, horn-ar, horns.

The

-cr

sometimes comes into the

singular

lamher, a lamb.

42
83.

STRONG NOUNS.DECLENSION

I.

II.

Case -endings from

stem

-ia-}-i'clatioual suffixes.
.

III. Case -endings from 84. stem -1+ relational suffixes.

Stem

hirdia, ni.,

ricia, u.,

shepherd.

realm.
ric.

Theme

bird.

Singular. JVbm. Lirde


Gen.
.

byri, m., foti, m., son. foot. fot byr

mani, m,,

man.

man
man
mannes

rice rices
rice rice

byre
byres

fut
fotes
fet, fote

hirdes

Dat..

hirde

Ace
Voc.
Inst.
.

byre

hirde
liirde

byre byre

f6t
fot
fet, fot^

rice
rice

men man man


men.

hirde

byre
byre, -ds byre*

Plueal
JVom.
Gen.
.

hirdas
hirc^c^

YXCIO
ricc^

fot,

futas

men
manned
vaa.nm(7n

f6t(<l

Bat.
Voc.
Inst.

hirdtwi

Yicum
xicu
Yicicm

hyrum
byre, -ds byre, -ds

f6tic7n
fet, fotas fet, fotas

Ace.
. .

hirdas
hirdas

hirdtwn

hynwi
Gothic.

fotum
O. Sax.

men men mannum


O. Norse.
herja, m.,

83, a. Latin,

O. Lat.

Gothic.

Gothic.

Stem
Sing.

filio,

m.,

harja, ni., hairdja, m., kunja, n., hirdja, m.,

son.

army.

shepherd.

land.

shepJierd.
t

army.
her-r
her-s
her-i

A'bm....filiu-s, fili(s)

harji-s harji-s

hairdei-s hairdei-s

kuni
kunji-s

hirdi
hird-je-s, -eas

Gen.

... filii, fili

Dat Ace
Voc
Inst.....

filio

harja
hari hari

hairdja
hairdi

fili-um, f ili-m
fili

kunja kuni

hird-je, -ea

hirdi hirdi

her

hairdi

kuni

Plural.
iV.

harj6-s
hairjo-s

hirdju

^-F.

filii

kunja
kunjc

hird-j6-s(neut.-i)herja-r
hird-j6, -eo

Gen
D.

filiorum, filium harje

hairdje

herja

d; I., filiis

harja-ni

hairdja-m
hairdja-ns

kunja-m
kunja

hird-ju-n

herju-m

Ace

filios

harja-ns

hird-jo-s(neut.-i) herja

When a single short syllable precedes the stem -ja, Gothic masculines The O. H. German has hirti, hirtes, hirta, follow harja, otherwise hairdja.
hirti, hirtu
;

hirta, hirto, hirtum, hirta;

neuter kunni, kunnies (kunnes),

kunnje {kunne), kunni, kunnju {kunnu) ; kunni, kunnjo {kunneo, kunno). kunnjum (kunnum), kunni. The O. Friesic retains of this declension only
a nominative e<CjaFor changes in endings, see ^^ 71, 72, 85. 8 1, a. The comparative grammar of the i-stems is reserved for the feminine forms, ^ 88, 89.

The

plural -as conforms with the a-stems.

STEMS IN
85.

lA, R,

ND.
-e

43
and
;

{Stem in ia.)

Like hirde decline masculines in


;

-ere:

spenge, bere, barley ; fiscere^ fisher ; huntere., hunter. ; freond-scipe^ friendship sponge Like rice decline strong neuters in -e and diminutives in -incle :
ege,
;
;
;

ele, oil

awe

ende, end

mece, sword

pite,

punishment

yrfe, heritage

little

rope, etc.

Most neuters
masculine.

lid incle, a little joint ; rdpincle, originally in ia conform with

pord, or are

now

(a.) The -e of the singular nominative, accusative, and vocative is by In the earlier forms a stem -e<C-i is occasionally precession from -id.

found elsewhere

ced'^mecd,

etc.

The

hirdeds'^hirdas, hirdea^hirdd, hirdeum^hirdum ; mei has sometimes a quasi - gemination to ig, ige, the
f-position (^ 28, 2
;

or

ge representing an opening of the organs from the


:

27, 5)
{b.)

here (Gothic harjis), herigds, herigeds, hergds, etc., hosts. Many words originally in -ia, which have dropped the nominative

-e,

and

a:re

when

declined like pulf, are seen to have i-umlaut or other assimilation compared with other languages rec<Crece (Old H. German rouch),
:

smoke; so some i-stems

gxst, gest, gyst, gist

^ilur.

gystds, giestds, etc.

gastd, etc., guest (Gothic gasts; plur. gastcis, ^ 89).

86.

{Stem in
-i.

i.

89-91.)
bite,

Few remains are found of mascudryre,


;

lines in

Byre ;

bite

fall

hete,

hate

sele, hall, oc:

cur

cyme, coming, has a plural


;

some t-stems conform


mere, sea.

pine,

friend

Like byre decline and compounds of -pare (called by Grein fern. plur. leode, men, of leod, people, pan<, state, but which seem quasi-adjectives like Latin liomani) burhpare, citizens Cant-pare, Kentish folks
hsele,
;

man

hyge,

mind

names of peoples Dene, Danes Momdne, Romans. Umlaut. IjWQfot decline tod, tooth; and see 91.

87.

{Stems in -r and -nd.)

SixGULAR,

r-stem.

nd-stem.
feond.
feondes.

J\^07n.,A.,&V. hvodoY. brodor. Gen

Dat.

<& Inst.

Plural.

breder.

feonde.

]Srom.,A.,<&iV. brodru, brodor. brodra. Gen

fj-nd, feond, -as.

feonda.

Dat.

& Inst...
to

brodrum.
to e,

feondum.
^ 32, 2.

The changes 6
These

^,a

and eo to p, are i-umlaut concealed.


^ 91, 4, 5.

irregulars conform to the f-stems.

For

others, see 100.

The Gothic

has hropar,brupr-s,hropr,brd])ar

ju-s, bropr-Ci brdj/r-u-m, bropr-ii-ns.

The

; plur. (like w-stems) bropother Teutonic tongues show pe-

culiar forms (often undeclined) in their r-

and

?j</-stems.

See ^ 100, f.

44
Stem
88.
-

DECLENSION
in

II.

(FEMININES).
sincrulai" i"

or

i.

Genitive

I. Case II. endings iVoni stem a+relational suftixes. i-f relational

Case-endings
suffixes.
dffidi,

from stem

Stem .... Theme.. SiXGULAK.

Sifa,gift.
gif.

deed.

dffid.

JVoTiiinative

gift.

dffid.

Genitive ....

gife. gife.

dffide. dffide.
dffid, dffide.
dffid.

Dative
Accusative
.
.

gUu,
hi. gif

gife.

Vocative Instrumental.

Plural. Kominative
Genitive
.

aifc.

d&de.
dtede, dffid^,

gif(?, gif,2.

gifa, giiend.

djedfl

Dative.

gifum.
.
.
.

djedwm.
dffide,

Accusative
Vocative

gif(?, gife.

ddd.

S^^^i 8^^^'

da;de, dffid<^.
dsedi^w?.
Latin.

Instrimiental.

gi^wn.
G reck.
Xwpa.
room.
a^va,

88. 1(a).
Stem.

Sniifknt.

Gothic.

Old Saxon,
geba,

01(1 Norse.

1 Singular.

mare.

equa, mare.

giba,
sift-

giafa,

a9va,

wft.

Nominative..
Genitive

Xojpa
-

equa
equa-es
~i

giba

geba
gebo
>

giof

a9va-j-as

\ojpa-Q

equa-i

,-

gibo-s

giafa-r
)

equae

)
)

geba
gibai

Dative

a9vai
.

"^

equal

gebo

gi6f(u)
)

a9va-j-ai

Accusative...

a9va-ra

X^Jpa-v
Xiopa
{Dat.)

equ equa-m
equa
{Ahlat.)

gebu
giba giba
{Dat.)

geba
(Nomin.')
(Dative.')

giof
(Nomin.')
(Dative.)

Vocative
Instrumental

a9ve
a9va-j-a

Pldkal.

. .

Nominative
Genitive

a9va-sas acva-s

X^pai

equas
gibci-s

geba
gcbo-n-o
( (

giafa-r

equa-s

I
(

XojpoJv
/ r
.

equa-rum
( (

gibo
")

giafa
(

a9va-n-am
a9va-blijas

Dative
Accusative...

(Local.) <
X''^P"'C

equa-bus ^
equis

.,

>
)

gibo-m
gibo-s
(u),

gebu-n
gebo-n

gicifu-m
giiifo-ni

a9va-s

equa-s

geba
;

giafa-r

The Old High German


gebono, g'cbom, gcbo
(a).

hd.s

The 0.

geba, geba g'ebo (a), geba, g'ebd {a),geb6 Friesic has siug.jeve; T^\nT.jeva,jevend

{jevd),jevum {on),jcva.

STRONG FEMININES.
(b.)

45
:

To the 1st class belong all femiuiues in v. They are few ^onvney ; l>.ffu,\ove; sceamu, shame ; scohc, school pracii, revenge compounds in -paru {burh-paric, state, etc.). Grav(c.) For the Parent Speech, add the endings in 62 to the stem.
fa7'ii,
] j

itation

has carried away

all

the consonants from the


plural,

ings except the


;

a nasalizing of the original bh 71 in (^ 71, b) gifend is euphonic epenthesis (^ 50), as in Sanskrit, a conformation with the weak form in an ; in gifum (gifdm) assimilates the a
is

m of the dative

Anglo-Saxon case-end-

which

(^ 35, 2, a).

The
in

plural -d suffered precession in late

Anglo-Saxon

to -a,

then to

-e,

which

English drops.

The

original -d is retained in the para-

digms as the classic sound.


(</.)

Plural -e

by the Latin.
(e.)

Root a

is a conformation with the ^-stems, influenced also perhaps In the sixth century, Latin se^=e ; -m, -s were silent. sometimes suffers shifting to a?, or even i-umlaut to e, before
;

-e

5acu, strife, genitive ssece

pracu,TeYenge,ddiii\eprace,prxce,prece,
in -0<i-ti undeclinable in the singular,

etc.

^^41,32. (/.) Here also are placed nouns


:
:

from adjectives yld-u, -o, nom. and ace. in a is found


ity
;

-e (eld, age), plur. yldu, -o, -e, yldd,

yldd (Grein),yrwirfff, miseries.


plural is rare.

yldum ; plural So arfe/o, nobil-

brmdo, breadth, etc.


:

The

Similar words in Gothic are

weak
-eins.

manag-eins (multitude), -ein, -ein, -ei, plur. manag-cins, -eino, -eim, O. H. German has -in for -ein; O. Saxon has strong forms. The
^ 40,
1.
;
;

A. -Saxon words conform with the a-stems.


{g.)

For duru, door

^e,
;

j'a-stems, etc., see ^

100

law leo, bee ea, river sx, sea for Northumbrian forms, see page 49.
;

forms from

89. (88,

II.)
(

Stem

in i.
Latin.

Sanskrit.

Greek.
ofi,
sheep.

Gothic.

Old Saxon.
ansti,
love.

Old Norae.
asti, love.

^vi,
slieep.

ovi,

anstai,
love.

Singular.

sheep.

Xom
Gen
Dat Ace Yoc
Inst
Pliirai..

rtvi-3

oft-c

ovi-s

anst-s
anstai-s

anst
ansti, ensti
ansti, ensti

ast
ast-ar

avj-as
tivj-ai

opt-oc

ovi-s

Loco^-i
i)\i-v

Loc. oy\

anstai

ast-u
ast

avi-m

ove-m
(Norn)

anst
anst

anst
(Nam.')
(Dative.)

ave

oRi

(Nom.)
(Dative.)

avj-a

(Dative.) Ahl. oyiid) (Dative.)

Nom. & Yoc. Gen


Dat Ace

dvaj-as

("fi-fc

ovu-s

anstci-s

ansti, ensti

asti-r

avi-n-am

opt'-wi'
("fi-fft

ovi-um
ovi-lms
ovc-s

anste

anstjo, enste-6

ust-a

avi-bhjas Zoc.
avi-s

ansti-m
ansti-ns

anstju-n, enstjn-n
ansti, ensti

ast-um
asti

opi-ac

The

O.

cnsteo, ensti-m, ensti.

High German has anst, ensti anst, ensti anst, anst ; ensti, enstj-o The Old Friesic has ned, nede, nede, nede ; neda,

Masc. and neut. /-stems were ncda, ncd-d, ncdi-m<.ncdem, -urn, -on, ncda. common in the older tongues but few masc. survive in A. -Sax. ^^ 64, d ; 86.
;

46

DECLENSION

II. I-STEMS.

9011. C ase-endings < stem


Stem
.

+ rel.

suffixes.

Nomiuative
3.

in

1. dc-edi,

deed.

2.

pynni,/*?j.

beadpi,

battle.

Theme
Singular
I^om. Gen. Dot.
Ace.
Vbc.
Inst.
.

d<ed.

pynn.

beadp
beadu
(o).

(u, o),

beadup.

djed.
diwde.

pynne.
pynnc.
j
(

beadpe, beadupe. beadpe, beadupe.


j
(

d&dc.
j
dffid,

pyn.
pynne.

beadu
beadu

(o),

d^de.
died,

beadpe, beadupe.
(o).

pynpynne.

d^de.

beadpe, beadupe.

Plural.
JVbm.
Gen.
.
.

dffide {a).

pynne

(a),

dffidfl

pynna.
\yyi\num.

beadpe (a), beadupe beadpd, beadupa.

(a).

Dot, Ace.
Vbc.
Inst.

d^di?2.

d&de d&de

((?).

().

pynne pyune

beadpt<m, beadupto?z. beadpe (a), beadupe (d). beadpe (a), beadupe (a). (d). headpum, beadup^^m. 'pymnan.
().

Stem,

4. boci,

Joo/w

5. mftsi,

mouse.

6. ceasteri, city.

Theme
Singular
]Vb?n.
.

boo.

mfts.

ceaster, ceastr.

b6c.
boce.
bee.

mils,

ceaster.
ceastre.
ceastre.
j
{

Gen.
Bat. Ace.
Vbc.
list.

muse,

mys.
mils. m<is.

ceaster.
ceastve.

boc
boc.
bee.

ceaster.
ceastre.

rays.

Plural.
bee.

Gen. Dat. Ace.


Vbc.
Inst.

hoed.

mys. mA^d.
ratiswm.

ceastre {d). ceastrtl


ceastrt^m.

hocum.
bee.
bee.

m^s. mys.
ixiAmmi.

ceastre {d). ceastre (d).


ceastrt^?^.

hocum.

91. To the 2d class belong all ferainines ending in a consonant: they arc simple monosyllables; derivatives in -e?, -e?i, -er ; -ung ;

STRONG NOUNS (FEMININES).


->ils,

47
strong feminines
a-stems and

-nes;

-es

; -oc ; -od, -ud^

d;

p-; nearly

all

conform.
(a.)

The

feminines of the

first

Sanskrit declension

are

2-stems.

of stem i in the singular nominative, accusative, and the effect of gravitation (^ 38). That short roots retain the stem vowel {gifu, etc.). while long roots drop it {daid, etc.), shows compensation
{b.)

The apocope
is

vocative,

(^ 37).
(c.)

Compare

the feminine of the strong adjectives.

singular accusative -e, the plural nominative, accusative, and vocative -c?, and dative -nin<^-im., are conformations with the 1st class.
SS

The

40,

1.

A.

(1.

Common Form.) Like

dsbd decline words of this de:

clension ending in a syllable long by nature or position dr, honor ; Mn^ prayer ; Mr, lore ; rod, cross ; pund, wound ; pyrd, fate ; ge-

sammmg,
(a.)

assembly

so also ides,

woman, and some other words

in a short syllable.
like hoc and mils (4, 5), and like da, cleo (^ 100). have sometimes -d in the dative some originally -u stems (b.) Many words in -ung oftenest. 93, i. taining it, others conforming

Except words

re-

Geinination) Like pyn decline words of this declension ending short in a consonant ben, wound ; hlis, bliss ; hen,
B.
(2.
:

lien

hyrgen, sepulcher
( 30)

gpnen, care
;

(3.

Semivowel Gemination.)
:

prtnis, Like headu decline


;

trinity, etc.

feminines in

p>t
(a.)
{b.)
(c.)

gearu, gear

sccadu, shadow, but sceade, sceadd are

found;

rsesu,

providence; seonu, sinew.


13.

Except syncopated forms like ceaster, and a few like d&d. For the simplification of gemination pynny-pyn, see 20, Rule

suffer

vp is made in precession to o>e (^ 38).


The
II

of

closing the organs

to^

(^ 27, 5).

It

may

Final ^>i<

is shifting (

30

41, 2).

Umlaut.) Like boc decline broc, breeches ; gds, goose. Like mils decline Ms, louse ; for cit, cow ; burh, borough ; tur/, Note also dohtor, speoster, moder. turf, see 100.
C.
(4, 5.
(a.) The changes in the roots of bec<bdci (Old Saxon boci), ^ 32, 2.

boc,

mus,

etc.,

are i-umlaut concealed;

Syncope.) Like ceaster decline syncopated words of this declension they end in an unaccented vowel before I, n, r, or sometimes other single consonants ( 40) sapel, soul ; stefen,

D.

(6.

voice

E.
whit,

Unsyncopated forms occur. For forms from ?a-stems hand, hand niht, night piht, For Northumbrian forms, see page 49. see 100.
lifer, liver
;

meoluc, milk.

48
92.
I.

DECLEIS'SIUN

III.

(U-STEMS).

STRONG NOUNS (MASCULINES).


a
Voiccl.
ii

Jlcacl-cases in

Genitive

iu a.

(Declension
Xominative

III.)

Case-endings < stem

+
1.

relational suffixes.
is

in

u.

Feminine hand (hand)

added.

Stem

sunu, son.
sun.

2.

Theme
No'minative.
Genitive
.

handu, hand. hand.


hand.

sun?/.

sund
. . .

hand^.
liandt:?,

Dative
Accusative
Vocative
Instrumental.

sunc2, sunz^ sunz^

hand.

hand. hand.

sun?^
suna.

Plukal. nominative.
Genitive

handa, hand.
handa.
[

&\xmi (o), sunc^.


'

\
(

Bunewa.
&\\\nan.

handd.
handtwr.

Dative
Accusative...
Vocative

suni< (o), suna. sun?< (o), sun<?.

handa.
liandd.

Instrumental.
93.

^mnim.

handwm.

the third declension belong suniij pudu^vioo^', magu, servant and bregu, prince ; headu-, fight ; heoru, sword lagxi^ lake; meodu, mead; salu, hall; sidu, custom, and a few others,
:

To

found mostly in the singular nominative and accusative, and

in

composition. (a.) This declension corresponds to the Latin second in so far as it contains those masculine nouns which have their head-cases in a vowel, and so
is

a complement of declension second.


^ 101, b.
Sanskrit.

In

its

original

stem

it

corresponds to
Old Noree.
sonu,
son.

the Latin fourth.

Greek.

Latin.

Gotliic.

Old Saxon.
sunu,
son,

btcm
Singular.

f
)

sunu,
son,

vtKv,
corpse.

fructu,
/>

siuiu,

-^

ji-uit.

son.

Nominative..
Genitive

sunii-s

vtKv-g
.

fructu-s
,.

sxmu-s

sunu, -o
S

on-r
,-

sunv-as from
(

viKv-oc
,

fructu-s
(fructu-i) > ^
(

sunau-s

fsun(u)-o)
.

sona-r

sunje-s
.

Dative

sunau
.
,
.

<
(.

Locative...

sunav-i)

v(Kv-i
v'tKV-v

smiau

-<

(sunu, -o,) >

fructu)

sjtii

(,

Accusative.

sunii-m
sA'no
sunii-n-a

fructu-m
(Nomin,)
{Ablat,')

sunu
sunau, -u
(^Dative.}

sunje sunu, -o

son

Vocative
Instrumental.

vtKV
(Dat.)

(^Nomin.)

(Nomin.)
{Dative.)

sunju

STRONG NOUNS (MASCULINES).


Sanskrit.

49
Old Norse.

Greek.

Latin.

Gothic.

Old Saxon.

Stem
Plural.
-.-^
.

sunu, '
son.

vtKv,
corpse.
,

fructu,
.
.

sunu,
son.

'

sunu, '
son.

sonu.
son.

i
<-

Jruit.
c

Nominative,
Genitive

-j

fsunav-as) . , ( sunv-as )
^

viKv-ic,

iructu-s

.'

suniu-s
.,

sum
sunj-o, -eo

syni-r
.1

sunii'-n-am vncv-uv fructu-um

suniv-e

son-a

Dative
. .

sunu-bhjas ( sunu'-n )
^,
(.

(^Locat.')
,

fructi-bus

sunu-m
sunu-ns
^

sunu-n

sonu-m
sonu

Accusative..

sunv-as

r
)

viKv-ag

Iructu-s

sum

The Old High German has sunu


(sunu)
;

(0),

suncs, sunju (sunu), sunu (0), sunju

The li-declension is nearsuni, sunjo, siinim (sunum), sunt (u). O. Fries, sun-u (0), -a -a, -u ; -ar (-a), -a, -um, -ar (-a). ly extinct.
(b.)

Gravitation has carried

away

all

the consonants from the


is

Anglo-Saxon

case-endings, except the -in of the dative plural, which


original bh.
(c.)

a nasalizing of the
is

^ 38.

The Gothic du

of the genitive and dative singular

a'

progression

from u (sunu-as'^sundu-as^sundus),^ 38, 1. The Anglo-Saxon a nearly resembles it, and is retained in the paradigms as the classic sound, though it
suffered precession in later times.
(d.)
(e.)

The The
The

instrumental sund,
plural

handd are dative forms.


:

-u^-0

is

precession

it

is

found also in the singular.

38,

1.

(/.) (g.)
(h.)

plural -d and -end conform to the second declension. Note the umlaut and shifting in the Old Norse 5>r, v^O, U^i/.
:

conforms almost wholly to the first declension. (i.) Some words originally w-stems retain the forms of this declension in single cases, especially in the singular dative -a, and plural nominative, accusative, and vocative -u: feldd, field fordd, ford sumord, summer; pinSome words of other stems conform in the dura, door. trd, pintru, winter
; ;

Hand

same cases

dru, mothers

gehrodru, brothers dohlru, daughters gespeostru, sisters feminines in -ung. (k.) For irregular forms o?pudu, magu, hand, etc., see 100.
:

peoruldd, world

mo-

94.

NoRTUUMBPvIAX.

Feminines, Declension II. In words of the First Class -a is found for Common Anglo-Saxon -u or -e. Feminines sometimes have -es in the genitive singular

and -as

in the plural,
geffl.

and then

may

pass for masculines.

Singular. Norn,

Plural.

Nom.
found
:

ge^ds.

Gen.. geks(aes). Dat.. gefa.

Gen., gefena. Dat.. gefwm.


for

Masculines, Declen.

I.

and

III.

Here a
o(H:

is

suria for
1

sunu
1.

also the complete descending series

sicno, sune, sun, sun.

38,

strong and

Nouns strong in Common Anglo-Saxon often have weak forms or mixed weak forms in Northumbrian. The genitive -end abounds.

50

DECLENSION IV .AN-STEMS.
05.

WEAK

NOUNS.
suffixes.

Case-endings

< stem an + relational


Masculines.
2.

Genitive in an
Contracts.
taan,
toe. ta.

(Declension IV.)
1.

Feminines.

3.

Neuters.

Stem

hanan,
.

tungan,
tongue.

eagan,
eye.

code.

Theme
SlJJGULAK.-

ban.

tung.

eag.

Noin.
Gen. Bat. Ace.
Voc.
Inst.
.

bana.
banavi. hana>i.

tunge.

cage.
e^i^an.

tae, ta.

tungan. tungaw.
tunga?^.

eagan.
eage.
eage.

taan, tan. taan, tan.


taan, tan.
tae, ta.

banaw.
bana.
bana;?.

tunge.

Plural.

tungaw.

eagan.
eagan.
eagend.
eag?(!/n.

taan, tan. taan, tan.


iaend, tana.

Nom.
Gen. Dat.
Ace.
Voc.
Inst.
. .

bana/i.

tungan.
tungewd.
Iwn^uni.

banewa.

taum.
taan, tan.

banaw.
bana?*.

tungan.

eagan.
eaccan.

tungan.

taan, tan.
imcni.

ban?<m.

tungwm.

eag?n.

To
-e

and derivative themes

declension belong certain monosyllable themes in -ig, -I, -m, -n, -r, -s, -p, all adding -a or in the nominative.

the

weak

(a.)

Stems

in

-an

are of the third declension in Latin and Greek.

WEAK
(b.)

NOUNS.

51

The

of the stem.

in the nominative, singular case-endings are sloughed off; and, In the genitive plural, d has held its ground, and gravitation
:

has modified the stem


ecthlipsis of
(c.)

a>e>

arena, drnd, honor.

The

dative has

of to icm (^ 35, 2, a). (^ 47), and assimilative precession Feminines in Gothic strengthen to o the a of the stem -an through-

am

out,
all

and the

genders agree

In Anglo-Saxon of the case-ending of the genitive plural. but feminines in the nominative, and neuters in the nom;

inative, accusative,

and vocative,

for final

(d.)

The stem

in a)l

was mostly masculine,

take e (Precession, ^ .38). but has been going over to

the feminines in the Teutonic tongues (^ 67, 2).


(e.) to the

The same

form of consonant stems

peculiar gravitation which has brought the short fl-stems in declension first, has here produced a new

This new declension declension by sloughing away the endings and stem. has been adopted by the Teutonic nations as their favorite for secondary
formations having the force of an adjective used as a noun, and for definite in the Teutonic tongues a historical and logical imadjectives ; and it has In English the Norman -s joinportance coordinate with the strong forms. ed with -5 of the Anglo-Saxon first to kill it, and oxen, with the irregular
children, brethren, is almost
its

only memorial in current speech.


all
;

96.

Like hana
soldier
;

decline

cempa,

c^rcyx^,
;

drop

weak nouns in -a : bana, deatli ffiana, man; himta, huntei'; mona,


;

moon
Some
Idbcea^

oxa, ox

prcccca, exile

nafela, navel

hodnia^ covering

geongra, disciple; monster,

egesa^ awe; rwspa, general; gemaca, mate. remains of stems in -icai arc found preccea =precca, ag:

etc.
all

97.

Like tunge decline


;

weak noims
; ;

in -e:
;

eorde, earth

heorte, heart
;

sunne, sun

sgrce, sark

byrne, mail; puce, Aveek ;

hlsefdige, lady

f&mne, woman

^iscdre,

snake

pudupe, widow.

neuters ( 98). (a.) Except the four and then forms are found in -can for -an, either remains of (6.)

Now

stems
98.

in -ian, or

conforming to such stems

cyrice, cyricean, church.


;

99.

Like edge decline edre, ear ; lunge, lungs clype, clew. Like tCt decline bed,hee,bedn, etc.; and masculine /reaa>

fred, freaan

yfredn, lord

tpeoa

> iped,

tpeoan

> tpeon^

doubt.

ISToRTiiuMBRiAN.

WeoJc Kouns. )

masculines to O or

The a of -an often suffers precession in the Final -n and -in drop. or e. Nouns c, in the feminines and neuters to %i, 0,
in

weak

Common Anglo-Saxon
in

and weak

Northumbrian

noma (nama), name,

have often strong forms, or mixed strong genitive nojna, names.

forms By comparing pages 49, 61, it will be seen that the Northumbrian older than the Common Anglo-Saxon and vary irregularly between forms others modified by gravitation and conformation almost as much as the English.

See page

1'.).

52
100.

IRREGULAR NOUNS.

IRREGULAR NOUNS.
;

Such arc Avithout case-endings (Indeclinable), or without or they vary in gender (HetekogkNEOUs), in stem (Metaplasts), in case-endings (Heteroclites) or or they arc remains of dead declensions {Meliquicc, Relics) The same are disguised by iihouctic changes (Cryptoclites)
certain cases (Defective)
;

noun may belong


(a.)
bility;
pi.

to several of these classes.


in

Indeclinable are many nouns


h:ctu,
f.

-li^O
;

(^

88,/)
f.

wdclu,

f.

nobee,

heat; hccVutu,

f.

highth, etc.
pkiral are
f.

and w,

law; bco,

hi, f.

declined.

(i.)
terial

Defective.

Without

tlie

names

Mlfred ;

s^ren^rfw,

strength
:

most proper, abstract, and maSometimes ^oZc?, n. gold.


;
; ;

the plural has a change of meaning leode, A, rites gifla (w), nuptials Without the singular are file ni, n. wings; frds, m. men? -pare, men 1

men

frwlpe,

f.

ornaments
;

gearpe,

f.

trappings
;

geatpc,

f.

equipment
;

geciti-

brdctor(u),
n. building

m. brothers
;

gespeostor, f. sisters niddus, men lendenu, n. loins


;

gespeoru,

n. hills

getimbru,

-paran, -paras, -pare, m.

zens

pel eras (-o), m.


life

f.

(c.)

Heterogeneous.
;

Masculine
;

lips.

and Neuter are deufol, devil

dogor,

day; feorh, godu, n. God,


;

frid, peace; gcpanc, mind ; God, m., plur. godas, m., idols ; gyrii, distress heafod, n. head, plur. sometimes heaf;

heap hilt,\d\i\ holt, \\o\i; nrceJ, house tung o I, star p&l, weel pesten, waste pam, spot polcen, cloud brim, sea cealf, calf Feminine and Neuter are sebylgd, offense xdelu, sing, f., plur. n. nobilgepeaht, counsel gift, dower grin, snare liget, lightity safest, envy
dus,xa..; Aeajo,
;
; ;

ning peostor, n., peostru, f. darkness; pwd, pwde, weeds; piht, whit. Masculine and Feminine are ierist, resurrection bend, bond hearg,
;

grove;
sper,

list,

art;
;

nedhpest,{. m. vicinage;
;

^a;,

sea
;

column

peard, watch

pelerds {-a), lips

luck; str&l, arrow; leod, f. a people, plur. m. ?


;

siel,

leode,

paru, f. state, plur. -pare, m. ? citizens (^ 86) est, love. Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter are pred, throe pxstm, growth. Forms from stems in -la, -lan, mix with others: (d.) Metaplasts.
;
;

men

pomp, plur. gen. plcnced ; c&g, f. key, plur. nom. c&gid ; fisc, m. nom. fisceds ; Ixce, m. leech, plur. nom. Iwceds; clrice, f. church, From w-stems duru, pudu, magu, like sunu {^ 92), plur. nom. ciricean. To also gen. dure ? pudes, plur. nom. pudds, magds ; hand, etc. (^ 93, i). some stems -cr is added wg, egg; cealf calf; cild, child (^ 82). Stems
plencu,
f.

fish, plur.

with and without quasi-gemination (^^ 81,91) sceadu, f. shadow, dat. sceaMetathesis dvpc, sceadc ; fri, freo, m. freeman, plur. nom. frige, freo.
: :

fisc,

m.

fish, plur.

nom. fixds.

Many conforming

regulars, and heteroclites,

are metaplastic
(e.)

line
n.

Heteroclites. Many beterogeneous strong nouns (1) with ]\Iascuand Neuter endings: God, m. God, plur. m. Godds, n. Godu; heafod, (2) With Feminine and Neuhead, plur. n. heafodu, plur. m. hcafdds.

IRREGULAR NOUNS.
ter endings
plur.
is
:

53

nom.

f.

n. &festes, pi. nom. f. xfeste ; gift, f. dower, skfest, envy, gen. nom. grind, gifld, n. giftu; grin, snare, inst. grine, grine, plur.

grinu.
-a, -e
;

(3)

With Masculine and Feminine


:

sx, sea, gen. s&s, ssb; pelcrds, -a, lips.

hend, bond, plur. nom. bendds, Many themes have both


;

weak and
cwg,
f.

strong forms

-par-ds, -par-an,

men

heofon, heofon-e, heaven ; sunn-u, sunn-c, sun Some mix but such are given as different words.

key, gen. avgan, dat. c&ge, plur. nom. cxgid, dat. cxgum. (/.) Relics of the r-stem are brodor, hrother (^ 87); modor, mother; Jy/j^or, daughter gebrudor, gcbrudru (dual ?), brothers iy^cos^o?-, sister
;
;

gespeostor, sisters

Declension Third

fasdcr, father, sing, indecl. has also gen. and pi. forms of of the ?ic?-stem are fcond, fiend (^ 87) frcond, friend ;
;
:

and (compound) participial nouns ymb-sittend, neighbors, plur. nom. foldbuend, farmers; i)lur. nom. sometimes in -ds, gen. -rd, like adjectives; of other consonant stems neaht, f. night, gen. nihte, nihtes, generally adverbial, plur. nom. niht ; piht, f. whit, plur. nom. (piht, Grimm) pihtd, pihtu,
;
:

pihte; burg,

f.

See, for paradigms, Jtic, book 7/im5, mouse (^ 90) like are brodcr, brother fcond, fiend {^ 87) mus, mouse cu, f. cow, tod, tooth lus, louse brbc, breeches gos, goose gen. cits (Rask), dat. cy, ace. cu, plur. nom. cy, eye {cus, Rask), gen. cund,
;
;

{g.) Cryptoclites. 1. Concealed umlaut.


;

borough, gen. byrg, bi/rig; man, man (^ 84). The most common obscure forms spring from

fot, foot

man, m.an
;

(^ 84)

dat.

cum ; burg, burh,

f.

borough, gen. byrig, burge, dat. byrig, byrg, plur.

nom. byrig, gen. burgd,

dat.

burgum;

turf,

f.

turf, dat. tTjrf;

modor,

dolitor,

speostor; freond, friend. 2. Quasi-gemination of semi-vowels


3)
;

paradigms of bcadu, battle (^ 90, Like are frxlupe (a), frcetpe (d), f. plur. ornament gearpe, f. plur. trappings gcalpc, f. plur. equipment ncaru, f. narrowness ra;5t(, f. providence scon?/, f. sinew ??ie/i<, n. meal eaZw, n. ale,
:

here, host {^
;

85, a).

etc.;

pine, m. friend, plur. nom. pinds, pine, gen. pind, pinid,pinigd, pmiged, da.t. pi7ium, ace. pinds, pine. words in ?<>0 indeclinable (^ 100, a). 3. Apothesis and Contraction

and fri, freo, m. freeman,

plur.

x\.

frige, freo

bi,

beo,
f.

f.

bee, sing, indeclinable, plur. nom. beon, gen. beond, dat. bcoum,

eld,

dry,
ed,
f.

rn.

[beom. magician, dat. dry, plur. nom. dryds, gen. dryrd. river, gen. cd, &, cds (m.), dat. cd (ie, Rask), plur. nom. cd, cds (m.),

claw, plur. nom. cldpe, dat. cJdm.

dat.

cdm.
fee,

feoh, fco, n.

gen. f&us, dat. fco;

plur.

nom. fco, gen. fcona, fed

(<Cfeohd): so hreoh, pleoh, peoh, etc. hoh, ho, m. bough, gen. hus, dat. ho, plur. nom. hos, gen. hud, etc. ace. voc. body, corpse, hrdp, hr&p, hredp, hrd, hrcd, n. sing, and plur. nom. hriJbs {<Chr&pes), plur. nom. hr&pds, dat. hr&pum. gen. morgen, m. morning, plur. gen. morgcnd, morgnd, mornd.
sA, m. f sea, gen.
SCO,
f.

sii:s,

s&pe, sx, dat.

5a', si'pe,
f.

plur.

nom.

sihs,

s&, dat.

pupil, gen. seon, scdn.

sugu, su,

sow,

d. sue.

[sxm, sxpum.

treop, treb, n. tree, gen. treopes, plur.


}}red,
f.

nom. treopu,

tripu, treop, treo.

m.

n. throe, indeclinable, plur. dat.

predum, predm.

54
101.
(1.)

TROrER NAMES.

PROPER NAMES.
of icomen in
-u or

Persons. JVames

a consonant are

Declension II., d-stem : Begu, stronrf, those in -e or -a re tcca/c. Decleni-stem : Beadoliilcl, Ilygd, and most others. Freaparu ;
sion

IV.: Elene, Eve, Ada, Maria, etc., from foreign names ; Pealhl)eo(p), dat. Pealhl^eun ( 99). Names of men in -u, -e, or a consonant are strong, those in -a
are xoeah.

Declension III., xi-stem

Leofsiinu

Declension I,

a-stem: iElfred, Beupulf, Eadmund, Sigemund {gen. also SigeinuiKle<mund,/'. iias/t) ? Poland, and -most other strong names ;
syncopated: Ecg]3eo(p), gen. Ecgl)e6pes, Ecg]3eues, etc.; OngenHredcl ; ia])eu(p); Gvende], <7e?^. Gren deles, Grendles, etc.; stem: Ine, Hedde, Gislhere, Pulfhere, Eadpiue, Godpine, and others from -here and -pine; umlaut not found: Hereman, dat.
lleremanne.

Declension IV.: iEtla, Becca,

and many

others.

retain foreign declension, or are unde(a.) clmcd, but are generally declined as above ; those in -as, -es, -us do not Those from Latin -us, Greek -oq, of the the genitive. often increase second declension, sometimes drop their endings and take those of the

Foreign names sometimes

Anglo-Saxon

first: Crist

(< Christus),

Cristes, Criste, eic.

In

less

fa-

miliar ivords -us oftenest stands in the nom. and gen., but sometimes the Latin and Anglo-Saxon forms mix throughout: Petrus, gen. Petrus, Petres,
Petri, dat. Petro, Petre, ace. Petrus,

Petrum

so -as
;

Andreas, dat. Andrea, ace. Andrews, Andream

and -es Andreas, gen. Herodes, Herodes, Herodc,


:

Herod-em, -es, or -e. (b.) hi Gothic these Latin and Greek names of the second declension are regiilarlij given in the u-declcnsion : Paitrus, gen. Paitraus, dat. Paitrau, The Anglo-Saxon genitive Petrus may be a relic ace. Paitru (^ 93, a). of the u-declension.
(2.)

Peoples.

Plurals

in -as a7id

-e

are strong, in -an

iceaJc.

Declension I, a-stem : Brittas, Scottas, etc. ; ia-stem and i-stem : Dene, ge^i. Den-a, -ia, -iga, -gea ( 85, a) Romane, etc. Declension IV. : Gotan, Seaxan, etc. Tlie singular is oftenest an adjective in -isc regularly declined:
;

Egyptisc \\\^w, Egrjptian man ; Egyptisc idies, Egyptian woman; Sometimes an Brit, a Briton. J)a Egyptiscan, the Egyptians, etc. Often is found a collective loith a genitive, or with an adjective,

compounded : Seaxnal)e6d; Filistea folc Caldeacyn; Ebrea peras; Sodomisc cyn Rom-pare ( 86); Nord-men (84, 3),eic. Foreign names are treated as are names of persons. A fell} feminiyie names are found: Engel, (3.) CouNTKiES,
or
;
;

England ; Bryten, Britannia.

Oftenest

is

found

the jjeople's

SUMJVIARY OF CASE-ENDINGS.

'

55

name
;

case icith

in the genitive with laud, rice, edel, etc.^ or in an oblique a preposition : Engla land ; Sodoma rice ; on East-En;

glum of Seaxum on Egyptum. are names of persons.


(4.)

Foreign names are treated as

Cities.

Names found alone are regularly declined accordRome;


Babylon, n. BabyloOftenest they are prefixed
etc.:

ing

to

gender and endings: Rom,/.

nes; Sodoma, m. Sodoman.


to burg, ceaster, pic, dtin,

undecUned

Luuden-pic, Roma-burg, etc.; or the folk's name in the genitive followed by burg, ceaster, etc., is used: Caldea burg. Foreign names treated as names of persons.

ham,

102.
(1.)

WEATHERING OF
:

C AS E - E NDIN G S.
Weak.
A
,
, ^

Anglo-Saxon
/

Strong. -^
|

Masculine. Decl. I.

Neuter. Decl. I.

Head-cases ia a consonant.

y^^. Maso. Decl. II. Decl. III. Head-cases in a vowel.


I
I

Masc. Fem. Neut. Decl. IV.


Head-cases in -an.

Stem
Singular.

ia

ia

an a an an an an

an
e

an
e

N.&.V.
Gen

-e
es es

e es

es
e

u
e

e
e
e,

u
a.

es
e

Dot Ace
Inst

e e

e e e

e
u, e

e e

u
a.

Plukal.

an an an an

an an
e

an

^
as
u,

V
an
ena,

'

N.,A.,&jV.

as

e,

as

u,

u
a

a, e a,

e,

u, 0,
a,

Gen D. &
(2.)

a
urn
,

a
iim

ena

cna

In&t.

um um

um

um

um

um

Layamon:

Singular.

N.,A.,&,V. Gen D.&Inst...

es
e,

e,

en en

es
e,

e
es
e,

e, -,
e, -,

en

e
e, es

e,

en

es
e,

en, es

en, e, es

en

en

en

e, -,

en

en, e

N.,A.,&
Gen

V.
e,

es, en,

e, -, es,

en
e,

e,

en, es

e,

en, es

en,

e,

es

ene,en,es
en,
e,

e, en, es

en, ene, es en, es

en, es en, es

en, ene,

enen

D.&Inst....

es

en, e, es

en, e
;

Here

found here and there) precession of all the vowels to e {^ 38) (a is (3), a conflict everywhere between s and (2), shifting of VI to n (^ 41, Zi) n, the weak and strong form. In the earlier manuscript n most abounds,
is
;

in the later s.

(3.)

Ormulum.

Singular, N., A.,V.,D.,


m
-ess.

Norman

influence, ^ 95,

c.

I. alilcc
is

all cases alike

Singular dative -e

Genitive -ess. Plural, ; found with prepositions in a

(4.)

few phrases, and Plural genitive -e (Northern dialect). Chaucer instead of -ess has -es or -s: king, kinges; lover, lovers. The last form brings us to Modern English. Irregular forms having umlaut {^ 100, g), or plural -e?i (^ 'J5, c), or indeclinable from r-stems or neuters plural (^ 100,/), are found in Chaucer, and a few still survive.

IjQ

ADJECTIVES. INDEFINITE DECLENSION,


IV.

ADJECTIVES.

INDEFINITE AND DEFINITJC DECLENSIONS.


103. An adjective in Anglo-Saxon lias one set of strong and one of -weak endings for each gender. The latter are used when the adjective is preceded by the definite article or some word
like
it.

Hence there
10-t.

are
I.

two

declensions, the indefinite

and the

definite.

j
(

27ie Indefinite Declension.

Case-endings

< stem
blinda,
blind.
blind.

a, a, or i

-|-

relational suffixes.

IMasculine.
<^
*

Feminine.

Neuter.
blinda,
blind:

Llinda, blindi, blind.


blind.

Theme
ISTom

blind.

blind
blinder

blind (?<)
blindj'c

blind
bliudcs

Gen Dat Ace Voc


Inst

\Aiu([um

blindre

hYm^wn
blind blind
bl.indc

blindwe
blind

blinde
blind (?/)

Plural.

blindc?

blindre

Nom
Gen

blinde.
blindrc?

blinde
blindrt?
blind^<^

blindz*

blindm
blindi^i

Dat Ace
Voc
Inst
(a.)

blindM?J2

blinde blinde

blinde

bliudw
blindw

blinde

hYmdiinn

hWndian

hWn^uni

In other
;

substantive

Indo-European languages the adjective is declined like the in the Teutonic it follows the pronominal declension. This

has been explained by supposing a composition in the Teutonic between the adjective stem and a pronoun (in Sanskrit jas, jd, Jad, a relative) which it is suggested must have been in the Teutonic Parent Speech j'is, ja, jata ;
; ja7nma, jizai, jamma ; jana, ja, jata ; je, jizai, je ; plural, jai,j6s,ja; jize,jtz6,jize; jaim; jans,jos,ja, and have had a demonstraWhether there has been a composition with a particular protive sense. noun, or a conformation to the pronominal declension, must, in the absence

jis, jizos, jis

of decisive phonetic demonstration, be decided from the meaning and the fact that this is the indefinite form, and is not used where the sense calls for
;

a demonstrative, weighs heavily against composition with a demonstrative. (b.) give the demonstrative pronoun from which comes the definite

We

article

THE TRONOMINAL DECLENSION.


Stem,

57

68

ADJECTIVES. THE DEFINITE DECLENSION.


105.

II.

The Definite Declension.


suffixes.

Case-endings

< stem an + relational


Fkminine.

Mascdlike.

Nedter.
blindau,
"

Stem.,

blindan, Wi(?.
blind.

bliudan,
blind.

Singular.

Theme

~^
]3ges

'

-^^
J^rot

";

"^^
blinde.

blind.

Nom
Gen

se blind.

seo blinde.
J)ere blinda;?. ])a)re
})ii

blinde.

blindan.

Jjajs blinda??.

Dat Ace
Voc
Inst

l^)am blinda^i.

blindaw.

})am blindaw.
liffit

]5one blinda??. se blinda.


]^)y
*"

blinda'?^.

seo blinde.
J)iere blinda;?.
v

l^ait

blinde.

blind a?^.

Plural.

J>y blinda?z.

N'om Gen

J)a blinda?i.
])ara,

blindeww.
blindz<??i.

Dat Ace
Voc
Inst

J)am

J)a blind?i.
])a,

blind a?i.

J)ara blindzww.

106.

Theme

ending Short {Moot Shifting).


glada, gladi.
glada.

Stem.,

glada, glad.

Theme
JVbm
Ge}i

glad

> glred.

glad>gled.
glad?^.

glad>gled.
glred.

glsed.

glades.
gladi?i.

gisedre.

glades.

Dat Ace
Voc
list

glrodre.

gladwm.
glsed.

glaedwe.
glsed.

glade.
gladt.
glaedT'e.

glted.

Plural.

glade.

glade.

JVom
Ge7i

glade.

glade.

glad2^
glcedrt?.

gloedm.
gladt<m.
glade. glade.

gla^dm.
gladutn.
glade. glade.
gladr?z.
it

Dat Ace
Voc
Inst.

gladum.
gladw.
gladz.

gladwwi.

glad^^m.

In the Definite Declension


Avhollv with blind.

has -yjglad throughout, and agrees

STRONG AND WEAK DECLENSIONS.


107.

59

Strong:
Masculine.
O. Sax.

Singular.

Feminine.
O. Norse.
|

Neuter.
Goth.
(.-ata),
;

Gothic.

iYow... blind-s,
Gen.... blind-is,

Goth.
-a,

O. Sax.

-!;

O. Noree.

O. Sax. 0.\0KC.

-t.

-as,

-s

-aizos, -aro,
-ai,

-rar
-ri
;

-is,

-as,

-s.

Dat
ylcc.
...
..

XAm^i-avtma, -umu,
blind-a?!cr,

-tun;

-aro,
-a,

-amma, -umu,
(-ata),

-an{a), -an;

-a,

-a;

-u.
-t.

Inst.

Plural.
Ge7i.
Z>.
..

Umd-(lJal.)-u,
-a(-e^,

(Dat.); (Dat.) (Bat.) (Bat);


-if; -ru
; ;

(Bat.) -u,

-u.

No7n... blind-ai,
hllnd-aizc,

-us,

-(-e),

-ar
-ru

-a,

(-),

-aro,
-un,
-a{-c),

-aizu,

-aro,
-un,
-a(-e),

-aize,

-aro,
-un,
(-m),

-rd.

&/.

blind-aim,

-um
-a;

-aim,
-6s,

-urn;

-aim,
-a,

-um.
.

Ace... blind-ans,

-ar

"Weak
Singular.

-o(-a),

Norn... blind-a,

-i;

-6,

-a,

-a;
-u;
-u
;
;

-6,
-ins,

-a,

-a.

Gen

blind-ins,

-nn,
-tin, -??,

-a;
-a;
-a;

-vns,
-on, -on,

-un,

-un,
-un,
-a,

-a.

Bat.... blind-i'n,

-un,
-un,

-in,
-0,

-a.
-a.

Ace
Inst....

blind-a??,

-u

Plural.

hYmd-(Bat.)(Bat.) (Bat.);
-vn,

(Bat.) (Bat.) (Bat.); (Bat.) (Bat.) (Bat.)

Norn... blind-a?2S,

-u;

-6ns,

-un,

-u;
-u; -u;

-6na,
-ane,

-un,

-it.

Gen blind-ane, B.&,I. blind-a???, blind-a?is. Ace


In Old High

-6n6,
-un,
-un,
flic

-u;

-6n6,

-6n6,
-un, -un,

-6n6,
-un,
-un,

-u. -u.

-u;
-u;

-6m,
-6ns,

-am,
-6na,

-u;

-u.

German

adjective has the

same strong endings as the


plinto, -in, -in,

defi-

nite article (^ 104, b).


plur. -un, -0710, -6m,

The weak form has Masculine


plinta, -un, -un,
pi. -iin,
;

-un

-un: Feminine
;

-im;

plur. -un, -ono,

-um, -un

Neuter

plinth, -in, -in, -a

-ono, -om, -un.

O. Fries, has
^ 95.

strong endings like A.-Sax.,but dat. -a(-c)


(a.)

weak forms

like its noun.

The Indo-European languages


;

definite adjective

generally have no separate forms for the but the Slavonic and Lithuania have. In them it springs

from composition between the adjective and demonstrative ja (^ 104, a);


Slavonic
dobrijj (good),

dobraja, dobrojc,

from

dobras-\-jas,

dobrd-\-ja, dobrat-\-jat

g6de-{-se6, g6de-\-pxt. Ang.-Sax. g6da-\-sc, Grimm suggests that the Teutonic adjective is compounded in a similar way with the demonstrative 7am (that), English yon. Hcyse suggests a compoThe Teutonic weak declensions form one whole with sition with an, one.
those of the a?i-stems in other Indo-European tongues as to form, all are a growth from one stem. This stem is a secondary formation by means of tlie
:

pronominal affix -an. The force of this affix may be illustrated by comparing it with the pronouns 7aj, an; many nouns with it are rendered in Enone : pxdla, poor one pnrcca, wretched one pana, glish by an adjective

defective one, etc.


to mislead.

but to call the adjective a compound with cither Compare the explanation of affixes in ^^ 50,03.
;

is

likely

GO

ADJECTIVES.
to the logical

It

and historical value of the weak declension, see (} 95, c. a profound insight into the Teutonic mind to notice here that its may give fundamental classification of objects is into those made definite to thought

As

and those not


108.

so.
is

The weak form


or

used Avhcn the adjective

is

preceded by

tlie definite article,

by a demonstrative or

possessive pronoun,

or personal pronoun in the genitive, always with comparatives, often with vocatives, instrumentals, and genitives, 362.
(a.)

For masculine present

participles, see ^ 119.

109. Like blind decline adjectives ending in a long syllable,

and adjecparticiples present, weak participles past, superlatives, tive pronouns hdt, hot ; heard, hard ; fcest, fiist ; </6d, good
:

hxbbende, haxiug ( 119); gehdlgod, hallowed; hdtust, hotest mln, mine. See 110, a. 110. With the endings of glsed decline adjectives with a final
;

heathen
(a.)

short syllable and strong participles past: caJ/r/, blessed broken. fscger, fair ; brocen,
;

Jixden,

The -u

of the feminine singular oftenest, and of the neuter plural

often, suffers precession to

-0> -e>

especially in derivatives.
91,
J).

It

drops

pretty regularly after a long syllable (^ 109;


iiold it:

few once w-stems

heard,

111.
with root
late
;

Like {Shifting, 73,41).


a > 93;
small
;

heardu^ hcardc
bwr, hare;

(Gothic hardus), hard.


glccd decline short monosyllables
;

J/a?c,
;

black

hnsd, ready; hpiet, whetted; Ixt,

si7ixl,

spser, spare

pwr, wary.

(a.) The shifting is stopped by a following vowel, even by e which is from a, and c<Cd. The nouns (dirges) have shifted further; the adheld stronger than the noun by the old forms. jective has throughout

112. {Gemination, T8).


nation applies:

113.
(cr),

and others

when

79). Polysyllables in -xg, -ol (ul, el), -en, -or syncope, may drop the last vowel of the theme the ending begins with a vowel: ffeger, ia\r, fxgru, hut fcegerne ;
liable to

Rule grim, grimmes, grimre, grimmum, grimne, {Synco2)e, 46,

10, 20, for simplification


etc.,

of gemi-

grim.

hdlig, holy,

in

hdhgcs^hdlges, hdligan'^ hdlgan, etc, 114. (Stems in -ia, 83). Some adjectives once in -ia have c<^ the cases usually without endings blktc, blithe gen. llutcs, bJidre,hl"ides,
:

etc.

rarely before the endings: ecc, eternal, eccum, ecum.

So

decline ad-

jectives in -e and present participles (^ 119).


(fit.)

(0.

11.

Some show i-umlaut when compared with other words grcnc German griwni), green; scfte (soff), soft; strenge (strong)
:

strong.
(b.)

^ 32, 2.

Some show compensative


^ 37, 2.

gemination:

middc <^mid (Gothic

midis, midjia), middle.

PARTICIPLES.NORTIIUiMBKIAN ADJECTIVE DECLEXSIOX. 61


115. {^Themes in
case-endings
:

-1).

Such may have

fr'i, free,

gen. friges, frigre, etc.

dissimilation into jg before the The g is the parting of the

organs after taking the i-position. 85, a. lie. (^Themes in -eo). Such may drop the vowel of case-endings:

frco, free, gen. freos,freore,freds, etc.

80.
;

117.

{Themes in
a vowel
;
:

^> -u > -O,


may
This
z(,

81

final after

blaa, blue,

gen. bhvpes.

Such 91, B). After a consonant

may

drop 7?

to

u^ o

p final shifts

and before a vowel


38.

i'a]\Q\Y,feahipe, etc. ( 27, 5).

suffer quasi-gemination to iip : fealu, e ; fcamay suffer precession to O

>

lope,fealepe, etc.

118. Themes in -h, 80). ending, and before a vowel change


(Gothic hduhs, O.
II.

Such
it

may

drop
it

final or before

a close

to g, or drop

and contract: hedh, hea

German

hoh), high.

SiSGCLAn.

iica(h)
heiirc

Plural.
liea(h)

hci'i(ge)

Nom.
Gen. Dat.
Ace.
T'oc.

hea(li)

Xom. hca(ge)
Gen.
I)at.

hea(gc)s

hea,(gc)s

hcava
licri(g)am

heavfi

hca(gu) hcara

hea(g)un) licarc

heii(g)nni

hea(g)um hea(g)um
hea(ge)
hefi(ge.)

heane
liea(h)

licu(gc)
lica(h)

hea(h)
hea(h)

Ace.
Voc.
Inst.

hea(ge)
lieag(e)

hea(gu)
liea(gu)

Insl.

hca(ge)

hcarc

hca(ge)

hea(g)um hea.(g)imi hca(g)um

The

Sing. spelling of such words is irregular in the manuscripts. heh, accusative hcdhne, hcdnne, plur. dat. hcdhum, are found.

nom.

119. PARTICirLES.

The

p.articiples

have both declensions!


in the

103, 109, 110.

(a.) Present participles

strong forms without endings have -e like

jfl-stems ( 114): gtfende, giving.


(&.)

forms after the definite article

Masculine present participles used substantively may take strong pd Iktende or Udcnd, those sailing l)drd
:

around. {^ 100,/.) ymb-sittendrd, of those dwelling (c.) The strong singular accusative of the participles
spelt without -n
:

is

often (wrongly)

gccorcne<Cigccoren-nc, chosen; scridend-{n)e, coming.


infinitive

120.
tive
:

The declined

(gerund)

is

often found in the da-

to faranne., to fare.

121.

NOKTIIUMBEIAN AdJECTIVE DeCLENSION^.

The

in - is

The instrumental strong declension is like Common Anglo-Saxon. The plural nominative is the dative takes its place. very rare

often in -o, perhaps an older form than -e;

compare Old Saxon -a and pre-

cession, 38

The

perhaps merely an irregular conformation with weak forms. weak declension drops ->?, and is otherwise like that of the weak sub;

stantive (p. 51).

62

ADJECTIVES. COMPARISON.
122.
is

Comparison.

a variation to denote clegvees of quantity or Comparison It belongs to adjectives and adverb?. quality.
(a.) In

Anglo-Saxon

it
;

is

derivation than inllection

but the

a variation of stem, and is a matter rather of common mode of treatment is convenient.

(5.) The suffixes of comparison were once less definite in meaning than now, and were used to form many numerals, pronouns, adverbs prepositions, and substantives, in which compared correlative terms are implied

>

either, other, ove?; uncle?; first, etc.


fc.)

Anglo-Saxon adverbs are

in brackets

(sjMe).

Adjectives are regularly compared by suffixing to tbc theme of the positive -ir'^-er or -or for the theme of the comp)arative, and -ist > -est or -6st for the theme of the suj^erlative. The ComjKirative has always weak endings and syncopated
123.

stem.

The Sv2)erlaUve has both weak and strong endings. Adverbs are compared like adjectives: the positive
ending
-e,

uses the
drops.

the comparative and superlative have none

-ir

Strong, spid, stremcous ;


'Weah,
se spidal;
;

spidra

se spidra;

spidust. se spidosta.
(spidost).
-jans, superla;

Adverb, (spide)
(a.)

(spidor)

These

suffixes in the Parent

Speech were comparative

tive -jans-ta

> ista, combinations of emphatic dental radicles (^ 56


Greek.
Latin.
Gotliic.
<>.

12G, a)

Sanskrit.

Saxon.

O. Norse.

Theme

mah,

ntyy/iu,
fjrcat.
f.iti-Z,ov {-]0\\)

mag>mri,
(jreat.

mak>nia,
t/reat.

niik>me,
f/reat.

mik>mei,
(jreat.

\great.

Compar. mah-i-jas Superl. mah-is'tha

nia-jor, -jus

ma-iz-a
ma-ist-s

me-r-o
me-st

mei-r-i
mei-st-r
miH-st.

fiiy-KXTO-v

(see 126, i)

The

0. H.

German has me-ro,

me-ist-cr,

Anglo-Saxon ma-r-a,

(b.) In Anglo-Saxon ir<^jans, tlie <J, r<Cs are shifting (^ A\,2,b)\ dropping of an, apocope from gravitation (^^ 44, 38). 6 in -or and -ost is compensative progression from an {^^ 37, 38) the same form is in Gothic,
;

Old Norse has a for 6. A further precession and of took place in -ir, -or, -ist, -ost, of so pyrsa, worse (J^ 129). In Gothic, s has not shifted (J^ 38). (c.) The superlative -ta is suffixed to the theme of the positive in nu-

Old Saxon, Old H. German.

2>e>
;

o>a>a>w>e>
Latin ^war-^o, fourth ;
139.
-ist

merals: Sanskrit s'as'-thd, sixth; Greek wpw-ro,

first;

Gothic ahtu-da-n, eighth; Anglo-Saxon prid-da,


124.

third.

{Umlaut, % o2,

2).

The

affixes

-iry-cr and

y -est

ADJECTIVES.RELICS.

63

may work

i-umlaut, changing
a, a,
it',

ea,

cu,

eo

> o,
y,

u,
c,

ii,

11,

to
lanff,

e,
;

y>e,
;

y,
lengest.

y,

y:

long

lengra (leng)

Strang, strenge ( 114, a), strong; straigra; strengest. eald, aid ( 33), old ; yldra, eldra ; yldest, eldest.

hed\
ra;

hed, hCh, high ( 118, 25); h^rra, hyhra, Mrra, hedhh^list, hehst, hedhst, hedhest, hedgost,

nedh, neh, nigh ( 118, 25); oi^ra

{nior); nyst (^>i>ze), nelist, feor, (feor), (fyr), far ; fyrra; fyrrest.

and as nedh. nera {nedr), nedrra (n(/r), nedhst, and as hedh.

geong, young; gyngra {y>i); gyngest {yyi). sceort, short ; scyrtra / scyrtest.
(softe) sefte, soft (114, a)
;

seftra {se/t)
e))

seftest.
;

edde

(j/,

e),

easy; pdra (ea), {f/d{ed,

yr/es^,

[125, 129. edddst. See

Eoot >t'E of short monosyllables 125. {Shifting, 110). shifts to cB unless the next syllable begins with a vowel ; such words may also have forms Avith i-umlaut ( 124) :
glaed, glad
;

hi'sed, Tea.dy

glwdra, gledra ; gladdst. hrscdra, hredra ; hradost.

hpcet, whetted,
'

keen

hpsetra; hpatost.

pcei',

wary pxrra;
;

parost.

126. Relics are found of forms

from Parent Speech Compar:

Of the comparative, and the like 6-de7\ other ; adverbs prepositions, only pronouns, hpveder, whether; ve-r, ere; vef-ter, after; hi-der, hither; of-er, Of the superlative for-ma, first hinover ; iin-der, under. Isst-ema, latest ; rned-ema, dema, hindmost ; inn-ema, inmost midmost; ?ieV^-ema, nethermost; sid-ema,\atest; tt^ema, utmost; and others with double comparison. 127, 129.
ative -ra, -ta-ra, Superlative -ma, -ta-ma.

>

(a.)

other,

Parent Speech -tara. whether:


Crock.
Latin.

Forms on
Gothic.

an, that, and

lea,

what, English

Sanskrit.

O. Snxon.

Anglo-Paxon.

O. Norse,

an-tara

t-rfpo(c)

al-teru(s)

an-l>ar(a-)

^-itar

6-cter

ann-ar
hva-rr

ka-tara

Ko-rpo(c)

u-teru(s) hva-})ar(a-)

huc-dcr

hpaj-cter

The O. H. German has andera,

other

mon form

for the adjective in Sanskrit, the

hwedar, whether. This is a commost common in Greek in


;

Latin and Teutonic only as in Anglo-Saxon.


dex-tcr, right
;

Latin, in-tcr, between

sims-tcr,

left.

^ 122,

h.

64

ADJECTIVES. DOUBLE COMrARISON. IIETEllOCLITES.


Parent Speech -ma, -ta-ma.
:

(i.)

Forms on
Gothic.

pra, fore; scp, seven;

hin, hind
Sanskrit.

Greek.
7rpJ-j[(o(t)

Latin-

O. Saxon.

Ang.-Sax.

O. Nor.

in-a-tha-mii

pri-mu(s)

frii-ma

for-mo

^ ^^^,^^ ^

f"""-

sap-ta-ma

f/3-co-//o(c)

scp-tu-mu(s)
first.

hin-du-ma

hin-de-ma
in

The

0. H.

German has/rwrni,

This

is

common form
o),
it

Sanskrit;
the regu-

in Latin, suffixed to

Comparative jmis^is (^ 123,


:

makes

lar -issimo <iis-timo

to the

theme

I and r it is suffixed by assimilation {^ 35). After and assimilated facil-limo, easiest ; pulcher-rimo, handit is

somest.

In the other languages

found only as in Anglo-Saxon.

For

numerals, see ^ 140.

127.
-er,

Double Compaeison
:

is

found chiefly

-svitli

relics in -der,

and -771 ( 126) &-r, ere, w-r-er, -or, io-r-est; aef-ter, ssfter-ra Icesyccftera, ccf-ter-mest (Rask), vcf-tem-est; Iws, less, lazs-sa,
for-ma,
fi/r-m-cst,

dst, -est;
(a.)

and see

129.
is

Accumulation of signs of comparison

a striking fact through

all

the

to-tu, reg(I.) Repetition of the suffix for emphasis: -raroc languages. ular Greek superlative ; Irish ma-ma ; O. H. German bezeroro, more better

<

Parent Speech ta-ma (^ 126, b). (Shakespeare); crercra, more sooner, etc.; Gothic af-tu-m-is-ta ; Anglo-Saxon (3.) New suffix after Relics (^ 126):
ipf-te-m-es-t

Emphatic Shakespeare has more braver, more fairer, most best, most boldest, most unkmdcst, etc. -most in aftermost, and the like, is (b.) The English superlative ending
which
double comparison abounds in early English
:

heaping ; u.itermost af-\-ta'\-ra-{-7na-\-jans-\-ta, illustrates their force as signs of comparison (^ 123, a).

of radicles

simulation of a connection with most.

^ 42, 2.

128.

Heteroclitic forms abound from themes

-6st: sU,

good;
;

-ra, -la, {set)

in -ir

and

-6r,-ist,

est, -ost

; rice, rich; ricest, rtcost ;


Avitli

have themes glxdra, gleclra, etc. ( 125). Some double comparison: Iset, late; Itetra; latost, and without
(jlwd, ghad

late-

onest; sat, late; sidra {sid, sidor)


129.

sut-dst, -est, -mest.

Defective are the

following.

Words

in capitals arc

not

found.
(1.)

3Iixcd Roots :
Positive.
(

o-(jd

'^'^^^'

]
[

BAT
yfel

^P'^^
\

1
(

Comparative. betera,betra, 124 ba^ttra, 125 (bet)

Superlative.

betst,bet6st,-ast
(bctst)
j
(

(yfele)

pyrsa, (pyrs),

pyrst, pyrresta,
(pyrst), (pyrrest)

had,

]pcor
(

[
)

]
(

123,5
sa^mra, 124

sum-

sajmest

DEFECTIVE ADJECTIVES. DECAY OF ENDINGS.


Positive.

65

Compaeative.

Supeklative.

Great

^^^^
(
)

(""'^^^^

much^
little,

(ma
[^^^""^
(

mara, (ma)
(^^'0
i

m&st, 124;

123,0!

L^s (Goth, /asifi-)

Ifessa (l3es),

35,^

Ises-ast, -est, -t

(2.)

From Adverbs of time and jilace


a-, 32-

(compare 126, 127)


)

ever,
ere, erst,

(^r)>^rra,
(c^i--6r,

ser-est
)

-ur)

after-

af-,

ef-=of,
I"

icard,
else,

(cef-ter)

> ajftera
elra

sef-tera-est
]

oefterpeard
(elles)

sefter-mest, 127

(ell or),

for-ma
fore,

>

(fyrmest),

forepeard, (fore)
feor, (fyr)

fyrra
fyrst,

fruma, 5 1

far,
forth,

fyrre, (fyr)

fyrrest

(eo>y)

ford:peard, (ford)
)

(furd-or, -ur)

urd-um), ((fu ford-m-est ] for


j

hehind,\)^^f^^'''''^^\ [ (hmdan)
*

lunduma,
Z

^ (hindor) '

(bii binde-ma, 126,

inner,
.

innepeard,
(

(in)
)

inncra

inne-ma, (-m-est)

middepeard,
(mid)

*^''^'

med-ema (-uma?)
mid-m-est
(nord-ur)
nid-ra,
(

north ''^'^^^''

^lordepcard, \ ] (nord)

}_

uord-m-est

nether.

uidepeard,
(nide)

(nid-6r,-er (i>eo)
j ufera, ] (ufor)
/

nidema, 126 nide-m-est (i>eo)


yf(e)-m-est, 124

tipper,

Hfepeard, (up)

outer,

iltepcard, (ut)

utra, (uttor,utor) ' '^

^,>

/**

M Yt-(e-)m-est,124
^
^
,

litema, lltmest,
^

So sUdemest, edstemest, pestemest,


Decay of ENniNcs.
,

south-, east-, west-most

-es, -en, -ne

fern.

( 1 ),

Declension
;

-re, -re, -c

neut.

Layamon,
,

strong, sing. masc.


;

-es, -en,

-en, -e;

but n,

Wealc, -c. Chaucer, monosyllables as in Orm., plur. -e. strong, sing. others undeclined. Shakespeare, no declension.
,

s,

may

drop.

Weak,

-e, -en,

as in ^ 102.

Ormulum,
(=:Modern

plur. -c, -re,

(2), Comparison:

Layamon, Ormulum,

-re, -est.

Chaucer

English), -er,

-est.

66

PRONOUNS.
V. {Relational Names, 56). 130. Personal Pronouns {Relational Substantives).

PRONOUNS

Sing. l.Z

PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
(c.)

67

The mode

of growth from the radicles in the Indo-European family


:

may
Sing.

be studied in the following

68
Dpax.

TRONOUNS. REFLEXIVES.
Latin.

PRONOUNS.DEMONSTRATIVES.
mine,
thine,
his,

69
0/ you two,

our,

your,

of us two,

Sanskrit,
Greek....

madija

tvadi'ja

svadija asmadi'ja jus'madi'ja

70
(i.)

PRONOUNS. RELATIVES. INTERROGATIVES.


in other languages and discussion of case-endings, see Ilcyne gives /wra, pxm only as masculine, but pjbrd bocd, JElsee J)xm in Grein. 114 pxrd Jnngd, ib. 2, 130

For forms

^ 104.
fric, 2,

(3.

pes.)

Other Forms:
pise;
f.

without gemination of 5 in masculine and neu:

ter, pises, pisiun,

i>y

pys, Pysscs, Jnjssc, etc.


;

sing.

nom.
;

f.

pios;

gen. and dat.

pisere'^pisre, pisscrc

dat. pisson, pissan,

piosum

inst.

m.

and

n. ^"'5) pise, pisse adjective

miiller,

Heyne

form, (peos:=0. Saxon pius ; Grimm, Ettexamples given are all false readings); plur. nom. ^^s;

gen. piscrd, pisserd. dat. f. dwsscr, disser


(a.)

Northumbrian:
;

sing.

nom.

dirs,

dius,dis

gen. and

dat.

m. dassum;

ace. diosnc, da, dis.

Pes

is

same

force is obtained

an emphatic demonstrative from pa-\-sja. by affixing -uh (Latin -ce, -que :


(thius), thi-t
;

In Gothic, the
hi-c, quis-que)'.
:

In the other Germanic tongues analogous forms to pes are found

O.

Saxon
the-sas
inst. n,

sing.
;

nom. these, the-su

gen. the-sas, the-sara,


thi-t
;

dat.

the-sumu, the-saru, thc-sumu; ace. the-san, the-sa,


;

gen. the-saro; dat. the-sun; O. H. G. di-se-r, etc. The Anglo-Saxon has lost all the sja except -s in In pisse, pissd there has been syncope and assimilathe nominative. tion of r>s, as in usse, ussd ( ^ 132) ; in pisses and pissum, gemination

thius; pi. nom. ace. the-sa, thius

of s through gravitation.

The

ten pretty regularly with gemination of s


(3.) Ylc.) pylc-t

genitive and dative masculine are writnot always.

spylc : ylca, same, has only weak forms ; pylc, such, have only strong. (i/=i=ze.) ])7js-licypyllic, strong. spylc,
(a.) Ylc<C'>J-\-lic
to
;

?/<C,

Latin

td-lis,

Greek

ttj-XIkoq,

demonstrative Ae; -Zzc, like; so /ly-Z/c, analogous Sanskrit td-dr'ks'a; spy-lie, Gothic sve-

leiks, etc.,

English such.

see 131. (5.) Same, adv. same, Sanskrit pron. sama Greek o^o-c, Latin simi-lis, Gothic, Old Saxon satna, {sa-{'ma), Old Norse scim-r. Old II. German samo.
(4.) Self.,

(6.)

Geotid, adv. yon, Gothic ^ron. Jains, that ( 255, a).

(1.) se, sco, pwt, who, which, that, is dea demonstrative ( 133). (2.) pe used in all the cases, both alone and in combination with se, seo, pset, or a personal pronoun, is indeclinable. (3.) spd, so, used like English as

134. Relatives,

clined as

when

and Old German so

in place

of a relative,

is

indeclinable.

135.

hpylc,

Ivdllc,
is

Interrogatives are Jipd, who; hpxder, yfhich. of two; of what kind. They have strong adjective endings ;
syncopated
( 84.)

hpseder

PRONOUNS. INDEFINITES.
oING.
Masc.

7I
Fern.

Fem.

Neut.

Masc.

Keut.

Nbni. hpii
Ge7i.

bpast

jSansJcrit. ka-s

kti

ka-t

hpa33

hpres

Greek...

Ko->Troe>'7r6-Srt,Trov,etc.

Dat. Ace.
Yoc.
Inst,

hpam
hpone

lipam
lipajt
'

Latin

qui-s

qujB

quo-d

Gothic

bva-s

hvo

hva
hua-t

O.Saxon hue
0. Norse, hva-r
hpan, hpon, hpam, hp&m ; ace. Iipwne hud, hux, husstd, huxd.
:

hpam
:

hpy
dat. hpasm,

hva-t
;

Other Forms
hp'i,

inst.

hpig, hu.

Northumbrian

(a.)
(6.)

For

shifting of the

stem radicle, see 41, i?; for case-endings, ^ 105.


126, a.

Hpwder<ihpa, comparative form, ^


(y=:i=ze.)

Hpylc <ihpy -\- lie

pylc<ipy-\-ric,^ \ZZ,^,a.

0. Fries,

hwa

hwet.

like

136. Indefinites.

Sing.

(1.)

The

Indefinite Article

Is 'Clin,

one.

72
(b.)
()(/er,

DECAY OF PRONOMINAL ENDINGS.


From hpxder
;

other, either
;

(^ 135,5): d-hpxder (any one) '^aj'ifer'^ actor, opdcr, nd-h]>xder{ae\t\\ev')^napder,n6pdcr, noder ; ge-hpxdcr,
;

either

wg-hpxder {d-\-ge-\-hpxdcry^a:gder, either

spd-hpxder-spa, which-

soever.
(c.)

From

{d-\-ge-\-hpi)-\-lic, 135, b),

thing xlc (d-{-ge-\-lic), each,


;

xg-hpilc gc-hpilc, -hpclc, -hpylc, any body whoever hpilc-hugu, hpilce-hugu, any one, anyspd-hpdc-spd, whosoever Jri/s-lic, Jjus-lic,Jji/llic,J)y-ltc, of this sort;
Vic (J^

133, 3, a)

all

xlc, clc, ylc.

(d.) Analogous compounds arc found throughout the Teutonic tongues, and to many through most of the Indo-European family.
/

137.

Decay of Pronominal Endings:

Hv^,he6,hit:

(a.) Personal.

Layamon
i,
;

Lay. ?c>ic/j>Orm.
glish ( 38, il, 1)
sing. fem.

and Ormulum have Anglo-Saxon forms, also Chaucer sometimes ich, ik. Pu>thou,late Old En;

g-e>Lay. :5e>ye

eo/>>Lay. :jOM>you.

nom., Ang.-Sax. chronicle (A.D. 1140+) 5caJ> Chaucer schc"^ she, Northern O. Engl. scM (0. Sax. sid, O. Norse sm), Lay. :jeo, :je, Orm.
"^ho
;

hit^Oim.

itt, itj

lable)

> her

plur.

Chancer hire (monosyldat.>acc. Lay. Jmii, hire nom. ace. Lay. ]jc6, paie, Orm. nom. pci^-i^ they gen.

>

Lay. heore, hire, Orm. pc^-^re (heorc), dat. >acc. Orm. pe'^-^m (hemm)'^ them (^ 130, e) her, hir, here (their), hem (them), are still in Chaucer. (b.) Posscssives. Lay. mm^wu>my, 7;m>/j>thy, sometimes before
;

a consonapt; other endings like adjectives, 129 +. The definite article in Layamon retains (c.) Demonstratives.

its

declen-

and precession of a>a>o>e; but indeclinable pe grows more frequent, and in Orm. is estabhshed as in Modern English. Pes those (^ 38, A, 1). changes like the adjective (t^ 129+) plur. ^as ^T'coi Ormulum sing, piss (this), plur. pisse (these) and sing, patt (that), plur. pa Chaucer this, plur. these; that, plur. tho. (those).
sion,

except

dat.

nC^n

>

Layamon pje, p)at throughout, also fem. and plur. Pju > peo; Ormulum Jjatt (=that) throughout, as in English now. For the change
(d.) Relatives.

of who, which to relatives, see Syntax. (e.) Interrogatives. Layamon ivhd (^w6),whes,

(^wdn), neuter lohxt; Ormulum


O. Engl.

luhd, ivhds,

wham C^wdm'),ivhdn dat.^acc. whamm, whatt ;

d> 6.

(y.) Indefinite

Hpilc, hpxder, like adjectives, ^ 129+. an in Layamon is declined throughout, sometimes also

nom. dn^d, and oblique cases one. Ormulum has only masculine endings; Chaucer no inflection, dn^a, as now. d, a, frequent.

NUMERALS.
138.
Cardinals.
1.

73

NUMERALS
Ordinals.
f

Oemulum.

Symbols.

an
)

an
.

forma (fruma, ^resta) | j

tfyrsta,

129

j
ir.

tpegen, tpa, tu 2 J
'1 3,

^^^.

Oder
Jiriclda

<tpa
]Dri,

J)re6

\n-eo, ])rc

4.

feoper
six

fowweri"
fif

feopercta (feurda)
fifta

HI. IV.

5. fif
6,

V.
VI.
VII. Ylll.

sexe
,

sixta
' .

7.

seofon (syfone)
ealita

seofoda (-eda)
ealitoda (-eda)

8. 9.

ehhto
(-en)

nigon

ni^benu

10. tyn, ten tene,(tenn) 11. endleofan (ellefnc)

nigoda (-eda) teoda


endleofta (eo>u, y, e)
tpelfta

IX.

X.

XL
XII.
XIII.

12. tpelf 13. ]3re6t5''iie 14. feopertj'ue


15. fifty ne IG. sixtj^ne 17. seofontj'nc 18. eahtat^-ne 19. nigontj'ne

twellf
Jirittene

J)reuteoda

feoperteuda
fifteoda

XIV.

XV.
XVI.
XVII. XVIIl.

sextcue

sixteoda

seofonteoda

eahtateoda

nigonteoda
twennti^

XIX.

20. tpentig
21.

an and tpentig
l^ritti:^

tpentiguda J un and tpentigoda


I

XX.

| vvt tpentigoda and forma.

30. l^ritig, iDi-ittig

l^i'itigoda

XXX.
XL.
L.

40. feopertig
50. fiftig GO. sixtig
70.
80.

fowwerrti^
fifFti^

feopertigoda
fiftigoda

sexti^

sixtigoda
liundseofontigodia

LX.

hundseofontig

scofennti^

LXX.

hundeahtatig 90. hundnigontig


f

hundealitatigoda

LXXX.
XC.
C.

hundnigontigoda.
liunndredd

100

hundteontig

~|

Ihund

Imndteontigoda
an

and Imndteonti-

101.

hund and an

goda
hundteontigoda and forma

CL

74

ETYiMOLOGY OF CARDINALS.

ETYxMOLOGY OF CARDINALS.
(a.)

75

The numerals

are clusters of radicles, some of which lure beyond the

Zndo-European family.
1-10.

An (one) <^ pronominal stem


<

]> ai-na'^ Sansk. ena, that

e'ka

(e-(na)ka)1 130, b,c. Dva (two), dental radicle for addition, 56. Tri, dental radicle ^ tar, fem. tissar (titar), three emphatic r; compare its

force in comparison, ^ 123, c, and in \/iri, to go further. Katvar, fem. katasar {ka-tatar), four, =:A-a {<Ceka, one) -^tpar (<^tar, titar, three) the sym:

bols for four are

composed of those

for

one and three in Sanskrit and kin-

Kan-kan (five) is a reduplication indidred alphabets, also in Egyptian. one hand. For reduplicacating the completion of one {ka<^eka) count

tion as a sign of completion, see

Greek Grammars

Crosby, ^ 179

see fur-

ther below.

count

Aktan (eight) is ak (one) -{-superlative -ta (^ 123, c), the highest of fingers. Navan (nine) is akin to Sansk. nava-s, Greek vi[o-Q, Latin
7iipe,
;

novu-s, Gothic niu-ji-s, Ang.-Sax. interrogation, negation, stimulation


(ten)

new, now, <^nu, pronominal stem of

< dva-kan = 2X5.


Well-marked
ek'ad

nine begins a

new

quaternion.

Dakan
in

(b.)

identity with the Semitic numerals has


;

been claimed

eka,

Hebrew

s'as',

Hebrew

s'es', six

saptan, Gothic sibun,

He-

has been said that s'es'=^s'e-{-s'e:^2-\-2, and s'eba^= the -tan in saptan being a superlative, as in aktan, finKan in kan-kan is also like Hebrew ishing the count of possibly a week.

brew

s'eba, seven.

It

5'e+(ar)6fl=3-|-4

kam-es kan, and


,

five.

to

(c.)
is

The

The original stem for five has been also thought to be panbe from Sanskrit ^anz, hand. shifting and gravitation in coming down from the Parent Speech
;

generally regular, ^^ 41,38, tables in ^^ 18,19


5.
a/i -j-

Z;>^:>>y, ^ A\,Z,A,B;
(Lithuanic, lika), ten

i'^ig, quasi-gemination, ^ 27,


{d.)

11-19.

Endleofan <
;

leofan

< tihan

^>e,
ward

precession, 38
cl

of which changes to
for I (^ 27,

nl'^ndl, dissimilated gemination of n, the last part from the dropping of the nasal veil to send breath for;

50)

dingua^lingua
kankan'^finf,
(e.) 20-120.

(^ 41, b)

t(<C.d)'^l, unusual shifting h{<^k)'^f, shifting as in

katvar^ Jidvor,
^

'Ocvcrcytuc^ Ulysses; four


;

TpELF < tpd + leofan = 2 -+ing, 41,3,

five, etc.,

41, 3, A, J5;

i^- eo, breaking,

33; 35,

2, a.

10

TDENTiG<//jfiTen

threo-tyne, 3

+ 10, etc., are plain.


2X 10:
shift-

(twain)-f-/(-<t?a^-a?i(ten),

Similar are the forms in -tig up to {hund)lpelftigz^l'iX 10, the great hundred. 60-120. With the forms in -tig from three-score to the great hundred is

A.

Gothic tchund (Latin -ginti, Greek -kovti, Sanskrit -rati^ <C joined hund. dakanta <idakan (ten) -\- -ta superlative, as in saptan, aktan shifting, ^41, 3, A ; nt^nd, instead of nd, through influence of n ; >e, progression to
:

d and

= 7X 10, taihun-tchiind = 10 X 10, etc.

shifting, ^ 18

a~^u,

precession, ^ 38.

hund-seofonta (decade seventh), like changed to -tig through conformation with the smaller numbers, and hund-, whose meaning had faded, was retained as a sign of the second half of the

The Gothic has sibun-tehund The Anglo-Saxon form was once Old Saxon (h)ant-sibunta. The -ta

76
great huiulrcd
;

DECLENSION OF NUMERALS.
it

when countincr by the common hundred, hund manna and scofontig, 170 men.
C/.) 100-1000.
shift in

is

omitted

an

would

Hl'nd, /jM?i(/rcc?< Parent Speech dakan-dakanta,-w\\ic\\ Anglo-Saxon to tihun-tihund ( 41). It has gravitated to hund^ hundred <ihundarc (Latin ccnturia) -\- d, as in eored, legion coped, 1000 is expressed by so dilTerent words in the different tongues herd, etc. that no common origin can be found, and hence it is believed not to have The Lithuanic, Slavonic, and Teutonic, howbeen in the Parent Speech. ever, agree: hith. tukstanti; Shv. tusa7itja; Goi\\. p{isundi<^tuk-<^dakan 10X 100. (ten) -\- santi <^kanti^ hund (hundred)
;

140.
(a.)

Ordinals

arc superlative forms, except oder^ second.

Fruima, /orma, first, sec ^ 126 +; odcr, second, ^ 126, a; -da, -la, -da are all shiftings of superlative -ta, 123, c; -tebda is a repetition of O. te6da<i.tednda (tenth) -tigoda, Ynesic -tigosta, O. Norse -tugasti,
;

Old Saxon), has conformed to -zugosto (no examples in Gothic or the smaller and more frequently recurring numbers in -tedda. The substan-

German

tives

hund and Jmsend had

{b.)

The

not developed ordinals in Anglo-Saxon. formation of ordinals is similar in principle throughout the Indoj

European family.

Declension.
141.

Cardinals.
2,

1,

dn,

is

declined, 13G.
3,

N.^A.^V.

tpegen tpa tu<tpa


tpegra, tpcgu,

lKt(-y,-ie) ]3re6 J)re6

(-ia, -io)

Gen
D.^Inst..

J)re6ra
]3riin
btc,

tpam>tpieni
both.
fpelf,

(-ym)

Like tpegen decline begen, bd,


4-19.

Cardinals

from feoper to

and

iv om.

preo-tyne to

nigon-tpne, are used as indeclinable, but are also declined like istem nouns of the First Declension {byre^ 84), oftenest when

in^t.feoperum. umlaut, 32, 2.

used as substantives: nom. ace. voc. /eopere, gen. Reopen?, dat. Such forms oi ealita are not found. Tpie<^te6n,
{a.) Those in -tyne have also sometimes a neut. nom. and ace. in -w]>-o, or -a: fiflyn-u, -o, -a (fifteen) preoteno (^thirteen). (^!>*>C.) {b.) They are quasi-adjectives like Dene, ^ 80.
;

in -tig are declined as singular neuter nouns: prltlg (thirty), geu. prUiges / or, as adjectives, have plural gen.

20-120.

Forms

-rd, dat.

-um :

100-1000.

prttigrd, pritigum. likepon?, 73; declined Ilmid,


n., is
;

hundred

siu(\

p'dsend, like scip, 70

\>\.pilsend-u, -o,

-e,

-a (Psa. Ixvii, 17), 393.

THE VERB.
142.

77
ad-

Ordinals have always the regular weak forms of the


always strong.
in

jective, except oder (second),

Indefinites, 130, 2,
:

143. MuLTiPLiCATivES are found


feald, two-fold
1
;

-feald (fold)

dnfeald, simple

tpi-

/w5en(f-7nZMOT,thousandfoldly.

dative

may be expressed by repeating cardinals, or by a seofon and seofon, seven by seven bi tpdtn, by twos. 145. In answer to how often, numeral adverbs are used, or an ordinal or
:

44. Distributives

thrice

cardinal with sid (time) xne, once tp^pa {tpiga), twice ; pripa {piga), ; priddan side, the third time ; feoper sidum, four times.
: ;

on preo, 147.
is

146. For adverbs of division the cardinals are used, or ordinals with d&l : in three (parts) seofedan diil, seventh part.
;

An
:

ordinal before hcalf(ha,\i)

numbers the whole of which the half

counted

he

and (the)
derstood
:

tliird

pxs pa tpd gear and Imdde healf, he was there two years The whole numbers are usually un(year) half=2i years.

year

= 18i years. A similar idiom


:

he ricsode mgonteode heaJf gear, he reigned half the nineteenth is used in German and Scandinavian.

148. Sum, agreeing with a numeral,


ten gear,
it is
;

is indefinite, as in English: sume some ten years, more or less limited by the genitive of a cardinal a partitive of eminence code cahta sum, he went one of eights: with

seven attendants or companions.

VERB.
149. The notion signified by a verb root may be predicated of a subject or uttered as an interjection of command, or (2) it may be spoken of as a substantive fact or as descriptive of some per-

son or thing.

case proper verb stems are formed, or denote time, mode, and voice and sufiixes (personal endings) are used to indicate the person and number of the subject: thus is made up the verb proper or finite verb. In the
tlie first

In

auxiliaries used, to

second case a noun stem


stantive or adjective. Voices. 150.

is

formed, and declined in cases as a subactive represents the subject as act-

Two

The

The active has inflecing, the passive as aifected by the action. tion endings for many forms, the passive only for a participle. Other passive forms help this participle with the auxiliary verbs

com
It is

(am), beon^ pesan, peordan.

(w.)

The middle
in

voice represents the subject as affected by

its

own

action.

Anglo-Saxon by adding pronouns, and needs no paradigms. expressed The indicative states or asks about a fact, 151. Six Modes.

the subjunctive a possibility

the inqjerative

commands

or

in-

78
treats
;

VERB .CON JUG ATION. CLASSES.

the infinitives (and gerunds) are substantives, the partiCertain forms of possibility arc expressed by ciples adjectives. modal verbs with the inlinitive. They need separate auxiliary discussion, and arc conveniently called a potential mode.
152.
fect.

Five Tenses. Present^ hniyer feet ^future perfect^ p>luper'Tlie present and iraper'fect have tense stems the future is
.,

expressed by the present, or- by aid of sceal (shall) or pille (will) the perfect by aid of the present of hahban (have) or, with some intransitives, heon (be), pesan or peorctan (be) ; the pluperTect by aid of the imper'fect of hahban, heon, pesan, or peordan.
;

153.

Two

Numbers, singular and

plural.

Persoxs, ^>s^, second, and third. A icwsQ-stem is that part of a verb 155. Stems and Themes. to which the signs of mode, person, and number were added in that tense. The xcrh-stem is that to which the tense signs were added. The theme of any part of a verb is so much of it as is un154. TiiEEE

changed
150.

For roots, 57. in the inflection. The Principal Parts are the present

infinitive,

the im-

perfect indicative first persons, and the passive participle. Verbs are classified for conjugation 157. Conjugation.

by

the stems of the imperfect tense. Strong Verbs express tense by varying the root vowel weak verbs, by composition. Strong verbs in the imperfect indicative
;

\}j

singular first person have the root vowel unchanged, or changed progression or by contraction. The vowels are

Xo

change.

GROWTH OF ABLAUT.
(a.)

79
is

The

variation of letters in the five first classes

called

Ablaut;

it

grammars
2.-/;
3.

Its beginnings maysprang from gravitation (^ 38) and compensation (^ 37). be seen in the other Indo-European tongues, plainest in Sanskrit. Sanskrit have ten conjugation classes; the present stems are, 1.

V+a;

Reduplicated

V;

4.

V+i;
10.

5.

V+"; Q-V+a';
;

7.

V with n
to the
all

inserted;

8.\/-\-u;
first

9.\/+ni;

V+cy'a.

Anglo-Saxon strong verbs

correspond to the
(4th
1)

or sixth class, a few to the fourth

weak verbs

and tenth.

Sanskrit reduplicated preterites (perfects) are formed

alike from the root

by prefixing

its first letters.

Presents.
Sense.

Root.

Conj.
G.
C.
i

Sanskrit.

Greek.

Latin.

Gothic..

throw.
sit.

kar
sad

kir-vJnxi; tiT-a,'mi<.V tar, G, step over,

sid-a'mi
k'e't-ami, e -mi

("C-o/xai
tl-jii

sed-eoj sit-an
i-re
]

Jcnow, go. k'it,

1, 2. G.

show.
l:noic.

dio.

dic-a'mi, Causal base de'9-aja

iHK-vvj.11

dic-o J tei teih-an

bo'dh-ami
bhug'-a'mi, Caus. hose bho'g'-aja

irtvQ-onai
(pevy-iii

vaks'-ami

80

COMPARISON OF ABLAUT. CONTRACTION.

(r.) In Sanskrit these vowel changes have no meaning, but arc mostly mechanical results of the accent: yet, as the place of the accent depends on the weight of the prefixes and suffixes in which the meaning resides, the vowel changes come to be signs of this meaning, and, as the prefixes and

suffixes decay, the sole signs of

it.

The vowels

are the vehicles of emotion

signs of relation fuses thought and feeling, and The Teutonic races, like the Semitic, gives power for oratory and poetry. found this fusion congenial, and in tlic earliest Gothic the ablaut is already a
;

and harmony

to

make them

fundamental law of the language. Physiology teaches that progression may spring from accent, that precession may take place in unaccented syllables
of course, and in accented syllables from compensation or shifting comparison of Anglo-Saxon and English proves these possibilities to be important facts in the history of language the Sanskrit verb shows that they are the
:

^^ 37, 38, 41. The changes of the i-roots Sanskrit those of the a-roots are only occasional in the present even in the sixth class, and that class is small. It seems, then, that a-roots of the Sanskrit sixth class were drawn to ablaut by
facts

from which sprang Ablaut.

and

ti-roots are established in

conformation with j-roots and

?<-roots,

and that a-roots of the

first

class con-

formed after ablaut was


the singular

except such as attained the Fourth Teutonic Conjugation, where the whole perfect conforms in progression to
fully established,

0<a.

and past participle have or progression as in Sanskrit {^^ 18, 38). The imperfect singular has a second progression in the second, third, and fourth conjugations, because it has gravitated to a monosyllable.
the

(/.) In Gothic, the present, the imperfect plural,

same precession

( "-.)

The

ping of
process
other.

n
in

e of imperfect plural tcnimd is from ani, a compensative dropand lengthening of a, the result of which is modified by ^ a which we may see how umlaut and contraction run into each

{h.) Imperfect plural and past participle ?(< is in liquid and double consonant roots. The first consonant is almost always a liquid. The effort for

the two consonants takes the place of accent in part. For the assimilating effect of m, 71, 1, r, see ^ 35, 2. In Sanskrit, also, a goes to u in connection

with
In

r,

m,

n.

(j.)

Anglo-Saxon and the other Teutonic tongues the changes from


O. Fries., 38.

Gothic ablaut are explained by umlaut, breaking, and shifting.

159.
cation

Contraction.

Roots

incapable of progression kept the redupli-

had shifted to it (>^ 41, 4) and it had taken progression (Gothic i<^di); and in Anglo-Saxon they had contracted the reduplication and root to a uniform eo or e.
till

after the accent

(a.) Such roots are those in a-j-two consonants, and in vowels havAdd, also, a few in Gothic e, al, ing the second progression (^ 38). Hence Grimm's perf. di-6 : let-an (let), Idi-lut ; lai-an (blame), Zai-/y.

Conjugation Classes from the vowels of the present and (im)perfect:

CONTEACTIOX. COMPOSITION.
Pres.
Pcrf.

81
Pres.
;

Pres.

Perf.

Pres.
;

Perf.

Pevf.

Gothic... (l)a

ai-a;

(2)

ai,

ai-ai

(3)

au-,
6,

ai-au

(4)

e,

ai-e

"j

O.Saxon

{\) 0.+,

ie>e;
e;
ia;

(2)
(2) (2)

e,
ei,

ie>e;
e;
ia;

(3) (3)

io>ie; (4)
io; io;

a, a, a,

ie>e;/
c;
ia;

0. iVorse (1) a+, 0.^. G. (l)a + ,

an,

(4) (4)

ei,

(3)ou>6,
(3)
Pies.

Ang.Sax. (\) ii+, eO>o;


Pres.

(2) a,
Ferf.

e6>e;

ea,
Perf.

e6>e;

(4) cfe>e,
Pres.

e6<u
Perf.

Gothic...

(5)

ai,

ai-6

(G)

e,

ai-6;

6,

ai-6.

O.Saxon
0. Norse

6>uo, io>ic.
6,
e.
io.

O.H.G.
Ang.Sax.
(i.)
a.

uo,

+ p,

ed

+ p;

ci;>t',

eO>C';

6,

e6>0.
O. H.

and

in the following

Traces of the process of contraction are found Anglo-Saxon words


:

in

German

Gothic ^aWare, hold, Gothic stdutan, strike, Goihic hditan, call, Gothic redan, rede, Gothic letan, let,
Gothic Idikan,
leap,

jiert.

hdikald

,-

O.ll.G. haltan, heialtyJiialfyhialt.


;

perf. stdistdut
T^&rt.

O.H.G.

stuzan, steruz (r<,st)~;:>steoz, stioz.

hdihait ;
;

A.-Sax. hdtan, hcht<,ha!hdt.

perf. r airoth
perf. /aiWi;

A.Sax. rxdan,

re6rd<!.rii;r6d.
3,

pertldildik;

A.-Sux. Ixtan, kort (r<il, ^ il, A.-Sax. Idcan, le6lc<laildc.

A)<l![lot.

A.-Sax. on-drsedan, on-dreord, dread.

The

els together.

repeated consonants weaken, and finally fall out and let the vowIn the Anglo-Saxon relics the first root consonant is saved

rise to several different

by metathesis with the root vowel. These contractions at first gave vowels and diphthongs found in O. H. German.
in

Conformation
or e in

Ang.-Saxon.

analogy with ablaut has brought them to a uniform eo O. Fries, presents a, e,e, a, 6, e; perf. i, e. 53.

160. Composition.

the verb stem de<Cdide, imperfect of don, do


(<z.)

Derivatives form the imperfect by suffixing to h/fo-de ^=did love.


:

This formation

is

common

to,

and peculiar

to,

the Teutonic

Anglo-Saxon verb stems: -^a>^e>^>e> (Latin -t, Conj. IV.), and -o^(ci, w)>e (Latin -a, Conj. I.), both from an original -aja, Sanskrit Class Tenth, Greek
tongues.

Two

suffixes of derivation appear in

pure verbs.

Gothic, nasjan,

sa.vc

jiasi-da, ])\nr.

nasi-dcdum:

salbori, salve; salbo-da,

salho-dedum.

O. Sax., nerjan, save; neri-da, ncri-dun: scawd-n, see; scawo-da, scawodun.

A, -Sax. neri'an, save; ncre-dc,ncrc-don; seal/ian,sa.\\e; scalf6-de,-don. O. Fries, nera, save ner{e)-de, ner{e)-don ; salvja, salve salva-de, -don. O.Norse telja, tell tal-da, tol-dum : kalla, call kalla-da, kollu-dum. O.II.G. norj an, save; neri-ta, neri-tumes : salpon, salve; salp6-ta, salpo;

tumes.

Gothic and 0.
to the Latin

II.

German have

also a stem in -di, -c, corresponding

Second Conjugation.

82
(i.)

TENSE STEMS. I'EliSONAL ENDINGS.


Derivatives
in

Sanskrit have only a periphrastic perfect, one


;

form of which has kar (do) as its auxiliary enclitic the Greek passive first aorist is compoiinilcd with 0=:dc {i^ 108); the Latin first, second,

and fourth conjugations compound with


doc(e)ui, audl-vi.

fiii

(be)>-r/,

-ni

amd-vi,

161.

Tense Stems.

The

present stem suffixes

or

ia

to the root.

The

imperfect is from the old perfect, which repeated (reduplicated) the The Parent Speech liad also an aorist stem prefixing to the root a root.

demonstrative radicle called the augment, and an imperfect prefixing a similar augment to the present stem. Other tense stems were formed by composition, as
s.

future with as

(to be) or

hhu

(to be).

162. Suffixes. The indicative and imperative suffix the perthe subjunctive prolonged the stem to exsonal endings to the tense stem press doubt or hesitation by suffixing to it a for present contingency, id or i The Teutonic subjuncfor past contingency or desire (the optative mode).
;

Mode

tives are

from the optative.

163.

Peksonal Endings
^ 130.

are from the

same

radicles as the personal

pronouns.

SiKGULAE.

PERSONAL ENDINGS. PRESENT TENSE.

83

165. Present tense, -y/ nam; tense stem, noma. Sanskrit not yet idenwith the others, though put with them by Pott, Benfey, Diefenbach Latin -emo in ad-imo, etc., also put here by Bopp, Diefenbach.
tified
;

Singular.

84

STRONG VERBS. INDICATIVE.


Imperfect.
Singular.

Plural.

ic

nam, I took,
tlioit

J)ii

name, he nam, he took.

tookcst.

pe numow, we took. ge namow, 2/e ZooZ;.


hi namo?i, ^Aey
^oo^'.

Futm-e.
shall or ic sceal (pille)
J)li
tpt'ZZ

fa^e.

nima.
nimaw.

pe BCvXon
ge
hi sculopi
Perfect.

(pillac/)

niman.

scealZ (pil^)
(pillf)

sculo^i (pillar?)
(pillttrf)

nimaw.
nima?i.

ht sceal

mman.

Transitive Form.
Sing.

Intransitive Form.

I have

tahen.
ic

/ have {am) come.


Qoni cumeji,
ear^ cume.
is cxxxnen.

ic hceblbe
J)<i

numew.
iimnen.

hoefsi (haf(^sZ) hoefc/ (haf(^(/)

]^)tl

he

numew.

he

Plur.

pe habba^ numew. ge habbac? numew.


hi habbaf^

pe

si7id (sindon)

cnmene.

numen.

ge Bind (sindon) cumene. hi &ind (sindon) cwmene.


Pluper'fect.

Sing.
ic haef(?e
J)ti

I ^^^

taken.
ic pa3s
]3tl

/ had {was) come.

numen.
nume^i.

cumew.

hxMest nume^z.
haef(7e

he

p&re cumew. he poes cumew..

Plur.

pe hv&fdon nuvaen. ge hviMon wxmen.


hi hdiidon

pe p^row cumene.
ge ^sbron cwmene.
hi pjeroJi cumewe.

numew.

Other Forms

nam, nom ; namon, -an (d'^o)

sceal, seel

scul-on, 'un,

-an; sceol-on, -un, -an; pille, pile, pilt (i'^y); hwbbe, hebbe, habbe, haf-a, -u, -0 ; hafest; hwfed; hsebbad; eom,eam; is, ys ; sind, sint, sindan {i'^y, ie, eo), ear-on, -un. For com may be used peorde or

beom

for

pxs, peard (^ 178).

IMPERFECT INFLECTION, STRONG AND WEAK.


166.
SiNGULAK.
1.

85

Perfect Stem na-nam^ Latin theme eni-im'^ em.


Sanskrit.

Parent Speech.

Greek,
ve-vsji-rjica
"j

Latin.

Gothic.

O. Saxon.

O. Norse.

na-nam-(m)a na-nam-a

em-i

nam
nam-<

nam
nam-i

nam
nam-?

3.

na-nim-i-tlia> > vt-vtfi-rjKag nem-i-thd J !na-nan-tha, vi-vEji-rjKE na-nam-(t)a na-na'm-a

em-(is)ti

em-it

nam

nam

nam

Plukal.
1.

na-nam-masi nem-i-ma
na-nam-tasi

ve-vtu-ijKa/iev
ve-vtfi-i'iKaTi
ve-vs]i-i]icd(jt

em-mius
em-(is)tis

nem-wm nam-are mim-um


nam-wre na,m-ud

2. 3.

nem-a
nem-us

na-nam-anti

nanx-up em-(er)unt nt^m-im


-ut, -un.

nam-ww nam-a

O. H. Ger. nam, nam-i,

nam ; ndm-umes,

O. Fries, endings are

like Ang.-Saxon, nam^nom. A.-Sax. PLURALS have sometimes -um


(a.)

( 196), often -un,

The

reduplication sets at

work compensation

and see ^ 170, c. (^ 37, 4), and all

the singular endings are lost except in the second person a vanishing -e <^ -i. O. Sax. and O. H. Ger. have -i <C Sanskrit -i-tha, and a stem
like the plural.

unchanged stem
present, and
it

Gothic and O. Norse have -t<^-tha and the singular -t is found in some Anglo-Saxon preteritive verbs
:

scealt, etc., ^ 167.


is

Weak

verbs in Gothic have -s<^-ih<C-t, like the

of preteritive verbs: cunnan, imp. cudes ; so

found in Anglo-Saxon, oftenest in the new imperfect ZcS^^e^, observedst brohtes,


;

broughtest; seaWe^, gavest, etc. (^ 168); and in Northumbrian; -st like the present. verbs generally strengthen the -s
the
for

weak

Plural. first and


euphony

m^n
third.
;

>

is shifting (41, b)

the second person conforms with


-u-,

Sanskrit
-o-,

-i-,

Gothic

connecting vowel, inserted

-u-

167. Future. Sceal is a preterito-present, 212; pille is irregular in the singular after the same analogy, ^ 40 niman is the infinitive. For the history and use of these periphrastic forms, see Syntax.
;

>

precession, ^ 38.

168.

Perfect and Pluperfect.


is /'.'ps,

Hxhhe,

verb, ^ 183; eom, imperf.


ciple.

irregular, ^ 213;

numen

imperf. hs'fde, is a weak is the past parti-

For

history and use, see Syntax.

Weak
Gothic.

Imperfect ha?fde <C-\/ haf-ia-{- dc (^ 160).

86

STRONG
1G9.

VERB SUBJUNCTIVE.
Subjunctive Mode.
Present Tense.

Singular.
ic

Plural

nime, (if)
nim<?, {if)

I take.
he take.

J)ft

nime, (if) thou take.

pe nirae^i, (//") we ge mme7i, (if) ye


hi

take. take.

he

mmen,

(if) they take.

Imperfect.

name, (if) I took. J)<i name, (if) thou took. he name, (if) he took.
ic

pe n'dmen, ge name,

(if) we took. (if) ye took. hi naraen, (if) they took.

Future.
(//) / shall {will) take.
ic scyle (pille)
J)<i

nimaw.

scyle (pille)
(pille)

he scyle

mman. mman.

pe scj\en ge scyle^i

(pillew)
(pillew)

nimaw. nimaw.

hi scyle^z (pillew) niraaw.

Perfect
Transitive Form.
Sing.

Intransitive Form.
{If)
ic st
])ti st

(^) ^

have taken.

I have

(be) come.

ic

haebbe nurae^z.

cume?i.

J)11

hsebbe nwraen.

he haebbe numen.
Plur.

he

s^

cumew. cumew.

pe hsebbeji nwmen. ge hsebbew wxmen.


hi hsebbe?i nume^?.

pe ge
hi

sm cume?2e. sm cume^ie. sm cume^ie.


(If) I had (were) come.

Phiper'fect.
Sing.
ic
((/")
-^ ^'^'^

ic/:cn.

bajMe nume?z.
hajftZie

ic pajre
l)tl

cume?i.

J)11

nume?2.

he hds^de numew,
Plur.

pre cwmen. he p&re cumew.


pe -p&ven cumewe. ge -p&ren cumewe.
hi -p&ren cumewe.

pe hd&^den numew. ge hdi^den nume?i.


hi hviiden nuraew.

Other Forms
habbon
;

scyle, scyl-en, -on, -an, -e (y'^i, u, co); hsebben, habban,

si,

sin

(t^y,
;

te, eb,

ig)

p&r-en, -an, -on (>e).


^ 179.

For

si

may

be bed, pese, peorde

^ox

pxre, purde.

SUBJUNCTIVE.
[ 1G8.

87

Continued from page 85. J

Sanskrit da-dhd-mi <i-\/ dha, Greek ri-Gij-fit, does not occur as an independent verb in Gothic, and the form is supplied by comparison. The reduplication has given rise to a secondary stem, Sanskrit dadh, Gothic dad, O. H. Ger. tat, from which the plural and second singular are formed with the ablaut of the first conjugation. For second singular -s, see
166.

In haf-ia-de~^hwfde, ia drops and -y/a shifts (^ 41).

IVO.

Subjunctive Pkesext

< Optative

Ste^i nama-i ( 162).

88

IMPERATIVE.NOUN FORMS.
172. iMPERATivfe

Mode.

Sing.
2. nira, take.

Plor.
xiyaxad^ take.

173. Infinitive.

Gekund.
lu muxanne^ to take.

nima??, to take.

Peesext Pakticiple.
mmende^ taking.
174.

Past Paeticiple.
mune?i, taken.

Impekative Stem nama.


Gothic.

niima Pluk. nama-ta


SiNO.

Sanski-it.

Greek.
v'nii.,

O.Saxon.

O.Norgc.

O.II. G.

Latin erne

nim
mmi-]j

nim
nima-cZ

nem
nemi-rf

nim
nema-

vkfie-re,

Latin emi-te

Plural

-tata>

/a

>i

(^ 38)

>rf

(shifting, 41, c).

O.F.=A.

Sax.

175,
1.

Noux
2.
.

FoEMS.
Gerund. nam-\-ana-\-ja.
nira-a

Infinitive 7ia7n-\-ana;

1.

Dative. ..<
( 120),

Cnam-anaj-a) {vEii-iiv<i-Evai\

\ 2.

(79,a)

M H
i
(

>ium-ara

ncm-a

nem-an
nem-ewne
7

(70,)

nain-anija, Latin em-endo,


.
,

O.Saxon iiira-annia>-anna.
)
.

3.

Pr.Part. nama-nt
(bhuff-na
{

(v'suo-vr-og

iaf. cme-nt-is )

7 nima-nd ) mma.-nd(a)-s

7^

nema-?^f/-i

nemn-nt-i

LP. Part,
{Strong.)
').

) V J
)

CrtK-vo-v (born))
> I

(bent)

do-nu-m

numa-n-s

numa-w
^
.

numi-n?i

fga-nom-I
{_

(gift))
) )
,

an-er

P. Part. ( . . ,, ^, , ^ ^iia(m)-ta (Weak.) (


(a.)
(b.)

iveu-Tj-Tv-c
] I

.^^

nasi-/; (a) s

j.

(gi-)neri-d

tal-d-r

gn-ncn-i

em(p)-tu-s

The
;

Gerund -enne^-ende

dative case ending is gone in Teutonic infinitives. 38. {^ 445, 2, nn^nd, ^ 27, 5), so in O. N.
;

M.

H. Ger.

Friesic, O. Sax., and O.

H. Ger. have a

genitive nim-annias,

-an-nas {-es)\ nem-ennes ; and M. II. German has gen. nem-endes. added suffixes contained in (c.) To these stems of the participles are
the case endings.
id.)

^ 104-106.

261, the participle in -na in Sanskrit but


all

The Greek verbals in -t6q are not counted participles (Hadley, c). Only weak verbs have -da, -da, in Teutonic. Few verbs have
;

only relics are found in


-0

Greek and

Latin,

the strong verbs use

it

in Teutonic.

(e.)

Weak

stems

in -ia

and

have

i,

c,

ig or igc, before -an, -annc,

-end.

^ 165, d.

17G.

Peeiphkastic Conditional Foems.


Potential Mode.

Modal verbs magan, cunnan, motan, durran, dare, must, can, may,

pillan, sculan, pltari^utan,


will,
shall,
let us.

PERIPHRASTIC CONDITIONAL FORMS.


Present Tense.
Sing. Indicative Forms.

89

Subjunctive

Forms
-^

masg, can, mot, dear meaht, canst, most, dearst

mxg,
Plue.

can, mot, dear

nunaji.

msege, cunne, mote, durre msege, cunne, mote, durre msege, cunne, mote, durre

jj

niman.

mdgon, cunnon, moton, durron

msbgen, cunnen, moten, durren, utan

gjj^.Q

Imperfect Tense, Indicative Forms.


ciide,

meahte,

moste, dorste, polde, sc(e)olde

meahtest, cudest, mostest, dorstest, poldest, sc(e)oldest

meahte, cude, moste, dorste, polde, sc{e)olde Pluk.

niman.

meahton, cudon, moston, dorston, poldon, sc(e)oldon


Imperfect Tense, Subjunctive Forms.
Sing, meahte, cude, moste, dorste, polde, sc(e)olde

niman.

Plur. meahten, cuden, mosten, dorsten, polden, sc{e')oldcn

Gerundial Form.
I

am

to take

= I must or ought to take or be taken.


Pluk.

Sing.
ic

com
eart ^ to nimanne.
is

pe sind ge sind
hi sind ^ to

Jm
he

nimanne.

177.
1.

Othee Peripheastic Foems.


com (am)

+ present
is
;

participle.

Present
Imperfect

eom, eart,
beam,

smd
;

nimende.

pxs, pskre, pses


bist,

p&ron nimende.

Future
Infinitive Future...
2.

bid; beod nimende.

sceal pesan nimende.

beon nimende.

don

(do)

+ infinitive,
;

406, a.

Other Forms
meahtes
;

meaht, meahte, etc. (ea'^i) mag-on, -urn, -un, -an ((z>aO; mcaht-on, -um, -an, -en, -e (^^ 166,170); can, con; const; cunn-on, -un, -an ; cudes ; cud-on, -an, -en ; mot-on, -um, -un, -an, -en ; mot-en, -an, -e ; most-es ; most-um, -on, -an ; durre {u^y); durr-on,
:

-an; dorst-on, -en; poldes


change (^ 178).

sc(e)old-on, -un, -an, -en, -e.

pold-on, -um, -un, -an, -e; sc(e)oldcs; Forms of com, peorde, and bcom inter-

90

CONJUGATION OF THE PASSIVE VOICE.


17
SiNGULAK.
Present and Perfect, 7
8.

Passive Voice.
Plural.

Indicative Mode.

am

taken or liaoe been taken.

ic

eom* (peordc) numew.


is

})t\ QViVt

he

{pcov&est) iwixwen. (peovda/) wnxnen.

pe ge

tmmene. (peorda^) numene. hi suid{on) (peoi-dat?) numewe.


sind{o7i) (peorda^;?)

sind{o7i)

Past and Pluperfect, I ivas taken or had been taken.


ic pa;s

(peard) uumew.

p&re (purde) numcw. hu pies (peard) numen.


}h1

pG p&row (purdon) ge pffiro?i (purdow)


hi p^Bro?^ (purdoji)

rwxraene.
rxwrnene.

numene.

Future.
1.

shall he taken.

ic
})11

be6(>n)* numen.
bis^

numen.

he

bif? nume?i.

pe beoc^ numene. ge beo^ numene. hi beo^ numene.


2.

shall or

ivill

be taken.

ic sceal (pille)
]3ll

beon numen.

pe sculon (inWad) beon numene.

sceal^ (pi^O ^g^'^ nume?z.


(pille)

ge

sculon- (pillat^)

h6 sceal

beon numen.
Perfect,

hi sculon (pillarf)

beon numene. beon numene.

/ have been

taken.

jc

com geporden numen.


eart geporden
IS

jm
he

numen.

geporden numen.
Pluperfect,

pe sind{on) gepordene numene. ge sind(on') gepordene numene. hi sind{on) gepordene numene.

I had been

taken.

tc

pxs geporden numen. pu pxre geporden numen. he pxs geporden numen.


IVO.

pe pieron gepordene numene. ge pwron gepordene numene. hi psivon gepordene numene.

Subjunctive Mode.
Present.
(//")

he taken.

Sing.
ic
(l)tl,

Plur.

he) beo numen.

pe

(ge, hi)

beon numene.

* The forms of/?eor(fe, eom, and beom interchange.

PERIPHRASTIC CONDITIONAL FORMS.


Past.
(If) I
Sing.
ic Qjti, be) -psbre
loere taken.

91

Pluk.

numm.
180.

pe

(ge, hi) -psbven

numme.

Imperative Mode.
Plck.

Sing.

-Se thou taken:


2)tl

Be ye

taken.

pes

nvLxnen.

pesaf? ge mvaiene.

181. Infinitive.

Participle.
nume^i, taken.

bed;* numen, to be taken.

182. PePvIpheastic

Conditional

( 176).

Potential Mode.
Present Tense.
Sing.

Indicative Forms.

Subjunctive Forms.

maeg (&c.) meaht (&c.)


mseg (&c.) Plcr.
)-

bem

numen{e).

mxge m&ge m&ge

(&c.)
(Szc.)

"j

(&c.)

> Zieore

nwmen(e).

mdgon (&c.)

mxgen
Imperfect.

(&c.)

Sing.

meahte (&c.) meahtest (&c.) meahte (&c.)


Pluk.

meahte (&c.) meahte (&c.)


Jeore

numen{e).

7neahte (&c.)

icon numen{e).

meahton (&c.)

mcahien (&c.)

For ieon

ieo, 5J, /'ese,

found />e5an or peordan. The forms interchange of peorde ; of piiire, purde ; of /;e j, 5eo, peord. Bist, bid (i >y) ^Ifric's grammar has indie, prcs. coot, imperf />a.'j, ieo, beud {e6<Ci6).
(infinitive) is
;

fut. Jeo, perf. /?^

fulfremedllce (completely), pluperf. pxs gefyrn (forsubjunctive for a wish, pres; bed gyt (yet), imperf. p&re, pluperf. pxre fulfremedllce ; for a condition, pres. eom nu (now), imperf. y^ic^, fut. bed gyt (yet); imperative si; infinitive beun.

merly)

92
183.

CONJUGATION OF WEAK VERBS.

WEAK

VERBS. (Conjugation
Active Voice.

VI.)

Pres. IxFISITIVE.

Impekp. Indicative.

Passive Participle.
nerec?.

savej hyran, hear ;


neYia)i,

\\jxde;
lufoc?e/

hyrec?.

lufzaw, love;

Indicative Mode.
Present (and Future) Tense
( 165, d).

I
Singular.
ic nevie, hjre, lufige.

save, hear, love.

Plural.

\>A nevest, hyrcst, lufdst.


lie nercct, hjrect,

lufdd.

pe neviad, hyrad, \nflad. go neviad, hyrad, Infiad. hi neviad, hyrad, hifiad.

Imperfect ( 160, 166, 168).

/
ic nevede,

saved, heard, loved.

hyvde, \ufode. J)^ nevedest, hyvdest, lufddest.

he nevede, hyvde, lufdde.

pe neredon, hyrdon, Ixxiodon. ge neredon, hyrdon, Iniodon. hi neredon, hyrdon, \nfddo7i.

Future (167).
/
ic sceal (pille)
l^li

shall (will) save, hear, love.

sceal^ (pi'O
(pille)

nerian, hyra7i,
\ufian.

pc senior ge sculori

(pillar^)
{j)i\\a(t)

nerian^

y )

hyran^
Infian.

he sceal

hi scvi\07i (pillac/)

Perfect (168).
Transitive.
Intransitive.

/ have
Sing.
ic
1311

saved, heard, loved.


,
''

I have (am)

returned.

hsebbe
hiefd, haf(^

hxfst, hafdst i
)

'

-,

ic
J)11

eoni
eart
is

>
)

he

j^'4

gecyrref?.

he

Plur.

pe sind (sinclon) pe hahhad J hahhad > neved, hyred, Infdd. ge sind (sindon) ge
hi habbaf^
)

>
)

gecyrrec?e.

hi sind (sindon)

For vala, iga, igea, ga interchange, and ie, ige, ge : o'^(d, ?i)>plur. e. riations of auxiliaries and endings, see corresponding tenses of strong verbs.

CONJUGATION OF

WEAK

VERBS.

93

Pluper'fect (168).
Transitive.
Intransitive.

7 had
Sing.
ic boefc/e
J)11

saved, heard, loved.


\

I had
ic pees
J)t\
J
>

(loas) returned.

\i^Mest
hsefc^e

> nerec?, hjref?, lufoc?.


)

pare

gecyrrec?.

he

be pjES

Plur.

pe \\X:idon ge hvd^don
hi hdiidon

> nerec?, hyved., lufoc?.


)

pe ge

j)ivon

psero^i > gecyrrecZe.


)

bi pasro^i

184.

SuBjuxcTivE

Mode

Present ( 170). (7/*) I save, hear, love.


Singular.
ic
\

Plural.

]3ll >

nerze, byre, lufj^ye.

pe ge
bt

\ nere'ew,

hfven^

Ixxiigen.

be

(//")

Imperfect ( iTl). 7 saved, heard, loved.

IC
J)<i
[

nerecZe, byr<?e,

luKde.

ge
hi

nQxeden^ hynden^

\\xi6de7i.

he

Future

( 1G7).

{If) I shall {will) save, hear, love.


ic scyle (pille) T.A 1 / -11 \ scyle (pille)
, f
.

pe
byraw, .y

scyle^i (pillew)
,

, f

^a

nerza?i, '
^"^'''''

-n

ner^c^, hyr-

he scyle

^ ^

(pille)

hi scyle^i (pillew)

an,

lufi'a??.

Perfect (168).
Transitive.
{If I) have saved, &c.
Sing,

Intransitive.

{If I) have {be) returned.

haebbe

neref?, h5're(7,

Plur. haebbe^i

lufwZ.

Phiper'fect (168).
{If 7) /jad saved, &c.
Sing, hoefde
)

(7/*

7) had {were) returned.


f

nerecZ, bj'rcf?,
lufof?.

pai

-'^

Plur. hvsfden

gecyrrcc?(e).

9J:

CONJUGATION OF WEAK VERBS.WEAK PEESENTS.


185.

Imperative

Mode

( 174).

Save, hear, love.


Sing.
2. nere,

Plur.

bjr, Infd.
186. Infinitive

ueviad, hyrad, \nUact.

Mode

( 1V5).

To

save, hear, love.

Present, nevian^nerigan, ncrif/ean, nergcin;

hyran/ lufian'^

IwUgan, lufigean.

Gerund, to ncvia7ine, hyrarme, Infkmiie.


Participles.
Saving, hearing, loving.

Present. nQviende, hyrende, Ixxilgende. saved. heard. loved.

Past
187.

nerec?,

hyred,

(ge-) \nfod.

voice of

The sjpecial weak verbs

perij^hrastic

forms and the whole passive are conjugated with the same auxiliaries as

those of strong verbs ( 176-182).

188.
(a.)

PRESENTS
stems in
-ia
;

(Weak).

Like neriaii
helian.,

inflect
;

from short roots


;

derian.,

Imrt

;
;

cover
;

hegian, hedge

scerian^ apportion

spyrian^

Jninian, thunder, etc. in -ia from short roots have (5.) compensative gemination of their last consonant where it preceded i (throughout the present, excej^t in the indicative singular second and third, and the imperative singular) ci cc, di > dd, fi > hb^
speer

sylian, soil

But many stems

>

glycg,

liyll, etc.; indicative lecge {<legie), lay,

lecgad {<legiad)',

legest, leged; subjunctive lecge, lecgen; imperative lege^

lecgad; infinitive Zec^a?^/ part. pres. ^ec^ewc?e/ part, past /eye<?. So reccan, reach ; Jireddan, rescue ; hahhan, have ; seUan, give ; telkm, tell ; frem'inan, frame clynnan, clang ; dvppan, dip; cnys;

san, knock
(c.)

settan, set, etc.


inflect

Like h^ran
deal
; ;

stems in
;

-^a>-e>
;

from long roots:


;

dixilan,

deman, deem

helwpan, leave

msenan, mean
;

sprengan, spring
kiss, etc.

styrman, storm

cennan, bring forth


e.

cyssan,

Infinitives in -ea7i occur: sec-ean, 175,

SYNCOPATED IMPERFECTS (WEAK).


(d.)

95
:

Like lufian inflect stems showing -6 in the imperfect drian, honor beorhtkm, shine cleopkm, call hojnan, hope. Past participles have o, a, e; gegearp-od, -dd, -ed, prepared.
; ; ;

189.

SYNCOPATED IMPERFECTS

{Weak).
:

(.) syncopated long roots cig-an, call, cig-de j dwl-on, deal, d'M-de ; dem-coi, deem, dein-de ; dref-an, trouble, dref-de ; fed-cm^ feed; Md-an, heed; li^r-mi^ hear; l&dan^ lead ; he-lwp-an, leave ; mmi-an, mean ; oi^d-an, urge ; rtd-e

Stem

< -ia

is

after

an, read

; sped-an^ speed ; sjyrejig-an^ spring, spreng-de ; hvem-an^ burn, hmrn-de ; styrm-an^ storm; so sep-de and sep-te, showed. After a surd, -c? becomes surd {-t). (Surds (b.) AssniiLATiojf.

p,
te

t,

(a;), ss,

h,

not

f or

s alone,

17, 30)

r^p-an, bind, rUp-

; bet-cm, better, btt-te ; gret-mi, greet, grtt-te ; met-an, meet, mtt-te ; drenc-an, drench, drenc-te ,' l^x-an, shine, lyx-te ; but Igsan, release, Igs-de; fgs-an, haste, f^s-de / ni's-an, rush, ncs-dc.
(e.)
-t :

Dissimilation.

tsec-an,

ec ; ycg, i-umlaut for acg; ace, all; anc, ang ; 6c ; ucg, tine, may ync, retain a ea ; 0); 6; icy o in syncopated imperfects ( 209-211) lecgan, lay, liegde ; reccan, rule, reahte ; cpellan, kill,
{d.)

The mute becomes continuous and teach, eke, RiJCKUMLAUT. Themes ecg ; ; eng ;
c
tich-te ; eo-an,

(A) before
3.

eh-te

tc-te,

36,

in

ecc, ell

enc,

(>/
:

fpealde ; pencan, think, polite ; brengan, bring, brohte ; rtcan, reck, rohte ; bycgan,h\\y, bohte ; pyncan, sQQm, pohte.
(e.)

Gemixatio^j

is

simplified,

and

mwyin

(Rule 13, page 10)

cewn-aw, beget, cen-de ; clypp-an,

clip, clqy-te

; cyss-an,'k\?,s, cys-te;

dypp-an, dip, dyp-te ; eht-an, pursue, elite ; fyll-an, fill, fyl-de ; gyrd-an, gird, gyrde ; hredd-an, rescue, hredde ; hyrd-an, harden,

hyrde ;

Jiyrt-an, hearten, hyrte ; hveft-an, bind,

hwfte;

lecg-an,

lay, leg-de ;

merr-an, mar, mer-de ; mynt-an, purjDose, mynte ;

nemn-an, name, nem-de; rest-an, rest, reste ; riht-an, right, rihte ; scild-an, guard, scilde ; send-an, send, sende ; spill-an, spill, sptilde ; sett-an, set, sette ; still-an, spring, stil-de ; stylt-an, stand astonished, stylte ; pemm-an, ?>]}o\\, pem-de. See 209. (/.) EcTiiLiPsis occurs {g) cegan, call, cegde, cede. 1 90. Past Participles are like imperfects in verbs syncopated
:

having rilckumlaut, often


I)),

in other

verbs having a surd root ( 189,

less often in

other verbs: sellan, give, sealde, seald ; ge-sec-an,

and set; send-an, send, sende, sended and send ; hedn, raise, head, raised.
seek, ge-soh-te, gesoJit ; sett-an, set, sette, seted

96

ILLUSTRATIONS OF UMLAUT AND ASSIMILATION.


191.

Pkesents.

Illustrations of Umlaut.
(I-)

Conjugation

(I.)

(I.)

(in.)

(m.)
creopcMi,
creej).

dvepan,
strike.

cumrt?i,

come.

beorgaw, guard.
beorcfc
j

scMan,
shove.
sctife
j

Sing.

1,

drepe
(

cume
cym{e)st
cxxmest

creope
\ creopesi

drip (e) si

byrbsi

scjf(e)si j cryp(e)s

(drcpesi

\ hcorgcst(jj){

BcMest

fdrip(e)f^ j cym.{e)ct j byrhrf idrip(e)f^

J scyf(e)rf(0 j

cryp(e)(^

Plue.

(drepef^ i'epect

cumer^
cwiiwad
(IV.)

beorge(%)( s,cMed

\ creupec?

drepat?

hcoYgad
(V.)
fe.allaw,

scMad
(V.)

creopac^
(V.)

Conjugation... (IV.)

ixvan,

baca^^,

gr6pa?i,
leap.
groic.

Sing.

fare.
1.

bake.

fall.
fealle

fare
litev{e)st
j
(

bace
becsi hQCSt
baccsi

lace
lacsi! j Ifficsi!
(

grope
j \

j felsi
(

grepsi

'

(farcsi
*

feallesi

\ixcest

bec^
Pi.UE.

Md
feallec^

gropes^
groped

j
\

\&c{e)d
\ixced

\^-xved

bacet^

gr6pe<^

i^rad

hvicad

feallat?

\hcad

grupac?

192. Illustrations
Conjugation.
...

of Assimilatiori.
(!)
(!)

(L)
eat.

(!)

(I.)

Qian,

treda;?, tread.

binda;*,
hi7id.

cped?z,

\esan,
collect.

quoth.

Sing.

1.

ete
(it{e)st

trede

binde

cpede
j cpisi
(

lese
lisi!

letest
Cited, it

tn(de)si j bin(t)s< tredes? bindesi


(

cpedesiJ

lesesi
lisif

trit

j
{

bint
bindef^

j
(

cpid
cpedec/

Pluk.

dad
(I.)

iYQded{i) tvedar?

lesed

binda/^
(IV.)

cpedac?
(IIL)

Ic&ad

Conjugation

(in.)

slean

<

fleun<
fleohan,
flee.

(I.)

berstan,
Sing.

leogan,
Ze.

sleaha?z,

licgaw,
lie.

slay.
slea
j slehsi (y)
(

1.

berste
fbir birst
Gvs,iest [bei
f

leoge
j lyhs

fleo

liege

Wgst
flyhs
] licgesi

3.

birst (ef?)

j \y\\d
(

} &\c^gest slehf/ (y)

PlXE.

(berste^
berstac/

laoged
leogat/

slea^e<^
sleat^

flyh^
li(c)ge*^
licgf{f

VARIATIONS. OF THE PRESENT INDICATIVE.


Vabiatioxs of Present Indicative.

97

193. Stem 4 > -e in the singular second and third person works on the root vowel differently from - > -e of the other persons. is here unchanged, while other forms have a-um(1.) Root i laut {i>e), 32, or breaking (i>eo), 33: drepan; steorfan^ usustarve, steorfe, stirf{e)st, stirf{e)ct, steorfad ; but y, not e, is found with eo, and often incorrectly with e. ally
(2.)

Here

is

i-umlaut of
to

a,
e,

ea,

eo, u, y,

a,

o,

ea,

eo,

1\,

e(y),

y, ^, e, e(y),

y,

y:

bacan^ feallan, slea/ian

y sledn,
32.

heorgan, cuman, Mean, gropan,

hledpan, creopan, scilfan. is shifting of (3.) Here


194.

aysa: far an ;

a> e

is rare.

41.
is

Stem -i^-e of the


in.

singular second and third person

often syncopated strong verbs and weak verbs of the Variation of root vowel remains, Then

first class-

Assimilation of consonants follows,

Gemination
tredan, dst nst ( 35, A),

is simi^lified:
t

etan,
;

td^t

> st
;

( 35,

A),

ddy

( 36, 5)

hindan, ndst

( 35, J})', ntst

>

>

ndd>nt
lesa7i,
Si5

( 30, 5)

cpedan, dst

> st

( 35,

A),
;

ddy
;

d (
stst

20, 13)

sst>st

( 20, 13),

sdyst

( 35, J^)

berstan,
35, J3)

hst, gd leogan, gst drive, drif{e)st, drif{e)d or drift ( 35, JB). drifan,

> st,

std

>

35,

^)

>

> hd (

of the third person -d (-p) was a surd (/) when these were established (e.g. dd^t). Gothic grammars give -/, but -d changes Old Saxon grammars give -d, but -th is often is often in the manuscripts a precedIn Gothic, any dental has uniformly -ih found. -p. English
(a.)

The ending

ing dental

= = 5i; +a preceding labial =/(, +a


illustrates the frequent

preceding guttural

= A^, a

Anglo-Saxon. In in the sound of this Anglo-Saxon folkspecch there was doubtless variation in syncopated forms it was surd after ending, as in Gothic and Old Saxon
law which
final t in
;

appearance of

surds

cnjpd (p), creeps


;

brined, brings (z)

drincd (p), drinks sonant after sonants (rare) but the predominant sound was always surd, as in Gothic
; ;
:

and English.

Compare

lieth. liget for liged,

three forms given of the singular second and third persons, the (S.) the unsyncopated, unvaried, or syncopated (dripd) is the common prose form, varied by i-umlaut {driped, byrged) is more frequent in poetry, the varied with the other persons. by a-umlaut (drcpcd) is a later conformation

Of the

195.

Vorbs from roots

in -h contract ( 52)

slecm <. sleahan ;

fleOn ^fleohan.
190.

Stems

in -ia

with compensative gemination hold

it

except

98

SUMMARY OF VARIATIONS

IN CONJUGATION.

in the indicative singular

second and third


-e

sometimes through:

out; but the imperative singular has


licgan < Ugian, lie,
197.

( 188, b ; 199; 207, d)

imperative

lige.

Variatiox IX Stkong Im perfects.


sleahan>
slean, slay.

cpedan,
Sing.

seahan

>

cpred

quoth.

seon, see.
seali

ceosau, choose.

sloh {g)

ceas

epajde

Plue.
Part.

cpjedon cpedcn
;

cpted

sloge sloh ((/)

sjege,

sape

cure
ceas

seah

slogon

ssgon, sapon
sepen, segen
;

curon
coren
:

slgen
r7

dy d (
( 206)
;

3G, 2)

>
is

( 36, 2)

>/'(

35, 3, h)

>p

in

sape

(Gothic salhvan)
Idct, lido7i,

really

hp'^p
;

( 35, 3, b).

So

inflect Itdan,

sail,

etc. (

205)

seodan., sedd, sudon, seethe, etc.

tedh, tuge

< teohayi,
;

tug

freosan, freeze (frore)


;

leosan, lose (forlorn)


( 206).

hreosan, rush

; forpesaji, be, p. p. pesen, etc.

198.
(rt.)

Summary of Variations
five

in Conjugation.
:

The root vowel may take

forms

(1.)

Throughout the present except the indicative singular secIn the indicative singular second and third persons. In the imperfect singular first and third persons. In the other forms of the imperfect. In the passive participle.

ond and third persons.


(2.) (3.)
(4.)

(5.)

{b) Consonant assimilation works mainly on the indicative singular second and third persons, and on the weak imperfects and
passive participles. give the present indicative singular (e.) third persons, the imperfect indicative singular plural first person, and the passive participle.

We

first,

second, and

first

person and

id.) Only the varied syncopated forms of the present indicativfe second and third persons are often given the other regular forms generally occur, but may be easily supplied (^ 193, h). Any variation of vowel, or assimilation of consonants, which has been given in the phonology, ar\d is here reThe corded as found in any verb, may be looked for with any similar verb.
;

The final variations of the imperfect plural -on (^^ 166, 170) are not given. root consonants determine the arrangement, labials, dentals, gutturals. Vowels in parenthesis after a word are variations of its root vowels.

FIRST CONJUGATION.VARIATION.
First Coxjugatiox, y'a. in a single consonant not a liquid:

99

199.^1. Roots ending


Ablaut
(t; a,

ing (^^ 158, 32, 41)


sonants, ^ 194.

a?, a >c'e>e, shifta; i)'^(e; a;,&; e); t>e,a-umlaut; a variation of conf, bad spelling, is frequent (y, ie)
;

>

<

Layamon and Ormulum


;

with varying spelling in Old English it last are alike. perfect, where both numbers at
ee,

hold the Ang.-Sax. ablaut, though is broken up, especially in the im-

ea)^{t;

a ov e

i)

eat, ate (et\

eaten;

English ablaut (ce, ea; a, a; for stems with ^-breaking

and

in -ia (t; a,

a; i):

bid, bade,

shifting (^ 41).

Most of these verbs vary

bidden; e>, progression (^38); a;>e, in English from their type in con-

formation with the forms in 200, and with


Lndicative Pkesent.
1st.

weak

verbs.
Part. Past.
\

iMrEEP. Sing. Pluk.

2d.

3d.
;

drepe, drip{e)st, drip{e)d (p)


spefe, spif(e')st, spif{e)d{p,

driep,
;

dnepon
sp&fon
;

Uo),^200.
spefen,
;

ff-^r

\ Strike.
)

spief,

sleep.

pefe, pif{e)st, pifle)d (p, t) ete, it(_e)st, it ited (ij, ie, e)


;

pwf, pxfon
wt, eeton

(c)

pefen,
eten,

weave.
eat.

frete,

frit(e) st,

frit frited
;

mete, mit(e)st, mit

frwt, fr&ton ; msst, mseion ;

freten,

eat up.

meten,
cneden,
trcden,

mete.

cnxd, cn&don; cnede, cni{de)st, cnit ; , trede,trist tndes, tnt tridedl ^^^^^ ^^^^^^
(.y, le,

knead.
tread.

e)

cpede,

cp'ist,

cpid{y) cpeded;
; ;
;

cpxd, cp&don;
lies,

cpeden,
lesen,

quoth.
gather. recover.

lese, list, list

Ixson

-nist ge-nese, -nist,

-nses,

-nxson
;

-nesen,

{pese, pesest, pesed) rare

pxs, pseron
;

ge-pesen, he
;

sp{r)ece

(<),

spriest, spricd (p)


;

spriec, spreecon

sprecen,

speak.

prece, priest, pried (p)

prxc, prxcon
;

;
;

prcccn,

wreak.

carry. pa;g (h), patgon (a, e) pegen, pege, pigst ihst), pigd (hd) irece, see ^ 200; hpete, whet; pede, hind; j^ece, stick, are doubtful; so also
(Jitan, arripere
;

hnipan, collabi

gipan, hiare

screjoe,
e,

scrape
e.

/>e?e,

wed).

^-breaking
gife
(ie,

> {ie, to, eo>y); ayeay


(/-)
;
;

> ed >
(e)
; ;

33, 35.

&c.), gifst, gif(e)d


(le,

geaf Cv,
-gcat {x,

e), e),

geafon

gifen, give.
-giten, forget.

for-gite

&c.), -gitst, -git

-geaton (e)

A -breaking: iy
seohe (sco), sihst, si(h)d (i/>eo)

eo,
;

a'^eay e.
sAgon
(e),

33,35.
sdpon
; ;

seah,

ge-sepen,-g-, see.
-fegen,
rejoice.

ge-feohe

(-fed), -fihst, -fi{h)d

-feah {e), -fii-gon

Stems
The

in -ia

(compensative gemination, 196), no a-umlaut,oi:

late.

imperative has -e

frige,

site,
.

but plur. picgead occurs.

fric"-e, fri!r(e)st(hst), J J, frii^(c)d') a^ / V jrie^L,jiig^K<i)o,,y

^.
hegon
(a, e)
;

(Jid,}));

>
;

friPg,friL'gon;
Iceg,

1
<.

gefrwen}>
/

(^)^)j
Itgen,

mquire.
lie.

>

lid (/) liege, ligst, lig{e)d{t),

100
lat.

FIRST CONJUGATION. VARIATION.


ISDIOATIVB PbESENT.
2d.
3il.

Imperf. Sing.
;

Pluk.

Takt. Past.
;

Picge, pigst, pig{e)d (Jid)


sitte, sit(e)st, sit
;

peak

(Pa/i),
;

pxgon (a, e)

pigen,
gc-setcn, bcden,

take.
sit.

swt, swton
;

I)idde, bi(de)st, bit

bxd,bxdon;
fetch; 5/>n7/e, sprout
;

bid.
1

Add fccge,feah,
200.

{hlicce, h\a.me; snicce, sneak)

II.

Roots ending
a; w)>(j
;

in a single liquid
y)
;

Ablaut
a ]>
o,

{i; a,

{eo,
e,

o,

6; u) (e
;

m-assimilation
;

>

>

o,
:

a-u-mlaut
(,
:

>

x, ai; o); i'^(eo, y), a'^o, a', a aj, shifting ; i >eo,

>

a^ca, r-breaking

eo>y, i-umlaut

ea)>e,

shifting.

^^158,35,32,41.
la, a, ^

steal, stole, stolen; English ablaut {ea; a or v; o) lengthened in the past part., conformation in the imperfect.

199;

nime

(eo, y), nim(e)st,


^^

cpime'^\ cim(e)st

cume

numcn, take. nim{e)d; nam (o), namon (o) cim(e)d "^ cpam.(o)\ cpdmon(o)\ cumen} come.
;

cym(e)st) cym{e)d
;

com

comon

cpele, cpilst, cpild;

ge-dpele, -dpilst, -dpiht


hele, hilst, hild
;

cpMon ; -dpxl, -dpMon


cpxl,

hxl, h&lon;

cpolen, kill. -dpolen, err. conceal. Jiolen,

hpele, hpilst, hpild;


stele, stilst, stild;

hpsd,

hpMon ;
; ;

hpolen,
stolen,

sound.
steal.

stxl, stxlon

spele, spilst, spild;

spxl, spxlon

spolen,

sweal.
bear.

bere, birst (y), bird (y) ; scere (eo), scirst (y), scird (y)
tere, tirst, tird (y)
;

bxr, bxron
;

; ;

boren,
scoren,
toren,

scxr (ea, e), scxron txr, txron ;


-Ppxr, -ppxron;

shear.
tear.

ge-ppere, -ppirst, -ppird;


brece, Iricst, bricd (p)

-puren >weld.

i-pporen^ -Pruen, j
;

brxc, brabcon

brocen,
first

break.

201.

III.

Roots ending
u; u)
;

in

two consonants, the

a nasal:

Ablaut

(i; a,

lation (^^ 158, 35)

; i^y, bad spelling, is frequent; variation of consonants, ^ 194.

a^o,

nasal assimi-

Final gemination

mon

(^ 194).

but stems in

is often preserved. Unsyncopated forms are very comEnglish ablaut {i ; a or u ; it) swim, swam or swum, swum; -nd have progression (I,- ou; ou)=di; du; du) find, found.
: :

hlimme, hlimst, hlimd;

hlam{o),

hlummon;

grimme, grimst, grimd; spimme, spimst, spimd;


climbe (^ 36), dimst, cltmd;

gram
spam
;

(o), (o),

grummon ; spummon ;
;

hlummen, sound, grummen. rage, spummen, swim,


clumben,
-lumpen,
climb,

clamh (omm), clumbon


-lump, -lumpon ; -ramp, -rumpon ;
^^^^^ ^^^^^^^
.

ge-limpe, -limpst, -limpd (p)

happen,
rumple.
burn.
begin.

ge-nmpe, -rimpst, -rimpd(p)


brinne (beorne, ^ 204), bnnst, brind;
on-ginne, -ginst, -gind;

-rumpen,
brunnen.

>
)

-gan, -gunnon

-gunnen.

FIRST CONJUGATION. VARIATION.


b-linne, linst, lin{ni)ct;

101

Ian,

lunnon ;

rinne (eorne, 203), rinsi


sinne, sinst, sinct;

spinne, spinst, spind;

pinne, pinst, pind;


stinte, stin(t)st, stint;
J)rinte, prin(t)st,

print

binde, bin{t)st, bint;

finde, fin{t)st, fint

grinde, grin(t)st, grint ; hrinde, hrin(t)st, hrint ;


spinde, spinet) st, spint
;

pinde, pin(t)st, pint

pinde, pin(t)st, pint ;


crince, crincst, crincdCp);

d-cpince, -cpincst, -cpincd (p)

prince, drincst, drincd (p) ; for-scrince, -scrincst, -scrincd


since, sincst, sincd (p)

stince, stincst, stincd (p)

spince, spincst, spincd (p)

bringe {cge), bringst, bringd;


clinge, clingst, clingd;

102
202.

FIRST CONJUGATION. VARIATION.

IV.
\vitli
{i ;

sonants
Ablaut

lioot in two consonants, metathesis of r :


u
;

tlic first ^,

or three con-

a,

it)

> {c
3(1.

.t,

o)

?>?,>,
Tlur.
1

a-umlaut
n.
(^^

{!^

32)

a>

>e,
lat.

shifting {^ 41).
Indicativb Pkesent.
2(1.

Umlaut and

shifting stopped

by

200,201.

Impeef. Sing.

Part. Past.
n
'^,

rl

( \
, ) ., ire- S braid.
,

breffde

} )

brede

Kbrardest}
.?x bri{t)st
.

bregdcd ) brwgd , : Tz J bnt ) brxd

r? J ) brudon
'^

brugdon

(,
i

-^irof/era,

, , . I den, i 199 )

stregde\ strigdest\ strigded)^ strwgd strede ) slri{t)st ) strit i strxd

slrugdon slrogden
~

strow,
sprinkle.

frigne\

frxg{e)n\
(e)

j.

\cf\ J. frme
.'

I J
\

Ifrugnonl frugnen
)
\ '

ask.

r
birst,

jnnsl
pirsccst,

fnna

J-

)
;

jran
bxrst,

frunon
burston

>

''

frunen

I
burst,

berste,

birst{ed) (ie)

;
;

borsten,

persce,

pirsced;

pxrsc,

purscon

porscen,

thresh.

203.
(a.)

V.

Root
(i
;

in

two consonants,
u)^{e; ea,u;
o)

first

trill (I

or r)

Ablaut

a,

i>e, m>o, a-umlaut


pea'^ peo,
:

(1^32);

a^ea

(l-breaking, ^

33)>co

tion (^ 35) ?

Unsyncopated

(irregular spelling), ox forms in e are common

p-assimila-

helpest, helped.

Enbut
all

glish ablaut {e; a, e or o; o);

ea>a

or

c,

shifting, ^ 38,

A;

o,

^ 200

imperfects have
helped.
belle, bilst, biht;

become weak: help;

{halp, help, holp), helped; (holpeh),

bcal, billion

bollen,
,,

bellow.
swell. help. delve.
,,

(speal (speoll, Rask),>


spelle, spilst, spild ;
1 1
;

spullon

.w/1.
;

[spollen, )
holpen,
dolfen,
;

helpc; hilpst (e), hilpd (p)


delfe, dilfst, dilfd;

healp, hulpen;
dealf, dulfon
;

melte, miltst, milt

mcalt, multon

molten,

melt.
die.

spelte, spiltst, spilt

{i^ie,y)
;
;

be-telde, -til{t)st, -tilt

spealt{eo?), spulton; spolten, tcald, tuldon ; tolden,

cover up.

melee, milcst, ?nilcd{p)


beige, bilgst
(Jist),

mealc, mulcon
;

molcen,
bolgen,

milk.

bilgd{hd)
;

bealg{h), bulgon;

be wroth.

felge, filgst (hst), filgd (hd)

fealg(h), fulgon;
; I
'

folgen,

go
~\

into.

Cspolgen
spelge, spilgst {hst), spilg{e)d{hd) spealg{h), spulgon Add d-selce (e>eo, ea), sulk.
;

(spelgen, ^swallow

Koch),

^/-breaking,

i>ieyy

( 33)

z>e
J.
;

is

also founcl, a-uinlaut,

32, 194,
gille {e, ie, y), gilst {ie, y), gild {ie, y)

geal, gullon y)
;

gollen,
;
;

yell.

gilpe

{ie, y),

gilpst

{ie,

y),

gilpd {p)

{ie,
;

gealp, gulpon

golpen, boast.

gilde

{ie, y), g%l{t)st {ie, y),

gilt {ie, y)

geald, guidon

golden, pay.

SECOND CONJUGATION. VARIATION.


204.

103

(^>.)

Before r (and h)

Ablaut (i; a,u; u)^{eo; ea,u; o) i>eo, a>ea, breaking ('5> 33) m>o, After labials {p, m, p), eo may go to u {^ 35, 2) a-umlaut {^ 32). y for i abounds. Unsyncopated broken forms prevail peorpest, peorped. A'^owels
;
;

brought before r by metathesis often retain their old umlaut: rinne'^irne brinne^birne ; bersce, perste (^ 202). English like {a) eo>e, ^ 38, A.
;

georre, gyrst, gyrd; eorne (i,y), yrn{e)st


(i,

gear, gurron
{i,

gorren,

whur.
run.

eo), yrn{e)ct\ {earn)


3

am (o),
;

\
i

eo)

urnon

urnen,
,

beorne{i,y), beorn(e)st {y),


(y)
;

beorn{e)d\ beam
)

{barn)
;

(o),

|
i

burnon

omen.

burn.

meorne
speorne

(),

myrnst, myrnd;
spyrnst, sprjrnd;

mearn, murnon
pearp, purpon
cearf, curfon;

momen, mourn.
;

{u, o), {u, y),

spearn, spurnon
;

spomen, spurn.
parpen,
corfen,

peorpe

pyrpst,

pyrpd {p)

throw.
carve.
suffer.

ceorfe, cyrfst, cyrfd;

deorfe, dyrfst, dyrfd;

dearf, durfon;

darfen,
;

hpeorfe

{u, o, y), hpyrfst,

hpyrfd;

hpearf, hpurfon
stearf, sturfon
;

hparfen, return,
tdie,

steorfe, styrfst, styrfd;

storfen,
;

(starve.

speorfe, spyrfst, spyrfd

{()

spearf, spurfon
;

sporfen, cleanse.

pyrd{ed) beorce, byrcsl, byrcp; spearce, spyrcst, spyrcd {p) {sporced)


peorde
{u, y), pyrst,

peard, purdon
bearc, bureau
;

porden,
barcen,
;

become.
bark,
faint.

spearc, spurcan

sporcen,

bearge, byrgst{hst), byrg{e)d{hd);

bearg{h),burgon; borgen,
feaht, fuhton;

guard.
fight.

feahte, fyhlst, fyht

fohten,

205.
Ablaut {i; a;
i; i)
;

Second Conjugation,
i'>y, I'^y, bad spelling
;

^/i.

a>ea
(di
;

(i>io.?),
i)
;

t>eo

("^

33)

a >, shifting.
{^ 38)
:

.sc-breaking or A-breaking English ablaut (i; d; i)

6;

i^di, d^o, progression

drive, drove, driven.


;

dptne, dpin{e)st, dpin{e)d;

dpdn, dpinan

gine, gin{e)st, gin{e)d;


hrtne, hrin{e)st, hrin{e)d;

hptne, hpin{e)st, hpin{e)d;


seine, scin{e)st, sctn{e)d;

gripe, grip{e)st,

gnp{c)d

(/)
;

nipe, nip{e)st, nip{e)d {p)


ripe, rip{c)st, rip{e)d {p)

to-slipan, -srip{e)st, -slip{e)d{p)


be-Vife, -ljf{e)st, -lif{e)d;
clife, cltf{e)st, clif{e)d;

drifc, d/if{c)st,
scr'ife,

dnf{e)d

{ft)
;

serif{e)st, serif{e)d

slifc, slif{e)st, slif{e)d;

10-i

SECOND CONJUGATION. VAlilATION.


2ii.

Indicative riiESEUT.
1st.
3cl.

SiNo.

Imperfect Pluk.

Takt. Past.

(sweep,
sp'ife, spif{c)st,

spif{c)d;
;

spcif,

spifon

spifen,
;

(turn.

spipe, sjnp{c)st, sptp{e)(t


bite, hU{e)st, b1t{cd)
jfltte,
;

spap {an), spipon


but, hiton;
fiat, fiiton
;

spipen,
bit en,

spew.
bite,
(flitc,

fiit{e)st, Jilt ;
;

fliten,
;

(strive.

hnitc, hnit{c)st, hnit


slite, slit{c)st, slit
;

hnat, hniton
slat, sliton
;
;

hniten,
sliten,

butt.
slit.

smite, smU{c)st, smit

smdt, smiton;
ppdt, ppiton (eo)
V pat, piton; plat, pliton
; ;

smilen,
ppiten,
pilen,

smite.

ppite, Ppit{e)st, ppit{ed)

cut

off.

pile, pit(e)st, pit(eit); subj. pitan,

(see, visit,

y-putanyutan, 176, 224,


plite, prit{e)st, plit{ed)
;

c.

umpute.
look.

;
;

pliten,

prite, prit{e)st, prit{ed)

prat, priton
;

priten,
biden,
;

write.
bide.

llde, hidcst {ht{t)st), bided {bit) cide, ci{t)st, cit


(?) lide, list,
;

bad, bidon

tided lid;
;

cad, cidon (cidde) lad, lidon ;

ciden,
liden,

chide.

grow.
glide.

glide, glist, glit

glad, glidon;

gliden,
;

gnide, gnist,
ride, rist, rit

gmt ;
; ; ;

gnud, gnidon
lildd,

gniden,
hliden,
;

rub.

hlide, Mist, hlit

hlidon

cover.
ride.
slide.

rdd, ridon

(io) 1
; ;

riden,
sliden,

slide, slist, slit

sldd, slidon

stride, strist, strit ;

strdd, stridon

striden,

stride.

pride, prist, prit

;
;

prdd, pridon
lad, lidon;

priden,
liden,

bud, grow.
sail.

lide, U{de)st, lid{ed)

mide, mist, mid;


scride, scrist, scrid;
slide, sli{de)st, slid;

vxdd,

midon;
;

miden.

hide.

scrdd, scridon
sldd, slidon;

scriden(d), go.
sliden,
slit..

snide, snist, snid;

sndd, snidon

;
;

sniden,

cut.

pride, prist, prid;

prdd, pridon {d) prdd, pridon ;


;
;

priden,
priden,
-grisen,
risen,

wreathe.
bud, grow. dread.
rise.

pride, prist, prid;


a-grise, -grist, -grist
rise, rise St (rist), rised (rist)
blice, blic(e)st, blic(e)d (p)
;

-grus, -grison;
rus, rison;
bide, blicon
;

blicen,

shine.
sigh.

sice, sic(e)st, sic(e)d (p)

sac, sicon;
;

sicen,
;

snice, snic(e)st, snic(e)d (p)

suae, snicon

snicen,
stricen,

sneak.
go, streak.

strice, stric(e)st, stric(e)d (p);

strdc, stricon;

spice, spic(e)st, spic(e)d (p)

spdc, spicon;

spicen,

deceive.
yield.

pice, pic(e)st, pic(e)d

(]J)

pdc, picon ;
,

picen,
.

hnige,hnig(c)st(hst),hnis:(e)d} ^^ '

^, ,

(hd);

"^

hnah(g),

hmg
;

hnigen,
miff en, *
k

nod.
((miuffo), ^ ' (water.
sink.

mige, mihst, mihd;


sige, sihst, sihd;
stige, sfihst, stihd;

mdh, migon
sail,

sigon;
;

sigen,
stigen,

stdh, stigon

ascend.

THIED CONJUGATION.VAEIATION.
p'tge , pihst,

105
fight.

pthd ;
;

pah, pigon

pigen.
;
It

like, Uhie)st, lih{e)d (y)

Idh {ed) {lag), Itgon


sdh, sigon (Ji) tdh {ed), {tigon?)
;

gen.

lend, give.
strain.

sihe (seo), sih{e)st, sih{e)d;


iihe {ted), tikst {y), tihd{y)
;

sigen{h),
;

tigcn,

accuse.

Jnhe, pihst, pihd ;

pdh

{])dg,}d:h) ,

-I
{

{Peo, ^ 206)

prthe, prihst, prihd;

prdh, prigon
;

-^

prigcn, *

i
(

{preu, ^ 20G) cover.

Add

spine,

swoon

sntpe,

snow

prife, thrive

1 sci-ie,

shriek.

206. TlIIKD COXJUG'ATION,


;

-y/

U.

Ablaut (m(i/); ed,u; u)^{e6{{i); cd,u; o) iu^io~^eo, m>o, a-umlaut (^ 32; 38,2); ea>c, shifting {^ 41); eo>y, M>y, i-umlaut {^ 32). Ormulum ablaut (e, (m) &, u; o), Old English {e, {u) e, o or e; o), En;
;

glish {ee, ea, ob, u; ee, e, o, o; the present by the shifting of

o, b, ee, e).

The

imperfect becoming like

conforming with the taking a weak ending


clef-t
;

6 of the participle,
:

is distinguished anew by by shortening its vowel (e, 5), or by seethe; seeth-ed,sbd; seeth-ed, sodden ; cleave; clove,

eo'^e and ed'^e,

cloven, clef-t; choose; chose; chosen; Variation of consonants, 194.


>
^

5(7/?,

weak.

^^25,200.

creope, cryp{e)st {ed), cryp{e)d

{eo){p){
dreope, drypst, drypd {p)
;

creap,crupon;
dredp, drupon
;

cropcn,

creep.

dropen,

geope, gypst,

gypd

{p)

gedp, gupon
seap, supon
;

;
;

gopen,
si open,

drop. take up.


dissolve.

slupe,slyp{e)st{u),slyp{e)d{u){p)\ sledp, slupon


supe, sypst, sypd
{p)
;

sopen,
;

cleofe, clyfst, clyfd;

cledf, cliifon

clofen,

sup. cleave.
dive.

dufe, dyfst, dyfd;


scufe, scyfst, scyfd {ft)
;

deaf, dufon

; ;

dofen,
scofen,

scedf, scitfon

shove.
(?)

hreofe,

be-hrofen,
leaf, lufon
; ; ;

leofe, lyfst, lyfd;

lofen,

love.

reofe, ryfst, ryft;

redf, rufon

rofen,

reave.

breope, brypst, brrjpd;


cedpe, cypst, cypd;

bredp, brupon
ceap, cupon
;

bropen,
copen,

brew.

chew.
rue.

hreope, hrypst,

hrypd ; preope, pnjpst, prypd;


;

hredp, hrupon
J)redp,

; ;

hropen,

prupen
; ;

propen,
broten,
floten,
;

throe.

bredte, bryt{e)st (eo), bryt {ed) {eo)


fleote, flytst, flyt
; ;

brcut, bruton

break.
float.

feat, fiuton

geote, gytst, gyt

gedt

(e),

guton

goten,

pour.
greet. cast lots.
rustle, snore.

gredle, gryt{e)st, gryt ; hleote, hleotest {hlylsl), hlyt;


hrute, hrytst, hryt
;

great, gruton ; Meat, hluton ;


hredt, hruton;
ledt, luton
;

gruten,
hloten,

hroten,
lotcn,

Kite, lytst, luted {lyt)

; ; ;

lout.

neotcd {nyt) redte, rytst, redted {ryt) sceote, scytst, sceoted {scyt)
neote
{lo), nytst,
; ;

neat, nuton
real, rulon

noten,
roten,
scoten,

enjoy.

weep, cry.
shoot.

scedt

(e),

scuton;
;

spredte, sprytst, spryt

spredt, spruton

sproten, sprout.

lOG
1st.

TIIIIU)

CONJUGATION.VARIATION.
IMPERFECT
Sing.

luDIOATIVB PBKSENT.
2d.

3d.
;
;

Tlub.

Part. Past.
; ;

peote, Pytst, pf/t

J)edt,

Jmton

Pwtcn,
-proton,

howl.
irks, loathe.

d-preolc, -prytst, -prcoted {-pryt)

-prcdt, -pruton
^^^^^

beodejio) dea (byt)

deadest (5^(0^0, ''^o-l^^.


;

boden,
;

bid.

encode, cny{t)st, cnyt ; creode (), cry(()st, cryded cryt;


Ic6de{i6), ly{t)st, lyt;

cnedd, cnudon
credd, crudon;
ledd, ludon
;
;

cnoden,
croden,
laden,

knot.

crowd.

grow.
redden.

reode, ry{t)st, ryt

redd, rudon
;

roden,
;

strudc, stry{i)st, struded {slryt) stredd, slrudon d-breude, -breodest {-bryst), -breo-'t " -bredd, -brudon ded {-bryd) )
;

stroden, despoil. -broden, worsen.

d-hude, -hyst, -hyd;


hreode, hryst, hryd; seode, seodest (sysi), seoded (syd) cease, ceosest {cyst), ceased {cyst)
drease, dryst, dreosed {dryst)
;

-head, -hudon

;.

-hoden,

spoil.

hredd {d),hrudon; hrodcn, sedd, sudon ; soden,


ceds
{c),

adorn.

seethe

curon
;

coren,

choose.
\

drcds, di'uron

droren,

(mourn.
freeze.

freose, fryst, fryst

; ;

freds, fruron
hreds, hruron
-leas, -luron
>

froren,
hroren,
-loren,

be-greose, -gryst, -gryst


hrease, hryst, hryst
;

-greds, -gruron;
;

-groren, frighten.
rush.
lose.

for-leose, -lyst, -lyst ; bruce, brucest {brycst), bruced

bredc, brucon
leac, lucon
; ;

brocen,
locen,

{brycd {p));
^

i
;

brook, use.
lock.

luce, lycst, lycd {p)

reoce, rycst, rycd {p)

rede, rucon
;

rocen,
;

reek.

smeoce, smycst, smycd {p)


Slice, sycst,

sycd {p) {c<^g)


;

smedc, smucon scdc, sucon ;

smocen, smoke.
socen,
.

suck.

bdge

{eo),

ged

bugest {byhst {g)), {byhd {g))

biU
j

.^ ^^'^'^ ^^^'
,

^"^on
,

bogen,
,

bow.
suffer.
a-

dredge, dreogest {dryhst), dreo-)

^,/

ged{dryhd);
leoge, lyhst, lyhd;

dreah{g),dnigon; drogen,
'^

fledge,jleogest{yhst),fleugcd{yhd);fledh {eg), fiugon; fiagen,

fly. lie.

ledh{e){g),lugan; logen,

smuge, smyhst, smyhd;


jleohe{fleo),fiyhst,flyhd;
plur.
")

smedh, smtigon
n
^,
j,

smogen, creep.
n

^fleah,flugon; fleod; teohe {tea), tyhst, tyhd{id); plur. y tedh (e) {g), tiigon teod;
pea, pyhst,

flogen,

flee.

togen,
,

tug.

pyhd ;

pedh, pmgon

pogen,
progen,

({<bihe,2Q5) ^ -^
'

-J

(thrive.

prco, pryst, pryhd;

prcdh, prugon
;

((<pAhe,205) '
'

(cover.

Add

ed, strain

ico,

accuse, ^ 205,

Heyne fneose, sneeze 1


;

FOURTH CONJUGATION.VARIATION.
207.

107

FouiiTu Conjugation, -v/a or a.

Ablaut (a; 6, 6; a); a>ig, shifting; a>e, i-umlaut, infrequent (^ 32). a>e, progression and {e; o or u; e) English ablaut (a; o or oo ; a) i-umlaut {^^ 38, 32); o>w, progression (^ 38): wake, ivoke, lodken; take,

took, taken.

Variation of consonants, ^ 194.

ale, wl{e)st{e,a), ssl{e)d {e,a);

6l,olon;
gol, golon
;

alen,

shine.
sing.
fare.

gale, gwl(e)st, gml{e)d;

galen,

fare, fxr{e)st, fxr{e)ct;


stape, stwp{e)st, stsep{e)(t{p);
;

for, for on;


stop, st6po?i
;
;

faren,
stapen,

step.

ge-dafen,

behoove.

grafe, grxf{e)st, gra}f{c)d;


rafe, rxf{e)st, rxf{e)d;

grofgrofon;
ruf, rofon
; \-<
,

{ll^,!2ln, \s^^^^^^^&rafen,
;

rob.

Made, hladest
'

(hlest), ' ^

hladed

}
)-

n,

\''

n/

.,

hl{e)od, hl{e)odon

nladen

/\iload. j
{a"),

pade,padest{j>a'st),paded{pmd); pod, podon; ace, xc{e)st, icc{e)d {p) oc, ocon ;


;

paden,
acen,

wade, go.
ache.

l/ace, ba;c{e)st(e),bieced{e),

^191;

boc, bocon
soc, socon

bacen,
sacen,
tacen,

bake.
fight.

sace, sxc{e)st, sxc(e)d (p)


tace, tmc{e)st, t3ec{e)d{p)
;

toc,tocon;
;

take.

pace, pxc{e)st, pxc{e)d

(//)

poc, pocon
;

pacen,
(x)
;

wake.
wash.
j

pasce, piesc{e)st, pxsc{e)d (p)

pose
,

{x),
/

poscon
,
/.

pxscen,
,

draffe,drx^(e)st(hst),drxff(e)d) ' ., ^ ' ^ ^ ' y

-.,

dron{g), drogon;
^,

dragen,

drag.

gnage, gmeg(e)st g(e)dthd),

(hsl),

gnce-

-}

gnoh, gnogon
'^

gnagen,

gnaw.

Add pape, thaw.


(6.)

5C-breakiug, 33
,,

A-breaking, 33
/%/-,
7

ea^y.,

32.
scathe.
^i

scie)ade,sc{e)adest{scxst),sc{e)a-"> ' \i

ded iscxd)
.

y
;

sc(e)od,sc(e)odon: sciejaden, 7 \ / \ / v /
7

/\^,
,

/\+
,,

sc(e)ace,scie)acest(scxst),sc{e)a-^
,

-,^

^^
;

ced {scxd);
scafe (eaf), sc;if{c)st, scxf{c)d; ' leahe {led), lehst {y), lehd (y) ;
sleahe {sled), slehst (y), slchd (y)

,\

Y sc(c)oc, ' \ /
)

sc(e)ocon \ /

sciejacen \ '

(a'), \

"

shake.

sceppe{y), scyp{pe)st, scyp{pe)d; sc{e)6p, sc{e)opon; sc{e)apen{e), create. shave. scuf{eo?),scofon; scafen,
loh {g), logon ; sloh {g), slogan
l)poh, pjpogon
;

leahen {lean), blame.


;

slagen {x,

e),

slay.

pped, ppehst (y), ppehd (y)

ppegen, pcaxen,

wash.

peaxe, pexest, pcaxcd, pex{e)d;

p{e)ox, p{e)oxon;

wax.

Add^ea,

flay.

(c.)

7i-assirailation,

ay o,
,t

% 35.
;

spane, span{e)st, span{e)d{x); slande {0), slandest {stentst),')

sp{e)6n, sp{c)onon
'^"^^

spanen{o),
standen,

allure.

standed {stent

,.,,., *'^^'"

<^,s

(y))

^^ ^16).

stand.

108
((?.)

FIFTH CONJUGATION.VARIATION.
Stems
in -ia^ 196.
Pbf.8e:nt.
'2d.

Imperative in
SiNo.

-e:

spere, stepe, hefe.


Part. Past.

Indicative
1st.

Imperfect
3d.

Plub.

sper-ie{-{i)g), sperest, spered;

spor,sp6ron; sporen,
stapen,

swear.

sceppe<CscaJic, ^ 207, b;

sci/ppe<CsceaJie, ^ 32.
;

steppe i'Cstapie), step{e)st, stcp{e)d{Jj); stop, stupo7i


hof, kofon; hebbe{a'){<.hafie),hcf{e)st,hcf{e)d; hlchhe {<hlahie) {i, y, ea), hlchst {t, ^^.* y),| j^^. i hlehd{i,y);
'

step.

hafen(x),
'

heave.
& j^^

^^^^^^^^^

^,^ ^ v /.

208.
(1..)

Add scedde, shed. Fifth Conjugation.

Contract. Imperfect in eo, e


fell,

{id).

Root

in

laut

i/<ea

or

+ two consonants; >ea, 1-breaking ( 33), Um<a ( 32). English co>e, shifting ( 41);
fallen ;
hold, held,

aid

y old,

progression ( 38): fall,

hdlden.

^Tf\tfddy^

^^^^''^'-^'""^^^'^'^Ifoolilh/eoUon;
;

ge-feallen,

fall.

pealle,peallest {pylst), peal{l)ed {pyld)

pe6l{l),pe6Uon; peallen,
peolt, peolton
.

well.
fall.

pealte,pealtest (pylst),pealted (pylt)

pealten,

fealde
h{c)alde
{hylt)
.

fealdest {fylst), /'^"^'^"^


|
healdest {hylsl), healdedi
;

y,^;^, y,^;^,
^^^.^^^^
>
.

f.alden,
.

fold.

^^^^^^^^^

j^^j^^

>
,
/-;

" stcalde, stealdest (stylst), stealded} \ -< L


,

^i;

,.
;

steoLd.steuldon; stealden,
^,,

,77
,,

possess.

{sty id)
'^^.'^

v(e)alde, pcaldest (pylst), -^ pealded'} "-^ >

{pylt)

.,/
;

^,,
;

>

peold, peoldon
^,
^,

pealden,
,

govern.

pealce, pealc{e)st ipylcst), peal-}

/\^/

i / 1\\

>

peulc, peolco7i

pealcen,

walk.

,,

(5.)

n-assimilation,
''

>.o (35).
7 "

banne,
, /

ban{ne)st {benst),
N

^ /7

^s

r
j

oerafn) (eo), oerawon (eo) / \ / v


'

, -

\ /

"x

"x

oanne(o), order.

j.

ban{ne)d {bend)

sparine, span{ne)st {spenst),)


.;,an(n;)rf {spend)
;

I
)

^^'"^^^^

\ , '\ ^^''^'

/iv
'

'^^'^"'"^ ^^'^

'^'^"'^^"' 'P=^"-

blande
77

blanded {blent)

> / {0), blandest {blcn{t)d),') ,,^ 7/ /-v 77/^ 7 /^\ 77 / \ 1 1 j y blend {co),blcndon{eo); olande)i{o), hlend. 7\f/7 7 .\
;

fo {<Cfahe), fe{h)st {&), fe{h)d')

\'

'^'

r'^

{^'fJ.fod;
infin./on; imperat. /o(A), /o<f.

feng {cg)Jengon; fangen

r"

/\\
^^^^^_

(o),|
)

gd {<ga-gd-mi, ^a; imperat. ^a,

km

g&st gM,^

plur. >
).
^

^.^
^
.

^.^^

g-fla;

innn. ^a?i;
,.^

^^^
,
.

. gauge {o){cg), gangest (0), } ^^"^ ganged {oi v^gangad{o); \

^''^ ^^' ^^>' -'''^'

^"^^"
(0)

(")'

^g-

infin.

gangan
;

(0)

imperat. ^a??o- (d)

p. pr.

gangende

{geon-

gan, k 201

gengan, weak).

FIFTH CONJUGATION.VAKIATION.
^'^^^''
^'^^'

109

^"pl^^S?'
infin. Aore

'^'^^^'^^^^'l
;

heng, hengon;

hangen
(o),| ^^^^

{<Chdhan)
in

imperat. ho{h), hod.

(2.)

Root

a; i-umlaut

d>^

( 32).

English Cip^dw, pro-

ew M, gression and labial assimilation ( 38, 35) ; eop and labial assimilation ( 41, 35) hloio, bleio^ hloxon. ing
:

>

shift-

spape, spdp(e)st (spsep(e)st), spdp(e)ct ^ ^


isp!&p{e)ct (^))
;

)
j-

^pea;;, .;..o;7on

spapen,

sweep. whelm,
drive.
,,

ge-ndpe,-ndpest{-na;pst),-ndped(-7i&pp); -neop, -neopon; -ndpen,


for-spdfe, -speefst, -spa}f{e)d;
hldpe, bldp{e)st (hi-speof, -speofon; -spdfen,

Mn-

(bleep(e)st), / -r\ /

bldp(e)d ^ ^\/ I

,,

,,

,,,
;

lleop, bleupon

blapcn,

blow.

cndpe, cndpest{cnsepst),cndped{cn&pd); cneop,cneopon; cndpcn,


crape, crdpest (crwpst), crdped (crsepd);
creop, creopon
;
;

know.
crow.

crdpen,

mdpe, mdpest (meepst), mdped (m^pd) sdpe, sdpest {sxpst), sdped {s^pd)
;

mcop, meopon
se6p,seopon;
;

mdpen,
sdpen,

mow.
sow.
throw.
blow.

jjrdpe, prdpest{pr&pst), (jrdped (pri'pd)

preop, preopon; prdpen,

pape, pdpest {pxp[e)st), pdped {p&p{e)d)


Mate, bldtest
/jae
(blebtst),

peop, peopon ;

w^-l^^g\ |
pale.
,
'

Mated

(bliet)
;

Mct{eo),blkon; bldten,
i

hate, hdtest (Ji&tst) , hdted {h&t)


(aj),

he{h)t (^ 159,">
b) ,
,

,^

passive, ^ 219.

he{h)ton
/'

^
>

hndte,hndtest{hnsbtst),hndted{hnM);
sc{e)dde, sc{e)ddest, sc{e)dded;
{}) strdde, strddest {stne{t)si),

hndten,

knock.

-j

^}
don
,

"',

en, divide. [ 5c(e)a(f

strdded}{strcd{eo),stre-\ *
.

^,
'"

.,

(5<ra'0
,.\
^

|
r

^">
,
.

(sccon, scionon)
,
;

(;) sca/ie,

^^

shine.

lace, ldc{e)st{l;acst), Idced {laicdQj));

^^

,x

,^

> Idcen,

leap.

(3.)

Root ea.

Syncopated forms not found in poetry.


;

hedfe, hedfcst {hyfsl), hcdfcd {hyfd)t

heof, hcofon
;

; ;

hedfcn,

weep.

hledpe, hledp{e)st (y), hledpcd (hlypd {p)

hleop, hleopon

hledpen, leap.

d-hnedpe -hnedp{c)st {-hnypst), -hned-l ) p{e)d{-hnypd{p)); hedpe, hedpest{hypst), heaped {hypd);


bedte,bedtest{bytst),bedted{byl)~;. bredte, bredtest (jbrytst), bredted (bryt)
^e-.cea<e, -scedtest {-scytst),
(-5cy/);^
/.->
^x /,,\
.

.;,,^

/,,j ,^. .Unedpen, sever.

hcuj),

hcopon

hcdpcn,
beaten,
;

hew.
heat.

beot,bcoLon; 5reo<, breoton


.

bredten, _^^^.
t

break.
^^,1 ^^

sccdted I
-^

^^^^.

dedge, dcds[{e)st (dyhst), dcds;{e)d


(,dygd){hp)-

deoi^, deo2;on o' a

"

^
;

deas^en,

^^

;i

dye.

110

SIXTH CONJUGATION. VARIATION.


(4.)

Root ae> English


3d.

ce,

shifting ( 41).
Pakt. Past.
;

Indicative Present.
1st.

Impekfeot
SiNo.

2d.

Pluk.

sid'pe {a,c), slivp{c)st, shep{e)d; slcp, slcpon

slijbpen,

sleep.

grwtc,

gr:L't{c)st,

gnit{ed)
i^)
;

gret, grclon

gr&ten,
^^' ^'''''

greet.
'^t.

iMe,

l&t{e)st,

lM{ed)

\Ut\fto^^'
>

}
,v
,

^'-S'^"'

on-dr&dc, -dr&(t)st, -dnvded


(j..-,f\.

-dreord{-drcd),-dredon; -drmden, dread.


(.reord (^ 159, h),

>

..

^ ,

rM{e), nvd{c)st ded {rM)


;

{r&{t)st),

rx-

) S

red ned)

.,

l(M.Gloss.), reordon

(?);['

(5.)

Root e

> English

ee,

shifting (41).

{hrepe, hrep{e)st, hrcp{c)d ;

hrcop, hreopon;

hrepen)? cry.
pcpcn,

pepe, pep(e)st, ptp{e)d;

peup, peopon

weep.

(0.)

Root 6

i-umlaut

6>c

{% 32).

English eop

> eio
;
;

( 208, 2)

groio^ greio, groicn,

hrope,hr6pest (hrepsl),hr6ped{hrepd{p)); hreup, hreopon


Iipope,
lilope,

hropen, cry.

hpopest{hpepst),hp6ped{hpepd{p))
hlopest (blepst), blopcd (blcpd)
;

hpeop, hpeopon
hlcop, bleopon
;

hpopen, whoop. blopen, blow.


jlopen,
flow.

Jlope, Jlopest {Jicpst), Jlopcd (flcpd)

fledp, fieopon
;

grope, gropest (grepst), groped (grepd)

Mope, hlopest

(hlepst),

Moped {hlej'd)
;

greop, greopon; gropen, grow. hleop., hleopon ; Mopen, low.


rcop, reo{po)n
; ;

rope, rope St {reps t), roped (repd)

ropen,

row.

spope, spopest (spepst), spoped{spepd)


blole, blotest (bletst), bloted (blel)
{\)
;

spcup, speopon
bleot, bleoton
;

spopen, speed.
bloten,
\

n
root.

prole, protest {prelst), pr6tcd{prel);


<

preot, preolon
'
-'

protcn,
r

spoge, spogest (spehst), spogcd(spe/td);

_*''

spogen, sough.

209.

Sixth Conjugation.

Stem

in -ia.

Weak.

No

ablaut.

and past

participle, drop their

Certain verbs, having their -ia syncopated in the imperfect umlaut in those forms. The imperative sin-

gular of these verbs has


(^ 188, b).

The

umlaut without gemination, and the ending -e imperfect singular second person is often found in -es

(^ 166, a).

V'a.
(a.)

Theme
a?,

in
^b;

vowels, (e;
^.

cg<^gi, compensative gemination (^ 188, b). Order of s); a >e, i-umlaut (^^ 32); a >cT, shifting (^ 41) mg'^
;

eg>e, 37,2.
Y>]nr.

lecge, leg{e)st {hst), leg{e)d (hd),

lecgad;

Lrgde Uedc,
}

(e),

Lrgdon

(e),

ge-lsegd {e),\,
geled,

Uedon ;

i^'

SIXTH CONJUGATION. VARIATION.


secge
{a>),

m
swgd,\
said,
) )

seg{e)st

(a?)

{eg), seg{e)ct

"]

swgde
s&de,

(e),") >

sxgdon
saidon
;

{e),\

{se){cg),-p\\iT:.secg{e)ad{te).

Jmsa-

^'

perat.5eo-e(a;),plur. secg{e)ad{a'). >

For sagdst, sagud, saga, see

Or(b.) Theme in cc<Cci, U<^li, compensative gemination (^ 188, Z). der of vowels, (e; ea,ea; ea); a>e, i-umlaut {^ 32); a^ea, ^-/-breaking
(^ 33);
6,

cd'^ht, ^ 189,
:

c.

English vowels, (e; u; 5);

fa>a (OrmuIum)>
'^
,
-j

progression {^ 38)

sell, sold, sold.

cpelle, cpel{e)st, cpel{e)d;

cpeal-de, -don

^'
'

> kill.

dpelle, dpel{e)st, dpel{e)d;

dpeal-de,-don(dpelede);

> err.

felle (y
selle

< ea, ^ 32),fel{e)st,l J^ai ^ ^ ae,


^
32), se-\
i)
;

.,^. aon^yLde)
'

Sfeald,
(y^;^,^^
^'^^'
-steald,
-{

\
j

tell.

fel{e)d,fyllest,fyllcd;

(y = t<Ciea,(s
i),

lestiy,

selediy,

'^'^""^-^'^ "^^'^

,-.,,,

,,

i,s

^^'^"^

Sivc

u-stelle, -stelest, -stel{l)ed ;


telle, tele St, teled;

-steal-de, -don

station.
}|

teal-de, -donitelcde); ^
"^

iteled{se),) [couni.
,

,'-

cpecce,cpec{e)st,cpec{e)d{p); {Ji)cpeah-te,-ton{cpehte); {^)cpeaht,y^


drecce, drec(e)st, drec(e)d
}
,

U^;^luT.drece{e)ad;
lecce,lec{e)st,lec{e)d{p)\
recce, rec{c){e)st, rec{e)d{p)
.

-ton; \ dre{a)h-te,
leoh-te, -ton (caf e);
;

drr{n)lit,

vex.
leak, wet.
rule.

hoht{c),
;

reah-te, -ton (a,

cT,

c)

rcaht,

slrecce, strec(e)st, strec(e)d}


,

y stre{a)h-te, -ton

,/m,

.j^ streaht,
pcaht,
pe{a)ht,

stretch.

,^1.

l>ccce, ])ec{e)st, pec{e)d{lj);

pe{a)h-tc, -ton;

thatch.

peace, pec{e)st,pec{c){e)d(p); pe{a)h-te, -ton;


precce,prec{e)st,prec[e)d{])); preh-te,-ton {ea?)

wake.
wake.

pre{a)ht,

(c.)

Theme
;

in

i-umlaut (^ 32)
I

a nasal {nc,ng). Order of vowels, {e; o,o; o); a^c, a >o, nasal assimilation ('^35). English order, (i; ou; ou);
(^ 201),

comes from bringan


38)
:

pincan

(^

211);

o'^ ouz=au, progression

(i^

bring, brought, brought.


broh-te, -ton
^
;

brenge, breng{e)st, breng{e)d{cp);


l^ence,

hroht,
/
>

bring.
^^^.^^^^

pene{e)st

penc{e)d{p),}
)

_^^^^

'

lA\xt.penc{e)ad;

210. V6.
Theme
in c;

cd'^ht

(^ 189, r).

Order of vowels,

(e; o,o; o);

o>e,

i-umlaut {^ 32).

English order, (ec; ou; ou); ou=:du, progression (^38):

seek, sought, sought.


rece, recst, recd{})), recced;

roh-te, -ton;

roht,

reck.

112
1st.

IRREGULAR VERBS. VARIATION.


Indicative Pkessnt.
2u. 3d.

Impeefect
Sing.

Pluu.

Tart. Past.

sece, secest, sccccf, plur. scc{c)a(/,'\ subj. plur. sec{e)an


(ai,

suh-tc, -ton;

suht,

seek.

co), part.

pres. sec{c)ende.

211.

Vu.
ncd^ht
(^ 194, a).

Theme
vowels,

in

a guttural

(5-,

c);

cgd'^ht,

Order of
bad

{{11)1/(1);

o,o;o);

M>y,

i-umlaut (^32);

y>z,

shifting or

spelling {^ 41);
(y; ou; ou)
\

M>Goth. au^o,

y {i)yy

= ai,

o^ou = du,
,

A-r-breaking (^ 33).

English order,

progression (^38): bu^, bought,

bought.

bycge{t) {<C_buirie,
byo-ed;
hycs;e
(/),

(s

188, b), bys^est,} ^ '^' ^*


'^

boh-te, -ton
,
, ,

,.

boht,
,

buy.
^
, /

hiis;est, hygeit, ' ' -^* ^*

plur. ^

hyc-} ^

g{e)a't;
{hoh-te is not found.
to

-don; \ hog-de,

ge.hug6d{o), mind.
forms led

Conformation with the


finally to
, ,

common weak

hogde'^hog-ede, -dde, -ode, and


/jync{e)st{i), Jwnc{e)d{i)} '

a present hogie.)
,

hynceh),
(/),

plur:yc(V/

lM-te,-ton;

ge-Jmht,

seem.

/ pyrce {eo,i,e), pyrc{e)st{e), pyrc-\ \7 , , ,, \ por{n)h-te,-ton; ge-porht, {e)d{i), plur. pyrc{e)ad;

work.

212.
I.

IRREGULAR VERBS.

PRiETERiTivE PRESENTS.
;

The

Completion of certain acts

is

the be-

perfects of verbs denoting such acts get to be used as presents denoting the states: Sansk. ve'da, Greek foi^a, Ang.-Sax. /ai, 7 / know. About a dozen such verbs are common to the Teuhave seen

ginning of states

>

tonic tongues.

They

retain antiquated personal endings

and other forms,

have peculiar syntactical relations, and the original notion of their verb has often given place to a varying modal force, in which case they become auxiliary verbs.

The

old presents are obsolete.

New weak

imperfects are

formed.

\/ vid, see.
Sanskrit.

Parent Speech, perfect vi-vaid-{m)a, plur. vi-vid-masi

(^ 166).

IRREGULAR VERBS.
It may be varied by umlaut, or other assimilation. present. sonal endings have all the variation mentioned in ^^ 165, 166, 170

113 The
:

new

per-

mag-um,

-un, -on, -en,


to -st (^^

-c,
;

-an

meahtes.

In canst, gemanst, dhst,

-t is

strengthened

50

40, 1).

The grammars
2d
;

duge as regular

indie, pres. sing.

give unne, cunne, durre, purfe, age, but their examples are subjunctive.

First Conjugation.

V^i
Infin.

dairmegan, beneohan, innan, cmnan, ge-minan, scelan, deorran<^deorsan (Goth,

san), peorfan, not found.


Indicative Sing.

1st & 3d.

2d.

Plur.

Subjunctive.
;

Imperat.
;

Part.
;

(6?i99'20oi"!'"^''"^^^*''^'^'

""'oO ()()

m&g-e,-en;
-te,-ten;

mag-an(u);

Imperf.

meah-te{i),meah-ion{i);
;

am strong, (may), <have grown.


;

Pres. (^199). he-neah,

be-mtgon;

beniig-e,-en;

Imperf.

be-noh-te, -ton {^2\\);


;

-te,-ten; hold and

benugan? ; use<have come


unn-an ;

to.

Pres. (^201). cn(o),

unnon;

unne, -en;

(ge)unn-en

,-

Imperf.

w-rfe, -f^on (Goth.

irregular),
;

^37;

-de,

-den; favor<have given.


;

Pres. (^201). can

(o),

canst (o); cunnon

cnnne,-en;
-de,

cunn-an;
cude.

Imperf.

cu-de, -don (Goi\i.

kunpa),^Zl;
;

-den; knovv<have got.

Pres. (^201). ge-man{o), -manst

-munon;

Imperf.
Pres. (^203).

gc-mimde, -don;
C

-de,

-e,-en; gemun,-ad; gemun-an; -den; remembcr<have called to mind.


;

scul- en
' ,

"^
'>

< sc(e)al(sceT), sc(e)alt; scul-on(eo);

\.\

sculan;

Imperf.

sc{e)ol-de iio), -don;

-de, -den; 6liall<ouglit<have got in debt.

Pres. (^204). d{e)ar, d{e)arst ; durr-on; dors-te, -ton (Goth, daurs-ta) Imperf.

-e,-en{y);
;

durran;
fought.
;

-tc,

-ten;

dare<have
;

FTes.{^20l). pic)arf,p{e)arf-t; purf-on; porf-te, -ton; Imperf.

purf-e, -enQ/y,

purf-an

-te,-ten;

need< have worked (opus est).

Second Conjugation (^205).


Pies.
...

V^i
-ten;

igan,not found,pitan,^ 205.


;

ah, dhst;

agon;

ag-e,-en;
-tc,

Imperf.. dh-te, -ton;

own<have

dgan, -ne ; dgendc ; earned or taken.

ndh:={ne-{-dh), &c., not own.


Pres.
...

pat, past

(u:)

piton;
c

pit-c,-en; pit-e,-ad; pitan(ij)-ne; piten,-de


-son,'",

Cpis-se,-son,^
Imperf.. pis-te{y), -ton;
j

pis-se,

*^^36,3:35,M ^^36,3; 35, I {


J
(
,

-ten. -sen _^^^ ' J^^

"'
'
. i : ) j

know<hs know<have

seen.

IB, pestar pestan;


Fies.
...

ndt{ne-{-pdt),nj/ton(c);
;

nyt-e,-en;

nitan{tj);

nyten,-de;

Imperf. nyste,nysse

nyston {&c.);

not know.

Third Conjugation (206).


Pres.... dcdhig), diigon; lm])erL. doh-tc, -ton {^2\l);
;

-y/u;

</(/^aw not found.


;

dug-e,-en;
-te,-ten;
is

dugan

dugende

fat<has grown.

II

114

lUUEGULAli VEKn?>.
Fourth Conjugation
Indicative Sing.
1st

(^ 207).

Va
-ten;

matan
Imp.
;

not found.

& 3d.

2d.

riur.

.''ubj.

Infill.

Part.

Pres.

...

mot, most;

moton;
;

mot-e,-en;
-tc,
is

molan;

Imperf.. mos-te, -ton (^ 36, 3)

nicet<lias met.

Grimm

takes bco, be, for a praeteritive present from a buan, to dwell, of

the Fifth Conjugation.

From an

imperfect subjunctive of the Second Conjugation (Goth. viljau<C

ft/, inflected like

ncmjau, ^ 171) arise


j>ill-e,-e7i;
;

Vxes.

... piUc, pilt ; pillad{y)\ Imperf.. pol-dc, -don (Goth, vilda)

-c,-ad;

pill-an;

-ende;

-de, -den
-e,

will<[have wished.
-c,-ad;

Pros.... nclle,nelt; neUad{7/,i); Imperf.. 7iol-de, -don, &c.

-en

-an;

-ende;

ne-{-piUe, will not.

pi'^po, assimilation

{^ 35, 2, a)

2>r, a-umlaut

pi^y,

^^ 32,23

//>/.

213.

II.

Verbs without Connecting A'owel


:

(Relics of Sanskrit 2d

Class, ^ 158)
(I.)
'\/ as,
\fl-)

The common forms


^Z
bhti,

of

t!ic

substantive verb are from three roots:

y/ vas.
Greek.
eo-

Sanskrit.

Latin.

Gothic.
is, s

O. Sajcon.
is,

Anglo-Saxon.
is, ir, s
;

O.Norso.

Stem,

as, s
1.

cs, s

ar

er

Sing.

as-mi

el-iii^etr-nt
ia-ai, 1

*s-u-m
eses-t

i-m<ls-m
is-

eo-m
is-t
is-

ea-m
ear-t
.

e-m<er-m
er-t

2. fis-(s)i D. as-ti

ea-Ti

is-t

er-

Plue. 1. *s-mas
2.

ia-^iv
ka-re
-uai,
c-lffi

*s-u-mu3
es-tis

*s-in(l

*s-th4

*s-ind

*s-ind(on) ear-on er-u-m *s-iud(on) ear-oa er-u--5

3. *s-auti

"s-uut

Vind

''s-iod(uD) *s-ind(on) ear-on er-u


;

ys<j.s, bad spelling

As'^s, compensation, gravitation {^^ 37, 38) as >25, precession (^ 38) 5>r, shifting (^ 41, 3, h) irm'^ (corm)^ eom, arm'^
; ;

(earm) cam, breaking (^ 33);

shifting {^ 19), nt is often found.

second person Scond-on,


;

-5

and

-t

(^ 165);

nt^nd,
(^ 32)
;

-tin (le, y),

u-umlaut?

-on in earon (O. Norse cr-u-ni) (^ 1G6, a) in sind-on, a double plural throurh conformation (^ 40) aron, earon, are rare in West Saxon.
;

The

subjunctive (Sansk. *s-jd-m,

Greek

i*-'h]-v,

Lat. *s-ie-m'^sm, Goth.

*s-ija-u, O. II. Ger., O. Sax.,


like the imperfect

Ang.-Sax.

given in ^ 171.

O. Norse *s-e) is inflected Anglo-Saxon has also si^sig (dissim*s-l,

ilated gemination, ^

spelling); so plur. stn, sjen, seon, syn.

27) '^ste, seo (a peculiar progression, ^ 25) >sy (bad The subjunctive often has the force
in

of an imperative, and
(i.)
-y/

hhu, be.

is given as the imperative in .^Ifric's grammar. Sansk. hhav-dmi, Greek (pv-w, Lat. fu-i, correspond

From the same root are form to Goth, hau-an, Ang.-Sax. hu-an, dwell. found forms without a connecting vowel in Ang.-Sax., O. Sax., O. H. Ger. In O. Sax. are only hiii-m, bi-st; in O. H. Ger. pi-m, pi-s, plur. pi-rumes,

pt-rut, pi-run {r<^s<i-\/as).


plur.

Ang.-Sax. has beo-{m)

(id), bi-st (y),

bi-d

(?/),

bead

(io),

and a present subjunctive, imperative, and

infinitive,

with the

IRREGULAR VERBS,
common
41).

115

endings

eo'^y^y'^i, umlaut, precession, and shifting (^^ 32, 38,

Sing. 3d ^eo? occurs (conformation). (c.) -y/ vas'^vis (ablaut) is inflected in the First Conjugation, ^^ 199, 197, but the present indicative forms are so rare that they are not given in the

grammars.

Paradigms for Practical Use

(pp.

84,90,91).
Infinitive.

Present
Sing.
ic

indicative.
;

Subjunctive.
si,
SI,

Imperative.
; ; ;

Participle.

eom, be6{m)
eart, bist
;

beo, pese

J/u

beo, pese
beo,

beo,

pes

he

Plur.

IS,

bid;

SI,

pese

beon,

or
sin, beon, sin,

pesende.

pe

sind{on),beod;
sind{on),.beod;

ge
lit

pesen beon, pesen


pesen

; ; ;

pesan ;
beod,

pesad;

sind{on),bc6d;

sin, beon,

Imperfect
Sing.

ic pxs ; pu p&re ; he pxs ;

pizre
psbre

; ;
;

Plur.

pxrc
;

ge-pesen.

pe, ge, hi pseron

p&ren ;

The negative ne neom = ne -\- eom ;

p: nxs ^ne-\- pxs, p. p. nxrende <C ne pxrende, etc. Sansk. da-dhd-mi, Greek ri-Oij-fii, Goth. O. Sax. (2.) -y/ dha, place do-n, O. H. Ger. tuo-n, do. Anglo-Saxon imperfect from reduplicated theme
nis
:

often unites with forms beginning with a vowel or


;

dad; a^-x
Pres.
..

(ablaut, 199)

'^y'^i, irregular weakening.


Subj.

^ 168.
Infin.

Indicative Sing.

Plur.

Imperat.
;

Participle.

do, de-st, de-d; do-d ;


;

do, -n

do, -d

do-n;

do-?ide.

Imperf. did-e{y),-cst,-e
:

-on{:r);

-c{x),n;

do-n, de-n.

Sansk. g'i-gd-mi, Greek /3i-/3jj-/zt, Goth, gaggan, O. Sax. (3.) '[Z ga, go gd-n, O. H. Ger. gc-7i. Imperfect from -y/i (Sansk. e'-mi, Greek d-fii, Lat. t-rc, go, ^ 158, a)>Goth. i-ddja, weak form strengthened.
Pres.
..

gd,gx-sf,gx-d; gad;
;

gd,-n;

gd,-d;

gd-n;
ge-gd-n.

Imperf. eo-de, -dcst, -de; -don (^37)

From
gieng

the

same
;

root are the nasalized forms

(^ 208, b)

geongan

201)

gangan, imperf. geong, geng, and gengan, imperf. gengdc.


158)

214. Reduplicate Presents (Relics of Sanskrit 3d Class, ^

gangan <,y/ga > ga-gd-mi, go (^ 213)


215. Stems in
-ia of strong
;

so hangan, standan, ^ 210).

verbs (Relics of Sanskrit 4th Class, ^ 158)

etc. (^ 199) fricge, inquire,

speric, swear, etc. (^ 207, d).

11(5

IRREGULAK VERBS.
:

216. Stems with n inserted (Relics of Sanskrit 7th Class, ^ 158)

fo<,fdhcy
ho

{fd{n)gan), fcng, etc., catch {^ 208, b).

ga{}i)ga)i<Cga-ga, go (^ 214).

hdhc {hd{n)gan), haig, etc., hang (^ 208, b). sta{n)dan, stod, etc. (^ 207, c). brc{n)gan, hrohte, bring; J)e{n)can, polite., think ; py{n)can, puhte, seem
(^^ 209,
c,-

<

>

211).

217.
(^ 202),

Stem
shows

in

itself

y/ Artia (Relic of Sanskrit 9th Class): frignan, ask of this formation in Gothic, but is consolidated in An-

glo-Saxon.

218.
leap,

Relics of Reduplication

(5

159, i)

hdlan,

cd.\\,

heht

Idcan,

hole (^ 208,2) ; l&tan, let, leort; ondr&dan, dread, ondreord; nvdan, and see ^214. rede, reord (^ 208, 4)
;

219. Relic of Passive


pres. sing. 1,3, hdt-te
1,
;

hdtan,
called

call, is called (^
;

208,2)

passive indie,

hdt-te {&), I
plur. hat-ton.

am

3, hdt-te,

he

is called.

Hdtte^^ Gothic haitada:


Sansk.
163
:

-te,

Imperf. sing. Goth, -da (baira-

da),

Greek
it?>

-rat (<psp-rai),

-tc (bhdra-te)

<^ta-tiy>Fa.rent Speech -tai


;

(bhara-tai).

Compare
tt,

t^i

(2J>a>e,
B.
:

precession, 38

>

rf,

shifting,

19

assimilation, 35,

drepan, strike, p. p. drepen and sthan, bregdan, braid (^ 202) .s^eZ^an, swallow {^ 203) tthaji, teon, accuse seon, strain Jnhan, peon, grow prihan, preon, cover but these eight last should be treated as separate verbs. (^^ 205, 206)

220. Verbs with Mixed Ablaut


(^ 199)
; ;

dropen

221. Verbs with Mixed Strong and


perf. /an? QXiA

Weak Forms
;

Jinde, find, im;

funde

{^

201); iwaji, inhabit


;

imperf. bu-de

p. p. g-eiw-ra

buian, bugian, biipian are other variations

cidan, ciiide, cad, cidde.


in -ia

222. Verbs with Mixed


183).

Weak Forms

and o {^^ 160; 165, d;


;

The same theme


diflferent

often has forms from both stems


:

but they are best

given under

verbs

Theme
lifo).
b),

Z;/ has imperfects lif-de

stem

lifia)

and lifo-de

(y, eo)

stem

Hence two

verbs, libban<^lifian by compensative gemination {^ 188,

and

lifian like lufian (^ 183).

With

libban are put indie, pres. {libbe, plur. libbad, not in Grein) imperf.

lifde, lifdon.

With lifian, pres. lif(i)ge, leofdst, lifdd {eo,y), plur. lif-iad {-igad, -gad, The z of imperative leofd; p. p. lifiende ; imperf. lifode (y, eo). -igead) ia has its usual variations in the infinitive and participle {ig, ige, ge, g),
;

175

i^eo, a-umlaut, ^ 32. Hahban (<t), have, <^hafian,


;

has, besides full forms from -ia, indie, sing.

haf-a,-o,-u; 2,.haf-ast; 3,haf-dd; imperative Aa/'d.


see pages 84, 85, 86.

For other forms,

IRREGULAR VERBS.
Secgan, say (^ 209), has sagdst, sagatt, saga to put with a sagian and talian, tell {^ 209) hycgan and hogian, mind (^ 211), etc.
;

117
;

so

tcllan

223. 224.
(a.)

Weak Verbs with Ruckumlaut

bycge, buy, bohte, etc. {^ 211).

Forms disguised by ecthlipsis and the like. Ecthlipsis of ^, h, ox p: bregdan'^ brede, hraid slrcgdan'^ stredc, strow; frignan'^frine, ask, etc., vowel e, i kept short by ablaut (^ 202) lecgan, lay, im;
;

sxgde'^s&de, said, etc. (^ 209); sjngian, be silent, sptgad^ spiad, etc. bod, boasts. bogan fo<ifdhe, catch; ho<ihdhe, hang, etc. {^ 208, b) seu<^sihe, etc. and many others, strong and weak. ( 205)
perf.

legde^lede

>

gerpan

{ie,

y,

i,

ea, a?), equip


;

imperf. gyrede, p. p. gegyrped, gyred,

serpan (y), contrive


p{e)de, syr{e)de
{b.)

indie, pres. plur. syrpad,


;

syrepad; imperf. syr-

(e)

p. p.

gesyrped.
:

DissiMiLATED GEMINATION
183);

p^up'^cp

(^ 117);

{i^tg^ige,

regular, ^

gefrxtepod <igefrxtpian, adorn. ComT^d.xe poruhte<^porhtfi<^pyrcan,'woxk (^211). (c.) Assimilation: po^u; pi'^u; pperan, weld, p.p. gcpporen^gepuren {\ 200) spigian (y), be silent, imperf. si/gode, sptgodc (^ 224, a).
;

syrepad <C syrpan, contrive;

Shifting oif,p to u: begrauen<ibegrafen<^grafen, grave (^207); bi-pdune <^pdpen<ipdpan, blow (^ 208, 2). buian, (e.) Interchange of g, i, and p : (h and g regular (^^ 197, 118))
(d.)
;

bugian, bupian, inhabit (^ 221)

and

many more.

(/.)

For Metathesis: frignan^fringan, ask

herian, herig(e)an, herpan (y), blaspheme; scon, see, seah, ssbgon, (ge)sepen, ^ 197.
;

(^<^

201,202)

gepruen<Cge-

pperen, weld (^ 200), etc.

225. lsrOETHUMBKlA:N-.
-est; 3, -cd'^ -cs
Infinitive
:

INFLECTION.
> -as.
(gc), ye,

Indic. pres. sing.

l,-o;

2,

plur. -at?

-an (rare)

>-a>-aj>-e.
we, or

Subjunctive: sing. -e; plur. -en>-e. Imperfect plur. -un, -on drops 7i be-

fore a subject ivoe (pe),

Variation.
^ 26.
sing,
ca.
.r,

may go The vowels of gie and other variation may change as ablaut
i.

and

-u, -o

to e or

in

The
oc, e

first

form of ablaut {^^ 199, 200) has present

ea, eo

imperf.

The contracted imperfects (^ 208) have e, ei. ; plur. oe, e. verbs with stem -ia {^ IGO) in the present drop i with compensaStem e remains often in the imperfect, and ofttive gemination {^ 188, b).

Weak

enest in the p. p., except in verbs having ruckumlaut (^ 189, d). goes to a. Participle pres. often in -and.

Stem

Irregular Verbs.
T^Vosa

= Ang.-Sax.
;

(For
;

first

person -m, see 165, a)


Pres. indic.
1,

pesan:

am, eom
sie.

2,

ard ;
1,

3, is;

plur. aron, sind, sindon.

Subjunctive,
Pres. indic.

Pres. indic.
;

bium

GAA = Ang.-Sax.
g&ct; plur.

(om)

2, bist

3, bid;

plur. bidon.
:

Imperf. u\rs
1,

plur.
;

woerun.
2, gi&s
;

gdn, go
(gad).

gA

(geongo)

3,

gdad

Imperf. edde.

118

IRREGULAR VERBS.DERIVATION.
DdA=Ang.-Sax.
plur.

don, do

Pres. indie.

1,

dom

(do)

2,

does

3,

docd

doad {doed). Subj. do. Wa//a Ang.-Sax. pillan, will

Inipcrf. di/dc.
;

Pros, indie.

I, loillo

2, wilt

3, ivil

plur. ivallad.

Iinperf. loalde.

Other forms generally agree with the

West Saxon.
226. Weathering of Inflection Endings.
vowel, see ^^ 199-211)
:

(For

variation of root

DEKIVATION.

119

Composition or coalescence combines two notions. Certain notional stems used as the latter part of compounds lose their notional force, and become in effect relational suffixes. It is not easy al(d.)

ways

to separate these

from

suffixes springing directly

from

radicles.

228.

Suffixes fkom Radicles

( 56).
.

Anglo-Saxon nominative or present are at the left. Small letters above the line have dropped. Latin stems in o- are of the second declension, and imply a nominative in -us, -urn, or -er {^ 70,).
suffixes of the

The

Suffix.
1.

Vowels.

Sanskrit.

Greek.
;

Latin.

Gothic.

Anglo-iSaxon.

'^<a:
e<a(verb):

jug-d, yoke, Vjuff,]o'm

^vy-u-v;
(p'tp-m;

j^g-o-;

juk-^s ;
bair-a;

iuk^.
ber-e.

hhdr-d-mi, 1 hear

fi^-o

^<-'-

r^tv"te?'''i *">-">
A-?, snake, / a^^, sin
f
;

>^---

r's^f's^^--;
J

'<i:
y
(

tx-t-C
]
)
,

angu-i-s
| ac-u-s,
'

"'_

\cpen^.

ftf-w',

quick,

V ok,
;

to

hand-u,

kand^',

be sharp

(needle;

hantk, ca.teh\{ hand.


mid-ji-s;
;

e<ja:
a"<jan:
;

mddh-Ja, middle;
Lat.
^f-^-iore-w,

fikaaov<iyLi^-jo-v; med-io-;
;

midd<Cmide,
murctr-a^.
bend^,

legion

Goth. maMriAr-^a**, murderer

Ang-Sax.
{

.,
_

ivid-ja, wit,
\j^i'-r,

Vvid,see;
;

j uff<Ta<ifuic-ja,^ in-sid-ia,sit-^band-i,
(

^"^

goddess

voice, -/ml-;

ting in wait; (-/Jane/;

(bond.

< aja in verb -.^ ^ ena<ja(+na):


ie,

stems, see 160.

[Zt'"'"'T"\0.U.G.n.agat.i, child,<Ka.(0-c, ..^^41,^^!^


[

j '"f'^'^^'f
I

child;

<n^^^'f, maul.

2.

Semi-vowels.

p'' (u,

o)<va:

..

e'-ra,
)

going,

t,

go

at- f wv, time

x-vo-

ai-v^-s;
f
(

d-p'^.
;

pu<

vu, p' (u, o)

far-bu Q-jni), color


6ea(f-M, battle.

<vja: ^ in'*<ma:

Y
I

{ghar-md, heat,
'

V ghar,
"'

>

3|0-/*o-s,

not

j.
;

/or-mo- ;
. .

var-rnr

n pear-m^.

n , ((g)na-man, name, ma" < man: ....{, know V


'

gna,

( ;

yvoti-uov-oc

a, ^ (n)no-mn: na-m,u(-man); na-ma".

For ma, ra, as sufDxcs of comparison, see 123, 126.


j.a ' 1 a

f^'-ra, field, 'v/o^, go;


J.O
. '

)
'

\sddyra,sea.t,V sad,

dy-p6-Q;
;

ag-ro-

ak-r^-s;
;

ac-(e')r^.
set-(e)l'^.

'iS-pa;
^,

sel-la{d>r); sii-l^-s
ol'^i''',

Here put

e?-^)*, or<^i
.

',

r^>

*,

er-e {<,-ja), al^-j^, el^j

ul^th

el-e (_<C-ja').

rGr. (-7jpo r. (-rjpo

+ to), io),

La (^-dii+id), Goth, (-ar+ja), Lat.


book-man
;

at. libr-dr-io-(ius'), ILat. libr-dr-w-(ius'

(Bopp gives -ar-ja<.iar-ja). Goth, bok-ar-ei-s, Ang.-Sax. boc-er-e, O.H.G.

buock-er-i (art).
,j
'

jj

f(Z-ara, J-dn,

water,

\V vad, wet. /vad, -wet.


For more of

I tiKfi'/c-ov-oc,

rfp-v-oe, smooth; j ^cc<-<:n, comb ; Tip likeness ; I ec^wi-w, eater ;

vat-6(-in-s),{

pxt-a^.
pxt-e-'^^.

water.

-an, see 95, 105,

a; for

infinitive -ana, p. p. -na, 175.

120
Sevii-voioels

DERIVATION,

Sanskrit.

Continued.

Greek.
)

Latin.
f
(

Gothic.
\ I

Aug. -Sax.
i

(svap-Tui, sleep,
i

soin-nu-s<,

har-n'^,

spcf-(c)7i'^,

svap, sleep

sojmio-s

bairn

sleep.
.,.

(e)u'^: ^ -^
^ < ">
.

(phali-nd, < , Ifruit-bearing;


. .

KtSpi-vo-c,

(
"1

fraxi-no,
7

silubrei-n^s,
-1

1
(

cedarn
~

1
I

(
J

ashcu;

silfre-'nr. '

silvern;
(

"'

('?-*', fire,
=

1
i

Vaj;
,

'^""-^' "''*^
.
,,
.

.,

'

'^'""'

'"
J-

lihai-ni,

leof-(e)n\

'

victuals
su-nu-s,

I Vlif, live.
]

nu:
no ^.
.A

fSM-n?L son,
i

)
_ 5

,
;

V 5Wj D6ur
,
,

C J

S-pjy-vu-C, stool

wo-nii-s,
r
\

band

f
;

S
(.

son

s-nw, son.
)

clndr-ani, In-

/,

("

\,
l

S'i-atva, goddess '

re(7-ma, queen,

enne<a.nja:...{^^,^erne
3.

/3a.W
queen (v V <!;;);

,^.

^ <reM-),
, s

(
\

O.H.Ger.
.

r.

king;
(

^'-f goddess;
(.

avd-en"'^,

r^oddess!
;
\
I

< ar-a-nja
.

f
:

{ \

Lat. (exter-no), extranco-, belonging to ., / eo mo i. ion on ihdX extra; (-er, 122, o; 129, 2) ;
. .

0. H. Ger.
*

vst-r-ijni.

1
(

east-erne.

eastern;

Dentals.
I

For

*^*

p. p. -ta,

Gotb. -da, -tha, 175, 5; for -ta-ra, -ta-ma, -ta-ta in compar-

ison,

126.
-ff

Here belong Ang.-Sax.


der, der, dl^

(ad^, dd"; ndd"'), -d^ {od", ud^,


)

ed%

-t^ (ot^, et").

<

r pi-tar, father,
\
'

7ra-rp-oe

pa-ter

fa-der;
Jie-thla;

fxd-er.

^ p^, feed
&/ir'- to-,
.

I
;

^^a,
;

Gr. vt, Lat. e>(needle)


;

nw-dli
hro-dor.

brother

0pa-7op-of
,

frd-ter;

hro-thar;
^

estre^ <as-ta-ra( Latin sa?-(?-as<ro-, deafish; <^ ( French poet-astre, petty poet ( + an)
,

Ang.-Sax.
;

-nt)

oa?c-e5<r-e"'f,

11.1 female baker.


r
.,

,;

,;

ctS d>, '

ti<ti:

{ma-ti, ravoA,
...J

,.

{myn-d'',
".

think (V ma-n, ^,

.'

Miij-Ti-c; V

men-ti-s;

mun-t-s;\
(

.'

_^^^

_^^

sta-tii-s ;
,
^

fswa-<M-TO, stand,

f f acr-ri;,

tu:

< \

Vstka, stand

,^

{\
\
;

cit3'

V
;

<-tu-dm,-tu-din,

ddu-ihu-s, ,,),,, Iqe-hoh-i^, death,


(-tu-ti,
;
I

ded-d'^
,

./,

<

(-..-.,< -r.-.,)

^^^_^

] ^^^^^^^^_^

^j^^^^^^^^_

nes^^ (nis^\ nys^*) )

| gudji-nassu-s,
(

gud-ne^^,

<na+as+tu:
ende<ant:
,
,

priest-hood;

(goodness,

175, 3.
V

iqan-as, genus, '

)
)

(
> ;

aa-is^,

es-a<as(+an):{'' <
ere

V gen, hear
-iza,

(ytv-o-g; ^' '


;

pu

(_

'JGoth.
}
t

O.H.G.-ira, A.-S. -eruy-ru in plurals


0. Norse foed-sla

(e)ru:
els^
)

7^1
j gen-us,
^ ;

-er-is

<
(

awe;

(Va^r,

eg-esd'^, r /

fear.

ivg-ru, eggs, etc.

(82, a).
-esl^^.

al

+ sa

0. H. G. fuot-isal'^, fodder
ra<-mZ<^, riddle;

,-

Ang.-Sax. fed-ek^,

esPi

(as+la)O.H. G.

Swedish

?vcrf-eZse;

Ang.-Sax. nid-ek^.

4. Gutturals.

ih^

'

iga<ka-

'"

/'5'*''^^^'"-^''

Uoy<-/c(5-c, of
(

{belli-co., oi

\0^-''<^-(i-^-,\
(

.^-a^

Ifrom^S'tWAu;

%os;

war;

greedy;

Here put
^^^
.,
.

h'^,

oc^'

',

uc*?

i.

^ ^^ ^ O.H. Ger. .tem-oH stony;


.

steina-ka,

stiin-ih-f^ ,

^^^^^.

^^^^.^^

SUFFIXES. QUASI-SUFFIXES.
Sanskrit.
.

121
Gothic.

Greek.
(

Latin.
f scutr-isco-, < ,..n
;

Ang.-Sax.
., ,
.

_
-^

Traic-i(jKo-Q,
,.,,,

^ isc'^<i(s)ka:
(

little

, ., , x / child (77-aic-)

little

plate

')

barn-hk^-^, f
, c^^iluish ., ,

>
i

-i
;

cild-isc^.

Syr-isco;
[^

Ent/l-isc'^,
1^

a Syrian

/
;

English,

ing^<i(n)g^: 0.

H.G.

ec?t7-fnc<^,

noble-man

A.-Sa.x. wdel-ing'^

Elis-ing'^,

son of Elisha.
1-ing'^
:

O. H. G. junJd-linc^ a youth
,

A. -Sax. geong-ling^ <^geong,

young.

ung\ing':
iucle

O.H.G. warn-unga,
Lat. Jootm-jz-cu-Zo,
little

wa.rmng

A.Sax.

j^carri-icng'^

(-ing^)

{pearn-ian, to warn).
:

little

house {domo-)\
little

O.H.G.

csil-inchilin,

ass; A. -Sax. Ms-MzcZe,

house.
;

For

suffixes of

parison, ^ 122-129.

pronouns and numerals, see ^ 130-140 for those of comThe endings of adverbs are mostly from case-endings.

229. QUASI-SUFFIXES

FROM

ISTOTIONAL STE:irs.

eern, em, house; Goth, razn, O.Norse rann : shep-ern, sleeping-room; Often mixed with Latin radicle suffix -ern : Lat. lathors-ern, stable.

ern-a, lucerna,
ern, tav-ern
;

A. -Sax. hldc-ern, lant-ern Lat. tab-erna, A. -Sax. gxstLat. career, A.-Sax. earc-ern, prison A. -Sax. cpeart-ern,
; ;

quarters.

b^re, bearing
joyous.

Lat. -ferus, 0.

H. G.

pari, O. Nor. hibr

lust-hxre, lust-y,

cund, kind

Gr.

-yev-t'ic,
;

Lat. -gena, Goth, kunds, 0.

H. G. chund :

dcofol-

cund, devil-ish
cragft,

god-cund, god-like. craft; 0. Sax. -Jcraft, O. H. G. -ehraft: stwf-crxft, (letter -craft)

grammar. Lat. gen-us, Goth, kuni, O. Sax. kunni, 0. Nor. ki/nni, O. H. cyn, kind G. chunni : treop-eyn, (tree-kind) wood man-cyn, man-kind.
;
;

daeg, day

Goth, dags, O. Sax. dag, 0. Nor. dagr, O. H. G. tac


authority, dominion

gear-dxg,

(yore-days) formerly.

dom, judgment,
-thum
:

O. Nor. -domr, 0. H. G. -tuotn, Ger.


Ger. -fest
dr-fxst, honorable

faest, fast

cyning-dom, kingdom, O. Nor. -fastr, M. H. G.

-vesle,

st&de-fxst, stead-fast.
feald,' fold
;

Goth, faiths, 0. Nor. -faldr, O. IL G. -fait

mxnig-fcald,
:

manifold.
ful, full
;

honorable.

Goth, fulls, O. Sax. Sansk. pur, Gr.

-ful,

0. Nor. -fullr, 0. IL G. -fol


-heit

dr-ful,

ttXI-wc, Lat. ple-nus.


:

had, character, state, rank; m&den-hdd, maidcn-hcad.

O.H.G.

hrodor-hdd, brother - hood

122
lieaio,
;

QUASI-SUFFIXES.ABLAUT.

.''.pvd Goth, hard-u-s, O. Nor. -hardr, O. II. G. -harl, O. French -ard: mx^n-heard, (might-hanl) very mighty ilrunk-ard bragg-art. Iko, sport, gift Oc^.Idiks^ O. Nor. hikr, O. H. G. -Icih : fcoht-lde,
; ; ;

fight

O. Eng. lovc-laih, love


leks, loose from
-las
:
;

know-ledge

ped-ldc, wed-lock.
-los,
;

Goth. -Idus, O. Sax.

O. Nor. -laus, O.

II.

G.

-laos,

dr-lcds, (honor-less) dishonorable


;

god-lcds, god-less.
:

lie, like

Goth,
;

-leiks,

O. Nor.

-likr, -legr,

O. H. G. -Wi

dr-ltc, (honor-like)

honorable

god-lic, god-ly.

Sansk. -drk, Gr.

-\ik, Lat. -lie.

mail,

man

Goth, mans, O. Sax. -7nan, O. Nor. -madr, 0. H. G. -man:


;

glco-man, glee-man
;

plf-man, wo-man.

Goth, -mcl, O. Sax. -mahal, O. Nor. -7ndl, O. H. G. -mahal, m^l.^time mdl{i): undern-mskl,noon-\AmG; stijcce-mxlum, -piece-meal.

r^den

(Lat. ratio), mode, fashion kind-red.


;

freond-r&den, friend-ship
II.

mwg-r&den,

red, reed, counsel, condition


dition) family.-

O. N. -rdd, 0.

G.

-rdt

ht-red, (hive-con-

rice, prince

Goth,

-rei/cs,

0. Nor.
(2)

rc/cr,

O. H. G.

-rih,

Sansk. rd'g'an, Lat.

rex

sige-rice, victorious.
;

dom,

cyne-rice, kingdom.

^ sceaft, shape,
i

scipe

(y),

shape,

manner 0. Sax. -scaft, O. H. G. (10th century) scaft. manner O. Sax. -scepi, O. Nor. seapr, O. H. G. seaf:
; ;

freond-scipe, friend-ship

hyge-sceaft, mind-state

land-seeap (scipe),

land-scape (-skip).

smid, smith; 0. Nor. -smidr, O.H. G. -smid : ptg-smid, warrior; Goth.


staef, staff;
stccf,

-a.

O. Nor. -stafr, O.
like

II.

G. -stap

fdcen-stsef, wickedness

dr-

honor.
;

sum, same,
teme(y)
perverse.

O. Nor.

-sam'>',

O. H. G. -sam
;

= sum:

pyn-sum, winsome, joyous.


troublesome; ppeorh-teme,

luf-tyme,\oye\y

hejig-ty77ie,

pare, men; Goth, vair, O. Sax. luer


Gr.
rjp-ioQ,

Rom-pare, Romans.

Sansk. vir-a-s,

Lat. vir.

peard, becoming, tending to; Goth, -vairths, O.H. G. -wert, -wart: hdmSansk. vrt, Lat. vert-ere. peard, home-ward.
pis, wise
;

O. Sax. -whi

O. Nor. -vts
viA, ^ 212.

M. H. G. wise

riht-pis, (wise as

to rights) righteous,

-y/

230.

New

Stems pkom Vaeiation of Eoot Vowel.


act or an object suited to

Ablaut.
act
;

The vowel of the present denotes the

those of the past denote result, the plural being many derivatives this force is lost.

more

abstract.

But

in

First Conjugation, (e(eo); s;{ea); &{d); e; ^199): beran (bcoran), hear, > beord, birth here, barley beam, child b&r, bier, (i ; a, u ; u ; ^ 201)
;
; ;
:

singan, sing,

>5an^,

song, song

grindan, grind,

^grund,

ground.

UMLAUT.FORMATION OF NOUNS.
Second Conjugation,
bttan, bite,
(i
;

123
;

a, i; i;
;

^ 205)

drifan, drive, '^ draf, drove

>
;

bit, bit

bitei; bitter
;

bat, bait.
: ;

boga,

Third Conjugation, (eo(w) ed, u; o ; 206) beogan, hexid,'^bf.dn, ring bow teohan, tug, ieam, team ; toga, duke tyht, c^uide.

>

Fourth Conjugation,
grave
;

(a (ea)

0,0; a(ea); 207): grafan, gra.ve,^ grwf,

^/"q/",

ditch

sceapaii, shape,

> scop, shaper, poet.

Umlaut. The same stem may occur with and without umlaut or break-

make a new word, though it may be the beSince the ablaut became irregular ( 199) ginning of bifurcation ( 40,3). new words have been formed in large numbers by irregular bifurcation.
ing, but this variation does not

Suffixes aeeanged according to their Use.


Formation of Substantives.
231. Indefinite Noun-signs
ja, a.<^an,
:

u<,

^</, ^<^jd, u, ''<a, e<

e<Can.

These combine with the case-endings


as secondary suffixes
ities,
;

{\}^ 69-95), and are abundantly used found oftenest with names of actions and qualwith names of qualities, e and a with agents.

is

gif-u (gif-an, give),

gift.

drinc'^ {drinc-an, drink), drink.

d&d^

{don, do), deed.

hird-e (Goth, haird-ei-s), bird.


han-a'^ (-y/can, sing), cock.

jnjn^^ (O. Sax. wunnia), fun.

mag-u {mag-an,
232. Agent.

get), son.

tung-e, -an, tongue.

Masculine
der, ter.

a,

end, ere, o<ija,

(e/, oZ, uio-), cter,

Feminine

e<an, en"^,estre, <ii, Listruments and means: els^, ele,


(e)n^
Quasi-suffix,

id, isse (Lat. issa).


el*^,

dP, or^

(cr^).

smid.
myr-e, -an (mearh, horse), mare. fix-en, enne (fox), vixen.
sang-estre {sing-an, sing), songster. fcd-cls {fed-an, feed), victuals.
nct-ele

dem-a {dem-an, deem), judge. dem-end {dem-an, deem), judge.


dem-ere {dem-an, deem), judge.
sang-ere {sing-an, sing), singer.
pin-e (V pin, love), friend. fore-rin-el {rinn-an,x\xvi), fore-runner.

(Vna,

sew)"? nettle.

sct-l^^, n. {sitlan, sit), settle.

mt-dl^ (V^^^i sew), needle.


(-y/pa, feed), father.
(sva-su-tar, connected
-y/su, bear).

fx-der

fod-or^ {J'kl-an, feed), fodder.


leof-cri}' {lif-an, live), victuals.

bro-der (-y/bliar, support), brother,


speos-ter,
f.

byg-els,

bow

ham-or^, hammer.

woman;

/j/,g--5mic^

(war-smith), warrior.

abbud-isse, abbess.

124
233. Action.

DERIVATION. SUBSTANTIVES.

Masculine and Neuter t^


Feminine
iiig*,

{oic, ct"),

d^

{ad, od, nad).

uiigS \\

le*^'* (e/e, ole,

ulc).

'^^\

Quasi-suffix, lac.

d-rts-t (?-w^an7 rise), resurrection.

hern-ing {beorn-an, burn), burning.

bxrn-et {beorn-an, burn), burning.

bwrn-ung {bcorn-an, burn), burning.


sping-cl''
I
'

hunt-ad

(Jiunt-ian, hunt), hunting.

{sj)ing-an, sconrge), scourg-

hunt-ud {hunt-ian, hunt), hunting. hunt-nad {hunt-ian, hunt), hunting.

sping-elc

ing.

bcadu-lac^ (fight-sport), fighting.


jnf-ldc, marriage.

234. Result.

Masculine
Neuter n^.
kill),

m^

(eni<^, ??z),

ma",

n^^, ct<^</zi,

t^<^tu.

Feminine (e)n^.
cpeal-m^ {cpell-an,
death.
fruit.

dcd-d^

(-y/

dau,

die), death.

pxs-t-m^ {peax-an, wax),

gc-J)oh-t^ {pinc-an, think), counsel.

blo-maP' {blop-an, blow), bloom.

bcar-n^ {ber-an, bear), child.


sel-en^ {sell-an, give), gift.

heof-en^ {hebb-an, heave), heaven.

235. Quality and objects named from it. Feminine u {o, eo), nes'^' {nis, nys), (u)d, d^ t''. Neuter tt^^, d^, t^, used instead of di, d^, t^ when ge- or
other prefix
is

used with an abstract.

Masculine

ing*^-

Quasi-sufRxes, craeft, cyn, dom, had, en, rice, sceaft, sceap, scipe, steef.
hvbt-u {hdt, hot), heat.
liece-crivft^,

man,

rd, rfed-

m.

leech-craft.

streng-u, -o, -eo, strength.


ge-ltc-nes^^, like-ness,

l&ce-cyn^, n. (leec!i-kind), doctors.

l&ce-dom^, m. leech-craft.

mild-heort-nes^^, mercy.
streng-d^, strength.

pis-dom

{pis, wise),

wisdom.

cild-hdd^, m. child-hood.

ge-cyn-d^, nature.
pit-leds-f', wit-lessness.

pcop-hdd, serf-dom.

sud-man, m. Southerner.
hi-red'',
f.

gyme-lys-f, heed-lessness.

(hive-state), family.
,

geog-ud^ {geong), youth.


ge-ping-d'^, honor.

fremd-raiden'
hyge-sceaff',

f.

friendship.

f.

(mind -state), thinking.

ge-cyn-d^, nature.
ge-pih-t^ {peg-an, weigh), weight.

Ia7id-sceap, n., -scipe, m., land-scape,

dr-stwf^, m. honor.
btsceop-rice, n., bishopric.

l-skip.

xdel-tng^, noble-man.

23G, Diminutives: c

(?/ca, oc^), 1

(Z<(t)/a),le<2^-}-a;i, ling, incle',

en^ <Cjd-\-na.

(questioning; ^ 56) and 1 (trilling) are suited to express diminution.

DERIVATION.ADJECTIVES.
The
I

125
c-l
;

Sanskrit diminutive
;

is

k; Greek, w,

(jk;

Latin,

/,

Goth., O. H.G.,

most
;

Low German,
is

k most.

Anglo-Saxon words

in uca, el, le are rel-

ics

ling

growing

into use.

The English

uses ock, ling.

bull-uca"'-, bull-ock.

geong-ling'^, m. young-ling.
rdp-incle, n. (rap, rope), string.
cijc-en^, n. (coc, cock), chicken.

cyrn-el^, n. (corn, corn), kernel.

meop-le,

f.

(Goth, mavi, virgin

ma-

vilo, little girl), girl.

mwgd-en^,

n.

{m&gd, maid), maiden.

237. Patronymics: ing^.


JElfred Mdclpulf-ing^^, Alfred son of ^thelwulf.

238. Gentiles: e<^ia, an, isc, ing^


Quasi-suffix, pare.

(^ 101,2).

Engl-e

( 83), English.

Englisc,

Got-an, Goths.

Rom-pare, Romans.
239. Place
en, ene".
Quasi-suffix,

adj., English. Pyr-ing-ds, Thyringians, descendants of Thyr.

Time
ern (wrn),
etc. (^ 101). n.
.

dsg, mal.

midl-en^,
cyc-ene,
f.

n.

midst.

dom-ern^,

{dom, doom), judgment[hall.

(coc, cook), kitchen.

hors-ern, n. horse-stable.

gedr-dxg, m. (yore-day), antiquity.

undern-miU,

n.

noon-time.

ADJECTIVES.
240. Indefinite Suffixes combining with case-endings:

a<^an, e<ian. Any adjective theme may have stems


^,

'^,

u<:^a,

in all these

endings (^ 103-114).

241. Characteristic, connoting quality of the object denoted by the stem isc.
:

Quasi-suffixes,
cild-isc (cild, child), child-ish.

cund,

lie (with nouns).


(p'lf,

J'^f-li'''

deofol-cund, (devil-kind) devil-ish.


(a.)

itics

of a

woman), having the woman, womanly.


:

qual-

Patrial isc also connotes origin from a place or stock


;

Romdn-isc,

Roman

Lunden-isc, Londonish

Engl-isc, English.

242. Fitness or disposition


ol, or.

for the act or state denoted

by the theme

Quasi-suffixes, fus, lie (with verbs),


j;?rec-oZ(5;jrec-an, speak), talk-ativc.
bit-or, -er {bit-an, bite), bitter.

sum, tyme,
II.

pis.
:

bealo-fus, disposed to Ja/e, wicked

O. Nor./w^, O.

G. funs, ready.

126

DERIVATION. VERBS.
luf-sum, disposed to love. lof-sum, worthy to be praised.
luf-tpme, fitted for love.
riht-pls,

forgifend-lic, to be forgiven.
xin-gesepen-lic, (unseen-) invisible.

un-gclxrcd-Uc, (unlearned-) unlearned.

knowing

right, righteous.

243. Fullness, connoting possession of an object denoted by the stem

e<y,

ig, iht,

ed.

Quasi-suffixes,

b^re,

fasst, ful,

heard, leas.
fruit), fruit-ful.

pjjnt-c (pcord, worth), worth-y.

pxstm-bu^re {pxstm,
hlys-hwrc
{lilysa,

stdn-ig

{stall, stone),

stony, abound-

ing in stones {). pcl-ig (pela, wealth), rich.


sldn-iht, stony
(;&).

fame), famous. dr-faast (dr, honor), honorable.

cear-ful {cearu, care), care-ful.

ge-hyrn-ed {horn, horn), horned.

mirgeii-hcard, might-y. ccar-leus {ccaru, care), careless.

244. Material, (e)n^

slxn-en {stdn, stone), made of stone.

gyld-en {gold, gold), golden.


245.

Place, erne

siid-erne, southern
:

nord-erne, northern.
;

peard

siid-peard, southward
;

nord-peard, northward.

For Pronouns, see i^^ 130-137 For Numeral -feald, -ode, -tig,

etc.,

comparatives and superl., ^ 122-129. see ^ 139-148.

VERBS.
246.

Strong Verb Suffixes:


These are
nim-a-n, take
;

a,

ia<ya

(^^158, a; 215).

suffixed to a root.
sit.

sper-ia-n, swear; sittan<Csit-ia-n,

247.
(a.)

Weak Verb
aja
is

Suffixes: ia <a;a, 6 <o;a

(^ 160).

In aja

> ia,

a secondary suffix a a drops aja ajd


;

= -\-ja, a > ^ ady


ga, ea,
e,

belonging to a simpler word. u, progression and contraction

(^ 38, 52).
{b.)

Variations

ia, iga, igea,

a, ie, ige,

ge,

e,

6, d, a, u,

precession

and

dissimilated

gemination

(^38; 27,5).
ner-ia-n, ner-e-de, save
;

infinitive ner-ia-n, ner-iga-n, ner-igea-n, ner-

ga-n; feg-a-n, feg-ea-n,


ner-ige, ner-ge, ner-e.

ioin, feg-{e)-de

indicative present ner-ie,

sealf-ia-n, salve, sealf-o-de, sealf-u-dc, sealf-a-de, scalf-e-dc.


is contracted from aa. dgan, ahan ; on from d/ian, bhan: gdn {gaan), go; smeagan'^ smedn, consider slcahan^ sledn, shy ieuhan. tug. fun <ifahan, catch gcfeon<Cgefeohan, rpjoice icon
; ,
; ;

247*. Infinitive an

<

NOTEWORTHY WEAK VERBS.

127

Noteworthy Weak Verbs.


248 I, Causatives and Transitives, They have the highest progression of the
singular),

1.

relics of the Sanskrit causative.

root

(lilce

the strong imperfect

and i-umlaut.
:

CoNJ.
set
;

-y/ sad, sit; y' a Goth, sit-an, sat-ja-n

Sansk. std-ami, sit, causative sdd-djd-mi, O. Sax. sittian, settian ; O. Nor. sit-ia,
e (^^

set-ia.

Highest progression, a; i-umlaut,


imp. swt{a) imp. la?g {a) imp. bai-n;
;
;

199-204, 32).

sittan<^sit-ia-n, sit;

settan<^sat-ia-n, set.

licgan<ilig-ia-n, lie;

beorn-an, burn;
drinc-an, drink

lecgan<^lag-ia-n, lay. bern-a-n, cause to burn.


drenc-a-n, cause to drink.
(Zep-o/a-mj; Goth, teih-an,

imp. dranc

CoNJ.

2.

V^'-

V^'f) show; Sansk. causative


imp. tdh

tdik-ns, token.

Highest progression, a; i-umlaut,


;

&

(^^ 205, 32).

lih-an, point at;

t&c-a-n, teach.

drif-an, drive
lid-an,

imp. drdf;
;

dr&f-a-n, disperse.
hed-a-n, lead.

go (by sea)
;

ns-an, arise

imp. lad; imp. rds ;

rxr-a-n, raise, rear.

CoNJ.

3.

-y/u:

-y/i/a/o-',

bend
;

Sansk. causative bhug'-djd-mi {^ 158).

Highest progression, ed
bug-an, bow, bend
Jleog-an, flee
;
;

i-umlaut,

y
;

(^^ 206, 32)

e often occurs.

imp. bedh

byg-a-n, cause to bend.


fi/g-a-n, put to flight.
joar-4?a-OT?)
;

imp. fledh

CoNJ.
e

4.

V^) ^- V P^^^ Sansk. causative


;

accomplish.

est progression, u; i-umlaut, c ((^^ 207, 32)


:

or, progression,

Higha; umlaut,
e).

Goth, far-an, far-Ja-n, but gal-an, sing, gol-ja-n (compare ^ 158,


far-an, go
/>ac-a,

imp. for
;

fer-a-n, go

far-ia-n, carry.

wake

imp. /'oc;
is

pac-ia-n, watch,

also found

/>eccaw<]jpac-z'a-?2,

awaken.

later denominative.

Here belong many verbs apparently formed from nouns or participles by hyld-an, to make bent (heald) hyn-an, to make to cry (hredm) (hcdn) hrym-an, pyrc-an, to work (peorc) pyrmlowly an, to warm (pearm) yld-an, to delay {cald, old) yrm-an, to make wretchi-umlaut of the root vowel
;
:

ed {eai-m)

yt-an, to drive out ypp-an, to lay open (up) -fyld-an: prt-fyld-an, to triple {fcald, fold), etc.
; ;

{iit)

words

in

249.

n.
Such

Denominatives without Umlaut, from

adjectives.

arc oftencst neuter, but with ge- oftencst transitive.


;

ge-miclian, to make great. grow great (micel) ge-litlian, to make little. grow little hdt-ia-n, to grow hot (hat) compare hiit-an, to make hot. pearm-ia-n, to grow warm; compare pyrm-an, to make warm.
micl-ia-n, to
litl-ia-n, to
;

128
250.
-S-,

ADVERBS. NOTIONAL STEMS.

III.

Denominative Suffixes grown Verbals:


(^ 188, b),

-c-,

-g-,

-n-,

ettaiK^atian

l^can

hyr-c-n-ian, hark, hearken {hyr-an, hear)

syn-g-ian, to sin

mier-s-ian,
;

make more plt-n-ian, to punish sunior-ldican, summer is near.


to
;

hdl-etlan, -etan, -etian, hail

ADVERBS.
251.
Adverbial suffixes are mostly from case-endings.

Notional Stems (Nouns),


I.

dat.

Living Case-endings, with and without prepositions: gen. es, a; instrum. e, e ace. weak an. , ne a, e, um
;

es

dxg-es, by day
;

icLvg-es, (now)-a-days
;

eall-es,
;

wholly

micl-es,
;

much
C5,

to-midd-es, amidst

neaht-es, by night

ned-es, needs

son-es,

(eft-)soons; /a?2C-c5, willingly; s>fter-peard-es, a.fterwa.rds;

hdm-peard-c
:

homewards,
is

Adverbial -es
ned-e, etc.
;

a: g^cf/r-a, of yore (o-ear, year). found with nouns having their genitive in

nealU-c,

sin-neahtes, eternall3^

a, dative feminine (^ 93, i)

ung-o

(^ 88, a),

dcarn-ung-a, -inga, -enga, O. Sax. darnO. H. G. tarnunk-un ((J Goth, o, ^ 95, c), secretly
:

Scotch darklings, darkling deorcung-a, in the gloaming eallung-a, wholly kvcling-a, 0. Eng. backlings, on 'the back so O. Eng. noseling, side-ling'^ sidelong ( 40, 3), headlong, on the nose, side, head.
; ; ; ;

This

is often thought genitive plural but feminine abstracts in -ung seldom use the plural, and they retain the old dative in -a (^ 77, i)
;
;

while the O. H. G. can not be a genitive plural.

um,

dative plural

hpU-um,
;

-on,

whilom

on-sundr-on, asunder
;

pundr-

lun,

wondrously
;

dom
e, e,

litl-um,

stycce-mM-um, piece-meal little micl-um, much.


;
:

seld-iim, -on, -an, sel-

dative and instrumental


;

wfr-e,e\ex; heodieg{e), to-day


to-ealdre, always
;

to-dmg-e,
;

to-day

to-nihte, to-night

inicle

md, much more

to-gxdere, together,
,

an
;

to-cdc-an, moreover.
; ; ;

ham, home east, east pest, west ealne peg, always on bxc, back on-gedn, against eal, all nedh, nigh hdmpeard, homeward on idcl, in vain and comparatives and superlatives (^ 123). ne eal-ne peg, always sum-ne d&l, O. Eng. some deal, somewhat.
accusative
:

on peg, away

II.
{a.)

Obscure Endings, a, e. a Goth, -a, 0. Sax. -a, O.


:

II.

G.

-a, perhaps

from instrumental
is

-a

(^63,^).
{!).)

The common

adverbial ending from adjectives

-e

O. Sax.

-o,

RELATIONAL STEMS.
O. Nor.

129

Gothic -ba, -6 are prob-a, O. H. G. -o, Goth, -o, some say -la. akin to instrumental -bhi and -a {^ 63, g). Bopp thinks -6 an ablative ably ending like Greek -(og<^-ojT, Latin -u and -e<C-ed, but in Teutonic the instrumentals have a history analogous to that of the ablative in Greek and
Latin
;

the

Anglo-Saxon instrumental has been kept

alive

by the influence

of this adverb.
(c.)

Grimm

So many

singular accusative neuter. adverbs are formed from adjectives in -lie, that -lic-e
;

thinks -e a

weak

>

Eng.

-ly is established as an ending

so Icelandic -liga,
;

M. H. G.
tel-a, well

liche.
;

fel-a,

much

gen-a, again

get-a, yet

s6n-a, soon

feor^

{Goth, fairra), far; nedh'^ (Goth, nchva), nigh; ofi^ (Goth, vfta), oft;
j?el^

(Goth. vaila),we]l; pid-e, widely


;

deop-e, dee-ply

heage <C^hedh,
;

highly; ?2ear/>e<^nea?-M, narrowly


shortly, etc., etc.

s<ra??o--;?c-e,

strongly

sceort-lic-e,

For

h^g, p^u,

see ^^ 117, 118.

252.

Relational Stems (Pronouns and


of Place
;
:

Prepositions).

L Correlatives

where, whither, whence


A.-Sas.. hpxr, hpider, hpanan ; O.SsiK.. huar,huar(pd),huanan;

there, thither, thence


7-';i''",

here, hither, hence.


liir,

pider.,

panan;
thanan;

hider, keonan.

thar, thar{pd'},

her, her(od), hinan.

O.H.G. hwdr,hwar-a,-ut,hwanana; dar, dar-a,-vt, danana; O. Nor., kvar, kvert, hvadan ; P^ar, padra, pjodan;
Goth
hvar, hva-p, -dre, kvapru;
ttoT,

hiar, ker-a,

-6t,

hinana.

her, hedra, hedan.

par, padei, pjapjro;


tv^a,tv^ac(, tvBtv; Lat.
ta-tni, id-tra, ta-tas;

her, hidre, (Jiepru).


7wc, hue, citro, hinc.

Greek... ttov,

tto^iv;
hu-tas;

Sansk... hu-tra,
(a.)

Icii-tra,

d-ira, d-ira, d-tas.

For the stem


:

radicles (interrogative

hp, demonstrative
&.
;

J),

h), ^^ 135,

133, 104, 130


<Jj.)

lipAr,

p&r

(;&,

x, a),
-der,

Ormulum
-nan

Ang. -Saxon endings,


-77

-r,

(-a?0

-d (5a?not?,Goth. sama-P))
:

-r<^ locative
iiTc-p,

Sansk. wja-n, Greek <^ comparative -ra (^^ 120, G2) Lat. s-upe-r, Goth, ufa-r^ O. H. G. uba-r, O. Sax. obha-r, Ang.~
the instrumental of a comto -r in

Sax. ofe-r, over.


-der, -dcr, Goth, -drc, Sansk. -lra<C-ird,
is

parative in -ta-ra {^^ 120, 62)

hpxr,

etc.

-d,

some think this -tra weathers probably comparative, ^ 255 (Sansk. samanli).
:

-nan, -nannc, an oblique case of the repeated adjective sufRx -?za, belongLat. super-no-, belonging (super) above whence abing to (^ 228, 2)
: ;

lative

and coming from are Goth, zenear akin, but the lost case-ending gives the turn io from. nana, within utana, without; hindana, hehxnd, etc., do not have the Pott suggests composition with a preposition (Letplain sense from.
;

adverb supcr-nc, from above

belonging

to

Here belong cdst-an, from the cast pcst-an, from tisch no, from). also ipft-an, aft; fcorr-an, from far; for-an, before the west, etc. neod-an, from inn-an, within ; ncdn, from nigh hind-an, from behind
;

beneath

vf-an, from above

ut-an, from out, and their compounds.

130
II.

DERIVATION.PREPOSITIONS AND PREFIXES.


Correlatives ov Time:

Manner:
how
;

when

then

now

once.

thus

so.

A.-S. hpanne; panne {w,o,e), J)d; nu; iu,geu. Goth, hvan; pan, {O.H.G. do; nu; ju, giu. Lat... quum; turn; nimc ; ja77i<^S:ins\i. ja.
Gr.... TzoTi; Tort; vv,7wv(Siansk.nu); v!i<i<Jjd.

hu<^hpi ; pus,])xs;
quo-modo;
n-wg; rw
; ;

spa.

huieo),hvdiva; svah, sve.


tarn, ila; sic, ut.

wg.
;

hpannc, accusative masculine

pa, feminine

hu, hpt, instrumental

pus,

O. Sax. thiu-s (^ 133, 2); genitive, <^ppis, or instrumental pu-\-s, the endings in tlie other pms, genitive ; spa, Goth, sve, instrumental
;

languages are not


III.

all

analogous.
:

Prepositions =:= adverbs


piit,

under, up, ofer, 259.

with

many

ccftcr, hi, for, in, mid, on, of, to, purh, See ^^ 253derivatives and compounds.

IV. Derivatives in Sax. -a, O. Nor.


inn-e, within
;

e,

denoting rest
-a.
;

in,

probably a dative

Goth,

-a,

O.

-i,

O.H.G.
without

ut-e,

ifan-c, over, etc.

V. Comparatives and Superlatives.

^^ 123-129, 2.

I. Those denoting simple relations generally take their signifiContrasted space relations are pricance from a single consonant {^ 50). This contrast is often further brought out by endings of marily denoted.

253.

PREPOSITIONS AND PREFIXES.

comparison (^^ 122-129). by case-endings and other


ilar

The

relation is

suffixes.

Most inseparable

sometimes made more definite prefixes have a sim-

etymology.

Many prepositions and prefixes of later growth are from nouns or verbs, and have an etymology like adverbs.
II.

254. Prepositions and prefixes with a single consonant. are added to better illustrate their etymology.
1.

A few
O. Nor. er;

others

Semi-vowels.
...

Sanskrit.

Greek,

Latin.

Gothic.

O. Sax.

O.

II.

G.

a-(^), privitive: d: OX-

dvisyas? t^?
dvisy^us?
;

ex?
;

see
2is;

or;
;
;

d-

d<,ar-.

ur,dr-; ur-.

ea-C, besides

dva;
-with
:

av-(jiQ);
;

du-h

o-h

au-h;
vi-ct;
;

au-h.
lei-dar.
ni, tie.

pid, agamst,

ot,

seeto;
I'jy;

vi-, ve- ;

ne, n-, negative: an (on, d-), on


:

..

na;

ne, ne ;

vi-pra ni ;

wi-d;
ni,

ne

we;

and;
dn-ti;

dvd;
dv-ri
;

an-;
an-ie;
;

ana;
an-d;
in;

an;
inna;
un-;

d;

ana.
an-t.
in.

and

(pnd,(jd),a.n-:

an-d;-t; an-d;

in, in, on:

and, an-;
an-, a-;

tw, iv

in;
in-;

mn,i;
d-;

un-(w),

vin-:

uv-,d-;

un-;

un-.

PREPOSITIONS
Sanskrit.

AND

PREFIXES.
Gothic. O. Sax.

131
O. Nor. O. H. Ger.
mi-t(i).

Greek.
/.te-Tci
;

Latin.
;

mi-d, with
mis-, misa- (w, apa,
2.
:

mi-thas;

mi-p;
;

mi-d ;
mis-;
eo;

me-d;
miss-;

akin to ever
:

mid, Goth,
alfd;

mi'sso,

mutually

missa-;
div
;

mis-.
eo.

o),

eva-s'?

xvum ;

ae

Labials (p, b, f ).
:

up, adv., up lipa; hi (be, biff), be-, hy: abhi;


ymb(e), CTw6(c), about a6Aj;
:

vtto, vTrip

s-uh, s-vper ; iup


(ti)-bi ;

up;
hi, be-;
;

upp !
;

4/*

-0t

U;
af;
/"fa-;

pi.

afi^i;

ambab
;

wnbi ;

um ;
of;

umpi.
aba.

of (ir/^),
for, for
:

of, off:

apa;
pd-rd
; ;

otto;
-irapd, irdp

af;
fiir-;

for-, for-(bid):

per- ;
prss ?

for-;
;

far-.
;

purds
:

TrdpoQ Trdpog
Trspa
Trepi
^,
; '
;

fore, forefeor, adv. adj., far

purds;
:

por ;
pei'-;
-^

faur ; faura;
fair-ra;
\
)

fur{i)

fyr(i)

furi.

for(a); for-;

fora.

^ira;
(pari: r
Kjira
;

fer;

fiarri; fer.
a e
.>

fr&-

, ^^
(/rea-),
:

per-; '
pro,

mixed; probably a simulation of Lat. '^

very

Trpo

prw ;

fram, from
3.

pd-ra-m;
d,
J),

Tripav

peren-;

prm by compounds offrea (, 40, 1). fratn; fram; fram. fram;

' >-s

An

')\

Dentals
:

(t,

d,

s).

aet, at

ddlii ;
:

(o-y^i;
;

ad;
;

at;

at;

at;

az.
;

6(t, unto

ddhi?

to, to

ddhi?
(cZ)fjC

-ct;
130, 2)
;

and,und; unt; du ; t6,te;


di^;

unz

unt-.
;

zuo, zi.
ze(f),za{r).

to-, in two:

Sid;

dis- ;
;

te- ;

ut, out

tit;
:

va-npOQ;
;

ut

ut

ut

3.
it-.

ed-, back

i-tara, oth&c ?
:

i-terum?
trans;
sim-ul ;

id-;
pair-li
;

id-ur;

id-;
;

hurh, through .... tirds ; sam-, together: ... sa-md' ;

thurh

durak.

ajjia;
//t";

sama;
;

sama ;
sam-;

sam-

;
;

sama.
sdmi-.
sin-.

sam-,

half:
:

sd-mi-;
sa-nd';

semi-;
;

sin-, ever

tVo-c

sem-(^per')

sin-steins') ; sin- ;

si-;

4. Gutturals.

ge-, together ilesd-^ge, ever


:

(sd-ycdm? ^uv? 0. H. G. ed-ga ( 13C,

cum, co-?
5).

ga-;

gi-

g-

ka-, etc.

for precession and weather(a.) For shifting of letters, see ^^ 18, 19, 41 <ar, 6d<^and, ^ 37 ; ymbe <C,abhi, and<^ddhi, (} 27, ing of endings, ^ 38. 5 ; A in Jmrh, c in edc, ^ 133, 2, a. bases with (5.) Most of the Sanskrit forms look like vowel pronominal
;

suffixes

and case-endings:

a-hhi,

a-pa^ a-pa-ra'^
^ 62.

gen. purds, locative

pari, ace.

pdram, instrum. pdrd.


:

255. Comparative Forms


of-cr, over
;

er, r, ter, der, cter,


;

ct,

d.

^^ 122-129.
;

ipf-ter, after
;

dere, against before f-rvk, very


;

un-der, under ni-der, neath pi-d, with


; ;
;

pi-dcr, wither-(nam)
;

to-pi-

gcon-d, yond

mi-d, with fo-r, for fo-re, hin-d-an, behind samo-d, together.


; ;
;

are formed on of; af; a?i>Sansk. an{a)-tara; pi; ni, akin to in, Sansk. ani^ni, down, Gr. tvt-poi, O. H. G. ni-dar; mi<^ma; Goth. jdins<Cja-na ; hin heon{an) (i^ 252) sam.
(b.)

The above

f<C.pa; gcon,

132

PREPOSITIONS AND PREFIXES.PARTICLES.

256. Superlative
to be accusatives,

(!^

120)

fra-m, from

pdram,

ir'epav,

peren- seem

and

in so far not

analogous to from.

257. Adverbial -an (^252), mostly compounds:

be-, b-,

pid-wfl-an

for-an ; xt-, bi-, on-, to-, pid-for-an ; geond-an ; be-, pid-geond-an ; beheon-an ; bc-hind-an ; inn-an ; b-, on-, pid-inn-an ; neod-an ; be-, underneod-an
put-,
;

uf-an

b-, d-b-,

on-uf-an
;

upp-an
beyond
;

ymb-ut-an ; English before neath ; above a-b-, with-out.


;

on-upp-an ; ut-an ; b-, on-b-, behind within be-, under;

258.

From Substantives,
a-,

mostly compounds with prepositions

to-

edcan, besides;
;

on-gegn, to-gegnes, against; ge-mong, on-gemong, among on-efn (German n-eben), even with, beside, an-ent in-middum, td-middes, amidst be-tpeon-um, -an, between be-tpeo-h-s, be-tpeox, be;

twixt

(ShakespeareX o?i
259.
far

so English be-side<^5e sidan; down <^d-dune, from a hill; a-loft hand-, 267,11. li/fte, in the air; and the like,

From Adjectives
;

= adverbs
;

(see ^^ 254, 229)


;

&r, ere

fear,

from

ge-hende, handy to

la;s,

less

nedh, near, nehst, nedh-hand,


;

nigh to

til (Northumbrian), to ; ; peard, td-peard, toward ; pana, less gelong, and-long, along; n-efne, n-emne (compare on-efn, 258), except; sid (late), since. Prefixes eal- {pi-, el-), all mis-, efen-, co- ; ful-, full
:

mis-

sdm-, serai-

sin-,

ever

pan-, less

pel-, well.

Particles of Interrogation, Affirmation, Negation.


260. Interrogation.

(a.)
:

Adverbial forms of the pronominal

^/>,

whose

derivation has been explained

hpxder, hpxr, hpider, hpanan, hpy, hu, and


ac (ach, ah), ^ 262
:

compounds, for-hpam,
(b.)
(c.)

etc.
; ;

Intensives: ne, ^ 254

Conjunctions in indirect questions

gif,

if,

hu, ^ 252 ^ 262.

Id,

263.

261. Affirmation and Negation.


gea, ia,

(a.)
;

From

relational stems:
ia.

yea<ya
;

(^ 107, a)

Goth, ja, jai


let it be.
;

O. Sax., 0. Nor., O. H. G.

ge-se, yes

gea-\--se<^si,

ne

(^ 254), n-a, n-6, nay,


:

no

Goth, ne div, O. H. G. ni-eo, not ever,


;

ne-se, like gese

n-dn, Ger. n-etn, Lat. n-on, not one {ne ealles), not at all n-d-piht, nbhl, not a whit.
;

ncalles, nalass, nies

(6.)

Regular adverbial forms

sodlke, pitodlice, verily.

DERIVATION. CONJUNCTIONS.INTERJECTIONSo
262.

133

CONJUNCTIONS.
to prepositions.

In their formation they are similar


I.

From
ond,
ono,

relational stems.
Sanskrit.

(a.)

Not before explained:


Latin.
et) ?

Greek.

Gothic.
;

O. Sax.

O. Nor.
;

O. H. G.

and, ano,

and

an = if; (<aMa); dv;


ja-d
(j'a-pi)
;

(dti

tn
(I;

andi ;

anti (u).

an;
s-i;
;

an;
ja-bai ;

O.K.G.
(ef;

eno,

inu<!.an+nu.
ihu).
;

gif, if;

ef;

ac

(ch, A),
;

but

ge, and

(akin to edc, 251 ?) (< ja, 252 Srj SJd


;

ak
;

; ;

ac ;
ja, ja-c
;

oh.
ioh.
ie-zuo.

<

ja-ni)
;

ja-h

oh ?

; <igeo, ^252; yet })en-den, whilst compare Latin tan-dem ;

gyt,

ffeta,

ju-pan;

M. H. G.
;

pan-de
;

dan-ta.
doh.

J)eah

{peh),

though

see for

-uh

133, 2, a
;

pa-uh

thih

po ;
eda;

odde

(edda, pe), or; utha, but;

at;

ip,

aip-pau; ettha;

eddo

(p-").

ne, neither eac, also; sam, samo-d, as well as; ne now then, have been given with adverbs or prefixes.

nor;

nu nu,
;

and may
bai and

be akin with and<Canti (^ 254). ano is all doubtful O. H. G. i-bu, are kindred stems i Goth, i-ba

>

ja^jagif, O.

Friesic je/, Lithuanic jet-J, go with ja-bai i^^ 107, a; 63,^) ge might be ge- (^ 254) -den in pen-den, -pan in ju-pan, are the demonstrative
; ;

ta (^ 104, b)
{b.)

Goth,

tp

> ed, ap > od

is

akin to ed- {^^ 254, 3

38).

other pronominal adverbs, whose etymology has been explained, and whose meaning and use belong in syntax liii, how spa, so ; spxjlce,

Many

such

pidcr, panan, pa,


;

pij,

pe, pxs, ponne,

whether
II.

elles, else

O. H. G.

hpi-der, whither ; hpx-der, albs, alies, gen., Lat. alias, al-, ^ 216.

p&r ;

From

notional stems, a
hpile, hpil-iim

hpUum, sometimessometimes.
INTERJECTIONS.
ea-^a,

few oblique cases of nouns.

263.
(1.)

Imitation of cries, or sound-gestures


Aa, ha; hd,\\o.;

Za, lo;

compounds
;

ed, eie, edp, oh pa, pea, wo; mixed with French Ae-/a5 (Lat.
:

pd-ld, pd-ld-pd, lassus, weary), alas, corrupt alack etc. ; liig. Jug, Lat. o, a, iElfrc. Coll.

welaway, corrupt wel-

aday,

tified

Somewhat similar quasi-words are wide-spread, but they can be idenwords formed from them Greek ba, only when steadied by true O. Lat. vcB, Goth, vdi, O. Sax. we, Swed. ve, O. II. G. we, wo ovai, Such words were doubtless as numerous in the anII. G. ivc-la, etc.
:

cient languages as in English, but are not preserved in books.


(2.)

etymology

True words used as cries or gestures have nothing peculiar in hpxt, what /ui,how pel, well peg Id pel W,well done,
:

their
etc.
;

cfne, Lat. eccc, lo.

134
264.

COMPOSITION OF WORDS.

COMPOSITION OF WORDS.

Composition proper combines word-stems so as to express a new notion. Coalescence is the running together of whole words with such change
of accent as to
(a.)

make a new word.

Parasyntheta are derivatives from compounds.

265.

Nouns.
I.

Form.

Nouns

final in

compounds
;

retain their stems

and end-

ings: elsewhere only their theme, except substantives in e<^ia, e<^t, and u(o): gum-a, ma,n ; gum-cyn, ma-nkind eald-fxdcr, gra.ndfa.ther ; gryre, Coaleshorror ; gryre-hpil, time of horror lagu, lake ; lagu-flod, river.
;

cence takes place of prefixes and some genitives with a following noun Sxternes-dwg, Saturday; M6nan-da?g, Monday; Oxend-ford, Oxford;
:

daeges-ege, daisy ; and-sparu, answer ; un-treopd, untruth wise, etc. Words with quasi-sufRxes are compounds in form.

un-pis, un-

229.

appositive (substantive + substantive)


man
;

266.

II.

Relation of Stems to each other.


:

(1.)
;

dc-treo, oak-tree
;
:

Attributive pif-man, wo-

leek, garlick

descriptive gdr-ledc, spearcompare peop-boren, born a slave heafod-man,\\ea,d-man; genitive: god-spel, God's mes;
:

7icdh-bur, neigh-hour. sage; (adjective -f substantive) mid-da:g, mid-da.y cl&n-hcort, Adjective parasyntheta from the last are called Possessives
;
:

possessing a clean heart

dn-hendc, one-handed

dn-edge and dn-eged,

one-eyed

bwr-fot, bare-foot, bare-footed.

(Substantive -f-noun, between which an accusative end(2.) accusative man-cpellere, ing or preposition would express the relation) man-killer dd-sparing, oath-swearing blod-geote, shedding of blood gen-

Objective.

itive
(3.)

cear-ful,

full

of care

dative

god-Uc, like to God.


: ;

or particle adjective) scl-meahtig, all-mighty manifold unblod-redd, blood-red sndp-hpit, snow-white manig-feald, clesne, unclean {noun or particle -\- substantive) space relations landman, man living on the land, farmer time niht-hnrfn, raven flying by
;
; ;

Adverbial {noun

+
;

night

cause

hand-gepeorc, hand-iwork
;

purpose

ort-geard, orchard,
;

yard for vegetables

with an ealo-fxt, vat for ale edg-sealf, eye-salve infinitive, hpet-stdn, stone to whet put-boc, writing-book material stdnpeal, wall of stone ; is-gicel, icicle gold-smid, worker in gold.
; ; ;
:

compound nouns not possessives and adverbially comare called Determinatives. pound adjectives
(a.)

Attributive

(5.) Collectives have copulate parts wolf; preo-tyne, three and ten.

per-polf,

man and

wolf, were-

267.
I.

Verbs.

For the terminations springing from composition, see 160.

FORIVLVTION OF
II.

WOKDS TO

EXPllESS GENDER.

I35

nouns.
III.

Verbs with proper compound stems are parasyntheta from compound But note hand-sellan, put in hand; ful-fyllan, etc., below.

Compound verbs
and prefixes
;
:

tions

are directly formed by coalescence with preposimis-don, ofer-fleopan, over'flow ; d-pacan, a-wake
; ; ;

mis-do

pcl-don, do well efen-peoi'can, co-operate. {a.) For prepositions and prefixes, see ^^ 15, 254. {b.) Composition has the same laws throughout the Indo-European lanful-fijllan,
fulfill

Ill some of them so many of the stem-endings conform with the guages. most common one that it comes to be regarded as a sign of composition

(Gr. -0-, Lat. -i-,Goth. -a-)


night-in-gale.

traces of this are in

Anglo-Saxon

mht-e-gale,

FORMATION OF WORDS TO EXPRESS GENDER.

1.

A. Words with pairs of endings (Mobile) < a a <[ an ere. Masculine, Feminine, <C*> e<Can; ige <1 <^ ian en<Cenni; estre. <Ca and <C0) umlaut, 32: gat, g&t, he-goat, she-goat; she-wolf. kins-man, -woman pulf,pylf, m&g, (a and
268.
I.

Animals.

e,

ie

-es,

-e,

-es, -e,

he-,

2.

e)

ass-a, -e, he-, she-ass

mdg-a,
;

-e,

kins-man,

-woman

nef-a, -e, nephew,

peop-a, -e, man-, maid-servant pebh-a, -e, rxg-a, -e, hart, roe 3. ( weaver; picc-a, -e, witch; pudup-a, -e, widow-er. <^a and e, mearh, merige, mere, myre, horse, mare hldford, hldf{or)d-ige, ige) 4. (a and 5. ( lord, lady. <^i) han-a, hen, cock, hen. <^a and
niece
;

god, gyd-en, god-dess muncc, monk, nun Jicop, -en, pegen, pign-en, pealh, pyl-en, servant add 6. (ere manna, mennen, servant; cdsere, cdser-n, emperor, empress. and estre) bxc-ere, bxc-cstre, baker, bakster hearp-ere, -estre, harper

en)

xlf, -en, elf; fox,fixen, fox, vi.xen


;

-en,

hopp-ere, -estre, dancer ; red-ere, -estre, reader ; sang-ere, -estre, singer sedm-erc, -estre, seam-ster pebb-ere, -estre, weaver, webster fidcl-erc,
;

-estre, fiddler.

7.

(Relics): gos <^gans, gandra (^^ 37; 41,

Z;

50),

cyning, open {-\/ cpan^ cun^ cyn, ^^ 35, 32, 38, 24), abbud, -isse (Lat. abbatissa, Gr. -laaa), abbot, abbess speor, king, queen speger (Goth, svaihr-a, -6, Lat. socer, socrus, Gr. tKvp-oQ, -d, Sansk.
goose, gander;
; ;

fvagura, fva^ru), father-, mother-in-law.

B. Compounds whose

first

part

marks sex,

last part
;

gender

Masculine, pxpned, pstp-, p&pen-, weaponed carl, hyse, man, guma. Feminine, pif, wife mwgden, maid cpcn, woman.
;
;

piipned-man, m., -beam, n., cild, n., -pifestre, f., man, boy, hermaphrodite man-csnc, m., man-servant; hyse-cild, n., boy; man-cild, n., man-child
;

gum-man, man gum-pegn, man carl-cat, m., -fugol, m., tom-cat, -bird pif-man"^ pimman, m., woman; ptf-pegn, m., servant; plf-freohd, m., friend; m&den-cild, n., -f&mnc, f., -man, m., female child, maid; cpcn;
;
;

136

rOKMATION OF WOKDS TO EXPRESS GENDER.

fugol, m., bird;


side, spindle-half

= female

add sperc-healf,
side.

f.,

spindl-healf,

f.,

spcar-lialf

= male

C.

Male and female have names from


for

different

roots.

Such names

abound

man and

the domestic animals.

They

are old and widespread.


;

Man

guma,

per, husbonda, hod, secg, hxle{d), rinc, hcorn, carl

plur.

firds; f:cmmine,fu;m7ic, ides, bryd,f6slre, meople, mwged, m&g, open; Pairs of kindred fxder, modor ; neuter, beam, cild, child pif, wife.
;
:

sunu, dohtar

brodor, spcostor; cam, mudrigc, uncle, aunt

god-fxder,

god-modor.

Horse:

Ox: oxa, steorc, fearh, cu,heafre. Sheep: ram,pedcr; {em.c6p{ii). Swine: Goat: bucca, hirfcr; fern, rdh, rd. bar, eofor, bearh ; fem. sugu. Deer heart, m., hmd, f. Dog hu7id, m., bicce, f. Hen coc, m.,
hcngcst, steda,fola; feminine, 7?zcn7ic.
fern.

bulluca;

Neuter drdn, m., beo, f. swine; 7n7, mule f/cor, wild beast, deer
hen,
f.
:

Bee

hors, picg, horse swtn, lamb; scedp, cea//, calf


; ;

sheep.

Names

of other animals are epicene {^ 67).


-ir-,

Neuter names of young

ani-

mals often add


(^ 82).

the plural cild, cild-er-u, child, children Nothing else peculiar in tiic formation.
-er- in
:

269. II. Things without Sex, and abstracts. For general rules, It is often not ^ 67 (gender of the endings, ^^ 231-239). easy to tell how far personification, and how far phonetic laws, determine the 64, gender
(^

logo, The Teutonic tongues generally agree. But m., brim, n., cgor, n., sea. note Neuters (German masculine) mod, mood, muth; tpig, twig, zwei"-; pin, wine, wein ; (German feminine) clif, cliff, klippe ; ear, ear, dhre ;

2).

The same

object often has

names of

different genders

see, f.,

fxsten, fastness, feste

lie,

corps, leiche
;

sAd, seed, saat

; ;

sceorp, scarf,

schdrpe

pxpen, weapon, waffe

pesten, n.,m., v,-a,ste,witsic

Masculines
;

(German feminine),

crwft, craft, kraft; lust, lust; tear, tear, zdhre


;

(Ger-

man

neuter) ende, end ; feld, field here, army, heer ; sal, cord, seil ; FemININES (German masculine), turf, turf, torf; piht, wight, wicht ; (German
;

neuter) blxd, blade, blatt


heart, herz
;

boc, book,

buch

Imlu, health, heil

heorlc,

gesihd, sight, gesicht.

270.

III.

Feminines
balsam

> masculines
;
;

Derivatives from foreign names retain their gender, except ancor, anchor Joo?, box-wood ^cr^uc, peach
:

pistol, epistle

regal, rule

crcda, creed

>neuters non, noon NEUTERS>masculines >feminines ceaster, city lilie, lily palant, palace
;
:

timpane,

^n\m1

PART

III.

SYNTAX.
271.
tcords.

Syntax

is tlie

doctrine of grammatical combinations of


dis-

course

their agreement, government, and

It treats

of the use of the etymological forms in

arrangement.

SIMPLE COMBINATIONS.
There are four simple combinations: the trib'utive, objective, and adverbial.
272.
pi'edic'ative, at-

273.I. Predicative

= 7i0)mnative

substantive -\- agreeing verb ,

=)io77iinative substantive-^- agreeing 2^redicate =znominative substantive -\-23redicate advei-b.

noim;

gold glisnad, gold glistens This


is

gold

is heorht,
;

gold

is

JElfred pses cyning, Alfred was king


(a.)

ic

com

her, I

bright am here.
;

a combination between a

subject, of which something is said {=zgold, JElfred, ic), and a predicate, which is said of the subject {:= glisndct, beorht, cyning, her'). The sign of predication is the stem-ending of a notional (S.) Copula.

The substanglisnud^, or is a relaiional verb (is, pses, eom). a good name for any sign of tive verb, when so used, is called the copula Copulative verbs take a predicate noun. predication.
verb (=:a
in

(c.)

Quasi-predicative

is

the relation between the implied subject and


^ 278, d.

predicate in a quasi-clause.

274.

11.

AXXrihutiw e=agreeing noun-^ substantive ;


^.genitive substantive-\- substantive.
;

god cyning, good king

JElfred xdcling, Alfred the prince

Engld
(a.)

land, land of the Angles.

This combination expresses the relation of subject

+ attribute

as

taken for granted.

leading substantive is called the subject, that to which the attribute belongs {cyning, JElfred, land) ; an attributive is the agreeing adjective {god), or genit. substantive {Engld) an appositive is the agreeing substantive {xdeling).

The

{b.)

The

sign of this relation

is

the agreeing case-endings, or the attribu-

tive genitive ending, or a preposition {^ 277,2).

lo8
275.

SYNTAX.SIMPLE COMBINATIONS.

III.

Objective

= verb + governed noun. = adjective + governed noun.


; ;

ic

he syld him hors, he sells him a huntige heortds, I hunt harts horse gilpes pu gyrnest, thou wishest fame p&re fabhde he gehi macad hme feah, he rejoiced at the vengeance
; ;

(to)

they

make him king


1

njmnge,

good
(a.)

Pu me godnc, why callest thou me bead gcmindige Lodes jnfes, remember Lot's wife.
;

hpi scgst

This combination expresses the relation of an act or quality

to its

completing notional object.

Objective verbs or adjectives are those which need such object {huntige, Subjective need no such object {ic sl&pc, I sleep). Transitive verbs have a suflcring object {huntige, syld, macad, etc.). Intransitive have no suffering object {gyrnest, gcfeah).
'

etc.).

The completing object may be suffering {=dtrect),an accusative merely affected {heortds, hors, hine,mc); dative {=indirectz=personal), a receiver to or for whom is the act {him)
genitive, suggesting or exciting the act {gilpes, f&hdc, p'lfes) factitive, a product or result in fact or thought {cyninge, godne).
;

{b.) (c.)

The

sign of relation

is

Many Anglo-Saxon verbs which we translate them do not.


verbial.
{d.)

the case-ending or a preposition. require an object, when the English by Many objects conceived as cxcitinp- in
in

Anglo-Saxon are conceived as suffering

English

many

as merely ad-

The

factitive object often

has a quasi-predicative relation to the suf-

fering object, agreeing with it like a predicate noun {me Such godne). clauses are nearly equivalent to two (why sayest thou that I am good?).

276.

IV. A6.vevhidl=verh+ adverb ov adverbial phrase.


adjective
-\- adverb or adverbial 2')hrase. =adverb-\- adverb or adverbial i^lirase.

ic

gd ut, I go out ic singe sclce dwg, I sing each day pe sprecad he com mid pa f&mnan, he gepemmodlice, we speak corruptly came with the woman mid sorgum libban, to live having cares hpi fandige ge mm, why tempt ye me ? micle md man is scedpc betera, man is much (more) better than a sheep.
; ; ;
;

between an act or quality and its unessential relations are place {ul), time {xlce dxg), manner {gepemmodlice), co-existence {mid fwmnan, mid sorgum), cause {hpi), intensity {micle, md, scedpc).
(a.)
is

This combination

relations.

The most common

{h.)
(c.)

The The

sign is an adverbial ending, case-ending, or preposition. adverbial combination is given by Becker as a subdivision of

the objective, hni the linguistic sense of the Indo-European races unifora.iy

recognizes the adverb as a separate part of speech.

EQUIVALENTS. SENTENCES.
277.

139
iu the

Equivalents of the
:

Noun and Adverb

com-

binations
(1.)

a, Substantive may be used a substantive noun or an adjective or any of its equivalents, an infinitive, a pi'onoic7i, clause,) any word or phrase viewed merely as a thing. be used an adjective noun or joj-o(2.) For an Adjective may

For

noun, an article (attributively), a ^jar^zc/^^e, a genitive substantive, an adverb, a preposition loith its case, a relative clause. an Adverb may be used an oblique case of a noun (3.) For with or without a preposition, a 2}hrase, a clause.

SENTENCES.
278.

Sentence

is

a thought in words.

It

may be

declarative, an assertion, indicative, subjunctive, or potential ; interrogative, a question, indicative, subjunctive, or potential;
a species of imperative, a command, exhortation, entreaty exclamatory, an expanded interjection. ^"^ 149-151.
;

(a.)

tributives

clause is one and adjuncts.

Jinite verb with its subject, objects,


Its essential

and

all their at-

part

is

its

predicative combination.

The {grammatical) subject of the predicative combination, its attributives and adjuncts, make up the logical subject of the clause the grammatical predicate and its objects with their attributives and adjuncts make up the
;

logical predicate.
(6.) A subordinate clause enters into grammatical combination with some word in another (principal) clause co-ordinate clauses are coupled
;

as wholes.
(c.)
(<f.)

The

sign of relation between clauses

Quasi-clauses.

is

(1) Infinitives, participles,

a relative or conjunction. and factitive objects


(2)

mark

quasi-predicative combinations, and each has its quaai-clause. terjections and vocatives are exclamatory quasi-clauses.

Li-

279.

Sentence
simple

is

simple, complex, or
is

compound.

280.

sentence
I.

one indipendent clause.


combination.

A predicative

Verb

for predicate: fisceras fisciad, fishers yjs/j.


:

Adjective God is god, God is good. Genitive tol C&sares is, tribute is Cxsar''s. Substantive Cicdmon pxs leodpyrhta, Ca^dmon was a
: :

poet.

Adverb

pe sind her, we are here.


:

Adverbial

God

is in
:

Subject indefinite

(Jiit)

heofenum, God is in heaven. me Jiyrst, sntpd, it snows


;

me

it

tliirstcth.

140
II.
:

SENTENCES.
Clause with attributive combination.

Adjective attribute god gold glisndd, good gold glistens. Genitive folces stemn is Godes stemn, foWs voice is God^s voice. Appositive pe cildra sind ungelairede, we children arc untaught.
: :

III.

Clause with objective combination.

Direct object
:
:

Cccdmon porhte leudsangds, Caedmon made poems.

Dative l&n me prthlcifus, give me three loaves. Genitive pxt pif dhloh drihtnes, the woman laughed at the lord. Factitive Simonem he nemde Petrum, Simon he named Peter.
:

IV. Clause with adverbial combination.

Place

gd ut, I go out. Time ic gd ut on dxgred, I go out at daion. Manner se cyning scryt me pel, the king clothes me
:

ic

well.

Co-existence

mid sorgum

ic libbe, I live

with cares.

Cause

he has is for cylde, he is hoarse from cold ; se cnapa pypdd oxan mid gadisene, the boy drives oxen with an iron goad.
:

281.

V.
: :

Abridged complex sentence.


278, d. us sprecan, teach us to speak.

Clause containing a

quasi-clause.
Infinitive
tsbc

Factitive

hpt segst

pu me godne, why
:

callest thou

me

(to be)

good?

Participle (adjectival)

hcbhe sumrie cnapan, Jjypendne oxan, I have a boy, {driving) who drives oxen; (adverbial, gerund), Boetius gebxd singende, Boethius prayed singing ; (absolute), pinre durd beloccnre, bide pinne fseder, thy door having been locked, pray thy father.
ic

282.

VI. Abridged compound sentence


subject
: :

( 284),

Verbs>verb.
seo lu-

he and seo singad, he and she sing. Compound Compound predicate he is god and pis, he is good and wise fdd hine and me, she loves hi^n and me.

283.

A complex
:

sentence

is

one principal clause


h.

Avith its

subordinate clause or clauses.

278,

The subordinate may


;

be a
sxgd pxt he com, that he came is said (obI wot that he came ; (appositive), tc com to pam, pxt he pxre gefulpod, I came for this, that he might be baptized. Adjective sixf-crxft is seo cxg, pe pxrd hoed andgit unlycd, grammar is the key, that unlocks the sense of the books. Adverb (place), hpider pu gxst, ic gd, I go lohither thou goest; (time), tc gd hpxnne pu gxst, I go when thou goest; (manner), ^m sprxce spd
(subject), is
ject), ic

Substantive

pal pxt he com,


:

spa an stunt

p'lf,

thou spakest as a stupid ivoman speaks; (intensity).

FIGURES OF SYNTAX.

141

heud gleapc spa iixdran, be wise as serpents ; leofre is hlehhan ponne than cry ; (cause efficient, motive, means, ft gr&tan, it is better to laugh an apodosis], concession, purpose) argument, condition [protasis to

punrdd forpam God pilt, it thunders because God wills; paciad^forpam pe ge nyton pone dceg, watch, because ye know not the day ; Onsend Higeldce, gif mec hild nime, (protasis) if me battle take, (apodosis)
kit

send to Higelac,
clause (^281).

etc.

Co-existence

is

usually in an abridged participial

284.
clauses.

A compound
278,
:

sentence

is

number of co-ordinate

h.

Copulative Adversative
hut

ic
:

ga

ut
is

fyr

and ic geocie oxan, I go out and I yoke oxen. god pcgn, ac is frecne frea, fire is a good servant,

is a bad master; ne nom he ma, Peak he monige geseah, he took no more, though he saw many. Disjunctive ic singe odde ic r&de, I sing or I read. Causal forpy ge ne gehyrad, forjjam pe ge ne synd of Gode, therefore not of God. ye do not hear, {for this that) because ye are
: :

FIGURES OF SYNTAX.
285.

complete

sentence has every part of

all its

combina-

tions expressed.

normal sentence is complete, and has its parts expressed and arranged according to the general laws of the language. of Syntax are deviations from the normal senFigures
tence.

This may be of a conjunction (asyn'deton), of I. Ellipsis, omission. a word to have been repeated (brachyl'ogy), of a verb somewhat like one in a corresponding clause (zeugma), of the latter part of a clause not to be of other clauses (aposiope'sis). See supplied from the corresponding part
also anacoluthon (below. III.).

many words. There may be too many conjunctions two nouns and a conjunction for a noun and attributive (polysyndeton),
II.

Pleonasm,

too

(hendi'adis).

Of one part of speech for another (antiIII. Enallage, substitution. of a different scheme of conmeri'a), of one case for another (hypal'lage), Syn'.struction for the one in which a sentence begins (anacolu'tliou). esis is a construction according to sense and not grammatical form. Of words (anas' trophe), of clauses lY.
Hyper'baton,
transposition.

(hys'teron-prot'eron).

142

USES OF THE CASE-ENDINGS.

USES OF THE CASE-ENDINGS.


Substantives.
286.

Agreement of Endings.
I.

Predicative Combination.
its

A predicate noim
it

deaotiug the same person or thing as


in case.

subject, agrees with

(a.) Also in gender, if it varies for gender, and oftenest in number; but ic eom copulate singulars and a plural agree peg, I am the way (John, xiv, 6) ; he is sunn, he is my son (Luke, ix, 38) ; he and seo sind freondds, he and she are friends. Nouns of multitude take Synesis.
:

mm

{b.) The rule applies to quasi-predicatives (^ 278, d) nisse heofenan, God called the Jirma7nent heaven (Gen., icate-accusative substantives are rare in Anglo-Saxon.
:

God
i,

pa fxstBut predThe Latin and


8).

het

Greek accusative
pxt
(that),

+ infinitive
:

is

and the factitive depends on


J)u

generally represented by a clause with to (to) or for, as does often the


to

common
(for)

predicate
;

pyrcst pe

Gode, thou makest thyself

(to)

God
were

(John, X, 33)

me p&ron mine
xlii, 3).

tedrus for hldfds, to

me my

tears

bread (Psa.,

(c.)

The

rule is called for oftenest in clauses having the verb be {eom,

pesan, beon), become {pcordan), stand, lie, etc. {standan, licgan, etc.), go, remain {gdn, punian), seem, prove {pyncan, profian) and passives of
;

naming, calling {hdtan, nemnan), seeing, thinking, telling {seon, tellan), making, appointing, choosing {macian, gcsceapan, gesettan, geberan, geThe predicate noun is oftenest an adjective: pa bedmds d ceosan, etc.).

grene stondad, the trees stand ever grceji (C. Ex., 200, 4) cnapa ltd lama, my hoy lies lame (Matt., viii, 6); peos poruld puna.t gchdl, this world remaineth ivhole (St. B., 14) me pxt riht ne p)ynced, to me that seems not
; ;

mm

right

pxs dxg genemned, light icas called day (C, 129) he ptes blind lytel he pies gesepen, he was seen (as) little (Horn., i, 138) acenned, he was born blind (John, ix, 20) Saxulf pxs gecoren to biscop,
(C, 289)
;

leoht

Saxulf

it'as

chosen

(to)

bishop (Chr., 656).

See

b.

287.

II.

Attributive Combination.
subject.
;

Au

appositive

agrees in case Avith its

Often also in gender and number. It is an undeveloped adjective clause, but in titles it somegenerally marked as such by tone and punctuation times makes with its subject a kind of compound noun in English (see below, e) pe, cildra, we, (who are) children {JEM.) ; seo drpyrde f&mne
:

Ecgburh

ahbodisse, Aldpulfes dohtor J)xs cyninges, sende pam drpyrdan pere Gudldce leddene pruh, the venerable maid Ecgburh abbess, Aldvvulf's daughter the king('s), sent to the venerable man Guthl^'c a leaden coffin
(St. G., 18)
;

Dryhten

sylf,

heofend hcdhcyning, the Lord himself, heaven's

APPOSITIVES.
high king (And., 6)
baldes, there
;

143

pxs sum

Jus

scipes-man, pxs foresprecenan Adel;

was one,
si
;

his boatman, the aforesaid Athelbald's (St. G., 22)

freondscipe
la

betpux imc,

mc and

pe, friendship be betwixt us,

mc

and

pid Blxdlan and Atlilan, Hand cyningum, against Bledand Attila, kings of the Huns (Bed., 1,13); spa her men dod, geonge and ealde, so here men do, young and old (C, 1206) hi pegniad, xlc,
thee (G., 31, 44)
;

odrum, they serve, each the others (Met., 25,


times
of

12).

The

appositive

is

some-

descriptive, giving kind, condition,

etc.,

its

subject (cildra, abbodisse,

dohtor, cyninges, hedhcyning, scipes-man, etc., in examples above) ; definitive, a specific name after a general description, very common in

Anglo-Saxon {Ecgburh, Gudldc, Adelbaldes), emphatic (sylf). {Repeated Subject. A pronoun-|-a name, and a name-j-a pronoun, where the

seeming

attributive is really a repetition of the subject for clearer syntax, are very common se Heelend, hefwste, the Saviour, he fasted, St. G., 9)
:

partitive, giving parts of

whole {mc and pe, cyningum, geonge and ealde). Examples are introduced by spa spa (Latin wf, German als) sume bead langspeoredc, spa spa spands, some (birds) are long-necked, as swans (St. B., 14) distributive {mlc).
its

subject, or its

Adjectives are often appositives {geonge and ealde), so pronouns. Sentences are often appositives, oftenest definitives beginning with pxt, after hit, pxt, ping, or the like indefinite subject 'pcet gelamp, pxt hit picr com sum man, it happened, that there came a man (St. G., 9)
{a.)
{b.)
: ;

(20)

pmg

(19).

(c.)

sume pa
hi

Appositive for partitive genitive is found after sum: pa cp&don bocerds, then quoth some (of) {the) scribes (Matt., ix, 3) sume,
;

Rask gives tpcgcn comon, some (of them) they came (Mc, viii, 3). marc gold, two marks (uf) gold. I have not found such forms in AngloSaxon but they are common in Old English, after the inflections had de;

cayed (Lang.,1, 174; Ch.,7328). So German masse geld, pfund Jleisch, etc. The reverse, gold, two marhs, is in Sanskrit, and down to English. ccaslra Natzarcdes {d.) Genitive for appositive of material or place for ceastre Nazareth, i. e. City of Nazareth := City Nazareth, 313. i^ (e.) Genitives in apposition all have their endings, where in Old English
:

all

ter.

hut one drop it See above.

cyninges Aldpulfes dohtor, king('s) Aldwulf's daugh-

mtnum

appositive often fails to agree with its subject from anacoluthon : * * * hldforde Alfpold cyning (nominative), to my lord King Alfwold (St. G., Pro].) se rica and se heuna * * * ealle hi gelice sc slranga
(/.)

An

dead forgrlpcd, the rich and the poor (nominative) death gripeth (St. G., 19).
{g.) Number. the second person
(T

all

these alike strong

Note cyningum,
is

selc,

above.
:

After a dual the

name

of

used alone partitivcly pit Scilliiig soi^g dhofan, we, xinc Adamc, to us, (me and) Scilling, raised a song (C. Ex., 324, 31)
;

U-1
and)

NOMINATIVE.VOCATIVE.
Adam (C,
is

This idiom
(A.)

387) git lohannis, ye, (thou and) John (C. Ex., 467, found in O. H. German, is common in O. Norse.
;

7).

Gender.

Synesis.

Substantives agree in natural rather than in


A.\^c<\,i\\c

grammatical gender: JEIJhud., pxt maiden,

maiden (Horn., ii,

150).

NOMIXATIVE.
288. Tlio

subject of

fi

finite. verb

is

put

in the

nomina-

tive.
JElfred cpsed, Alfred said
{a.)
;

Nominative independent.
combination
:

God is god, God is good. The subject of quasi-clauses


are

of enun-

ciation is put in the nominative.

Such

names and

titles

containing no

predicative

pxt godspel wfter lohannes gerecednysse, the


Anacoluthon, ^ 387,/.
Absolute, 295.

Gospel according to John.


{b.)
(c.)

{d.)
(c.)

See ^ 287, definitive. Predicate nominative. See ^ 286. Attributive nominative. See ^ 287. A nominative of enunciation Factitive object.

Repeated subject.

is often

used in:

stead of a factitive object after verbs of naming, calling, and the like clypode God his gefylsta, he called God his ''helper'''' (Hom., 2, 82) ; hdtad " hine xfensiiorra, they call it evening star'"' (Met., 29, 30) ge clypiad me
;

" Master" and " Lord" (John, xiii, 13). Ldreop and Dryhten, ye call me This use of ihe. oratio dirccta is the common form in Sanskrit, and has doubtless been common in all folkspeech. It is in the Greek of the Nevi^ Testament the Latin Vulgate in such cases uses the vocative, as does the Greek sometimes. It is in the Gothic (O. H. German T) and M, H. German. Compare ^^ 289, d ; 29 i.
;

Vocative.
289.

compellative

is

put in the vocative.


;

ed Id geonga, O Ldreop, sege ponne. Lord, speak then (Luke, vii, 40) Id pu licetere, thou hypocrite (Matt., young man (Luke, vii, 14) vii, 5) hldford cyning, lord king (Ap., 7) Fxder iire, pu pe eart on heofenum., our Father, thou that art in the heavens (Matt., vi, 9) rnin,
; ; ;

se spetesla

sunnan scima, lulidna,


;

my

(the) sweetest sunshine, Juli-

ana (Ju., 166)


(a.)

Hcrra, se goda, Lord, the good (C. (G.), 678).

dress

The

is the subject of a The adquasi-clause of address. formal, a simple call, or an emphatic judgment {pu licetere). vocative may have an interjection with it, or not it may enter into at-

A compellative

may be

tributive combination with adjectives, appositives, clauses, etc.

Note the
min, se spe-

use of an appositive with the definite article


tesla
;

Herra, se goda
etc.

and compare French Monseigneur Varchevesque,

{h.)

The weak form


:

a definitive

of the adjective is often used in the vocative without leofa Beopulf, dear Beowulf (B., 1854).

ACCUSATIVE. IMPERSOXALS.
(c.)

145
5,

Latin vocatives are sometimes used

Thaliarche, Apolloni (Ap.,

7,9).

The vocative (with or without attributives) {d.) Quasi-clause. It may be a direct object ter into combinations as a clause.
cpedatl,

may
vii,

en-

manige
22)
;

Dryhten, Dryhten, many


:

shall

say, Lord,

Lord (Matt.,

factitive object

hpi clypige

ge me Dryhten, Dryhten, why

call

ye

me

Lord, Lord? (Luke,


(e.)

vi, 46). Compare ^ 288, e. native grammarians in Sanskrit do not separate the vocative from the nominative, but think it a slightly modified form for address. Its

The
is

syntax

nearly the

same

in all our languages.

Accusative.
290.

Objective Combinations.
is

L
It

The direct object

of a verb

put

in the

accusative.

may be

L A

material object moved, hit, or changed, or produced as an effect, by a transitive verb pone maddum hyred, he bears the treasure (B.,
:

stormus stdnchfu beutan, storms beat cliffs (Seaf., 23) ; ic heortan, I will harden his heart (Exod., iv, 21) scip pyrcan, dhyrde to build a ship (C, 1302). {Madm^ maddum, Orm. maddmess.)
2055)
;
;

(a.)

Persons and abstractions


:

may

also be conceived as material objects


;

of act or thought se pxt picg byrd, he whom that horse bears (El., 1196) ic bere dryhtnes domds, I bear the lord's commands (D., 744). verbs express an exercise of the appetites (eat, drink, (b.) Transitive the senses (see, hear, etc.), the sensibilities (love, hate, etc.), the inetc.),

movements moving an object, or keeping it tellect (know, think, etc.) from moving (set, lay, raise, carry, heave, have, hold, marry, catch, take, call forth, send forth, speak, etc.), hitting or moving give, lead, throw, drive,
;

towards

it

(strike, follow, etc.),

changing

its

form or condition (break,

tear,

harden, cover, sprinkle, etc.), making an object (do, make, work, build, etc.), causative acts. Verbs expressing these notions as affecting the whole of a
material object govern the accusative throughout the Indo-European tongues. be conceived as suffering objects of their appetites. (c.) Persons may

Impersonals
Me
pyrste,
I
it

of

aiopetite

or passio7i govern an

accusative
me
hin-

of the person suffering.


thirsted

me = I
;

suffered thirst (Matt., xxv, 35);


;

grede,
it

suffered hunger (Matt., xxv, 35)


list

hine lystc,

it

listed
;

him==

he suffered
irks

(B., 1793)

mcc longdde,
; ;

me, dpreotan pegn (Sch.,21)

me apryt, I longed (Kl., 14) us pldtad,v.-e loathe (Num., 21, 5).


;

gcmsktan, dream (D., 122) eglian, ail (?) tinclan, tickle (?), it tikclcth (Bosworth, Ett. their example a mistake) me (Chaucer, C. T., 6053). Koch says passives of these impersonals so Grcin, his mandryhten (ace.) gemxted peard take an accusative

So hreopan, rue (C, 1276)

140

KEFLEXIVES. COGNATES.TWO OBJECTS.


(D., 157)
;

but dryhtcn

is

nom.,
;

" his lord (was) had dreamed ;" so


;

pxs
of-

inonig gdystcd (Met., 1,U) ic pxs ofpyrsted (Seel., 40) (Kl.,29) ; no accusatives found.

ic

eom

longdd
hine

{d.)

Reflexives.

Many verbs may take an accusative of the reflexive pro(Matt., xxvii, 5)


;

noun

sylfm dhcng, he hung himself

dpende hine

turned himself to sylfne to Gode, he

quent in early Anglo-Saxon. without the pronoun he gebcalh hine, he swelled himself (Luc, XV, 28) ge belgad, ye are wrathful (John, vii, 23)
:

God (Chr., 1067). Sylf, self, is not freSome verbs get to have a reflexive sense

= he was wrathful
;

he bethought him (Luc, xv, 17)


self) (Ex., 178, 7)
;

gxst hine fysed, the

spirit

he hcpohle hine, hastens (it-

ic

me

reste, I rest

me
;

(Ex., 494, 8)
;

resle pict folc hit,

gegadorode miccl folc hit, much people gathered itself (Chr., 921) parniad evp, beware (yourself) se H&lend bcpende pene pec, wont thee (Fath., G2) (Matt., vii, 15) In Sanskrit ilnnc), the Saviour went (him) (Matt., ix, 22; Mc, v, 30). the reflexive is incorporated with the verb, and makes a middle voice ( 150, Traces of the middle are found in So in Greek, but not in Latin. a).
the people rested (itself) (Exod., xvi, 30)
; ;

Gothic, but in the main

it

and the other Teutonic tongues work

like the

An-

slo-Saxon.

Intransitives take a dative reflexive, as do

some of

the above

sometimes.

See 298,

c.

291.

n.
The The

A
:

of the verb

definitive object repeating more specifically the notion (cognate accusative), dcniad rihtne dam, judge righteous
;

judgment (John, vii., 24) war-song (Jud., 211).


(a.)
{b.)

(more

specific),

sang

hildeleod,

it

sang a

verb

may

be transitive or intransitive.
is

cognate is easy, and is already made in Sanskrit. The definitive has a widely extended use in Greek, and in German and English is co-ordinate in importance with the material
transition
effect to the

= adverb.

simple cognate alone

tautological.

An

adjective

+ definitive

The

from the

object.

292.

Double Object. Some

verbs of

ing may have two


of a thing.
(a.)
{b.)

accusatives, one of a

asking and teachperson and the other

Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Gothic, 0. H. German, etc Verbs of asking may have the second object cognate (ask him questions), exciting (ask him z. favor) or (ask him about Vishnu). The the first and second in Greek, third form is the common one in Sanskrit

So

in

Asking.

Latin, O.

H. German

hig hine ne dorston eenig ping dcsian, they durst not


;

ask him any question (Luke, xx, 40) asked him about the parable (Mc,
;

iv, 10)

hig hine pxt bigspel dcsodon, they hi hine bissen gefrugnum


;

spa hpxt spa heo hine bebde, whatever favor (same, vii, 17, Northumbrian) This construction is rare in Angloshe might ask him (Matt., xiv, 7).

SUBJECT ACCUSATIVE.FACTITIVES.

I47

Saxon; generally we have accusative of person-}- genitive of thing (+ dative of

or (2d) ace. of pers. -|- infinitive (or clause) person for whom) (3d) ace. of pers. -\-ymbe, be, softer (concerning), and an ace. of thing (4th) the person follows to or !Bt, the thing is an ace. or gen.
;

or

or

'

(c.)

Teach

is

a causative of
-|-

/earre in

Sanskrit

{^jA/a^'a.
:

Causatives gov-

ern an accusative

the case of the included verb

Icofne peoden ried ienigne,


(B., 3079).
{d.)

we

ne meahton pe gel&ran might not teach the dear lord any counsel

Txcan, teach, takes the accusative of thing -j- dative of person. The passives seem not to take an accusative in Anglo-Saxon, as they

do in Greek, Latin, English, etc.

293.

ject of an infinitive

Quasi-predicative Combinations. is put in the accusative.

I.

The sub-

Secgnd hine libban, they say that he lives (Luke, xxiv, 23) geseah stream ut brecan, he saw a stream break out (B., 2546).
;

(a.) This accusative is grammatically the object of the preceding verb; but after verbs oi perceiving and declaring, ivishing and expressing a wish, and some others, the logical object is the infinitive clause, and grammarians Cases to which it applies are not found in Sanskrit, have a use this rule.

wide range

in

Greek and

Latin, are rare in Anglo-Saxon.

See 286,

b.

predicate noun denoting the same person or thing as pc pitun pi bilepitne pcsan, subject agrees with it in case (^ 286) know thee to be gentle (^Elfc). Under this rule come some
II.
:

294.

its

we

Factitives.

(.)

Some verbs

of

garding may have


He
his englds

Um

making, naming,

accusatives of the

same

reperson or thing.

did

sedele gdstas,

he makes noble souls his angels (Psa.,

ciii,

pa per as Eufrdlin nemnad, the river, which men name Euphrates (C, 234); tocneopon Crist sodne man, they recognized Christ as a true man (Horn., i, 106) hi hine purdodon sodne God, they worshipped him as true God (Hom.,i, 108).
5)
;

seo ea,

(b.)

ing,

and the

Verbs of making, naming, regarding, perceiving, finding, having, leavlike, may take an accusative adjective as a factitive object.

For Anglo-Saxon verbs, see passives in ^ 286, c. (c.) Verbs of making (choosing, etc.) in Sanskrit may have two accuSo in Anglo-Saxon it is ususatives, but usually the factitive is a locative. See ^ 286, b. ally construed with to or for. See ^ 288, e. (d.) Verbs of naming. (e.) Verbs of regarding have two accusatives in Sanskrit and after.
(/)

When

the factitive

is

in the accusative,

it

is

drawn

into

agreement

with

its quasi-subject,

the direct object of the verb.

148
295.

DATIVE. OBJECTIVE COMBINATIONS.

Adverbial Combinations.
is

The
etc.

extent

of

time

and space
(a.)

put

iu the

accusative

after verbs.

So

in Sanskrit,

Greek, Latin, Gothic,

H,vfdon sumne
{b.)

dM pegcs
;

gefarcn, they had gone some part of the way


:

ealle niht spmcende, all night toiling (Luc, v, 5). (Gen., xliv, 4) Excess of measure (dative) dnne stwpefurdor, one step further (Jos., instrument: grws ungrene, not green with grass (C, 117, 812) X, 12) absolute dag scridende, day dawning (Gu., 1011 ; C, 183, nom. abs. ?), ^
;

304, d.
(c.)

Milton's

me overthrown (Sam. Ag.,463)


is

is classic affectation.

The

accusative

object towards extends. For examples, see Prepositions.

used with prepositions to denote an which, or to, on, or over which an action

Dative.
296.

The dative

in

Anglo-Saxon denotes
to

relations of four old

cases
1.

Dative, the person


is

whom

something

is

given, or for

whom

some-

thing
2. 3. 4.

or is done.

Instnimental, that with which an act is done or associated. Ablative, that from which something is separated or distinguished. Locative, the time or place in which.
Objective Combinatio7is.

297.

An

object of

influence or interest

is

put in the da-

tive.
I.

Object of Influence, the person to whom something is given. The giving may be figurative material objects or abstractions may be conThe object given may be expressed as an accusaceived as persons. tive, or implied in the governing word.
;

(a.)

This dative

is

oftenest found after verbs of


:

giving (paying,

offering, loaning, etc.)


iv,

ealle

pas
etc.

ic

sylle

J)e, all

these I

give thee (Matt.,

9);

so gifan, foigifan, li&nan, lednian, dgyldan,

geunnan,

address

= giving words
:

tidian, ordthan, pi/rnan,

forpyrnan,

(say, bid, forbid, answer, thank, chide, judge,

prom-

ise, advise, etc.)

ic

secge pe,

say to thee (Matt., xvi, 18)

so cydan,

hebeodan, comma,n(\,

obeying = giving thought (listen to, let them listen to them (Luc, xvi,
conceived as personal
:

gesture

or beodan, ansparian, pancian, cidan, deman, rsedan; bedcnian,hec]ion, bugan, bow, hnigan, lutan, stupian, odypan, etc. ;

obey, follow, etc.)


29)
;

hig hlyston him,


is

that

which

obeyed

is

often

minum Idrum

hyre, hear to

my

precepts (C, 105,

8); so gehyrsumian,fylgian,heorcnian.

So

exciting thought (seeming.

DOUBLE OBJECT.
etc.)
:

149
;

pyncd, it seems to many a man (Boet., 29, 1) me methinks (Boat., 33, 1), etc. pyncd, gemiltsd minum sund, giving feeling (pity, mourn, honor, trust, etc.) dr a pinum feeder, (give) honor son (Matt., xvii, 14) (to) my (give)

manegum men

pity

(to)

thy father (^^If. L.,

1,

4)

so besdrgian, treopian, treopsian, gely:

fan.

Here

gecpeman,

also giving ^exciting (please, soothe, still, etc.) pam folce to please the people (Mc, xv, 15); so stillan, oleccan, and
:

impersonals
giving aid
helpest
i,

him ne sceamode,
;

it

did not

shame him (Gen.,

ii.,

25)

ofpuhte (Sat., 247)

langad
44)
;

(B., 1879), etc.


:

(help, serve, defend, injure, etc.)


vii,

pu monegum
to

helpst, thou

many (Hy.,

heo him penode, she ministered

them (Mc,

31);

me pa
(5.)

so fremian, peopian, derian, fylstan, styran, chastise, etc.: hi well dydan, they did me woe (Psa., cxviii, 138) ; do pel pdm, do

to those (Psa., cxxiv, 4).

Adjectives of the above


;

senses, especially of
;

thought and feeling:

dnum gehyrsum, obedient to one (Matt., vi, 24) getrype hldforde minum, true to my lord (^Ifrc) pam bisceope cud, known to the bishop (John, xviii, 15) leof Gode, dear to God (C, xvi, 17) fremde, strange (B., 1691). a genitive of the non-personal ob(c.) Some of these words may take
;
;

'

ject

object

hlyst his pordd, listen to his words (Nic, 3) ; or even of a personal so helpan, gelyfan, pidsacan, pancian, treopian, miltsian, gefeon,

See under Genitive. The notion of the verb may be consceamian, etc. ceived as given to the object, or as had as belonging to, or excited by confidence to him (dative) or have confidence in him, e. g.
him
(genitive)

gelyfan=give helpan=give
;

help to him or be his help.

In Sanskrit the

genitive

may

be used for most datives of this kind.

much
II.

of the

same freedom.
or

The

Latin

is

more

early Greek has fixed than the Gothic, O.

The

German,

Anglo-Saxon.

Verbs of granting, refusing, and {(I) Double Object. take a dative ami genitive. thanking may so Ic fcores pe unnan pille, I will grant (to) thee (of) life (Ex., 254, 4)
;

paldend, the lord refused me that (C, 2219) pancian his dryhtne pxs lednes, to thank his lord See under Genitive. for the gift (C, 257).
onlihan, pyrnan, tldian
;

me pxs forpyrnde

298.

II.

Object of Interest, the person

for

whom

something

is

or

is

done.

advantage or disadvantage (verbs) bxd him hldfds him (Sat., 673) polde hire bur dtimbran, pyrcan, bade make loaves for wished to build a bower /or herself (R., 30, 5) him hedhcymng pif dpeahle,
(a.)

Dative of

a wife raised up (C, 172) (adjectives) for him (Adam) the high king thee that one of is betcre pxt an Jnnrd limd forpeorde, it is better for Pe it would be better for limbs perish (Matt., v, 29) n7jttre him p&re,
;
:

thy

him (Luc,

xvii, 2).

150
(i.)

ASSOCIATION. MASTERY.
Dative of Possessor: him pxs gcpcald,
(Cri.,

to

power

228)

pxin nc byd nuncs godes pana,


;
;

to

him was (=hc had) them is lack of no


;

Gode si puldor, to God be glory (Luc, ii, 14) pd so after interjections pd pdm byd pam, woe is to him (Ex., 414, 25) men, woe to the man (Matt., xviii, 7) pel pierc hcordc, well for the herd A favorite in Greek and Latin not so in Teutonic. (LctT. Cnut., ii, 84, 2).
good (Psa., xxxiii, 9)
:

The

second dative takes a preposition. Sanskrit thus uses a genitive. nim Jjc pis ofiet on hand, after verbs meaning take (c.) Reflexive,
:

takc/tir thcc this fruit in


still

hand (C, 518)


xiv, 14)

be, remain, etc.


;

pubron him on

Cent, they were for themselves in

Kent
;

for yourselves (Exod.,


;

beod eop stille, be (Chr., 1009) so stod, stood (Gen., xviii, 8) ; sxt,
:

sat (Gen., xxi, 16), etc.

move,
;

go, etc.

gcpdl him, he departed /o?;

Am-

sclf=^\\Q
(1009)
;

was

off with himself

trxd (B., 1881) ^ 290, d) pende (Chr., 1016


; ;

(C, 2884); so cyrde (Chr., lOlG) ferde gd (An., 1350) hpearf (C, 447) sometimes
;

fear, etc.

ondrcd he him, he feared for


;

so with pile, wish (Ex., 450, 18) piste, knew (C, himself (John, xix, 8) hleodrede (Ex., 185, 3) peaxan, hxfde, had gelyfed, believeth 445) These are substitutes for the middle voice. See grow, etc. (Grein, s. v.).
;

\ 290, d.

Many

of them resemble the ethical dative.

Most would be ex-

pletive in English.

299.

Association.

Words

of

nearness and likeness


;

govern the dative.


gelic
(a.)

He pam huse genedhlxhte, he came near to the house (Luc, xv, 25) pdm leohtum steorriun, like the bright stars (C, 17, 7).
; ; :

like

Here belong some words of meeting, association, contention, and the of imitation, agreement, etc. of bringing near, receiving, touch
:

geefenlsecan, pidstandan, forstandan, pidpinnan, tidan, hrinan, onfon; impersouals hit licode He'rode, it was suited to Herod (Matt., xiv, 6)
so becyme, becometh (Mc. (D.), xiv, 31)
;

gedafenad (Luc,

iv,

43)

gerised (Ex.,
(5.)

1, 5)

gebyrad (John,

x, 13).

the locative) in Sanskrit

This relation takes the instrumental (or genitive, nearness sometimes Some the dative in Greek, Latin, Gothic, etc. of the words may govern in other relations an accusative, genitive, or in;

strumental

hrinan, onfon.

300.

Mastery

(use).

The instrumental or dative


;
;

may

denote an object of

mastery:

pdm p&pnum

pealdan, to have power over the weapons (B., 2038) pealdan, to have the mastery of the field (Guth., 674) py ponge py rice r&dan, to rule the peold Hunum, ruled the Huns (Wid., 18) realm (Dan., 8, 688). Ruling may be conceived as transitive, or as
;

giving law or direction to a dative, or as being master of a genitive, or as being strong by means of an instrumental: /ea/<fflra> English

ADVEREIxVL COMBINATIONS. INSTRUMENTALS.

151

wield governs the dative in Gothic and O. Norse, the genitive in O. H. German, in Anglo-Saxon, like Latin potior, the ace., gen. (dat.), instr.

the gen. in 0. Saxon and M. H. German, in Anglo-Saxon brucaii (Lat. often the instrumental or dative, the dative elsewhere neutan, use (An., 811), take the ace, gen., fruor), use (Bed., 4, 19)

rwdan governs

instr., dat.

301.

Separation.

Some
in the

verbs of

separation may
or

take

an object

from which

dative

instrumental.

verbs of this kind take an accusative (a.) Transitive me of all (Rid., 41, 101) bescyrede eallum, he deprived

+a
;

dative:
:

mec

dum

bcnxman, to rob them of cut him off from his head


(b.)

bescyredne, deprived of shields (Mod., 8) their right (C, 129, 32)


;

scylpassive hi rihte instrumental


:

hine heafde becearf, he

(B., 1590)

bed&lan, deprive (B.,721).

feondum odfaren hxfdon, they had escaped the So adjectives drihtnefrem.de, far from God (C, 105). fiends (Exod.,64). here is the ablative, which is retained in Latin. The (c.) The old case Greek uses the genitive. The Anglo-Saxon has oftenest the genitive,' then
Intransitives
:

hi

the instrumental, sometimes a dative.

Adverbial Combinations.

Instrumentals. (a.) The instrumental or dainstrument, means, manner, or cause tive may
I.

302.

denote

sword (B., G79) edgum geseah, saw with spebban speorde, to kill with pordum herian, to praise with words (C, 1, 4) eyes (C, 51, 2) cognate of manner gefullode pam fulluhte, baptized in the baptism
; ;
;
:

lustfulUan pxs biscopes pordum, to rejoice (that I am) (Mc, x, 39) because of the bishop's words (Bed., 2, 9) adjectives fedrum snell, ancrum fxste, fast by means of answift with wings (Ex., 206, 7)
; ;
:

chors (El., 252)

fedrum

strong, strong in respect of wings (Ex.,


in

203,18);

mundum

fre6rig,ixeezmg

my

hands (An., 491). Greek

dative, Latin ablative represent these old instrumentals.


(J.)

Dative of the Agent.


etc.)
:

Passive verbs take the agent with a prep-

fram miniim fxder, given by my fagecpeden purh pone pitegan (ace), spoken by the The dative after some verbals might be put here prophet (Matt., iii., 3). Gode sind mihtelice pa ping, to God the things are possible (Luc, xviii, 27). Greek often, Latin someSanskrit here uses the instrumental regularly
osition

{fram, purh, ther (Matt., xi, 27)

gescaldc

times, a dative without a preposition.


(c.)

The instrumental
pid or

or

dative may denote price:


;

dnum prnningc
ally after

gcboht, bought witli one penny (Matt. (D.), x, 29) to, or a genitive.

usu-

152
(d.)

DATIVE.ADVERBIAL.
The instrumental
:

or

dative may denote measure

of

difference

sponne lengra pxre pryhy longer than the coffin hy a span (Bed., 4, 11) miclc md sccdpc bctera, better than r. sheep by much more (Matt., xii,
;

12)

so micclum (Greg.)

micclre (Bed.,

iv, 13).

(e.) The instrumental or dative may denote an object sworn by


:

mec pine

life

hedlsode, he swore

me

by thy

life (B.,

2131)

oftenest after

purh or for.
303.

II.

Ablatives.

The comparative degree may gov-

ern a dative.

Mara lohanne
hetera

manegum spearpum,

fulluhtere, greater than John the Baptist (Matt., xi, 11) ; better than many sparrows (Luc., xii, 7).

The
is

found.

nominative, with ponne, than, is more common. The instrumental The Sanskrit uses the ablative, sometimes the instrumental
;

the

Greek the

genitive

the Latin the ablative

other Teutonic tongues

are like Anglo-Saxon.

304.

III.

Locatives.

(.)

when

The dative may denote time

or

place where.
;
;

Odrum

pam priddan dxge


so instrumental:
{b.)

daege hine hyngrode, the second day he hungered (Mc, xi, 12) he drist, the third day he arises (Matt., xx, 19)

py syxtan monde, on
:

the sixth

month (Bed.,

i,

3).

It

may

denote a repetition of times

on dxg seofen sidum syngad,

sinneth seven times a day (Luc, xvii, 4). (c.) The dative of place takes a preposition.

Quasi-predicative Combination.
{d.) Dative absolute. A substantive and participle in the dative may make an adverbial clause of time, cause, or coexistence ( 278, (Z, 295, b, time with be, bi, 334).

Him
35)

spreccndum, hig comon, they came, while he was speaking (Mc, v, pinre dura belocenre, bide, thy door having been locked, pray
;

(Matt., vi, G), so

still

dative

in

different cases to denote different relations

Sanskrit uses thus WyclifFe. the locative is the most


;

common.
tive.

The Greek has


is

the genitive oftenest; the Latin the abla-

The Teutonic languages


put in
tlie

use this construction seldom.


dative in Greek.

Time

when, not absolute,

.305. With The dative with a preposiPrepositions. tion may denote an object of influence or interest, asso-

INSTRUMENTAL. GENITIVE.
elation,

153

mastery,

or

separation

or an

ablative, or locative adverbial


Prepositions.

relation.

instrumental, For examples, see

Insteumental.
306. I. The Proper Instrumental.
The plural instrumental The dative generally takes
sometimes
in ablative
a).

See 299, 300, 302.

endings are lost wholly, the singular nearly. their place. The surviving endings are found

Latin (^^ 302, 70,

and locative uses. They are lost also in Greek and O. H. German and O. Saxon have a few singular

examples, Gothic only pronouns.

307. II. Ablative


308.

uses. uses.

See 301, 303.


See 304.

III.

Locative

Genitive.
309.

The Anglo-Saxon

genitive denotes relations of four old

cases
1.

2.
3. 4.

The genitive, the possessor and personal adjunct. The ablative, that from which any thing is separated. The instrumental, by which any thing is or is done. The locative, the time or place in which. The genitive
Sanskrit loosely used for
all

is

already

in the

the other oblique cases.

Attributive Combinations.
310.
I.

Possessive.
or

An attributive
author
of
sword (Mc,
;

genitive may

de-

dote the

possessor
may
:

its siibject.

The

subject

be
his speorde, his
xiv, 47)
;

material wealth
quality
:

enghs

hip, angel's beauty (Jul., 244)


:

persons had or related Godes pcopas, God's servants (LL. In., 1) Offan dohtor, Offa's daughter (Chr., 787) Ines irodor, Ine's brother (Chr., ofBcers Cantpard cyning, Kentish men's king (Chr., 827). 718)
;

Any

thing conceived as belonging to another Apollonies hand, Apollonius' hand (Ap., 21) pdrd apostold Idre, the apostles' lore (Bed., 4, 25) ; JElf: ;

rcdcs domds, Alfred's laws

huscs duru, house's door (St. G.,

1).

311.

11.

An attributive genitive may


verbal.
:

denote the sub-

ject or

object of a

Subjective genitive Godes gife, God's gift (LL. In., Prcam.) tpegrd mannd gcpilncs, two men's testimony (John, viii, 17) cyninges hies, king's command (C, 8, 14).
; ;

15-i

GENITIVE PAKTITIVE, CHARACTERISTIC.


fear of God (Ex., 244, 30) synnd huntunge hcorta, forgifcnnes, forgiveness of sins (Matt., xxvi, 28) hunting of harts (Bed., 1, 1).
;

Objective genitive: Godes egsa,

Partitive. note the whole of which


312.
III.
reste
{a.)

An attributive genitive may deits

subject

is

part.
earrth

Se norddi&l middangeardes, the north part of the

(Bed.,

1, 1)

(iMatt., cal,

dxges wfene, the evening of the Sabbath (Matt., xxviii, 1). The subject a pronoun hpxt godes do ic, what of good do 1 1 so hpxder, hpylc, of work (^If.) xix, 10) /ij'ivt pcorccs, what sort
:

sum,

ivlc,

gehpd, gchpylc, dinig,piht, ndht,


:

etc.

pair, adv. (C, 284, 24).


d,

{h.)

The subject a numeral


;

an

his cnihld, one of his disciples

(Luc,

xi, 1)
(c.)

iiifcsl

ealrd, first of

all

(C,

4, 32).
:

Compare

below.

The subject a superlative


sclcst, best of

sAdd

hcst, least of seeds (Matt., xiii,

houses (B., 146). Very common is ealra-\-a suof all, etc., whence old English aWerfirst, perlative; ealrd rtcost, richest aZt?erliefest, etc. (Ch. Sh.).
32)
;

husd

or measure of objects or material (d.) The subject an aggregation mycele 7nanegeofiid, a great crowd of fishes (Luc, v, 6) heard spijnd, herd hund mittend hp&tes, a hundred of measures of wheat of swine (viii, 32)
:

(xvi, 7)

II, 7, 2).

pusend pundd goldes, a thousand of pounds of gold (LL. ^thd., This should be distinguished from the characteristic genitive of
b).

material (^ 313,
(e.)

This

is

very common, that rare

this is Sanskrit gen.

genitive may denote the eminence of its subject : cydrcdmd dream, joy of joys (30, ningd cyning, king of kings (Ex., 9, 17) and so abun22) heofond heofonds, heaven of heavens (Psa., cxlviii, 4)

cognate

dantly in Anglo-Saxon, 0. Norse.

Characteristic. may denote a characteristic of


313.

IV.

An

attributive genitive

its subject.

In Sanskrit a characteristic takes the instrumental, in Greek (rare) the genitive, in Latin (frequent) the ablative or genitive.
{a.)
(6.)

Quality fcgeres hipes men, men of fair aspect (Horn., ii, 120). Material: scennum sciran goldes, patens of pure gold (B., 1694)
:

rare

material as characteristic

is

almost always expressed by an adjective

{gylden, golden), or a compound {goldfwt. gold vessel), or a preposition Compare ^ 312, d. {reuf of h&rum, garment of hair (Matt., iii, 4)). lamb dnes gedres, lamb of one year (Horn., ii, 262). (c.) Age
:

(d.)

so -weight,
(c.)

fen unmsitre mycelncsse, fen of immense size (St. G., 3) value, and the like: pencgd peorde, pennies-worth (John,vi, 7). Name hit ofetes noman dgan sccolde, it the name (of) apple must
Size
:

he forleort ceastra Natzaredes, he left the city (of) Nazareth (Northumbrian Matt., iv, 13). The West Saxon uses the appositive Nazarcd. Bntene igland, island (of) Britain (Chr., 1 Bed., 1), is doubt-

have (C, 719)

PREDICATIVE EXCITING OBJECT.


fill.

155

and

it

The Greek and Latin used this genitive sometimes, became common in Semi-Saxon.
Predicative Combinations.

the French often,

314.

to denote a

predicate substantive may be put iu possessor or characteristic of


of wliicli
it is

the

genitive

the subject, or

whole

part.

Possessor: Dryhtnes sind pa rtcu, the kingdoms are the Lord's (Psa., xxi, 26) ge Cristes sind, ye are Christ's (Mc, ix, 41). Characteristic pa pseron ongrisliccs andplitan, they were of grisly countehe pxs scearpre gleapnesse, he was of sharp nance (Bed., 5, 13) wit (5, 19) seo pass micelre br&do, it was of great breadth (5, 12) he lifes p&.re, (if) he were (of life) alive (LL. ^thd., H, 9, 3) he pintrd ste, he may be of ten years (LL. H. & Ed., 6). Partitive se abbot pass goderd manna, the abbot was of good men (Chr., 1066).
;
:

(a.) The predicate genitive may be used perhaps in all the relations of the attributive genitive. Compare the Latin and Greek Grammars (Had-

ley, 57-2).

The genitive may be used for a predicate(b.) Quasi-predicative. accusative adjective (^ 294) Hig gesdpon pone sittan gescrydne and hales modes, they saw him sit clothed and of sound mind (Mc, v, 15).
:

Objective Combinations.

These are mostly secondary, either abridged or acquired. In most of them one of the common relations of the attributive genitive may be conceived between the genitive and the notion of the verb or adjective with he has /car of it ; he remembers it ^ho which it combines: he fears i7 has remembrance of it.

315.

Exciting Object.
object.

The genitive may denote an


state or

ex-

citing
object.

That which suggests or excites a mental

an act

is its

exciting

The most common

states or acts taking this object are

L Feelings joy,
der, etc.

sorrow, pride, shame, longing, love, hope, fear, care, won-

Verbs: peodncs gefegon,


at

they joyed
(B., 2055)
; ;

in

the lord (B., 1627); girncst, thou yearn;

mordres gylped, he exults


gan,
to

murder

piire fcohgiflc scami-

be ashamed of the gift (B., 1026)


;

gilpes

pu
;

fame (Boeth., 32) ondrcd he pa-s, he feared that (John, xix, 8) pibpna nc reccd, he recks not of weapons (B., 434) pxmdrigc fullcs moso begym (Luc, x, 35) nan, wonder at the full moon (Met., 28, 40) pilnian (An., 1130); pyscad (Guth., 194), and see 297, c. Adjecest for
;
;

tives

frgcn sides, glad of the journey (An., 1013) sides pcrig, weary of the journey (B., 579) godes gr&dig, greedy of good (Sol., 344).
:

156
II.

GENITIVE rAllTITIVE. SEPARATION.

Intellectual states

remember, forget, think


;

of, listen, ete.

Verbs

gcmun

pines pordes, remember thy word (Psa., cxviii, 49); Godes hi

forgcdton, thoy forgot God (Psa., cv, 18); Jwncc pe nuncs yfcles, we think no evil (Gen., xhi, ;J1) hlyst his pordci, listen to his words (Nic.,

Adjectives gcmyndige Lodes pifcs, mindful of Lot's wife (Luc, xvii, 31) iinpis pxs nainan, ignorant of the name (Bed., 4, 13). III. Acts related with such states of mind laugh, pray, help, try, watch,
3).
:

pif dhluh dnhlncs, the woman laughed at the lord (C., 2380); jlxsces hi babdon, they prayed for flesh (Psa., civ, 35); Itdan me pines iftci/mcs, watch for thy return (Ex., 466, 33) help mm,
remind, etc.
:

p:i't

help

(Psa., Ix, 1)

llpi
tried

min cos lude,

fandige ge min, why tempt ye me? (Matt., xxii, 19) after me (B.,2084). Adjectives: gcaro (Jul., 49).

(a.) Verbs of asking, accusing, reminding may accusative and genitive ( 292, 297, a)
:

take an

pe hiddan dure bene, to ask thee of one thing (B., 427) dcsian (Bed., 4, 3); tyhd me untreopdd, accuseth me of untruths (C, 36, 33); usic pdrd lednd gcmonian, to remind us of the loans (Ex., 333, 19).
;

of granting, refusing, and thanking may take (5.) Verbs dative and genitive. See 297, d.
(c.)

Impersonals may take


:

a genitive and an

accusative or dative

of the person excited


52)
ii,
;

hme

ietes lysted,
it

him pxs ne sceamode,

he longs for food, ^ 290, c (Wal., did not shame him of that, ^ 297, a (Gen.,

25).
:

on{d.) Reflexives may take the reflexive pronoun and a genitive dred he him pxs, he dreaded (him) of that (John, xix, 8). (e.) In Sanskrit the exciting object is regularly an ablative, but many of the verb notions here specified already take a genitive in Greek the geniin Teutonic, genitives, datives (instrutive is established, in Latin frequent
; ;

mentals), and accusatives combine often with the

same

verb,

316.

fected

Partitive. in part.
;

The

genitive may denote an object


:

af-

After verbs of sharing and touch gcnam pxs ofxtes, he took of the (C, 493) wt pisses ofxtes, he ate of this fruit (C., 500, 564) pxs pxstmes onbdt, bit of the fruit (C., 470) ic hxbbe his her, I have (some) of it (the fruit) here (C, 678); his hrtnan, to take hold of it (C., 616);
fruit
;
;

pxpnd onfon, to take hold of weapons (C, 2040). So in other languages. In the Romanic tongues, and sometimes in Anglo-Saxon, a preposition is used. See of.
"17.

Separation
Many transitive

(ablative).

The genitive

may

denote an

object of separation.
(rt.)

(Conii)are 301.)

verbs of separation take an accusative of the

RULE.MATERLU..MEASURE.ADJUXCT.
person and a genitive
;
:

157

benwman

rob him goods (Matt., xii, kingdom (C.,286, 3) fata hine bereafian, getp&hine ganges getpseman, to hinder him from flight (B., 967) 29) (B., 1763) ged&nsa (Ps. C, 112) berxdde (An., 1328).
; ;

Crist rices, to deprive Christ of the of his

fed

[b.)

God
life

God gespdc his peorces, Intransitives cease, need, miss, etc. ealdres linnan, to be deprived of ceased from his work (Gen., ii, 3) beho(B., 2443) pinga bepurfon, have need of things (Matt., vi, 32)
: ; ; ;
;

miste mercelses, missed the mark (B., 2439) ; pacs sodes fatt (Bed., 4, 23) deviate from the truth (Sol., 182). Adjectives: buendrd leas, ansaced,
clean of crime (Ex., 276, 13); empty of inhabitants (C.,6, 16) fdcnes cMne, dnes pana fiftig, fifty less one (An., 1042) bed&led, p. p. (C, 276, 9).
; ;

Supremacy. The genitive may supremacy or use.


318.

denote an object of

God pealded manna


See 300.
319.

ct/nnes,

God

rules the race of

men

(Psa.,

Iviii, 13).

Material. The genitive


material
a.

or

note the

of Avhich any thing

instrumental may deComis made or full.

pare 302,

ofxPietfxt leddes gefylde, filled the vessel with lead (Ex., 277, 10) ies gehlxdene, laden with fruit (C, 461) peos eordc is berende fugeadjectives fxtful Id, the land is full (bearing) of birds (Bed., 1, 1)
;
;

ecedes, vessel full of vinegar (John, xix, 29)


(a.)
(b.)

gdste (Luc,

iv, 1).

The The

material after a verb of

material

is

put in the genitive in

making takes a preposition. ^ 294, c. some other relations. ^ 324.


Avith acljec-

320.
tives
(a.)

Measure- The genitive in combination may denote measure. Compare 295, 302.
: ;

(B., 3043)
{b.)

Space, dimension fifliges fot-gemearces lang, fifty paces long fiftend monnes elnd deop, fifteen man's ells deep (C, 1397). Time he pxs hundnigontiges pintrd eald, he was (of) ninety (of)
:

winters old (Bed., 3, 27) oftenest English {twelve) years old Saxon a compound adjective (tpelf) pintre (Luc.,ii, 42 viii,42
; ;

is in
;

Anglo-

Gen., v,6).
;

his mctcs,

is pyrde six peiiingd pyrde, sixpence worth (Rask) worthy of his meat (Matt., x, 10). Compare ^^ 302, 313, d. mordrcs scyldig, guilty of murder (B., 1083) deddes scyl(d.) Crime Also dative and instrumental. dig, deserving of death (Matt., xxvi, 66).
(c.)

Price, value
is

Adjunct. The genitive in combination with adjectives may denote the jxi^'^ oi' rekitio?i in w^hich tlie quality is
321.

conceived.

Modes

bltde, blithe of

(B., 1844).

mind (B., 430) mcrgcnes streng, strong of might For instrumentals, see ^ 302.
;

158

GENITIVEADVERBIAL. niEPOSITIONS.
Adverbial Combinations.

IMost examples are relics of the time when the genitive was more freely used in the adverbial relations than we find it in the literary remains. See
further 251.

322,

Space.

The genitive may tienote by what way


oitres

pendon him pa

peges hdmpcard, they return

homeward by another

way

How
323.

(Chr., 1000), Gr. r)c oSov, Ger. deincsj.ocgS. IV mild from pam mialan, four miles from the far from (?)
:

mouth (Chr., 893

so Maetzner), but

four of miles

is

better {^ 295).

Time. The genitive may


pudu
is

denote the

time

when
summer

pintrcs and sumcrcs

bid gclice gehongcn, winter and


;

the

wood

hung (with fruits) (Ph., 37) pxs pintrcs, that winter dnes dceges, one day (Job, 165) dwges and nihtcs, by day and night (B., 2269) Jns pics feordes gcdres, this was on the
alike
;

(Chr., 878)

fourth year (Chr., 47).

Note

also pxs, thereafter.

32

1.

Means. The genitive may denote means


;

or

cause:

pxteres peorpan, to sprinkle with water (Dom., 78) with wine (B., 2791).

glxd

pines, jolly

325.

Manner. The genitive may


gcongordomes, bow
in

denote

manner:
;

such vassalage (C, 283) gepealhiigan spilces des monnan ofsled, intentionally slay a man (LL. Alf., Intr., 13) so;

des

ic

pe secge, of a

truth I say to

you (Matt.,
5).

v,

26)

peaxad

self-

pilles,

grow of

their

own

accord (Lev., xxv,

genitive with a prepsometimes used to denote instrumental, ablative, or locative adverbial relations. See Prepositions.
32G.

With
is

Prepositions.

The

osition

USES OF PREPOSITIONS.
327.

preposition governs
to

a substantive, and shows

its

relation
(a.)

some other Avord


is

in the clause.

This relation

oftenest adverbial, but


:

icative, or objective
xiii,

48)

attributive

may be attributive, predstrande, sat by the strand (Matt., redf of hxrum, garment of hair (Matt., iii, 4)
sxton he

pam

objective
ther

predicative

he

pxs fram Bedsdida, he was from Bethsaida (John, on his dgenum feder are gescedpian, render honor to

i,

44)

his fa-

(C,

1580).
preposition

(b.)

may merely
if

define a verb.
it,

It is

then said to be in

complete composition,

phonetically united with

otherwise in incomplete.

GENERAL RULES.AND, ANDLONG, ^FTER.


328. Preijositions expressing

159

others the

extent take dative and instrumental.

the accusative,

Ace. Signs: geond, ud, purh, y7nb{c)^=cmb{e). Ace. sometimes: and, ivj'ler, xt, for, fore, foran,
ofer,

in,

innan, mid, on,

to,

uppan, under, pid.

(a.) Prepositions expressing position, or a place of rest before or after The same preposition may express extension with motion, take a dative. one verb and rest after another. (Study the examples.) The dative also

has taken up the instrumental and ablative relations, and all others exOccasional instrumentals and genitives occur, and cept plain accusatives.
are given under their prepositions.
{b.)

Prepositions

compounded with adverbs generally

retain their case.

Ace. ymb-utan, and sometimes on-butan, on-foran, on-uppan, ongegn, ongemong, pid-geondan, pid-xflan, pid-innan 1 Grain. 329.

The genitive

innan, Utati, pana,

mostly
:

is

sometimes used with purh, pict,


in old phrases.

of, to,

(Compare

322.)

with nouns may take a genitive originally (a.) Prepositions compounded an attributive with the noun and-lang, to-middes, be-ipeonum.

Table of Prepositions.
330.
I.

and

II.

number: eahta niht and feoperum, eight nights and (Men., 211). Accusative place and eordan, on the earth (Met., 123)
Dative
:

( 254)

+ dative

or

+ accusative

Gothic

ace.
four

20,

and

ordfruman,

in

presence of their creator (C, 13).

rtdcnde andlang pxs pcstcncs, and-long, -lang (^^ 259, 329, a) gen. pursuing along the wilderness (Jos.,viii, 16) up andlong (Chr.,882) nydcr andlang, down along (Lev., i, 15).
:

331. gefter ( 255),

more
;

aft;

+ dative
II.

or (rare) accusative.
C2)tir.

Goth, afar
I.

+ dat.,
:

ace.

O. Sax., O.

Ger. aftar; O. N.

Dative.

Place

position
;

(Matt., iv, 19)

extent

cumnd
:

orfler

me, come further back than

I =: follow

me

the hills

Time

(C, point: three days prym dagum extent: xxvii, G3) poruldstundum, during
191, 9).
vrflcr
ic arise, after
;

bcorgum, they sat dispersed through Latin secundum.


I arise (Matt.,
;

siiton wfter

.rflcr

this life (El., 3G3)

pundor arfter pundrc, wonder after wonder (B.,93I). Cause panian wfter headospate, melt because of the hot blood (B., 1606) end acsode wfter him, asked after him (Psa., xxxvi, 35) grof wfter
repetition:
:

goldc, grub after gold (Met., 8, 57).

Compare /or.

160
Likeness
18)
II.
;

TRErOSITIONS.iEFT, MR,
:

JET,

iETFORAN,

BI.

geporhtnc

scfter his onVicnessc,

made

after his likeness (C.,25,


1).

a'ftcr

Engld

lagc, according to English law (iE(lr.,

See

bi.

Accusative.
:

Place

he eordan xflcr pxter sctte, he set the earth upon the waters (Psa.,
G).
:

cxxxv,
eeit

irft mcc, (come) after me (Matt., iv, 19, Northumbr.) wft sunnan sctlgangc, after sunset (Gen., xxviii, 1 1). O. Eng. eft, cft-soons.

= a-flcr (rare)
ffir (

332.

259)

+ dative.
(it

Nortbura. ace. aud gen., Golli, gou.


(El., 1228)
; ;

Time
&r

xr sumeres cyme, before summer's coming

hatede

me

eop, hated

me

before

hated) you (John, xv, 18)

&r pam, pon,py,

Lat. priusquam, before that.

333. aet ( 254, 3)


I.

+ dative or (rare)
at Exanceastre,
;

ace.

Gothic

dat.,

ace, gen.

Dative.

Place

position

p&ron

ham,

at

home

the pound from onfeng pallium wt papan, he received the so with learn, hear, take, pallium at the hands of the pope (Chr., 1026) wt =: of, from. So in Gothic, O. Norse. Compare Gr. Trapa and etc.

XXV, 43);
beside

departure:

(B., 1248)

direction
;

were comon

at
ict

Exeter (^ds. VI) xt me, came to me (Matt.,


;

dnimad pxt pund wt him, take


;

him

(Matt., xxv, 28)

the dative of separation (^ 301).

Time

point

for the first

Often strengthened hy gelang (B., 1377). wt middan sumere, at midsummer (Bed., 5,23) wt atreslan, time (Ex., 51, 30).
;
:

Specification (Lat. quoad) wt vite speop, got along as to eating (B.,3026). Opposition wt me gepyrcean, work against me (Psa., cxxviii, 1).
circumstance stande set gehede, stand praying State mt pine, sat at the wine (Rid., 47, 1).
:

(Psa., v, 3)

swt

II.

Accusative

space:
iii,

wt swstredmds gebruiddest, extendest even to

the sea-streams (Psa., Ixxix, 11).

eet-foran
rupt before

(+ dative
God
;

or (rare) ace.)
6)
;
;

front of the people (Jos.,

(Gen.,

vi, 11)

place wtforan pam folce, person gepcmmed wtforan Gode, cor time wtforan mwssan, before An:

(go) in

(St.

drew's) mass-day (Chr., 1010). eyes (Psa., v, 5 Ettm.).

II.

Ace.

wtforan edgan pine, before thine

334. bi, be ( 254, 2)

+ dative
:

(iustr.)

Gothic ace. and dat.

Place immediate juxtaposition


;

hi swton be pam strandc, they sat by the strand (Matt., xiii, 48) dledon he mwste, laid him by the mast (B., 36) ; for be pam lande, sailed along by the land (Ores., 1,1); be pege, by the

way (Mc,
(Jud., 99).

viii,

3)

part handled

genam

be feaxe, took

him by the hair

B^FTAN, BE-EASTAN,
Time
:

BE-TPIHS.
;

161
:

absolute Jm be dxgcs leohte, by daylight (Rid., 28, 17) ne dl&te be pe lifigendum, permit thou not, while thou livest (B.,2665). source Cause means hangad he praide, hangs by a thread (Boeth., 29)

dative

theme sunu dgan be bryde jAnre, have a son by thy wife (C, 2326) sungon be Godes bearnc, sung of God's son (EL, 562) dcsiad be pam be pam dcege nan man ndt, of cilde, ask about the child (Matt., ii, 8) command ferde be his hldthat day no man knoweth (Mc, xiii, 32) agent (rare, fordes h&se, went by his lord's command (Gen., xxiv, 10) if ever) forhvd be pam lygenum, seduced by him by lies (C, 598) so Msetzner, 1, 404, and Grein under lygcn, but better by the lies (means). Goth, bi is not so used. In Middle English (Wycliffe) first common.
;
:

Manner:
20, 96)
Pref.)
;

accompaniment:
Measure
ter

fullan, partly (Met., succession, likeness pord be porde, word word (Boeth., proportion be gcpyrhtum, according works (An., 1613)
fully (Psa.,
;

be

xxx, 27)
:

be

sumum

dsele,

for

to their

be

hearpan singan, sing


:

to the

harp (Bed.,

4, 24).
let-

of difference (^ 302, d)
33).

mare

be

dnum

stsefe,

more by one

(Nic,

b-aeftan (+dat.)

bxftan

pam
1, 1
;

gang bxftan me, get behind (by) me (Matt., xvi, 23) hldforde, except with the owner (Exod., xxii, 14).
:

be-eastaa, -pestan,
(Oros,

etc. (4-dat.)

be-edstan Rinc, east of the Rhine

where

also -pestan, etc.).


:

be-foran (+dat. or ace.)

time

place
Ace,
:

(Psa., civ, 15).

place

him bcforan, before him (C, 183, 17) beforan pone cyning, in sight of
:

the king (Boeth., 16, 2).

be-geondan

(-|-dat. or ace.)

he

by Jordan (John, iii, 26). past Jordan (Matt., 19, 1).

Ace.

pxs begeondan lorddne, he was over com begeondan lorddnen, came by


:

be-healfe (4-dat.)
318).

hchcalfe

minum

hlujordc, beside of

my

lord (By.,

be-heonan (+dat.)
be-liindan (+dat.)
:

beheonan s&,
hinnan

this side the sea (Chr., 878).

b-innan
11)
;

time

(4-dat.)
:

place:
:

him bchindan, behind him (Met., 29,

52).

pam

dice, within the dike (Bed., 1,

be-neoctan

(4-dat.)

hinnan prym dagum, within three days (John, ii, 19). beneodan cneope, below the knee (.^If. LL., 63).
a-b-ove

b-ufan (4-dat.): bufan

<Orm.
b(e)-utan

Jjiem elnbogan, above the elbow (54); d-b-ufenn has not been found in Anglo-Saxon.
{a, o) (4-dat.)
:

buton ende, without end (Sat., 315)

buton burgum, out of towns (Edg.,IV, 2,3) biiton dnum, except one (B., 705).
;

be-tpeonum, -tpdm, -tpynan


seas (B., 858)
;

(-|-dat. or ace.)

be stem tpeonum,

by two

him betpyndn, among them

(Job, 166).

Ace.
:

be-tpeonum

peallds, (ledcst) between walls (Psa. cv, 9).


be-tpili-(s), -tpeox,

Genitive

Rid., 30, 2.
:

bctwixte (+dat. or ace.) bctpcox pc and pam pife, betwixt thee and the woman (Gen., iii, 15). Ace. betpeox his mdgds, (sought him) among his kindred (Luc, ii, 44).

Layamon

162
335.

EAC, FEOR, rOK, FOIJE, FKAM.


1)

eac ( 254, Number /^ priddan


:

+ dative,

Goth. adv. couj.

twenty (Bed.,
sides these

1,

13)

women
1,

geare cac tpentigum, the third year in addition to freond i&nigne edc pissu77i idcsum, any friend be(C, 2500) cdc pam {pan, jjon), thereupon, more;

over (Met.,

41).

336.

feor

( 259)

+ dative.
4)
;

Place

fcor urum mynstrc, far from our monastery (B6d., 5, fxder, far from his father (Luc., xv, 20) unfcor (vii, 6).
:

fcor his

337.

for ( 254, 2) + dat, or instr., or ace. Gotb. ace. fore ( 254, 2) + dat. or ace. Gotb. dat. {for- =frdi-.)
:

I.

Dative and instrumental


:

{for-: for-manig, very many, By., 230).


;

Place

for his edgum, before his eyes (C.,2420) fore edgum (Cri., 1324) for Abrahamc, before Abraham (C.,2778) fore (Cri., 1233).
;
:

Time for pintrd fela, many


Cause
86)
;

motive: propode for manna lufan, suffered


fore (Hell., 110)
;

winters before

(C, 2199)

fore

(Cri., 1031).

occasion

sin (Kr., 146); fore (Cri., 1095) exciting object for his life lyt sordagedon, they cared little for his life (Ex., IIG, 18) fore (B., 1442) tive of advantage for us gepropode, suffered for us (Sat., 665) fore
;
:

for

guman

men (Men., synnan, suffered for man's


for love of
; ;

s&don for manegum yfclum daidum, spoke of many evil deeds (Nic, 2) oath for drihine, for God's sake fore (Pa., 34) reason for J>am {an, on),forpy, there(Met., 1, 64) fore (Jul., 540) fore for hpam {an, on), for hpi, wherefore; exchange: feounge for lufan, hate for love (Psa. cviii, 4) for ealhim Jjissum, in spite of all that
(Cri., 1202)
;
:

theme
;

(Chr., 1006)

for intingan, for the sake of (Bed.,

3, 8).
;

Manner for

order
II.

his peldaidum, according to his good works (Psa.,- Ixxvi, 7) gyfe for gyfc, gift after gift (John, i, 16).

Accusative.

Place

after

motion: gdn for

Jje

andpeardnc, go before thee (C, 871);


all

fore (An., 1030). Time for ealle men, (acted) before


:

men

(Kr., 93)

fore preo niht, be-

fore three nights (An., 185).

motive: for plcnco, for pride (B., 1206); dative advantage for ehterds and tsklendum, pray for persecutors and calumniators (Matt., V, 44) exchange: tod for tod, tooth for tooth (Matt., v, 38). Factitive Object {^ 286, b) hine hsefde for fulne cyning, held him for
:
;

Cause

(as) full

king (Chr., 1013).


( 254, 2)
:

338.

frain,/wm

+ ablative>dat. (instr.).
edst-dable,

Gotb. dat.

Place whence motion


ii,l).

comon fram

came from

the east (Matt.,

GEHEXDE, GEOND,
Time fram
:

IN, ON.

163

cLvges orde, from daybreak (EL, 140).


relations

Conditions and

whence separation

drds he fram slmpe, he arose


;

'

from sleep (Bed., 4, 24); fram synnum, from sins (EL, 1309) feor fram me, (their heart) far from me (Mc, vii, 6). Instrumental: fram. Pys ptg-plegan, (turn) from this war-play (By., 316). Cause source fram pam hit naman onfeng, from whom it took name

agent with the passive costnod fram deofle, tempted by (Bed., 1, 1) theme fram ellendstdum secgan hyrde, heard the devil (Matt., iv, 1)
; ;

tell

of hero-deeds (B., 875).

339.

gehende
gehende

( 259)

+ dative.

O. Sax, at handum.
vi, 19).

Place

pam

scype, handy (near) to the ship (John,

340.

geoud

{io) ( 255),

thitber+acc. of that intervening.


;

Place
25)

/>M<^M,
;

go, geond pcgds, go through the highways (Luc, xiv, 23) geond through the wood (In., 20) geond pa peude, among the people (An., geond stopd, through the places, all about (Luc, xxi, 11).
;

Time: geond feopertig dagd,


341.

after forty (of)

days (Num.,

xiii,

22).

in

( 254, l)

on

( 254, l)
is

+ clat., instr., + dat., ace.


;

ace.

Goth,

dat., ace., genitive.

Goth,

dat., ace.

the Runes, or Byrhtnod


;

Anglo-Saxon of Alfred's Meters, twice in the Psalms, three times in Caedmon's Genesis elsewhere in the Anglo-Saxon poetry in and on freely interchange but in prevails in the North, on in the South. The distinctive
In Old Saxon in
not found, nor in the
it is
;

on

has a vertical element

{icp

or down), which easily runs to against or

near.
I.

(See Grein,

2, 140.)

Place where:

Dative, Instrumental. in tune ofsleah, slay (a man) in town (^db., 5); on py in hcafde hpite loccds, on the head cynericc, in the kingdom (Chr., 871)
; :

on has also on picge, on horse-back (B., white locks (Rid., 41, 98) 286) on Temesan, winter quarters on (along) the Thames (Chr., 1009) person on hym sy gefylled, in them is fulfilled (the prophecy) (Matt.,
;

xiii,

14)

on

pfum,
:

(blessed)

among women (Luc,

i,

28)

after verbs

of taking away

blxdd name on telgum, took


xt.

fruit

from the branches


on

(C,

892).
:

Compare
in

Time when
days (he

gcdr-dagum, in old days (B., 1) how long dxgc, on the eighth day (Job, 104)
;

on
:

pam

cahtodan
in six

on six dagum,
in the

made
:

the earth)

(C, 266,

1)

on py ylcan gedre,

same

year (Chr., 896).

Cause

theme

think on (Psa. cxvii, 8)


ii,

giveness of sins (Ilom.,

268)

exciting object
;

end

on forgifcnnisse, for forpundredon on his Idrc,


:

wondered

at his lore

(Mc,
:

vi,2)

trust in (Psa.

li,

ace, cxxiv,

1).

Means

or instrument

se

pxs hcorht on bhedum,

that

was

bright witli

16-i

INNAN, ON-BUTAN, ON-EFN, OX-FOEAN, ON-GEGN.


ic
;

flowers (Dan., 500);

on

mhimn mmte
;

andctlc, I confess, with

my

mouth

(Psa., cviii, 29)

simgon on tympanis, they sang to the accompa-

niment of drums (Psa., Ixvii, 24) psaltcrio, hearpe (cxliii, 10). Material on pdm tclgum iimbran, to work upon the branches (Pli., 188). Marnier: conion on Jmm Jloccum, came in three companies (Job, 1G5)
:

condition: in gebcde he 5/oc?, he stood in prayer (Bed., 5, 12) 1739) on onlicnesse purde,gie\v into likeness (C.,2564).
;

on (B.,

II.

Accusative.
:

Place whither

heo hine in pxt mynstre onfeng, she took him into the on fcollon on pornds, fell (down) on thorns monastery (Bed., 4, 24) hvdde hine on viunt, led him (up) on a mount (Matt., iv, (Matt., xiii, 7) on heofenum cuman, to come into datives are found in this sense 8)
;

heaven (Job, IGG)

persons:
1,

among
(2,9).

the Britons (Bed.,

14)

com hungur on Bryttds, hunger came he on hi feaht, he fought against them


time (Pa., 17)
;

Time how
Cause

long: in ealle eventide (Kr., 68).

tid, for all

on pa xfentid,

at

beprice purpose gdn on Jixod, go a fishing (John, xxi, 3) bohte on seolfres sine, sold for a treasure of silver (C, 301, 7). condition: onManner: 07i Scyttisc, in Scottish (tongue) (Bed., 3, 27)
:

paxned
Factitive

in
:

into life (Ph., 649). lif, awakeneth he up drxrde redde stredmds in rand-gebeorh, he reared the
(as) side

red streams into

defences (C, 196, 24).

innan

( 257, Goth. adv.)


in the

+ dat., ace, gen.


ix, 10)
;

he sat

house (Matt.,
;

the sea (xxi, 22)


(Psa. cxlii, 4).

gen.:
;

Dat.
:

he sxt innan hUse,


saa, fall into

ace.

feal innan pa

So time

gdst innan hrcdres, soul within the body Dat. (Chr., 806) Ace. (Chr., 693).
;

on-butan

dat. or ace. dbutan ( 257) seteoped abutan psere sunnan, (ring) visible around the sun (Chr., 806) onbutan pxre sunace. (Exod., xix, 12). nan (Chr., 1104) Number dbutan feoper

(rare),

hund mannd, about four hundred men (Chr., 1055). dat. him on-efn liged, anent (= on-efn (0. Sax., O. H. Ger., 258) Ace. (Grein) beside) him lies (B., 2903). gen. (Gen., xvi, 12).

on-foran

(^

257)

+ dat.

(rare, see be-foran)

onforan pinter, before win-

ter (Chr., 894).

on-gegn, d-gen, -gedn

(^

258)+dat., ace.

Place
:

pdm d&lum
1, 1)
;

ongegen,
eop,

(Britain lies) opposite the regions (of Europe) (Bed.,

opposite you (Matt., xxi, 2) ; hostility ongedn gramum, (go) against the fiends (B., 1034) ; ongedn his lustum, fight against his lusts (Job, Ace. place dgcn hine arn, ran to him (Luc, xv, 20) 167)=/>/(A

ongen

hostility:

cuman ongedn
pinter

hine,

come

against him (Boet., 35, 6).

Time: ongedn
109G).

hdm

tugon, against winter went

home

(Chr.,

on-(ge)mong(e)

(^

258

O. Sax. an^ima??^)+dat.

Place

Godum

on-

IN INNAN,

IN-TO.L^S, MID, NEAH.


(Psa., Ixxxi, l)=beipuh, on

165
middum.

gemonge, stood among the Gods

Time

onmang pam gepinnan, during


:

the fight (Chr., 1106).


:

in innan {inne), on innan (inne) (^ 257)4-dat., ace. ofne on hman, in Ace. in pone ofn innan, into the oven (Dan., the oven (Dan., 259).
238).
dat. on-middan pam hpxte, amidst the {i^ 258) omiddan sceafum, amid your sheafs (Gen., wheat (Matt., xiii, 25) See to-middes. xxxvii, 7). on ufan (^ 257) ace. Place locad ufan on hcUe, looketh from above
:

on-middan, -middum

+
:

on

hell (A. R., 25).

Time:
:

on-uppan
xii, 14).

(^ 257)-|-dat.

o?j-M/a Aar/>esi, after harvest (Chr., 923). on-iippan pam assan, rode upon the ass (John,

in-to (^ 254,

com into healle, came into the hall (Matt., ix, 1, 3)4-dat. 23) ; into him, went unto him (Bed., 3, 12) ; into heom, locked the doors onto them (Chr., 1083).
:

342. Ises ( 259)

Number

tpd Ixs

+ dat. (instr.) XXX {prittigum


+ tlat.

gedi'd,

two

less (than) thirty (of)

years (Chr., 642).

343.
I.

mid

( 254, 1)

(instr.), ace.

Goth. dat.

Dative

ic pxs mid Hunum, I was among the Huns (Trav., mid Eormanrtce, I was with Ermanric (Trav., 88). Time mid &rdxgc, with the dawn (B., 126). Manner mid gefedn, joyfully (An., 868) mid rihte, rightfully (Jud., 97). Co-existence se mid Idciim com, he came with gifts (C, 2103) perds mid pifum, men with their wives (C, 1738) (instrumental) gcpdt him ham mid py here-tedme, got himself home with the booty (C, 2162). Cause means mid his handum gesceop, with his hands made (C, 251) instr. mid py hilli, (instrumental) py hungre, with hunger (Soul, 31)

Place
57)

among
:

(instr.).

near whom
: :

whom
:

with the sword (C, 2931).


II.

Accusative.
:

Place

puna mid usic, dwell among us (C, 2722) mid aldor, lived with (C, 20). Co-existence gcpdt mid cyning, he departed with the king (C, 1210). Cause sluh mid hdlige hand, smote with holy hand (C, 208, 18). Object of address or discrimination sprwc mid hine, spoke with him demd mid unc tpih, judge between us two (C, 2253). (Bed., 2, 13)
;

their lord

344.

neah,

weA,

n&h; near; nehst

259)+ dat. Goth.

dat.

Place
fire

seo cd flopeit nedh l)xre ccastre peaUe^ the river flows nigh the town's wall (Bed., 1,7); pille ic pam lige near, I will go nearer to the
:

(C, 760)

nehst pvbre caxe, (the nave) turns nearest the axle (Boet.,

39,7).

166
345.

NEFNE, NEODAN, UD, OF, OFER.


nefne, oiemne {ne gif
c all e

ne^ Lat.

non nisi? but


off all

sec 259)

+ dative.
Separation:
(B.,1081).

for nam ncmnc fcdum unum, took

except a few

340.

neodan

( 257)

+ ace. ?
;

See hc-neodan^ xindcr-neodan.

He peard

he was shot through beneath the other breast (Oros, 3, 9) so Koch, but the texts have underneoitan. The 0. H.Ger. nida is used as a prep., as is 0. Norse nedan
purhscoten neodan
J)xt otter breost,
\\'\i\\fyr,

but I have not found neodan so used.

347.

od

( 254, 3) 4to
:

acc, (rare) dat.

Goth, ace, dat.


all

Space extent

ealne od pone peal genuman, they took

as far as to

the wall (Bed.,

1, 12).

Time: od pone dwg,

until that day (B., 2399). Dative: od pisum dxgc, unto this day (Horn., ii, 132). Effect: unrot od dead, sorrowful unto death (Mc, xiv, 34).

Degree

ealrd od nytenu, (slew the first-born of the Egyptians) of

all

even

to the cattle (Psa.,

cxxxiv,

8).

348.

ener vvo

of

dat. Gothic <?/ translates ano, fram oft( 254, 2) in space and time relations they interchange ; in causal, ; is material cause, fram is efficient ; both take a dative.
the water (Matt.,

of

Place whence: he dstdh of pam pxtere, he came out of


iii,

16).
:

Time
State
dli/s

of pam d<Tge, from that day (John, xi, 53). or circumstances of sld'pe onpoc, awoke from sleep
:

us of

yfle, deliver
:

ration (^ 301)

(C, 249, 2) us from evil (Matt., vi, 13) any object of sepahdl of pysum, whole of this (Mc, v, 34 Luc, vii, 21).
;

Partitive

an of pysum, one of these (Matt., vi, 29). Cause material: of eordan geporht, made of earth (C, 365); dfedde of fixum, fed with fishes (An., 589) redf of hedrum, garment of hair source (Matt., iii, 4) of Geatd fruman syndon Cantpare, from the

heard from

Geats are the people of Kent (Bed., 483, 21); author: gehyrde ofGode, God (John, viii, 40) I do nothing of myself, of me sylfum (viii, 28); agent: pxs of My r cum gecoren, was chosen by the Mer-

cians (Chr., 925).

349.
I.

ofer

( 252, h)

+ dat.,
:

acc.

Gothic

dat., acc.

Dative.

Place

stand

point higher than ofer since salo (C, 2403); surface on which: pind
(B., 1907).

hlifian,

over the treasure a hall

ofer ydum, wind upon the

waves

ox, TIL, t6.

167
than) the one year
than)

Time

ofer
ii,

pam dnum
14G).

gedre,

(live)

over

(^ longer

(Horn.,

Degree:

ofcr snupe sctnende, shining above

(= brighter

snow

(Psa.

C,
Rule

75).
:

ofer deofium pealded, rules over devils (Dan., 7G5). Accusative senses are frequently found with datives.

Place

Accusatives, often used where geond or ssfter might be. motion or presence from side to side of an object: ofer ssi gcpiton, over sea they went (Chr., 885) pieron pystru ofer ealle eordan,
II.

there

was darkness over

all

the earth (Matt., xxvii,45)

above
;

it

hlypp

ofer heafod, (my sin) is gone over my head (Psa., xxxvii, 4) ofer peal, standende ofcr hig, standing over her got over a wall (Psa., xvii, 28) (Luc, iv, 39). Dative senses ofer hrof hand scedpedon, showed the
;
:

hand above the roof (B., 983).

Time

extent ofer ealne dwg, through the whole day (Jud., 28). Dative sense: ofer midne dxg, after mid-day (C, 853), common. eminence an steorra ofcr Degree ofcr ynce, over an inch (^(Ib., G7) odre bcorht, a star bright above others (Met., 29, 19).
:

Rule

pealded ofer eal manna cyn, ruleth over


:

all

mankind (Psa.,lxv,
593)
;

6).

Conflict

ofer drihtnes pord, against the lord's pillan, against the will (B., 2409).

command (C,

ofer

Separation: ofer peepen, without a weapon (B., 685). Exciting Object {^ 315) ic hlissige ofer phire spreece,!
:

rejoice over thy

speech (Psa.,

cxviii, 162).

Theme

he ofer benne sprxc, he talked about the wounds (B., 2724).

On
350.

and compounds, see in.

Samod

(^

255)+dat.

samod ^rdage, with dawn

(B., 1311).

351. til,

Northumbrian sometimes

for to ( 259)

+ dat.

Goth.,

Ang.-Sax. adjective;

O.Norse preposition-fgen.

Cped

til him, said to them (Matt., xxvi, 31); infinitive: til eotanne, to eat (Matt., xxvi, 17); so in Orm. common in Chaucer, WyclifTe often with to or into; used in time, place, and dative relations as late as

Spenser.

352.

to

( 254, 3)

+ dat.

(rave ace, gen., instr.).

Goth, dat.

(rare ace).

Place
to

end of motion or
;

(B., 925)

hu hedh

to

extent: he to healle geung, he to the hall went bcseoh hefone, how high to heaven (Boet., 35, 4)
;

after verbs of seeking, askme, look at me (Psa., xii, 3)=on+acc. ing sxcce secean tu Ilcorote, seek a fight at Heorot (B., 1990) dhsodc
:

Frysum, asked among the Frisians Time end of duration: 30000 /^m/ra
to

(B., 1207) ^i^from.


to

Compare

,rt,

on.
tu

ptnum dedddipge, 30000 years

168

TO, TO-EACAN, TU-PEAKD.

when: to thy death-day (Soul, 37); to mn-tidc, at noon-tide (Mc, xv, 31)
a long time

howJnssum, to-day long langrc


cl.vgc
:

(C, 1031);
hpllc, for

to

(C,
to

489).

Degree
Price
:

ge ctad

to fyllc,

geseald

ye shall eat to fullness (Lev., xxvi, 5). prim hund penegum, sold for three hundred pence (Mc.,

xiv, 5).

Order: hchstne to him, highest next to him (C, 254). Likeness God gcsccop man to his anllcncsse, God made man
:

in his like-

ness (Gen.,

End

to to his anltcnessc, (add an ell) to his stat25) gccleofod to mtnum gommn, cleaved to my gums of address or gesture (Psa., xxi, 13) cpxct to him, said to him (Matt., condition viii, 7) dgeaf gebuge to, bow to a worse God (Jul., 361)

of action

object added
;

i,

27).

ure (Luc,

xii,

pif
for
:

to to

gepealde, gave a wife into his power (C, 1867)


;

prxce sende, sent


to

lig to gefeohte gearu, ready for fight (Num., xxi, Factitives ceorfon fire for vengeance (C, 2584). sticcon, cut to pieces (Lev., i, 6) pe hahhad Abraham, to fmder, we
:

act purposeprepared 33)


;
:

have Abraham as father (Matt., him a suicide (Ex., 330, 24).

iii,

9)

hine to sylfcpale nemnad,

name

IL Accusatives (rare). Place: gojigan to Galileam, go to Galilee (Sat., 527). Time: to morCondition: to dxg, to-day (Psa., ii, 7). gen, this morning (C, 2438) To ham faran, go home (B., to dead dcman, doom to death (Gu., 521).
;

to sod, in to gepeald? (Jul., 86) honda, at hand (Gu., 102) and some other adverbial phrases are possibly accusatives. in. Genitives mostly with pxs, hpiss, middes : to pxs, to such a de-

124)

to

truth

gree (B., 1610), thither (B., 2410)

to

hpxs, whither (C. Exod., 192)


6).
ii,

to

middes dwges,
V.
to

at

mid-day (Psa., xxxvi,


:

IV. Instrumental
Infinitive

purpose

to hpi,

wherefore (Hom.,
:

134).

or end

mxl

is

me
to

to

feran,

it is

time for

me

go (B., 316).

Gerund: he com cordan

demanne, he came

to judge

the earth (Psa., xcvii, 8).

to-eacan
to-foran
fore

{^ 258)--t-dat. (^

to-edcan

pam,
:

in addition to these (Boet., 26, 2).

257)

+ dat.

Place

him

(Matt., xxv, 32).

toforan him gegaderode, gathered beTime toforan pam dxge, before the day
:

(Chr.,1106).

to-gegnes, -genes, -gednes


against him (B., 1893).
(Chr., 1095).

(^ 258)-t-dat., ace.

Time
:

him togednes rdd, rode togednes Edstron, against Easter


:

Ace. (Gen.,
Dative
:

xiv, 17).

See

further

ongegn.

to-middes
(John,

(^ 258)-}- gen., dat.

viii, 3).
i,

to-middes heard, in the midst of them to-middes pmm pxtsrum, amidst the waters

(Gen.,

6).

to-peard, -peardes (^^ 259; 251, 1): topard Huntendune, lie toward Huntingdon (Chr., 656) ferdon topardes Ou, went towards Ou (Chr.,
;

1094).

PURH, UFAN, UNDER.


t6-pi(lere (^^ 255, 359)
341, 20).

169

clat.,
;

against) enemies (Cri., 185)

ace: prddum topidere, answer to ( pig topidere, to hold against a fight (Ex.,

353.

Place

motion
ealle

l)urh

( 253, 3)
into

+acc. (rare

dat., gen.).
:

Goth. ace.
piirh unre n&dle

and out

at the opposite side

gan

^%6>go through a
purh

needle's eye (Luc.,xviii, 25)


iv,

through their midst (Luc,


:

30)

simple

purh heard midlen,\\ent


:

extent {=^gconcl)

Ixrende

/M^eam, teaching throughout all Judea (Luc, xxiii, 5). Time purh ealne dxg, through the whole day (Psa., Ixxiii, 21) Jnirh sleep, (spoke to him) during sleep (C, 2641). Cause agent; pxs geporht purh hme, was made by him (John, i, 10); means Jjurh dryhtnes pord, (light was named day) by God's word (C,
;

130);
23,

motive: purh femdscipe, through hatred reason: purh Lat. propter hoc, 15);
Jjxt,
:

(C, 610)
silfne, I

lust (Ex.,

for

that reason

(Gen.,

xxxvii, 5)

oath (Lat. per)

ic

sperige

purh me

swear by my-

self (Gen., xxii, 16).

See

on.
;

Manner purh
:

endebyrdnesse singan, sing in order (Bed., 4, 24) deman purh his d&da,\\xAge according to his deeds (Sat., 623). Co-existence cennan purh sdr inicel sunu, to bring forth with pain many a son (C, 924).
:

n. Dative
Luc.
iv,

place

30)

means jmrh costnungum


:

perh hiord middum, went through their midst (North. gepenian, seduce by temptations

(Job, 165).

IIL Genitive means geclainsode purh pxs huselganges, purified by the sacrament (Horn., ii, 206). ut }>urh> Semi-Sax. Jnirh w<>Eng. throughout is common.
:

354.

ufan, adv.

See hiifan, onufan,


-j-dat., ace.
-6?-

355.

under

+ dat.
Place

( 255) O. Sax, in?ar,


its

where

O.ll.QQwuntar ; O.
fall,

Gotb. Mnf7ar, + aec; undaro^ 'N ovsq imdr.


:

object would

treope, thou

wast under the


;

of the mountain (B.,2559) der lock=in prison (El., 695


(B., 342, 2539)
;

fig-tree (John,

pu pxre under Jjam fic48) under beorge, at the foot or cover, or enclose under hearmlocon, unor
i,
;

overshadow

under helmc, helmeted under gyldnum ledge, wearing a golden diadem (B.,
;

C., 6, 19)

dress

1103).

Time

under pdm, Lat. inter hxc,

in

the midst of these things (Chr., 876)

so in O. Sax.

Personal rank, rule pcgnds under mc, servants under me (INIatt., under Northmannum, under the rule of the Northmen (Chr., 942)
:

viii, 9)
;

under

on/JcaWe, under authority (901).

IL Accusative. Place after motion

under hrufgcfur, went under a roof (C, 1360)

di-

170
:

UNDER-NEOBAN, UPPAN, UTAN, PANA, PID.


;

rcction extent like a dative under under bwc, backwards (C.,2562) roderd rum, under the expanse of the heavens (C, 1166). Personal: tinder helle cin, amontj the race of hell (Ex., 99, 5), so O. Saxon under hand sj>sordcs, (give) to the sword (sunder the hand ofj (Psa.,
: ;

Ixii, 8).

under-neoJan
Enrjlish.

(+clat).

Xot

in

Layamon, Orm.; rare O.


was underneath
his foot (Chr.,

pxs undernxden
1070).

hisfote, (support which)

356. uppan ( 257) +dat., ace. Goth, iupa, adv.; O. Saxon V2)pcm,-en; O. Norse upd ; O. H. G.'d/an. Perhaps tw^o words, derivative i<j':>7:)?i<t<^, and comiDouiul w_p-f-07i, have mixed.
ge-offrd hine uppon dure dune, offer him upon a over: uppan assene,xiAe upon an ass (Matt.,xxi, 5) him uppan, above him the cross was raised (El., 886). Time: uppon Edstron,Si{teT Easter (Chr., 1095). Separation uppon him genum,en hxfde, had taken from them (Ciir., 1 106).
:

Place
hill

on a high object
(Gen.,xxii, 2)
;

II.

Accusative.

Place

after motion
:

me dhof uppon hedhne


;

stdn, raised

me upon
2).

a high

stone (Psa., xxvi, 6)

but dat. and ace.

mix (Exod., xxxiv,


;

Time

succession: segdcr uppon Pentecosten, a.t Pentecost (Chr., 1095) uppon oderne, one upon another (Chr., 1094). Opposition uppon pone eorl pan, fought against the earl (Chr., 1095)
:

tealde, charged against the king (Chr., 1094).

357.

utan

257) +genilive.

Goth. ?<toia+ gen.


W\i\i\n or out of the land {JEds,\\,

Place

innon landes odde uton landes,

8, 2).

See b-utan, on-b-utan, pid-utan, ymb-utan.

358.

pana

( 259) -f genitive.

Goih. vans ; O. N. yanr,

adj.

dnes pana prittigum, thirty less one (Bed., 1,1).


etc.

Same

idiom in Gothic,

See ^317,

J.

359. pid Norse ace,

+acc., dat., gen. Goth, vipra 4-acc. O. In senses analogous to Latin contra^ opposite but gradually absorbing mid, 343. The accusative and dative are not Avholly separable in sense; they often interchange in the
( 254, 1)
;

dat.

same passage.
I.

Accusative.

Space beside, along sum feol pid pone peg, some (seed) fell along the way (Luc, viii, 5) code pid pa sic, went along the sea-side (Matt., iv, IB)
:

PIDER, PIB-^FTAN, PIB-EASTAN.


pid peal,
fct, (sat)

171

the wall (B., (set their shields) against

326)

pid pxs H&lendes

by the Savior's feet (Luc, x, 39)

Other Relations

association:
; :
:

he pid pulf, he with the wolf (stripped the

dead) (B.,3027) hagol pid fyr gemenged, hail with fire mixed (Exod., conversation pid Abraham sprecan, to talk with Abraham (C, ix, 24)

2405)

comparison
; :

pid sunnan
;

leoht, (the brightness of the stars is not


;

hostility pan pid paldend, fought (C, 303) yrre pid me, angry against me (Gen., xli, 10) defence unc pid hronfixds perian, to guard us against whales (B., 540) friendship, agreement: beo pid pid hearm, against harm (C, 245, 6)
:

to be set) beside sunlight (Met., 6, 7)

against the lord

Gcdtds glxd,he with the Geats friendly (B., 1173)


they agreed with him (Chr., 1120).
II.

acordedan pid hine,

Place

sxpeal uplang gestod pid Israhelum, the seaopposite from far to near wall stood upright next to the Israelites (C, 197, 8) tedh hine pid hijre peard, drew him toward her (Jud., 99) so (^ 299)
:

position
:

Dative.

after

go near
;

1566)

from

(Sat., 249);

union to

grasp after (B., 439); strike against (B., near gesundrode leoht pid peostrum, separated
: :

light from darkness (C, 127).

Other Relations

association teofanude wghpylc pid odrum, associated each with the others (Sch., 44) mengan lige pid si)de, mingle falsehood conversation pid Abrahame sprwc, talked with Avith truth (El., 307) Abraham (C, 2303) exchange he -sealde &lcon senne penig pid hys
;

pid cpealme gebearh cnihtum,s\i\e[A the youths from death (C.,246,7); separation; mod pid dredmum gedxldc, mind from enjoyments sundered (Ex., 146, 18).
:

day'^ dxges opposition: pid Gcde punnon, against God pid roped, rows against the wind (Ex., 345, defence helpan pid help against 144)
fight

peorce,he paid

to

each a penny

for his

work

(Matt., xx, 2)

(B., 113);

put pinde

12)

rihte, against right (B.,

lige,

fire

(B., 2341)

III. Genitive.

Place

towards an
;

object exciting desire or dread (see ^ 315)

bescah un-

pid pxs pifes, (Orpheus) looked hack after the woman (Eurydice) let jleogan hafoc pid pxs holies, let the hawk fly to the (Boet., 35, 6) wood (By., 8) pid pxs fiestengeates folc onette, toward the city gate folks hastened (Jud., 162); hndh dledt pid pxs engles, looted low before
derbade
;

Abstract

the angel (Num.,xxii, 31). defence hied pid hungrcs, protection against hunger (EI., G16) pid yfcld gefreo us, deliver us from evils (Ily., 6, 31).

pider
5).

255)+acc. pider me pxron, they were against me See tb-pidere.


:
:

(Psa., \\\

behind at his feet (Luc.,vii, pi(t-aeftan (^ 257)-(-acc. pid-xftan Ais/e/, Better pid xflan. 38 Mrc, v, 27).
;

piil-eastau, -nordan, -sudan,


1,1).

-\-a.cc., dat.

next eastward

of, etc.

(Oros.,

1 72

PID-F0RAN.YMB(E).- ADJECTIVE.
:

piit-foran (^ 257)+acc.
39, 13).

pidforan pd sunnan, before the sun (Boat.,


:

pid-geondan
iii,

(^

ii5T)+acc.

jmtgcondan lorddncn, beyond Jordan (Matt.,


pidinnan pintan-ceastra, within Winchester
:

5).

pid-innan

(^

257)

+ ace.:

(Chr.,nG3).

pid-utan {^ 257)+acc., dat. Place pidutan pa pkstopc, without tlie camp (Lev., xxiv, 14). Dat. (Oros., 2, 4, G) ;maimer iilcon pxpnon, without any weapons (Chr., 1087).
:

pid peard
4G)
;

(separate) pid hcofonds peard, towards heaven (Horn., pid hire peard, towards her (Jud., 99).
:

i,

3C0. ymb(e), emh(e) O. Norse ace, dat.

( 254, 2)

+acc. (rare

dat.).

O. Sax. ace;

Place

gyrdel ymhe lendcnu, girdle around his loins (Matt., hine sxt, (a multitude) sat around him (Mc, iii, 32). Time (1) ymb dntid, about the first hour (B., 219) (2)
: :

iii,

4)

ymb

week (C, 2769);

(3)

ymb dne

niht, v/ithin

ymh pucan, after one night (Chr., 878)


; ;

(4)

ymb preo
:

niht, three nights before (Sat., 426).

Theme ford

sprecan

ymb pd fyrde

ymb Grendel, to speak about Grendel (B., 2070) pencean, to think about the expedition (C.,408). So after
; ;
;

to wonder (EL, 959) care (B., 1536) strive (Gn. C.,55); and the like hig dydon ymbe hyne, they acted about him=they did to him (Matt., xvii,
;

12).

Dative (generally after its case) him ymle gestodon, around him stood (B., 2597) sprxc ymb his msege, spoke of his kinsman (Hell., 25). ymb-utan (^ 257)+acc. place licgad me ymbutan, lieth round about
:

me (C,

382)

ymbiitan eop, (why seek) without you (what

is

within)

(Boet., 11, 2)

ADJECTIVE.
361.

An Adjective
case.

agrees with

its

Substantive

in gender,

number, and
(a.)
(J).)

This rule applies

to the articles, adjective pronouns,

An infinitive
hyht
sctte,

and participles.
:

leofre is

on
for
if

God
(c.)

take an adjective in the neuter singular us gefonjisc, to catch fish is pleasanter to us (^If.) gbd is pmt ic

or clause

may
I
is
:

it is

good that
adjective

hope

Indefinite.

An

a person, or neuter for a thing he lead the blind (Matt., xv, 14)

in God (Psa., Ixxii, 23). often used indefinitely in the masculine se blinda, gif he blindne hit, the

blind,

me

pijrse gelamp,2,

pened to
{d)

me
;

worse thing hap-

(Sat., 175).

Noun understood

(Bed., 3, 3)

Englisc ne cude, did not know English (speech) ptn spydre, thy right (hand) (Matt., vi, 3).
:

ADJECTIVE, STRONG OR WEAK.


(e.)

173
:

Collectives singular

may

take

a plural by synesis

seo

heard

purdon dd rune ene, the herd were drowned (Mc.,5, 13). (/.) Copulative singulars may take a plural, or have a repeated singular understood p&ron gehdlgode Eadhxd, and Bosa and Edta, Edhed, and Bosa, and Eata were consecrated (Bed., 4, 12); eddig is se innod, and pd
:

breost, blessed is the


(g.) Partitives.

womb, and
Neuter

the breast

(Lc,

11, 27).
for

partitives

may be used

agreeing adjectives

(^ 312, a)

ndn ping grenes, nothing green (Exod.,

10, 15).

Steong or Weak,
362.

103+.

are used after the definite article, demonstratives, and possessives ; and often in attributive vocatives, in-

The weak forms

strumentals, and genitives.


1.

The comparative forms

are

all

weak

Article

se

ofermoda cyning, the proud king (C.,338).


roc?,

Exceptions

are rare: sio hdlig


(B., 2061).

the holy rood (El., 720); se Gder,\\\e other


participles, see ^ 119, b. epi-

For present
in

The

article is

sometimes omitted before the weak form of a current

epic forms: hrefn blaca,h\z.ck raven (B., 1801); 7nihtigan dryhtne, mighty lord (B., 1398). Demonstrative of pissmn Ionian life, in this long life (C, 1211).
thet, especially
:

2.

on pissumlsenum life (Kt., 109). minne strongUcan stol, my strong throne (C, 366). The article is often inserted min se heofenlica fxder, my heavenly father (Matt., xviii, 35). Strong forms are frequent: minne spelne
Exceptions occur
:

Possessive

my sweet bread (Psa., ci, 4). His, and other possessives of the the third person, are regularly followed by a strong form or inserted mid his dgenum redfe, with his own robe (Matt, xxvii., 31) ; article his se deora snnu, his dear son (Sat., 243) ; stnne driorigne (B., 2789).
hldf,
:

3.

Vocative

blindan

latteopds, blind

guides

(Matt., xxiii, 16);

blindan, ye blind; ge dysigan, ye foolish (Matt., xxiii, 17). other examples, and inserted article, see ^ 289.
4.

ge For

5.

Genitive

Instrumental leuhtan speorde,\v\ih. a bright sword (B., 2492). Ixnan lifes, (end) of a long life (B., 2845); so C, 1,
:
:

13

231,13; Ex.,
6.

4,

25; 11,4.
:

Comparatives ludran landscipc, (I never saw a) (C, 370) pxs bctcra Jjonne ic, he was better than I
;

loathlicr landscape

(B., 409).

363. In other cases strong forms are used.


1.

No definitive Jju cart heard man, thou are a hard man (Matt, xxv, 24); vocative: pu riht cyning, thou true king (Ex., 2, 13); instrumental: rcdde lege, with red flame (C, 44); genitive: mihtiges Godes mod, mighty God's wrath (C, 403); predicate: Eddige synd

se pxs lcofdst,hQ are they (Matt., v, 3); superlative /), blessed For exceptions, see over, ^ 302. dearest (B., 1296).
:

was

174
3.

TERSONAL PRONOUNS.
With the
indefinite article
;
:

ofslogan ainne Bryttiscnc cyning, slew


leofestne sunu, (he had) a dearest son

a British king (Chr.,508)

Anne

are establislicd in Gothic, except tliat with the possessand perhaps the demonstratives, of some of which examples do not The weak form has spread in High German. See 107. occur.
ives,

(Mrc, 12, 6). 3G4. These uses

PRONOUNS.
365.

Substantive Pronoun
number, and person.

agrees with

its

antecedent

in gender,

8GQ.
1.

I.Peesonal
in

imperative arise (thou) (Matt., repeated a concessive (regular)punige peer he punige, dwell clause 20) reflexives: pende hine, where he may dwell (^ctr., turned him (C.,34, 33); other cases (rare): ndt Jjufare, know not
Omitted subject:
; :

Pkonouns,
:

13 0+.

arts,

ii,

(he)

5, 6)

(he)

(I)

whether thou come (C, 34, 2)


of holy joy (Ex., 4, 24).
2.

bist

ful Iidlgan hyhtes, (thou) art

full

Repeated subject

287, definitive.

3.

First person plural for singular by authors and preachers nu pille pe reccaw, now will we (I) recount (Oros., 1, 1, 11); so (Horn., 2, 446).

Kings say ic, or pe for themselves and council ic JEdelstdn cyning (LL., 1) pe (LL. Ina. 1, 1), but Beowulf used the plural majestatis in Norman French nous (LL. William, 1, 41). Ye (B., 958, 1652)
: ; ;

and you as pronomen reverentiae appear first in Old English. 4. Dual: interchange with plural: gelyfe gyt, pirniad pxt ge ne * * take heed that ye tell not (Matt., ix, 28-30) 5?co-o, believe ye strengthened by bu, bu tu, bd, bd tpd {^ 141) pit bu druncon, we two both drank (Bed., 5, 3) with single appositive unc, Adame, to us,

387, see ^ 287, g). 5. Hit may represent a definite object of any gender or person etad pisne hldf, hit is min lichama, eat this bread, it is my body (Horn., 2, 266) hit {seo sunne) pssre birnende stdn, it (the sun) is burning stone

(me and)

Adam (C,

(A. R. Ett., 39)

ic hit earn, I
;

am

it

= he

com (Luc,

xxiv, 39)

pit hit cart (Matt., xiv, 28)


it

(Matt., xiv, 27) ; ic sylf hit or a clause hit is


;

upriten, ne costnu pu,

an

indefinite subject
;

is

not thou tempt (Matt, iv, 7) an operation of nature or chance hit sntpd,
written.
;

Do
it
;

it

snows (^If. Gr., 24)

hit

gdimpcd,

happens (B., 1753)


hit iifenl&cp,
it is

a date

hit

pxs pinter,
xxiv, 29);
it

(John appetites, notions, and the

it

was winter

x, 22)

evening (Luc,

like: (rare) hit Itcode Hcrode,

pleased

Herod

(Matt., xiv, 6).


eo/>,

6.

Indefinite persons are denoted by hi: ponne hig pyr'iad men shall revile you (Matt.,v, II).

when

POSSESSIVES.DEMONSTRATIVES.
7.

175

Cases mix,
liave

dative

me

cup with eopic.


oblique cases
(Matt.,
8.
iii,

The
he
is

him and them


:

with accusatiA^e mec, pe with pec, us with usic, so also dative finally displaced the accusative Nominatives also give place to the in English.
;

strongra pon m.ec, he


; :

is

stronger than
I rest

me

=I

Northum.) h'wiself, etc., see ^ 306, 10. Personal pronouns are often reflexives ic me resle,
11,
; ;

myself

(Ex., 494, 8) restad eup, rest yourselves OElfd., 3) gegadorode miccl See 10. folc hit, a great crowd gathered itself (Chr., 921).
9.

Personals reciprocals themselves (Mrc, 1,27).

hig hetpeox him cpsiidon, they said

among
:

10.

Strengthened by agen,

ugen beam, thy own child (C,


child (158, 6);

an, self CCor declensions, see ^^ iSl-f-) hire dgen beam, her 144, 27)
;

Jnn

own

pinum agnum fotum

(173, 2)

ic

ana atbxrst,! alone

escaped (Job, 165); ic selfa,! myself (C, 35, II); pii seZ/iz, thyself (36, 12) pm sxjlfa, feminine (Ex. 262, 32) ge sylfe (John, iii, 28) he Accusative for nominative: pe sy If cyme, ihyseli i-y// (C, 35, 18).
; ; ;

come (Ex.,
(Nic, 34)
;

reflexive
:

8, 8)

Pilatus
:

hym sylf uprdt, Pilate himself wrote all this lufd pinne nchstan spa pe sylfne, love thy
;

neighbor as thyself (Matt., xix, 19)

possessive

own

child (C. 176, 34); hire sclfre sund,\\er

own

Pun sylfes beam, thy sons (B.,1115);


17).

pronoun omitted scolfcs bhedum, its own shoots 11. Personals with pe as relatives, see relatives.

(C, 248,

Possessive s,
oG7.

13

2.

1.
:

The possessives
Jjcs

flexion

couple with a demonstrative without weak min sunu pxs dead, this my son was dead (Luc. xv, 24)
;

2.

min se gccorena sunu, my chosen son (Matt., iii, 17). Sin and his his hearran, drihtcn sinne, his lord (C,
:

19, 20).

See

^ 132,5.
3.

For genitive ending


; ;

Enac

his cynryn,

Anak's children (Num.,

xiii,

Gode his naman c'igdan, call on God his name (Psa. xcviii, 6), 29) doubtful common in Layamon and Old English, where also her: Pallas
4. 5.

her glass=:Pallas''s glass (Bacon). Omitted mid handum, (T can work) with
:

my

Without

its

substantive

ealle

mine synd ^me,

hands (C, 18, 27). all mine are thine

(John, xvii, 10); heard is heofenan, rice, theirs is heaven's kingdom In Layamon, /2eorcn>01d Engl. /ieru?i>Engl. hers; (Matt., v, 10).

ourun^ours,

etc.

DEM ONSTKAT
1.

VE

S,

13 3.

Se, seo,

l)cet,

as

an

article.
and smyrede
ix, 6)
;

368.
(a.)

The definite article marks its object, As before mentioned or well knovrn porhte fen,
:

mid pjam fcnne,he made

clay,

and anointed with the clay (John,

se

176

THE ARTICLE USED, OMITTED.


; ;

Hd'lcnd, the Savior (Luc, x, 38) piere eordan, the earth (John, viii, 6) proper names Hloitpiges sunu. Se Hlodpig pxs Carles hrudor (Chr., 885) Pxnc lie rode in, tho (rainous) Ilcrod (Matt., ii, 22).
: :

(6.) As further described, hy a clause pam hurc par hco Jnnc Lrg, the bower wherein she hiy (Ap., 1) se Bcopulf, se pe pid Brecan punne, the Beowulf, who fought with Breca (B., 50G); by an appositive pxs muntes by an adjective: pxt betste hors, Syon,i\\G mount Sion (Psa., xlvii, 2)
;
;

the best horse (Bed., 3, 14)

sc hdlga Gudldc, the holy Guthlac (St. G., 4) seo Magdalenisce Maria, the Mary called Magdalene (Matt., xxvii, 56) by a possessive pam hlaforde pxs huses, the lord of the house (Bed., 3,
; ;

pa ud pone

to other objects mentioned (often possessive) gefyldon brerd, they filled it to the (=its) brim (John, ii, 7) ; pjam geate, (into the sheepfold) at the (=its) gate (John, x, 1). (c.) As a definite whole pa ludeds, the Jews (John, vii, 1) pd clxn-

10)

by relation

/ico?-^?i,

blessed are the pure in heart (Matt., v, 8);

a personified abstract:

se ;>i5t?oj,

Wisdom

(Boet., 3, 3).

omitted where it might be used. It is i;sed less in AngloSaxon than in Gothic or Old High German, and very rarely in the oldest poetry, e. g.,
article is often

309. The

twice in the Traveler's Song, 19 times in the first 537 lines of Beo\vnlf, 12 times in 268 lines of Cffidmon (Grimm D. G., 4, 420). The steadiest uses are those in 368, b. Proper names of places and times, which are compounded with or described by appellatives, often take
the article without further reason.
(a.)

Folk names under


(1)

c varj'.

after a genitive, (2) with an object with a negative, (4) superlatives, (.5) copulative or disjunctive singulars meaning many, (6) a repeated word in correlation, (7) predicate nominative, (8) factitive object, (9), after prepositions with names of places, parts of a house, parts of the body, (10), before an attributive adjective, genitive, or appositive.

Marked
(3)

cases of the omission of articles are

compared,

pxs folces priterds, the (1) Mid Godes gife, by God's gift (In. LL. 1) scribes of the people (Matt., ii, 4, so oftenest) ; pxre Godes liifan, the love
;

of

God

(St. G., 2)

^ 367,
;

(2)

strengre panne ruse, more fragrant than


;

(the) rose (Rid., 41, 24) (4) idesd scenost, fairest

(chosen men) bear shield pxtrum, then was parted (the) water from (the) waters (C, 152) (7) be pxs man-slaga, he was (a) murderer (John, viii, 44) (8) hine heold for
;

peof ne cymd,thie? comes not (John x, 10) G26) (5) berad bord and ord, and spear (El., 1187); {(S) pxs adxled pxtcr of
{^)

of

women (C,

fulne cyning, took him for on sx, on (the) sea (Ap., 19)
cxi, 3)
;

full
;

king (Chr., 1013) to hlaforde (921) (9) on sande (C, 242) xt huse, at home (Psa.,
; ; ;

lit

of healle, out of

(the) hall (B., 663)

beforan durd, before (the)


;

door
said
etc.,

(Mc, 11,4); on bed gdn, go to bed (C, 2234) cpxdan on heortan, xt fotum (B., 500) on cncopum (C., 227, 2), in heart (Psa., Ixxiii, 8)
;
;

abundantly
;

G., 5)

(10) hxfdon langne speoran, they had (a) long one crying (Matt., iii, 3) cli/piendcs stcfn, the voice of
;

neck
;

(St.

JElfred

cynf?)^-,

Alfred king (Chr., 894).

se

article vT-ith an adjective is frequent, to point out persons: or things (rare) Phi sprxc, the dumb spake (Matt., ix, 33) in apposition with a proper the future things (St. G., 13) topeardan, so also: hellc name: Sidroc sc geonga, Sidroc the younger (Chr., 871)

370.

The

dumba

DEMONSTRATIVES.

177

pxre hdtan,hG\\ the hot (C, 362). Just so participles: pa timhriendan, those building (Matt., xxi, 42) for pdm gecorenum, for the chosen (xxiv, 22) pa geladodan, those invited (xxii, 3).
; ;

371.
V, 47)
;

With a numeral Pm tpclfe,the twelve (Mc, 4, 10) 56 eahtoda dxg, the eighth day (St. G., 3).
:

pjxt

an (Matt.,
56 pe, the

372.

With pronouns /a
:

odre, the others (I\Iatt., xxvii, 49)


all
;

which (Bed.,

2, 5)

calpxt land,
;
:

so both the ships (Luc, v, 7) 105) possessives, see 367.


;

butu pa scypu, the land (Matt., ix, 26) healfne pone speoran, half the neck (Jud.,

373. The
:

article is repeated with copulative

words oftener than


;

someglish seolfor, the gold and the silver (Apol., 14) times a plural is used with two singulars hyre pa leofstan hlaford and sunu, her (the) dearest lord and son (Chr., 1093).

pxt gold and pxt

in

En-

Se, seo,

l:)a3t;

]pes, Jdcus, jpis,

133.
ob-

374.

Se
is

ject, or
1.

is less emphatic than ]5es. an antecedent to a relative.

Both deuote the near

Se

often nearly the third pronoun

hine, they beat that one (him), and sent >Eng. 5Ae, ^a>Eng. they ; Lat. hie.
2.

spungon Mg pone, and forleton him away (Mc, xii, 3). Note seo
:

Jjxt

pxt and pis are often used without agreement in gender or number that was a good king (B., 11) pjxt pxron pa &restan this is scipu, that (those) were the first ships (Chr., 787) pis is seo eorde,
:

pxs god cyning,

the earth (C, 1787)

pis sint

pa bebodu,

this (these) are the statutes (Lev.,

xxvi,46).
3.

(the

Compare /m^, ^ 366, 5. German cs smt?. Antecedent se pe bryde hxfd, se is brydguma, he is bridegroom, which), who has the bride (John, iii, 29) pxt pe dcenned is of flxsce,
:

pxt

is floisc, that is flesh,

the which

is

born of the flesh

(iii,

6)

rare with

pes (John, i, 15, North.). 4. 6d Pjis,i\\\ now (Bas. Hex.,G)

but generally these two ycars=:nu tpa


latter, are not

gear (Gen.,xlv, 6). 5. This and that^the former, the


but se xrra, se xflera (Bed.,
rare.
6. Pyy Pry 4, 23).

expressed by pns,pxt;
is

discriminated remoter object

md, Lat. eo magis, more by that

(so

much
;

the more)

(C,

54, 33)

hcardra, the harder=:harder by that (80, 8)

302, d.

strative

Ylc couples with the article or demon?Ab.ylc,pylc, spylc (^ 133, 3). pylc and spylc may be used as adjectives or substantives pxt ylce such (Luc, ix, 9) PjylUc, such (Boet., leoht,the same light (C, 301, 34)
; ;
;

39, 3

Matt., xviii, 5)

spylc, such

(Mc,

iv,

33

Boet., 38, 2).

376. SelfC^ 131), with personal pronouns (^ 366, 10), with substantives: pxre sylfan stipe, the same place (John, xi, G) se cyning sylfa, the king on pxt himself (Ex., 2, 1) se peoden self, the Lord himself (C, 9, 10)
; ;

dxgred

sylf, at the

dawn

exactly (Jud., 204).

178

SYNTAX. INTERKOGATIVES.

Inteekogatives.
377.

Hpa, hprct

( 135).
:

Ilpd asks mostly for persons


first?

hpa prat hocstafds xrcst, who wrote

letters

(A. R., 40).

Hpxt asks (1) for neuters, (2) for an answer without regard to gender or number, (3) for a special character or part of an object (1) Hpxt nxddercynna si on eordan, what of snake kind are on the
:

earth? (A. R., 41)

(2)

hpxt syndon ^-tjwhat (who) are you? (B., 237)


is

hpxt

is se

cynmg, who

the king (of glory)? (Psa., xxiii, 10)

com-

pare pxt,pis (^ 374, 2); (3) hpmt godes do

must

do? (Matt., xix, 16)

ic, what (of) good thing hpxt nipes, what of new? (Ex., 441, 22)
;

hpxt peorces, \vha.t kind of work? (^lf)>01d English adjective use: whatt weorrc (Orm., 1833). (a.) Hpxt is se pe me xthrdn, what is he who touched me (=cmphatic
ivho), Lat. quis est qui
(b.) Interjection,
(c.)

(Luc,

viii,

45).

(Thorpe), North, huelcne is used for hpxt of other A. Sax. versions in imitation of the Latin Qucm dicunt homijics esse Filium hominis (Matt., xvi, 13), making anacoluthon, ^ 293.
of

Hpxne Man may be? Hpxne

opening poems, etc., Hpxt! pe Gdr-Dcnd (B.). secgad men pxt sy m,annes 5m?im, whom say men that the Son

Hpseder (which of two), and lipilc (what kind of, which among may agree as adjectives, or govern a genitive hpxder uncer tpegd, which of us two (B., 2530 Matt., xxi, 31 A. R., 39) hpylc man (A. R., <40) hpilc manna (.^Elfc).
like),
:

378.

For interrogatives as

indefinites

and

relatives, see ^^ 382, 390.

Relatives,

13

4.

379. Relative clauses in the Teutouic tongues are oftencst constructed like leading clauses with a demonstrative, j^ersonal, or

interrogative pronoun.
adjective,

by tone

alone, or

Tliey are made relative, i. e., subordinate by a relative particle 7^6 added. The
;

Sanskrit and Greek have jDcculiar forms for the relative the Latin qui is from the interrogative >2'?a's. 380 A. Demonstrative Forms. 1. <Sc, SCO, pxt alone pd feng Nero to rice, se forlct Britene, then came Nero to the kingdom, who (that one) lost Britain (Chr.,47) se purhpunad, se byd hdl, who endureth, he shall be saved (Matt., x, 22) antecedent

omitted

pxt ge gehyrad, bodiad, that ye hear, preach (it) (Matt., x, 27). 2. pxt pxt, whatever: pxt pxt lator bid, pxt hxfd angin, whatever later
that has beginning
3. Se,

is,

(Hom.,

i,

284).

se6,pxt with indeclinable sign pe : Augustinum, pone pe hi gecoren hxfdon, Augustine, whom (the one that) they had chosen (Bed., 1, 23) pd ungeledfsuman, pdrd pe hi pd gereorde ne cMan, the unbelievers, of whom
;

RELATIVES.
;

I79

they the speech did not know (Bed., 1, 23) pxt pe^lmtte may refer to a. sentence (Bed., 2, 7). i. pe alone: se stun, ptc,i\\Q stone, that (the builders rejected) (INIc, xii,
10) pa mdctmas, pe, the treasures, that (thou gavest me) (B., 1482) 'antecedent omitted nu synd fordfarene pe sohton, now are gone (those)
; ;
:

an
who

sought (Matt., ii, 20). From 7;e a preposition

is usually separated Jjxt bed,pe se lama on Ixg, the bed that the lame one on lay (Mc, ii, 4). 5. Spylc spylc : he sice spylcne hldford, spylcne he pille, he may seek
:

such a
such a
6.

lord, as
city, as
:

he
it

may
was

choose (^ds., v,
ii,

1, 1)

spylce burh, spylce seo pies,


miseries, as thou
so,

(Oros.,

4, 5).

Spa

spylcrd yrmdd, spa

to us before assigned (Ex., 373, 2).

pu unc &r serife, of such Compare German

Engl, as, and

382,2.
381.
1.

B. Personal Pronouns.
In O. H. German, clauses with the personal pronouns are Fatcr unser du pist in himilum, our
:

Alone.

made
2.

relative without further sign

Father,

who

(thou) art in

redfige,

Personals -witli what am I called, who

heaven (Schade, 8; Grimm, iii, 17). indeclinable pe or se : hpxt ic hdtte, pc


(i.

ic

land
;

e. I)

the land ravage? (Rid., 13, 14)


pe, (we)

se

mec,

whom

(i.

e.

me) (Ex., 144,

9)

Jie

who

(Cri., 25)

Fxdcr

ure,pu pe earl on Jieofenum, our Father, who (thou) art in heaven (Matt., vi, 9); /e Jju, (Hy., 8, 13); 7;e he (Psa., Ixvii, 4); pe his, whpse (Psa., xxxix, 4) pe him, to whom (Psa., cxlv, 4)^se him (C, 201, 31) Jje separated hpxt se god pxre,pe pis his bedcen pxs, of what sort the god was,
; ;

that this

was

his

tains this idiom, du, der


izei.
3.

sign=:whose sign this was (El., 162). du hist, etc. The Gothic uses
se

The German

re-

ikei (ik-\-ei), puti,

Pergonals -with

pe

se

bid Jeofust, se pe him

dearest, (he) to

382
1.

whom God

giveth (Vid., 132).

Compare

God sylcd, he 384, a.

is

C. Interrogatives.

ne rxdde ge pxt hpxt Dauid indirect interrogativc>relativc David did (Luc, vi, 3) nxfdon hpxt dyde, have ye not read (that) what eat (Mc, viii, 1). hig xton, they had not what they might Hpd (who) appears as a proper relative first in its dative warn, loan in

Hpxt;

Layamon (2, G32 3, 50), in its genitive whas and dative loham in Ormulum (3425, 10370). The nominative who is found sometimes with
;

comes common as a
:

a pronominal antecedent in WyclifTc, A.D. 1382-3 (Isa., 1, 10), and befull relative in Berners' Froissart, A.D. 1523.

2. Spd hpd spd, spd hpxt spa, spd hpylc (spd), whosoever, whatsoever, whichsoever Isete ic hine, spd hpd spd cymed, I will let him, whosoever cometh (sit by me) (C, 28, 20) spd hpxt spd (Matt., xvi, 19) spd hpylc spd (Matt., X, 42 Bed., 2, 2) spa hpylc (Psa., cxxxvii, 4).
; ; ; ;

Hpylc (which) appears by


383. Attraction,
{a.)

itself as

a relative in Layamon.

The

relative is

sometimes attracted to the case

180
of
est
its

RELATIVES. INDEFINITES.
antecedent
2II!1).
:

which thou boldhaligu trcop, seo pu healdest, ho]y troth,


^ 384, a.
to the gender of a noun in its own pxne (M) Tpelfta-da>g hdtad, baptism-time, which they

(C,
:

But see

(i.)

The

relative is

sometimes attracted

clause

fulpiht-tid,
call

Twelfth-day
(c.)

(Men., 13).

For

relative adverbs, sec ^^ 396-398.

and

384. Incorporation. The same word may represent both antecedent It may have the case (a.) of the antecedent: gebyrgde pxs relative.

gepeoXjtz.sieA. of
pe.

Those

in ^ 383, a,

what grew (C, 483); such cases are frequent, /a"5=/>a;5 may be similar, seo^seo pe, seo appositive with
:

Compare ^ 381, 3. {b.) Of the relative hi rnefdon hpxt lug xton, treop. Here the clause hpxt h'lg they had not what they might eat (Mc, 8, 1). 3&ton is the object of nxfdon. (c.) The case of /e is not discriminated.
For examples, see ^ 380, 4. 885. Omission. Phrases of naming
often lack their subject an mimac, called Brihtnoth (Chr.,963);
:

Bnhtnod pxs gehdten, a monk (who) was

sealde dne peopene, Bala hdtte, gave her a maid, (who) was called Bilhah =01d Eng. Bilhah hight (Gen. xxix, 29). M. H. German used the same Similar phrases sometimes have a relative expressed, sometimes a idiom.

who was called Penwald (St. G., personal pronoun : se pxs hdten Penpald, Com\t^.xe gefor JElfred, pxs gerefa, 1) ; Agado he pxs gehdten (Chr.,675). But the Anglo-Saxon does not Alfred died (who) was sheriff (Chr., 90G).
omit the relative freely, like the English.

Indefinites,
386.

136.

An: indefinite
;

article:

two sons (Matt.,xxi, 28) on him, like a dove (Luc, iii, 22) seldom, if ever, in poetry but a pretty he eordsele dnne pisse, he knew a cavindefinite an after its noun occurs with numeral or measure an fiftlg sealmds, a fifty ern (B., 2410)
; ;
;

an man hxfde tpegen sund, sl man had dstdh on hine spa an culfre, (the Spirit) descended

psalms (iEds.,

dne healfe tide, a half time (W. P. T., 12); an gear an man, they ruled a year a man=:each man one year (Oros., 2, 2, 3) dne fedpa pordd, a few words (Nic, 11), dne is plural and means only.
5, 3)
;
;

(a.)

several shades of meaning. A nurse said, "a spoonful an a dose for a child till a doctor co7nes"=:A certain nurse said, "one spoonful each is tchat 'is called dose for any child till some doctor comes." The first, second, and third of these uses are sometimes found in Anglo-Saxon, as in Latin (unus). Our sec-

The English aw>a has


is

hour hour

ond example
article,
i.

e.,

with
40).

it is

is nearly the fourth use, which is the most characteristic use of the proper simple sign of a singular use of a generic term but compare it is a dove Nan means not any : is nun cam, is there not any care ? (Mc, 10, like a dove.
:

The Goth,

clitic,

ains translates Gr. Jt; sums, so Germ, einer. See sum.

tic.

O. Norse einns is sometimes pro-

{b.)

An

(indefinite

pronoun)

is

adjective or substantive.
;

seemed to (3) an xfter dnum (Sal., 385)=anne and dnne (Oros., thy se//(Sat., 55) 2, 3)=a xfter eallum (B., 2268)=a xfler odrum (Sat., 26)=:dnes and
(1) his dncs crxft, his
;

own power (C, 272)

{2)puhte pe dnum,

Peculiar uses
it

NUMEEALS.

181
\

odres (Met., 25, 52), one after another; (4) butan pdm dnum, except the ones (Sat., 147) for unc dnum tpdm, for us two alone (Rid., 61, 15)
;

(5)

dn Slum, only son

(Rid., 81, 10)

(true) king (B., 1885);

(7)

pxt pxs an cyning, that was a dnrd with indefinite pronouns: dnrd gehpylc,
;

(6)

each one

so sbghpylc (Gu., 4) hpd, gehpd, ones) (Matt., xxvi, 22) (8) etc., compare gehpylc Jjegnd, each of thanes=each thane (B., 1673) dnes fipxt, somewhat, in any degree (Boet., 18, 3) (9) 07i dn, in one, to; ;
;

of

gether, once for

all

(Psa., cxxxii,

Ixxxii, 9

lii,

4).

38V. Nan, a;nig, nxnig have both substantive and adjective syntax. 388. Sum; (I) indefinite article=art; sum man hxfde tpegen sund, a dnum he sealde man had two sons (Luc, xv, 11), see 386 (2) pronoun fif pund, sumuin tpd, to one he gave five pounds, to another two (Matt.,
;

XXV, 15)
feol,

(3)

eode eahta sum, he went one of eight (B., 3123)


fell

some

(seed)

by the way (Mc,


;

4, 4);

(4)

sum
some

(5)

sume pd

bocerds,

(of) the scribes (Matt., ix, 3)

287, c

(6)

sume

ten gear,

sume ge, some of you (John, vi, 64), see ^ some ten years (Boet., 38, 1), see ^ 148.
:

389.

Man,

pilit,
;

dpiht, ndpiht

slay (^If. B., 9)

l&de

mon
;

hider,

gif mon pif ofsled, if one a woman some one led hither (Bed., 2, 2) lades
;

piht, anything of pain (painful)

(Ex., 144, 1); opiht

elles,

anything else,
;

something (Bed.,

3,

22)

nopiht yfeles, nothing evil (Bed., 2, 12)

so

nun

pmg grenes,
390.
;

nothing green (Exod., x, 15).


:

and compounds hpd^=-m,an, any one (Matt., xxi, 3 Mrc, 12, spylces hpxt, some what (B., 880), summ whatt appears in Orm, 958 gehpd, each (Mc, 15, 24); wghpd, each (Rid., 66, 2); hpxt-hugu, some

Hpd

19)

what (Bed.,

1,

27).

891. Gehpxder, each of two, dhpxder, any, are substantive, xghpxder, either of two (Bed., 2, 3; 1,7), of many (B., 1636), subst. and adj.

392. Compounds of -lie arc used substantively and adjectively xlc, xx, 2), xuer xlc'^everyche'^every appears in vii, 17 Layamon, 2814 selc with oder, are both inflected hi cp&don selc to odrum, they said, each to the others (Mc, 4, 41) xlc odres fet, each wash the
:

each, every (Matt.,


;

other's feet (John,

xiii,

14)

spike

pr't,

some three (Luc,

1,

56).

Numerals,
393. Cardinals
:

13 8-14 8.
:

oftenest substantive with gen.

feopertig dagd, forty

(C, 1351); with of: dn of pisum, one of these (Matt.,v, 19); a fifty psalms (^(Is., 5, 3); with apposition: dn fftig sealmds, alone pd forman tpd, the pronoun hi pry, they three (Ex., 190, 11) mid L scipum, first two (^pair), Adam and Eve (C, 194) adjective
(of) (Jays
:

with
24).

fifty

ships (Chr., 1052)

Compounds with and :


tpd Ixs
;

tyn pusend, ten thousand (Matt., xviii, six and fiftig, 56 (Bed., 2, 5) with Ixs,
;
;

28 (Chr., 641); dnes pana prittigum, pana, butan: thirty less one (Bed., 1, 1) tpentig butan dn, 19 (Bed., 5, 19) ; numerals with sum, see 388, and compare French quclque, Gr. ns.

XXX,

182
For

NUMERALS. ADVERBS.

distributive:
1,

2)

ordinal dates: sixtigum jnntrd, 60 years (=GOth year) B.C. (Bed., six spa micc.l, six times as much (LL., p. 398) ; multiplicative
;
:

(Oros., 2, 3,
division
:

ipam, by twos (Lc, 10, 1); divic and dnnc, one by one how often: sixtyne shium, IG times (An., 490); 4);

on

tpd, in

two (Ap.

11).
:

394. Ordinals.

se cahtoda dxg, Adjective, witli or without an article the eighth day (St. G., 3) priddan divgc, the third day (Lc, 9, 22) ; with of (rare) oder of his leorning-cnihtum, a second of his
;
:

an operr appears in Orm., 5778 compounds (1) ordmal-^-ordinal : p>j ipentigdan and pij fcontan, the 24th (day of September) (Bed., 4, 5); (2) cardinal+ordinal an and tpcntigudan, 2lst
(Matt.,
viii,

21),

disciples
:

(Exod.,

xii,

18);

(3) ordinal 4-cardinal

sixta

edc

fe opcr tigu7n,

idth

(Bed., 1, 15). Division: seofedan


147)
:

dihl, seventh part (Ores., 2, 4, 6); before heaJf (^ nigonteode healf gear, 18V years (Chr.,855) feurde healf hund
;

350 ships (Chr., 851). 395. Indefinites (1.) eal eal here, the whole mob (C, 150, 12) perod eal seo &, all the law (Matt., xxii, 40) eal, the host all (C, 184, 1) uninflected (B., 2042, and often when parted from its noun) with
scipe,
:

pronouns
hig

ealles pxs, all that (186, 25) ealle, we all (C, 268, 27) substantive eallum gumend they all (Matt., xiv, 20) cijnnes, all of mankind (B., 1057) georndst ealles, eagerest of all (Psa., calrd ricost, richest 83, 12) Iipxt ealles, what on the whole (cxix, 3)
:

pe

ealle,

of
-

all

(Vid. 15, ^ 312, c)


;

(2.)

Manig

adjective

many (a) man. Germ, many enne king, many

tpelfd ealrd, twelve in all (B.,3171). manige men, many men (B., 337) rinc manig, mancher tnann, Lat. multus vir (An., 1118);
; ;

a king, appears in
viii,

Layamon
iv,

(6591).

Note the

noun mxnigeo, a crowd (Matt.,


speare's the rank-scented

18;

25)
;

many, a great many

substantive
;

and often

OShake:

moniges

pintrd,
(3.)
(4.)

many (of) winters (C, 1230). Micel, much md, mdrd, more.
; ;

Feapa, few fed{p)um dnum, few only, a few (B., 1081) sumne, one of few=with few companions (B., 3061).

fcd{pe)rd

(5.)

Lyt

hjt

of the race (Jud.,31]).

freondd,{evi (of) friends (C, 2626) For hpon, see Grein.

cynnes lyt-hpon,ie\v

ADVERBS.
395*.

Adverbs

modify

verbs, adjectives,

and other adverbs.

Adverbs could
^251.

for the

most part be parsed as cases of nouns, as they were,


:

They make Adverbial combinations


xxvi, 75)
;

spa geongum, so young (B., 1843)

he peup biterlice, he wept bitterly (Matt., spa miceles gepdh, he


;

throve so greatly (C, 186, 24).

INTERROGATIVE.DEMONSTRATIVE.
:

183

Predicative, mostly adverbs of place hps^r is se luded cynmg, where is the Jews' king'? (Matt., ii, 2) pe her bedn,we are here (Mc, 9, 5)
;

pr

ic

eom, there

am

(Matt., xviii, 20)

expletives, so

called,

//;/

peard geporden mycel eontbifung, there was a great earthquake


(Matt., xxviii, 2).

Attributive, rare

min

lu magtster,

my

of-yore master (Bed., 5, 10).

396. Interrogative and demoustrative adverbs their pronouns, 252, 2G0.

may be

used

like

A. To govern a case
of the earth Abel

pu on
B.

sitest, seat

hp&r eordan Abel pxre, where (:=in what part) was (C, 1003) hpider (Jul., 700) governed sell pxr where on thou sittest (Hy., 7, 41), so other prep, often.
:

To

introduce clauses.

3 9 7.

I.

Leading Clauses.

introduce a clause like an indefinite hit (^ 365, was a great earthquake, 5) pie?' peard geporden mycel eordbifung, there Germ, es geschah em gross erdbeben, Gr. ffeiapiug iysvtro, Lat. terra: motus

Declarative
:

Jjxr

may

factus

est (Matt., xxviii, 2)

Interrogative.

English Interrogation may


;

hence

so-called expletive there.

relate to the

general affirmation of
it,

a sentence, or to some particular point connected with ject, time, place, mayiner.
(1.)

the subject, ob-

General questions are expressed by inversion or tone: hwfst pu by hpxdcr with the subjunctive: hafoc, hast thou a hawk? (^Ifc.)
;

(3.)

(Met., 19, 15). hpxder ge nu Particular questions are expressed by interrogative pronouns or adverbs hpier is heord God, where is their God ? (Psa., cxiii, 10) For prohpider, wh'iihexl: (C, 2269); ^anon, whence ? (B., 333).
pillen psedan, will
:

ye now hunt?

nouns, see ^ 377-8.

Negative questions add ne wine? (^Ifc).


(a.)

ne drincst

pu, pin, dost

thou not drink

(b.)

Tlic particles ac, ah, hit, Id, are used to strengthen ques-

tions.

Ac for hpam,

wherefore then? (Sal., 342) ah ne pe fordrifon, did we not cast out (devils) ? Matt., vii, 22 North.) hit ne synd ge selran, are not ye better? (Matt., vi, 20) hpxt is pis Id mannd, who is this
; ; ;
;

(Id) man? (El., 903) ; so are used forms of secgan and cpedan, say segst pu msrg se blinda pone blindan Ididan, (sayst thou) can the blind lead the blind? (Luc, vi, 39) cpcde ge hscbbe gc sufol, (say ye) have
:

ye any meat? (John, xxi, 5) cpede pe ys jjes Dauidcs sunu, (say we) is this David's son? (Matt., xii, 24). have inverted clauses, or the sign (3.) Disjunctive questions may hpxdcr: ys hit riht pxt man pam Casere gafol syllc, pe nd, is it right to give tribute to Caesar, or no? (Luc. xx, 21) hpxdcr first: hpxdcr
; ;

IS

mdre,pe

Jjwt

gold,pe tempi, which

is

greater, the gold or the temple

184
(Matt., xxiii, 17)
/icofone,
;

ADVERBS. rAKTICLES.

before

secontl

clause

pxs Johannes fulluht of

hpxdcr

])c

of mannum, was John's baptism of heaven, or of

men?

(Luc., xx, 4).

3 9 8.
1.

II.

SUBOKDINATE CLAUSES.

Indirect questions: frwgn, hp&r Abel pxre, asked where Abel was (C, 1003). Sec furtlicr, ^^ 424, 425. 2. Relative clauses has, panon ic ut code, house whence (=from
:

which)

went out

(Matt., xii, 44)

/la

dagds, ponne se

hrydguma byd
;

the bridegroom shall be taken away (Lc, 5, 35) on st&nihte, p;tr hyt ncpfde mycle eordan, on stony ground, where it had not much earth (Matt., xiii, 5).
(a.)

afyrred, the days

when

The
:

relative adverb is often

made a
fare, ye

(^

384)

ne

mage ge cuman pider

ic

conjunction by incorporation may not come whither I go

(John,

viii,

21).

Paeticles of Affirmation and Negation, 261. The particles gea, gese, ne, nese, na, in 399. Answers.
answer to general questions, have the syntax of declarative (Other tongues have particles of like syntax.) (a.) They are quasi-clauses, ^ 278, J.- lufdst pu me? ged, lovest thou me. Yea (=1 love thee) (John, xxi, 16) gise, Id gese, yes, O yes (Boet., 16,
clauses.
4)
;

object of a verb
3)
ic,
;

(xiii,

com

no (Luc, xii, 51) nd 60) ; cpyst pu, eart pu of Pyses leorning-cnihium ? nic, ne art thou of his disciples? Not I, I am not (John, xviii, 17).
:

ne, secge ic eop, I say to you,

nese

(i,

400,

Negative Adverbs.
is

the negation.
1.

Repeated negatives strengthen (So in old Teutonic and Greek, not in Latin.)
expressed by ne. It may be repeated before the ne on mode ne mum, do not mourn in mind
:

General negation
;

verb, subject, object, adverb

ndn spile ne cpom, none such comes (Cri., 290) ne ndn ne (An., 99) dorste ndn ping dcsian, no one durst ask him anything (Matt., xxii, 46) ne pep pu nd, weep not at all (Lc, 7, 13).
; ;

(a.)

positive

word of emphasis may be added


whit (Psa.,
is

I shall not fear a

Ixi, 2)

ic ne forhtige piht, often ndpiht (Matt., xxvii, 24) ; so


:

French point, pas. 2. Particular negation ridende on horse, ac on


going on his feet (Bed.,
tiliad to
3,

his

expressed by un-, -Icds, nd, nalxs, noht: nalws fotum gangende, not riding on horseback, but
;

28)

nalxs micelre

tide,

no long time

(4, 6)

heo

cpemanne Gode mid pordum, nxs jnid peorcum, they try to please God with words, not with works (Psa.,xlviii, 12) noht feor, not far (4, 3).
;

SYNTAX. VERB.

185

USES OF THE VERB-FORMS. Peksonal Endings.


Agreeme7it.
401.

finite

verb

agrees with

its

subject
;

in

number and

person.

passives pes pu gehletsod, (a.) Participles in compound tenses agree be thou blest (An., 540) pesad ge gebletsdde, be ye blest (Psa., cxiii, 23) her syndon geferede, here have come (B., 361). After habban, perfect
:

transitive participles agree with the object, intransitives have no ending he hsefit mon geporhtne, he has man made (C, 25, 18) ; hie gcgdn hcrfdon,
:

they had gone (Jud., 140). examples, ^^ 412-419.


tive

But the endings early


1.

fell

away.

See further
2. 5.

402. Simple Subject. used as a substantive.


G.

Its forms.

1.

A
4.

substantive.

An

adjecinfin-

3.

pronoun.
7.

numeral,

An
So

itive.

Any word

or phrase as such.

A clause, or

clauses.

in all

Impersonals generally have their subject hit. For examples, tongues. See /at;-, ^ 397. Indefinite personals (man, etc)., see ^ see ^ 366, 5.
389, 390.
2.

Collectives singular may take a plural verb by synesis


the
;

a singular and army brought (their ships) (Chr., 1016) gebrohton, swt * *, and drison, the people sat, and they arose (Exod., plural past folc se here spar pxt hie poldon, the army swore that they would xxxii, 6) shall (Chr., 921) pin ofspring sceal dgan heord feondd gata, ihy offspring
:

se here

oi their foes (Gen., xxii, 17). possess the gates 3. Numerals plural may take a singular verb, generally before them

was gone 5000 years (Chr., 616, 655). Compa pxs dgan her manners (?) (Chr., 10G7). pare him gelkdde hire pedpds, him pleased
then

V pinlrd,

subject, ^ 283. Copulate singulars take a plural (1) after them regularly: Maria and Martha p&ron tpd gespi/slru, Mary and Martha were two sisters (Hom., 1,

403.

Compound

]30); before them sometimes: pa cp&don Annanias, Azarias, Misahel, then said Ilananiah, Azariah, Mishael (Hom., 2, 18) ; oftener pd peard he gedrcfed, and eal Hierosolim-paru, then was he troubled, and all Jerusalem folks (Matt, iii, 2). words may be really a simple subject, 1, a repetition of (fl.) Copulate mind is spydc gedrcfed, the same notion, often a climax ?nm sdpl and soul and my mind is greatly troubled (Psa., vi, 2 Milton, P. L., 1, 139)
: :

mm

my

6,

flesh and complements of one notion jlvbsc and blud ne xtedpde pe, so Lat., Greek, etc.) blood hath not showed to thee (Matt., xvi, 17, North. Milton, P. L., 2, 495 tor and burh stod, tower and burg stood (C, 102, 17
2,
:

814, etc.).
ip.)

Logical copulates connected by a preposition may take a

plural

by

186
eynesis
:

VERB. AGREEMENT. KINDS.


sc
(=:an(])

mates

fcond mid his gefcrum fcollon. the fiend with (C, 300). JSo in Latin, Greek, and elsewhere. 404. Agreement -with a predicate may take place
fell

his

1.

When

the subject

is
;

pis or pxt

statutes (Lev., xxvi, 4G)

Jjxt poiron

pa

pis synt pa bcbodu, these are the iurestan scipu, those were the first

ships (Chr., 787). 2. When the subject


if

is remote gyf pxt Icoht 7;e on pe ys, synt pystru, the light that is in thee is darkness, Lat, tencbra sunt (Matt., vi, 23), and in other cases when the predicate is the more important to the thought.
:

405. Omission of the subject occurs (1) with imperatives, (2) where would be repeated, (3) with reflexives, (4) in other rare cases, mostly of of the verb the first and second persons (for examples, see 3GG) (1) the verb to be in exclamatory claus^^s pa eop,'woe (be) to you (Matt.,
it
;

xxiii, 13,

Cambridge)
;

lonius (Ap., 7)
light

pel gesund, Apolloni, (may you elsewhere p&r Icoht and


;

be) very well, Apolin

(rare)

lif,

heaven, where

(is)

phrases: edge for edge, and tod for tod, an eye (must be given) for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth For hpxt, what, ^ 377, b. For omission of the infinitive (Matt., V, 38). with auxiliaries, ^ 435-443. Answers, ^ 399.
life

and

(C, 212, 26)

(2) to

give

in certain

40G.

The Kinds of Vekbs.


h.
c.

Notional,

55.

Intransitive, ^ 275, a. Transitive, ^^ 275, a ; 290,

Copulative, ^^ 273,

286,

Impersonal, ^^ 290, c; 299, a; 366,5. Reflexive, ^^ 150, a; 290, d; 298, c.


Factitive, ^^ 275, a
;

294,

a.

Causative, 292,

c.

Relational, 150-152; 176; 212; 435-443.


The emphatic form in do (^ 177, 2) spa dod nu pa pe astro pidstandan, (as a great rock withstands), so does now the darkness withstand This perhaps never occurs in Anglo-Saxon except as a repeti(Boet., 6). See a possible example (Psa., cxviii, 25) Grein. tion of a verb just used.
(a.)
:

But do+an object clause occurs as an emphatic form

ne do pu &fre, Prxt

pu oncyrre^^ne
;

avertas, do not (thou ever, that thou) turn

away

(Psa.,

cxxxi, lO) so cxviii, 97, 174, 170, etc. notional in one connection, (ft.) The same verb may be in the same author another so also transitive and intransitive, reflexive and not, causative and
;

relational in
not,

and the

like.
(c.)

relational,

Historically verbs change from one kind to another; especially from notional to from intransitive to transitive (causal), from transitive to intransitive. They

acquire factitive, reflexive, or passive senses, or drop them. Snch changes may be noted See impersonal and in comparing Anglo-Saxon verbs with their English descendants.
reflexive

examples

at the 5 referred to above.

VOICES.TENSES.

187

Voices,
407.

15 0.
is

transitive verb

may

take two forms as the agent or the object

made more prominent.


408.

Active.
the

The active
of
all

voice

is

used to make

tlie

agent

liie subject
(a.) It is

of predication.

common form

verbs.

409.

Passive.

The passive

voice

is

used to make the direct

object of the action the subject of predicatiou.

For
(a.)

its

forms, see ^ 1T8-182, and tenses, ^ 412-416.


is

The agent

fram, purh, or the


(J.)

like

expressed with passive verbs by an oblique case after fram Siluestre l&rde p&ron, they were taught by
:

Silvester (El., 190).

factitive

Hxlend gehdten,

Crist pxs object becomes a predicate nominative Christ was called HMend (Saviour) (Men., 4) but if
:

expressed with a preposition,

it

is

unchanged

pxs
:

to

pdpan

geset,

was

made

pope (Chr., 1058). (dative) pws skrende (c.) Other objects are unchanged with passives cedelum cempurn dboden, the message was given to the noble knights (An.,
(to a)

230);
6)
;

impersonals me gepuht^^me Pyncd, seems me genitive bedmds p&ron ofxtes gehlxdene, trees were laden(Ex., 163, with instrumental lohannes pxs heafde becorfen, John was cut (C, 30,
:

is

it

to

fruit

4)

off

from his head (Bed., 410. Middle.

1,

27).

For middle forms, see ^^

150, a

290, d; 298,

c.

represented by A. -Sax. verbs as in its own nature indefinite, continued, or completed ; and in regard to the time of speaking ^% present, 'past, or future.
is
Indefinite.

411. In relation to

Tense, time action

15

2.

Continued.
ic
I

Completed.
ic
I

ic nime, Present 5 \l take.

eom nimende,

ic
ic

nime,
sceal (pillc) niman,

Future <

taking. bed nimende, I shall be taking,


ic

am

hxbbe numen, have taken.


have taken.

I shall

f I shall (will) take.


ic

Past

nam,

ic

I took.

pxs nimende, was takinjr.

ic I

hxfde numen, had taken.

For subordinate
412.

clauses, see ^ 418.

The endings of the Anglo-Saxon verb past time from other time.
1.

discriminate only-

2.

The The

so-called
so-called

present tense is used imperfect is used for

for present
all

and future

acts.

past acts.

188
3.

I^'DICATIVE TENSES.
Compound forms
in wliich the

auxiliary has the present form discrim-

inate varieties oi present a.nd future action.


4.

Compound forms in which the auxiliary has the imperfect form discriminate varieties o? past action.
;

(a.) The present, future, and perfect are called principal tenses imperfect and pluperfect, historical tenses.

the

Indicative Tenses.
413.
(1.)

The Present expresses What exists or is taking


;

the treasure (B., 2055)


is

place progressive

now
:

pone maditum byred, he bears


is
;

peos corde

bearing (=produces) (diverse birds) (Bed., 1, 1) passive: ic eom corde is gecpeden Godes fotgelufod, I am loved (^If. Gr., 26)
;

berende, the land

sceamel, earth
(Met., 28,42)
(2.)
;

is

called God's foot-stool (Horn., 2, 448)

pyrd bereafdd
where

Customs

bead fangene (Bed., 1, 1). and truths : p^r pin goldheord


is,

zs,

peer is pin heorte,

thy treasure
(3.)

there

is
:

thy heart (Matt.,


se pitega
lis

vi, 21).

Author's language

mandd, the prophet exhorts us

(Horn., 2, 124, rare).


(4.)

Future
till

cvfter

(Matt., xxvii, 63)

prim dagon ic arise, after three days I shall arise ne givst pu panone, wr pu agilde, thou shalt not go
dagds pu pircst,
430, c.
:

thence,
(5.) (6.)

thou shalt have paid (Matt., v, 26).


:

Imperative

six

Narrative clause dependent on a past tenss hpi noldest pu secgan Jjxt hco pin plf is, why didst thou not say that she is thy wife? (Gen.,
xii, 18, frequent).

^ 419, III.

414.
(1.)

occurring in time fully past: he sxgde, he said (they were magicians) (Jul., 301) progressive: spa ic xr secgende pxs, as I was saying before (An., 951); passive: ic pxs gelufod, I was loved (^If. Gr., 2G) pd pxs pridpord sprecen, then a mighty word was spoken (B., 642) pur don heofends ontynede, the
;

The Imperfect (preterit) What took place or was

expresses

heavens were opened (Matt., iii, 16). nu Pm Ixtst Jnnne peop, forpam mine eagan gesdpon Pne (2.) Perfect hxle, now lettest thou thy servant depart, for mine eyes have seen thy
:

(3.)

(Luc, 2, 30). Pluperfect pd hi Jjxt gebod gehyrdon, pd ferdon lug, when they had heard the command, they went (Matt., ii, 9). 415. The Future is expressed (1.) by the present, ^ 412 (future perfect,
salvation
:

progressive bead feohtende, 413, passive: beo gelufod, be loved


4)
: ;

will be fighting (Jos., x, 25)


;

xlc trcop (^If. Gr., 26) byd forcorfcn, each tree shall be hewn down (Matt, iii, 10 Luc, 6, 38) pyrd him pile gegearpod, punishment shall be prepared for them (C,
ic
; ;

I shall

28, 6).

INDICATIVE TENSES.
(2.)

189

for

ic pe sceal mine gelxstan freode, I shall keep my regard thee (B., 1706) J)u scealt peordan, thou shalt be (=wilt be) a comfort to the people (B., 1707) ; sceal gar pesan hxfen on handd,

By seed :

Ismahel hdten, spear shall be raised in hand (B., 3021) he sceal pesan he shall be called Ishmael (C.,2286); sceal pesan prutende (C, 17C2).
;

(3.)

By pille: pene ic pxt he gyldan pille, I think that he will pay (B., 1184); pu pill secgan, thou, wilt say (Met., 24, 48); Northumb. has
first

often uuillo in the


(4.)

person (Matt.,

xii,

44

x, 33).

By gd :

he

gxd rsedan,
lire.

Lat. pergit lectum, he

Gr., 25), Fr. Je vais


(5.)

See ^ 445,

By

hsp-bhe

uuillo, the

: pone calic pe ic to cup that I have to (=: shall) drink


;

is going to read (^Elf. and uton, ^ 443. drincenne hxbbe. North, done ic drinca

6,

of,

Lat. iibiturus

sum

(Matt.,xx, 22)
(6.)
bid, the

rare.

See

i^

453,

a.

So

in Goth.,

Romanic.

By eom : Mannes Sunu is to syllenne. North, sunu monnes gesald Son of Man is to (^ shall) be betrayed, Lat. tradendus est See ^451. The three last forms perhaps give no (Matt., xvii, 22).

(7.)

pure futures in the Anglo-Saxon literature. The future perfect is not discriminated. In its place may be a fuser pu dgilde, thou shalt not go thence, before (=till) thou shalt ture
:

have paid (Matt.,


habbad,
25).
(a.)
(b.)

v, 26)

we

will

come

a perfect: pit eft cumad siddan pit dgifen again, after we (shall) have completed (C, 174,
;

The

Pure futures

English 41G. The Perfect represents an action as now come to completion. It is denoted (1.) By hwbbe : he hxfd mon geporhtne, he has made man (C, 25, 18) pe habbad lydre gefcred, we have got along badly (Sat., 62).
;

future forms are sometimes imperative, ^ 420, c. in sceal and pille are not sure in large numbers, and the distinction between the persons is not made out.

(2.)

By eom, with a few intransitives mostly of being and going: ic eom hider gefered, I am (have) hither journeyed (C, 498) so synd forddgdn, gone (El., 1227) farene, have departed (died) (Matt., ii, 20)
; ;

geporden, geseten, urnen,

Passive: eom
syndon
hi

+ pp.

of transitives

ealle

ping me synd gesealde,


;

things have been given

me

(Matt., xi, 27)

eom geporden-{-p.
15;
ic

all

p.

nii

gepordene tolysde (Psa.,

Ixxii,

pxs fulfremedlke
at

gehifod:=amatus sum (iElf. Gr., 26). 417. The Pluperfect represents an action as completed
past time.
(1.)
It is

some

definite

denoted

hine geporhtne, he had made him (C, 17,4); had gone (Bed., 1, 23). gefaren h.rfdon, they as liave a perfect in eom: pxs pd Icnctcn dgdn, (2.) By pxs with such

By

hsefde: hxfde

Passive pxs-^-^^. p. of transitives J)d spring had gone (El., 1227). se Hdilend gefullod pxs, he dsldh, when the Saviour had been baptized,
: :

he came up (Matt.,

iii,

10)

pxs gepordcn-\-i>.

p.

ccaru pxs genipod

190

TENSES MODES.
gcpordcn, care had been renewed (B., 1304)
Lat.
;

ic

pxs gefyrn gelufdd=

amatus cram

(/Elf. Gr., 20).

Subjunctive Tenses.
tenses follow in general those of the indicative, but indefinitely expressed in relation to the speaker. Futurity runs with doubtful possibility. In indirect sentences the time is
418.

The

time

is

to be taken in relation to that of the principal verb.

The Imperfect
cipal verb
:

home

often expresses time as future from a past of the prinspor pxt ic hine ham brohte, I swore that I ivould bring him with auxihary pohtan pxt hit ofergdn sceolde, (Gen., xliv, 32)
ic
;

would po by (Chr., 1053) wished that ihey should preach (Horn., 2, 20)
they thought that
it

bodian, pold perfect: pxt polde Future


;

Jhvt sceoldon

pijncan pundorlic, gif sbnig sbr pam ssbde pmt hit spa gepurdan would have seemed wonderful if any before that had said that

sceolde, that
it

should so

happen (Chr., 1052).

Sequence of Tenses.
419. Principal tenses
historical.

depend on principal tenses;

historical

on

I. Present Past, (a.) Exceptions. present narration or question of a past fact cart pu se mon pe p&re afed, art thou the man who was fed ? (Boet., 3, 1) comparison of present and past he is gen spa he pxs,he is
:

still

as he

was (Ex., 334,


ic

poipnd pe

(Boet., 3, 1).

pii hsefst forgiten para pe sealde, thou hast forgotten the weapons that I gave thee III. Past 4- Present a truth in narrative: pa Sciddeds, pje
:

5).

II.

Perfect

+ Past

on odre healfe bugiad, ne geheordon, the Scythians, who live on the other side, had not heard (the Roman name) (Boet., 18, 2); quasi oratio directa

in past narration

^ 413,

6.

Compare

^ 288,

c.

MODES. The Indicative,


420.

151.

The indicative

is

used

in

assertions, questions,

and

assumptions to express
(a.)

simple predication.

Primary.
is

there
{b.)

It is the primary form, to be used every where unless reason for some other.

Real.

Since there
is

is

a special

the indicative

used

in contrast to

mode for what may be and might be, speak of things as real ox fact. So in
for the imperative
;
:

a protasis, ^431.
(c.)

Imperative.

Tiie indicative future may be used

six

dagds pu pircst, six days shalt thou labor (Exod., xxxi, 15)

ne pylt pu

THE SUBJUNCTIVE.
me gcsajndan,
cxviii, 31).

191

Lat. noli
in

me

confundere, please not confound

me

(Psa.,

So

Greek (Hadley, 710) and Latin (Harkness, 470).

The Subjunctive,
The subjunctive ity, doubt, or wish.
421.
is

151.

used to express

mere

possibil-

subjunctive has the general range of the Latin subjunctive, with the infinitive having a subject accusative. Compare ^ 293, a. together briutor dead, ray 1. In declarative sentences (hypothetical): mere brother would not have died (Joh., xi, 21) punigc pxr he punige, he may

The Teutonic

mm

dwell where he
in

may dvvell=wherever
:

he

may
nc

dwell (^ctr.,

vi, 3, 1).

So
fail
1

Greek (Hadley, 722) and Latin (Harkness,


2.

48G).

Interrogative sentences (doubt)


;

fipd

m&ge

pdfian,

who can

to wonder'? (Met., 28, 43)

hpi

pu xfre

polde,
c)

how

couldst thou ever wish

(Met., 4, 33).
3.

So

in

Greek (Hadley, 720,


; ;

and Latin (Harkness, 486).


:

person

1st person (exhortation or request) fare pe towns (Mc, i, 38) up-dhebben pe his naman, exalt we his name (Psa., xxxiii, 3) ulon gdn, let us go (Mc, 14, 42) ; 2d ne sperigen ge, swear not (/Elf. LL. 48) nellon ge (comn^and)

Imperative sentences

on tunas, go

we

to the

pesan, do not be (Matt.,


praise be to

God

(Chr.,

16); 3d person (wish, demand) si Gode lof, sib si mid eopic, peace be with you (Ex., 1009)
vi,
:

282, 25)
9).
4.

beon gegaderode pa pxteru, let the waters be gathered (Gen., So in Greek (Hadley, 720, a) and Latin (Harkness, 487).
;

i,

Exclamatory
that
it

(wish, abridged subordinates)


8, 39)
;

Oh
if I

might be (Met.,
!

Ed

Id

gif

ic

Ed la ! Jjxt hit purdc, moste geefenl&can, Oh


!

might imitate (the blessed Lawrence) (Horn., 1, 432) Ed Id! gif pu p&re hund, Ah if (=would) thou wert a dog (Horn., 2, 308). So in Greek (Hadley, 721) and Latin (Harkness, 488, 1). 5. Li Co-ordinate and Subordinate clauses the subjunctive may every where be used as in the above examples to express a separate possibility,
;

doubt, or wish.

Disjunctives (doubt)
;

sam pe

pillan,
si hit

sam pe
nyten, be
;

nyllan,
it

whether we
be
it

will, or nill (Boet., 34, 12)

5/ hit

man,

man,

beast (Exod., xix, 13).

For adversatives, ^ 432

for

causals,

^ 433.
(rt.)

Subordinates

and take the subjunctive iu many cases where

share in the general posBibility, donbt, or desire of their sentence, it is not obviously the expression of either.

Hence the following

discussion, 422-434.

The Subjunctive
422.

in

Subordinate Clauses.
in clauses

The subjunctive maybe used by attraction

subordiuate to a subjunctive.
of so-called attraction are mostly better explained as illogical (a.) Cases conformation with some of the other rules ponne pu &nig ping bcgite pxs when thou any thing mayst take of that thou pe ]m pene pxt me licige,
:

192
maijst

SUBJUNCTIVE IN SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES.


xxvii, 3).

know {=knowcst) tliat may please vie (=/ like) (Gen., Compare Latin (llarkness, 5'37), Greek (lladley, 738).

A.
423.

Substantive Clauses,
in a

283.
clause

The subjunctive may be used

substantive
do7ie.

expressing something said^ asked, ViougJit, ioished, or


(a.)
(6.)

The indicative is used iu the same clauses to emphasize reality or fact, 420, 6. These clauses ofteuest represent an inlinitive with a subject accusative in Latin and Greek, but sometimes in them also the subjunctive is used (Harkness, 549-558 Hadley

703+).

subject, oftenest of a copula, impersonal or passive. hit is sxd pmt he (a.) An indirect assertion or question dhofe, it is said that he raised (up his hands) (Bed., 3, 16) ; ne pses me cud, hpxder egesa piire, it was not known to me, whether there was fear (of God) (C, 2710).
I.
:

424

The clause may be a

(b.) Something cognized: puhte him pxt fxgre stode pudubcam,it seemed to him that a forest tree stood fair (C, 247, 17).
(c.)
Jje

Something

to be

ys betere,pxt an Jnnrd forpeorde,


;

desired, as fit, necessary, enough, pleasant, etc. it is better for thee that one of thy
:

members
seems
425.
{a.)

(priests) that

perish (Matt., v, 30) gedafenad pxt hi heard Idre they their lore heed (Horn., 2, 342).

gymon,

it

be-

II.

The clause may be an


;

object.

cpedad pxt pu sie hlxfdige, they say that thou art a lady (Ex., 18, 15) sseged pxt hit come, he says that it came (from God) (C, 683) he sxgde pxt Sarra his speostor p&re, he said
;

An

indirect assertion or question:

that

Sarah was

his sister

(C,

158, 27)

hpxt secge ge pxt

ic stg,

what say

Gregorius befran hpxder folc Cristen pd've, pe hwden, Gregory asked whether the people Christian were or heathen (Horn., 2, 120) frxgn gif him pxre, asked if to him were (a
(Matt., xvi, 15);
;

ye that I

am?

pende pxt se mxsta dxl pxre, weened that the most was (aboard) (Chr., 911) gelyfe pxt hit come, I believe that it came (from God) (C, 679). (c.) Object of desire or fear {hope, heed, doubt, pray, etc.), see 315:
:

pleasant night) (B., 1319). {b.) Object of cognition

ic pylle pxt he punige, I will that he wait (John, xxi, 22) ; hopode pxt he gesdpe, hoped that he might see (Luc, 23, 8) so onegan, fear (C, 110, 1)
;

begymad, heed (Matt., vi, 1) biddad, pray (Exod., ix, 28), etc. d8 symble pxt ic m pine metige, I do continually that I {d.) Object done meditate thy law=English emphatic form I do meditate (Psa., cxviii, 174);
;
:

see further ^ 406,

a.
:

III. The clause may limit a noun or adjective sylle panne ddpjxt he nclle pcof be6n,ta.'ke the oath that he will not a thief be (LL. Cnut.,ii, heo geornast bid pxt heo dfxre fleogan, she is earnest to (that she) 21)

426.

frighten flies (Ps., 89, 10).

IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES.ADVEKBIAI..
most cases (a.) The clause is an appositive or genitive; in verbial of purpose or result. The same modal idea is here in a I. and II. ia in the verb.

193

might be conceived as adnoun or adjective which in

B.
427.

Adjective Clauses,
in

28 3.

The subjunctive may be used

indefinite adjective

clauses.

Hypothetical lelative sentence (Harkness, 501 Hadley, 757) syle pam pe pe bidde, give to him that asketh thee=if any one ask (Matt., v, 42) gehyre se pe edran hxbbe, let him hear who has ears (Mc., 4, 9) pyrce hpd pxt pazt he pyrce, odde do pset pset he do, one may work that, that (what;
:

ever) he

may work,
C.

or do that, that he

may do

(Boat., 37, 2).

428.

Adverbial Clauses, 28 3.
The subjunctive may be Compare 427.
; ;

I.

Clauses of Place.

used

iu

indefinite adverbial clauses of place.

Far, p&r pu freondd pene, go where thou hopest for friends (GH., 262) hafd Uetsunge pmr Pufere, take a blessing wherever thou goest (An., 224) pic geceos pxr pe leofost sie, choose a residence where to thee pleasantest may be (C, 2723). Oftenest indicative puna p&r ]je leofost ys, dwell where to thee pleasantest is (Gen., xx, 15); so with spa hpdr spa, wher:

ever (Chr., 1130)

spa hpider spa, whithersoever (Mc, 14, 14).

429. II. Clauses of Time. The subjunctive may be used


or indefinite time.

iu adverbial clauses of
;

future

(Compare Hark., 518-523

Hadley, 769.)

(a.) Future: ne gxst pu panone xr pii dgylde, i\\ou. goest not thence before thou shalt pay (Matt., v, 26) ; ic pxs &r pam pe Abraham p&re, I was before Abraham was (Jolin, viii, 58) gesprxc Beopulf, &r he stige,
;

Beowulf

said before
till

stay there

ye depart (Mc,

he found (the

pmiiact par 6d pset ge iitgdn, he sohte 6d he funde, he sought till cup) (Gen., xliv, 12). In Greek, vpiv with an infinitive,

he mounted (B., 076)


6, 10)
;

Hadley, 769.
(b.) Indefinite ponrie pii fxsle, smyrd Inn heafod, when thou fastest, anoint thy head (Matt., vi, 17) bad, hponne peard reste dgedfe, waited, so with penden, (for the time) when the Lord should give rest (C, 1428)
:

until (B.,
vi, 12).

1224)

spd lange spa (Deut., xxii, 29); ]m hpile pe (LL. ^Edr.,

430.

III.

Clauses of Manner

(intensity).
in

The subjunctive may be used

clauses of

comparison

expressing that -which is imagined or indefinite, or descriptive of a force (Hark,, 501, 4). (a.) pass se muna, spilcc he pxre mid blade hegoten, the moon was as if it were with blood washed (Chr., 734) bete spd hit riht sie, let him pay as
;

19-i

SUBJUNCTIVE. CONDITIONAL. CONCESSIVE.FINAL.


;

it may be right (LL. JE\L, 38) strciigrc ponne rose sy, (I am) more fragrant tlian any rose may be (Ex., 423, 19) }m gesyhst mare Jjonne pis sy, thou shalt SCO more than this is (John, i, 50), an extreme case.
;

{b.)

Consecutive clauses, descriptive of a force:


^ 434.

sj>d

stcarc pinter pxt

ic

durre lulian, winter so severe that I dare to stay at

home

(.^Ifc. Col.).

Compare

431. IV. Conditional


is

Clauses,
n,

283, jx 141.

The subjunctive

possible, the inqjer/ect nud Greek, Hark., 502+ Had., 744+.)


;
:

protasis when proposed as when assumed as tmrcal. (So iu Latin


used iu
chil-

(The indicative proposes as real gif gi AbraJiamcs learn synd, since ye Abraham's dren are (do his works) (John, viii, 39).)
(a.)

Present

send to Iligelac (B., 452).


:

gif mec hild nime, onscnd Higeluce, if me For inverted clauses, ^ 485, G, c.
if

battle take,

{b.) Imperfect gif pu pivre her, nxre min brodor dead, been here, my brother had not died (John, xi, 32). (c.) So with on pxt gerdd pa:t, on condition that (Chr., 945)

thou hadst

pid pam pe,

same (Gen., xxix,

27).
:

liUon hpd beo ednipan gecenned, unless one be (fZ.) Negative condition born again (he shall not see God's kingdom) (John, iii, 3) so nefne (B., butan pxnne, {pa) ex1056); nemne (Ex., 124, 12) nymde (C, 205, 19) cept when (Men., 32; Sat., 391).
; ; ;

Clauses. The subjunctive may be used iu


432.

V. Concessive

concessive
it,

clause.

Hpxt fremad, peak


shalt suffer,

he gcstryne, what profiteth

though he gain (the

whole world) (Matt., xvi, 26); pu scealt dreogan, pcuh pin pit duge, thou though thy wit is good (B., 589) peak pu to hanan purde, though thou wast a murderer (B., 587). For inverted clauses, ^ 485, 6, c.
;

first

The indicative is used in similar clauses. The English discrimination between the and second examples was growing. for Greek, see Iladley, 8T4. (6.) So in Latin (Hark., 514+)
(a.)
;

433.

VI. Final
:

Clauses.

The subjunctive

is

used iu

ckauses expressing

purpose.
hand ofcr

(So in Latin and Greek, Hark.,


pxt hco hdl sy and
5, 23).

500+
(a.)

Had., 739 + .)
sete p/ine
hlg,
libhe, lay

Present

thy

hand upon
(b.)

her, that she


:

(as aid) that


(c.)

Imperfect devil) took the woman he might deceive (the man) (Job, 166). Negative clauses with py hrs, Lat. quo-minns, or py Ixs /e>Eng.
scip,

may be whole and live (Mc, genam pmt pif pxt he bespice, (the

lest

ssblde

py

Ixs ydd

prym forprecan
it

lest the

waves' force might wreck


iv, 6).

(B., 1918)

mcahte, fastened the ship, heron, py Ixs pe pin fot


;

xtsporne, they bear (thee), lest (so that less by that) thy foot
against (a stone) (Matt.,

may

dash

POTENTIAL,

195

434. VII. Consecutive Clauses. The subjunctive may be used to express

a result.

Gifmon sie dumb odde deaf geboren, J)wt he ne mxge his synnd onseche can not deny his crimes {JE\t\ ,gan, if one be born dumb or deaf, so that LL., 14). Consecutive modal clauses in spa pxt, see 430, b. So in Lat.,
Hark., 501
;

in

Greek, wort with an

infinitive

(Hadley, 770).

The Potential,
435.
necessity, or duty.
{a.)

151, 1V6.
liberty, permission,

The potential expresses power,


it is

In some cases
;

perative

in

most cases

it

only a periphrastic form of the subjunctive or im adds a distinct notion of power in some form.

form of the auxiliary sometimes takes the place of the (b.) The indicative but generally a subjunctive clause subjunctive ending of the principal verb, retains the subjunctive form of the auxiliary, making a doubly-expressed or ivish : ic nu syllan polde, I now would wish to give possibility, or doubt,
(B., 2729).
(c.)

The

where the gerund

principal verb takes the infinitive, except after is used.

com and habban,

verb is often omitted, especially a verb of motion before (d.) The principal an adverb of place. Examples under each. declarative: ic mmg 430. 1. Mceg (^^ 176, 212), physical power; (hypothetical), ecide mihte Crist pesan God, I can be God (C, 18, 35) subordinate clauses, pum'an, easily might Christ have dwelt (Horn., 1, 164)

gifheo meahtc, if she might, (she chose) (Bed., 4, 23) final: heo polde hire edel forlMen, pxt heo meahte geearnian, she would principal give up her estate, that she might earn (one in heaven) (same)
e. g. conditional
;
; ;

verb omitted
against

helle

gatu ne mdgon ongedn pa,

hell's gates

can not (prevail)

ne can ic cop, I know you not (Matt., xxv, 2. Can (^^ 176, 212) Intellectual power; declarative: ic can eop l&ran,\ can 12; frequent). conditional: ponne he ne can subordinate clauses; teach you (Sat., 250) principal verb omitted ongitan, if he can not understand (Boet., 39, 2)

437.

it

(Matt,, xvi, 18).


:

saga, gifpil cunne, say, if thou can (say) (El., 857) did as they could (do) (C, 232, 11).

dydon spa
:

hie cudon,

438.

3.

Mot

{^^ 176, 212), possibility through permission

pxr

ic sittan
;

mot sumorlangne dxg, there I may sit the summer-long day (Ex., 443, 28) duty mot ic him forgifan, should I forgive him (seven times)'? (Matt., eallc pe inoton speltan,a.ll we must die (Exod., xviii, 21) necessity (rare) subordinate clauses xii, 33) object: bxd pxt he moste niman, besought

that he

might take (away the body) (John, xix, 38) ; omission of principal verb: gif{pe) Jtidcr moton, i(\vc thither might (go) (Sat., 302).
439.

4.

Dear, dorsle (^^ 176, 212), power of

will in

danger: ne dear

196
ford gan,
I dare not

rOTENTIAL. IMPERATIVE.
;
;

result hit go forth (C, 54, 1) subordinate clauses pxs to-gefultumiende, pxt him vion noht hefigcs gedon dorste, Lat. ipse juvans, ne qui (iis) quicquam molesticE inferrct, he was helping, so that no one might (dare) do anything grievous to them (Bed., 5, 11); rarely
:

auxiliary.

440. 5. Present; declarative future indicative, pille (<^^ 176, 212). see ^ 415 ; imperative ne pille pu pepan, Lat. noli plorare (Hark., 538), ne pylt Jm, same (Psa., cii, 2). Imperfect please not weep (Bed., 4,29) declarative ic sund minum syllan polde, I to my son would give (if I had

one) (B., 2729).

Subordinate clauses;

purpose,
when thou

result

pses

gepunod pxt
;

he polde gan verb omitted


c, 1,

to s,
:

was wont

to

go

to the sea (Horn., 2, 138)

principal
me
(Psa.,

hpxnne pu me pyllc

to,

wilt (come) to

and

necessity

441. 6. Sceal, sceolde (^^ 176, 212) hu miccl scealt pu, how much owest thou? (Luc, 16,5. Matt.,xviii, 24) necessity under law or external force be ure x he sceal speltan, by our law he ought to die (John, xix, 7)
;

often).

for a

purpose

ic hie

sceal wrest gepinnian,pxt ic siddan

mxge,
;

I must first dispel them, that I afterward may (bring light (Boet., 5, 3) a future sign, see 415 imperative ge sculon herigean, IjZ.t. laudate, ]pra.ise ye (the name of the Lord) (Psa., cxii, 3). Imperfect: spijlc sceolde sccg
;

pesan pegn, snch a warrior should a thane be (B.,2708);


hell
;

subordinate

clauses: he cpxd pxt helle healdan sceolde, he said that he should inhabit

(C, 530) passive forhtian pxt he gelxded heon sceolde,to fear that he should be led (to hell) (Bed., 3, 13) result nyd pxt he hrxdllcur feran sceolde, need that he should travel more rapidly (Bed., 3, 14) principal
:

ic

verb omitted

442.

him xfter sceal,!

shall (go) after

him (B.,2816).

7.
:

])earf,

need (^^ 176, 212), common as a notional verb, rare as

an auxiliary
Lat. ut non

syle me pxt pxter,pxt me ne pyrste, ne ic nepurfe her feccan, sitiam neque veniam hue haurire, give me the water, that I may
iv, 15).

not thirst, nor need {co7ne) here to draw (John,

443.

8.

TSton, putun, O. Saxon wita (^^ 176, 224,

c), pres. subj. plur.

Compare Lat. camus, age, It. andiamo, Fr. allons ; imperative clauses putun gangan to, let us advance (B., 2648) utan touten is in Layamon, but the brecan, let us break (their bonds) (Psa., ii, 3) common form is the subjunctive with we : lete we peos ferde bilxue, and speke we of Ardure, let we this host remain, and speak we of Arthur (25407).
1st o{ pitan, to go.
:

The English
For

pure auxiliary

let is later yet.


;

potential

eom,

i^^

451

415,

6.

For heebbe,

W 453, a

415, 5.

The Imperative,
444.

149,151.

The imperative
;

is

used in commands.
iv,

V,

Gd, go (Mc, 5, 8) gayig pu, go thou (Matt., 18); 7ie beod ge,he not yc (C, 194, 11).

10)

gad, go ye (Exod.,

INFINITIVE
{a.)

AND GERUND.INFINITIVE.
:

I97

In hypotlietical sentences

secad and ge hitfindad, seek and (=if

ye seek) ye
(e.)

shall find (Matt., vii, 7).


for imperative, ^ 421, 3.

Subjunctive
/?j7/e,

Indicative
Potential,
(c.)

for imperative, ^

420,

c.

So

^ 440; sculon, 441. through the Indo-European tongues.

The Infinitive and Gekund.


445. Their forms, 173-175, 177, 181, 352, V. micel is to secgan, there 1. The infinitive in an rarely uses to
:

is

much
;

to say (Gii., 502)

dfijsed bid to secan,


;

it is

B., 316
2.

C,

220, 25
in

The gerund

Ex. 187, 27, etc. -ende appears in the

prepared to seek (Ph., 275) Grein.

so

later manuscripts of the Chronicle,

and spreads: Nero dgan to rixiende,'Ne):o began to rule (Chr., 49) he sende to hodiende, he sent to preach (604) coman Crist to purdiende, they came to honor Christ (2). See ^ 4G0. So in ^Ifric's Grammar. 3. The infinitive and gerund sometimes interchange in most of their uses,
;

if not all.

Tlie progressive future is rare ongedte hine hahbende Icon, he to be about having, Lat. se fuisse habiturum (Bed., 5, 8). himself
4.
:

knew

5. Future passive about to be led, Lat.


6. jElfric

ne tpeoge

ic

me

gelibded beon, I did not doubt myself

me rapiendum

esse (Bed., 3, 13).

gives as the Latin future active

amatum
;

ire vel

amaturum

esse,

vis doctum ire, pilt j)u gdn Anglo-Saxon /aran liifian, to be going to love The English is a leornian, will you go to learning (^If. Gram., p. 25). Sure examples o{ faran or gdn, without true future=o be about to love. notional force, are needed from Anglo-Saxon literature. See ^^ 443 415, 4.
;

Infinitive,
446.

149, 151.

The infinitive
:

is

construed as a
;

neuter noun.

(So in

other tongues
447.

Latin, Hark., 548

Greek, Had., 762 + .)

subject: hine ridan lyste, to ride pleases him (Boet., 34, on Reste-dagum pel don, is to do well lawful on Sabbath days ? 7) ; dlyfd to donne, it (Luc, 6, 9) sometimes with to : is dlyfed on Reste-dagum pel is lawful on Sabbath days to do well (Matt., xii, 12).
1.
;

Direct object. (1)" Of beginning and ending (acts exerted establish right (C, 2, 17) on other acts) ongunnon rsbran riht, began to Romune blunnun ricsian, Romans ceased to rule (Bed., 1, 11) ; (2) of
448.
2.
:

motive
etc.)
:

(acts

moving
I

to other acts

desire, seek, intend, expect, dare, dread,


2,

pille

faran,

wish to go (Hom.,

372)

secad

to

ne dear ic faran, go pencad (C.,243G); myntan (B.,712); ceara (C, 2279) ; (3) definitive object of ability, duty, xliv, 34) (Gen., habit (acts and states defined by acts) ic mxg secgan, 1 am able to say
;
:

(John, viii, 40) I dare not

198
(Cri., 317)
;

INFINITIVE.- GERUND.
cmton don, were able
;

to

do (C, 189)

he sceal spellan, he
to

ought
call

to die (John, xix, 7)

gcpunedon moder cygean, they were wont


;

(her)
:

motion

mother (Bed., 4, 23) /Icon gcpat, he went to

(1)
fly

general motion =: he flew away

defined by specific

(C,

136, 23)

com

flcogan, came flying (89, 10); com gojigau (B., 710); co?n drifan, came driving=fell (on a rock) (Bed., 5, 6) ; so with faran,feran, glldan, ndan,
scrktan, s'ldian, tredan, etc.
(a.)

See

further under Participles, 458, 2.


415,

These forms niu to periphrastic forms of the future and potential, see

449.

435+.

3.

The infinitive
first object.

is

used as a final object to express

an act

of the

This occurs oftenest after verbs of


{a.) Cognition geseah rincd manigc spefan, saw many heroes sleep (B., 729); leode secgan hyrde, heard people say (B., 1340); ongeate hinc liahbende beon, he knew (himself to be having) that he should have (this
:

number of years) (Bed.,


{d)fandian, geinetan, etc.

5,

The

8); so after seon, gehyran, gefrignan, findan, direct object is sometimes omitted secgan
:

hyrde,

heard say (B., 582).


1).
:

Teaching

Ixr us gebiddan, teach us to

pray (Luc, 11,


(6.)

hxd hine faran, bade him go (Chr., 1050) hutan men gcpyrcean, ordered men to build (B., G9) so with {be)he(}dan, forbeodan, etc. Direct object omitted hM fealdan ]jxt segl, orders to furl the sail (Boat., 41,3). lictad pd (c.) Let: Iclon holm bcran,\et the sea bear him (B., 48)

Bidding

Itjilingds to

me cummi,
alyfan.
:

suffer the little ones to

come

to

me (Luc,
ciii,

18, IG).

So forlMan,
(d.)

Make

dcd

hi calle beofian,
:

makes

it all

tremble (Psa.,

30).

gcsepen Mod peallan, blood was seen to hard and spyn synt forbodene to spring from the ground (Chr., 1100) wishxt-hrinenne, hares and swine are forbidden to touch (Lev., xi, 6-8)
(a, b, c.)
; ;

With passives pws

ing
62).

polde hyne genemnedne beon, he wished him to be named (Luc,

1,

Note

This

construction gives rise to the accusative before the infinitive, for which see

293.

Gerund,
450.

173, 175.
3.

The

so-called gerund usually answers to the Latin gerund, supine,

or ut with the subjunctive.

451.

But see \ 445,


after the

I.

The gerund

copula

expresses what must,

may, or should be done.


Mannes sunu
xvii, 22)
;

is to syllanne, the Son of Man must be delivered up (Matt., his apostolds to farenne pseron, his apostles were to go (LL. -a^lf,49, 1) ; seo lufu is dd on mode to hcaldanne,love should always

be kept in mind (Bed.,

1,

27).

GERUND. ATTRIBUTIVE. OBJECTIVE.ADVERBIAL. 199


(a.)
(6.)

The act may be done to or hy the subject. Latin periphrastic conjugations in -rus and -dus (Hark.,

452.

227-233).

II.

Attributive.

The gerund

is

sometimes used to

describe or define a

noun.
;

Nedd
to

is to donne, there is need of acting (LL. JE,&r., vi, 42) gepeald m&l to feran, time to go gyrpanne, power of working (C, 280) mihte to forlxtenne, power to forgive (John, xix, 10 Mc, (B., 31G)
;
;

2,10).
(a.)

Latin genitive of the gerund (Hark., 563).

453. III. Objective. The gerund may be used object to exj^ress an act on the first object.
After verbs of having and giving
to
:

as a final

ic

hwbbe mete
to etenne,

to

eat (John,

iv,

32)
;

si/ht

mc

hlaf
to

gives

etanne,! have meat me bread to eat

(Gen.,xxviii,20)
xvi, 12).

ic

sende fl&sc

etanne,\ send flesh to eat (Exod.,

Note nim

past ic pe to sillenne hahle, take that I to thee to give have, ic hsshhe pe to secgenne sum pjing, I have something to say (Ap., 12) to thee (Luc, 7, 40), Lat. hac dicere habeo (Cic. N. D., 3, 39), Ov^iv
;

avTUTTUv

direct object omitted: hire syllan ix(a (^sch. Prom., 51); etan, to give to her to eat, Lat. hihere dart (Liv., 40, 47), SoOijvai ^aytiv
8, 55).

(Luc,
(a.)

Hence a periphrastic future I have to drink = I shall drink, 5 415, 5. ondred to faranne, dreaded to go (6.) The gerund as genitive object is pretty common (Matt., ii, 22) wished to see (siii, IT.) Other objects occur, 448, 2).
: ;

454.

IV. Adverbial,
of motion.

l.

The gerund

is

used to denote

the

purpose
often

tit

code se saidcre to sapenne, the sower went out to sow (Mc, 4, 3) so without to: gretan eode, went to greet (C, 146, 31); gepat neosean, went to see (B., 115) sonde bodian, sent to preach (Bed., 3,
; ;

22).
(a.)

The Latin supine

in

-um

(Hark., 509).

2,

The gerund with an adjective may express an


;

act for

which any thing is ready. Hracte Mud to dgeotanne, ready


farenne, ready
to

to shed blood (Psa., xiii, 6) fuse to go (B., 1805); so gearu, rcope, spict, etc. Compare hii pit;rc pu dyrslig ofstician bar, how could you be daring (=how dared you) stab a boar? (^Ifrc), ^ 448, 2; gcarpe gehyran,rea.(iy to
(iillfrc.).
570, 552, 3).

hear
(a.)

Latin supine in -u, and infinitive (Hark.,

The gerund with an adjective may express an act in respect to whicli smy thing is pleasa7it,u7i2}leasaiit,asi/^worth9/^
3.

321, 302.

200

rARTlCIl'LES.
;

Gladii on to locicnnc, pleasant to look on (Boet.,G) grimllc to geseonnc, grisly to sec (Ex., 57, 15) tVc on to findannc, easy to find (Psa.,lxxvi, 16) > pyrde to alditcnne, worthy to receive pardon (C, 6:22 Matt., iii,
;

11).
(a.)

The Latiu supine

in -, for

which often au

infinitive (Hark., 570).

PARTICIPLES.
455,
1.

The Melation of the Forms.

The -nd

denote completion.
things completed,
(a.)

of the present denotes continuance; the -en, -d of the past The completed acts are naturally used to describe the
i.

e.,

few past

participles

are passive. are

active, druncen, foisporen, gesprecen,


;

drunken with beer (B., 531, and o^ten) foisporen, keom pus gesprecenum., forsworn, perjured (Gen., xxiv, 8, and elsewhere) they thus having spoken (Nic, 27, and elsewhere) gchjfed folc, people
etc.: beoj-e druncen,
; ;

having believed (Horn.,


tus, etc.

1,

144)

so Gothic

(Mc,

xv, 28), Lat. potus,jura-

participles have (1) adjective endings, and agree with nouns but the difso slight between an act asserted as done by the agent, and as descriptive of the agent, that the participles are used (2) like infinitives, and (3) as abridged clauses. The two last uses are less common in Anglo-Saxon than in Latin or Greek (Harkness, 5T1(2.)
;

The
is

ference

581

Hadley, 7S5-S0C).

(3.)

Weak and

strong forms, see

362, 119, b.

The Comhmations.
456.

participle agrees with

its

substantive

in gender,

niimher, and case, 361.

participle may govern the case of its verb. man rihtpls and ondrMende God, a man righteous and seo foresMe hoc, the aforesaid book (Horn., fearing God (Horn., 3, 446)
I.

Attributive

2,118).
(a.)

Abridged.

Here
to
:

xlcne

man cumendne

belong many abridged clauses, ^ 281 onhjht pysum middanearde, hghteth every man coming
:

(who comes)
(b.)

living

things

to this world (W. P. T., 4). Subject omitted persons ealrd libbendrd mbdor, mother of all Godes gecorcnan, God's chosen (Hom., 2, 454) (Gen., iii, 20) frumrlpan gongcndes and peaxendes, first fruits of that going and

growing (LL. ^If., 38).


(c.)

Compounds with im- abound

45'7.
first

secgende pms,l was saying (An., 951) pies agdn, the time was gone (An., 147) fct sint gebundenc, feet are
II.
:

in the

Teutonic tongues.
;

Predicative

ic

VERBALS.
bound (C, 24, 18)
;

201
lie

paldend licgad dredme bedrorene, the powerful


177,

be-

reft of joy (Ex., 291,8).


(a.)

Hence the progressive forms,

411

the perfect of intransitives,

55 16S,

416; the

passives, 17S, 409.

458. III. Objective: (1.) direct object after verbs o^ beginning and ending: geendude bebeodende, he stopped giving commands (Matt., xi, 1)., com ridende, came riding (Horn., (2.) Definitive after verbs of motion com gangende (Matt., xiv, 25, and often) cj?o?n gefered (Sal., 2, 134)
:

perhaps never exactly the Germ, kam gegangen) pind pedende fxrcd, continued asking (John, viii, 7). (El., 1274) purhpunedon acsicnde, they verbs of emotion ondredon June dcsigendc, (3.) Genitive object after
178
;
; ;
:

dreaded asking him,

pundredon geseondc dumbe specende, they wondered to see the dumb speaking (Matt., xv, 31). of cognition hine geseah sittendnc, saw (4.) Final object after verbs him sitting (Luc.,xxii, 56) geseah his hus dfylled, saw his house filled (St. G., G) gehyrdon hine specende, heard him speaking (John, i, 37). he hsofde hine geporhtne, he had him wrought (5.) Final after having (C, 17,4). Hence tbe perfect in Teutonic, Romanic, Romaic, rare Gr., Lat.
i<poj3ovvro tizipwTuaai (Mc.,ix, 32)
; :

(a.)

TTiese correspond with infinitives, 44S, 449, 453.

459.
waited,

IV. Adverbial.
saw
(St. G., 4)
;

(1.)

Time:

ha pxccende geseah, he, when he

nolde, gcladod, sidian, he would not,

when

invited,

go (Hom.,
(2.)

1, 128).

Cause: dyde
Concession
:

aigder to

dnum, tupurpende feondscipds, made both


1,

at

one by abolishing enmities (Ilom.,


(3.)

106).
lend,

syllad,

nan ping gehyhtende,

though hoping

nothing (Luc,
(4.)

vi, 35).
:

Co-existence

gccyrdon pa hyrdas puldrigcnde and herigcnde God,

the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising


(a.) (&.)

God
b.

(Horn., 1,33).

Such constructions are often abridged clauses,

2S1.

For the

absolute

construction, see 304, d; 295,

Verbals.
4G0.
e. g.,
1.

The Anglo-Saxon

verbal in -ung, -ing (^ 233),


:

is

a true noun,
I

governed by a preposition

ic

pxs on huntunge'^'EiUgX.

was a hunt-

ing (iElfc).
2. The gerund in -ende (^ 445, 2) changed to -ing (Layamon, 2G47), and hence the old English use of the form in -ing as a verb / am to acOxford edition). cusinge you (John, v, 45, Wycliffc, 3. The present participle in -ende changed to -ing; and, in English, noun, participle, adjective, and infinitive (gerund) mix.
:

202

INTERJECTIONS. CONJUNCTIONS. COPULATIVES.

INTERJECTIONS,^
401.
(a.)
(Zi.)

263.
clause, 278,
c?.

The interjection has the syntax of a


(}

Compare vocative,
For the dative

289, d;

answers,

^^

39'J.

after so-called interjections, see ^ 298, b.

CONJUNCTIONS,^
402.

262.

Co-OEDINATE C O X J U N CT I N S.
Co-ordinate conjunctions
connect

sentences and

like parts of a sentence.

40 3.
1.
i,

Copulatives.
;

And
;

connects like clauses

cum and

geseok, come and see (John,


:

40)

words,
:

often an emphatic repetition

litlan

and

litlan,

by

littles
;

and

(Chr., 1110) ; sputor and spidor,worse and worse (Chr., 108G) correlatives feor and nidh, far and nigh (C, 177, 27).
littles

a general sign of connected discourse introductory to a sentence ne forseoh pit cyrliscne man, (Hail to thee, Apollonius). And do not so Shakespeare, "Yet ask^ "And shall I neglect a plain man (Ap., 7) havef^ (Rich. II., iv, 1) and often beginning a lyric, Southey, Moore so
It is
;

And

in

German, Goethe.
:

Strengthened sunu and fxder mgder, son and father hoth (Hy., 7, 42) and butu, and both (Ex., 125, 8) and edc, and also (Chr., 894) and cue and edc spa ilce (same), and also (Psa., xxx, 10; El., 1278) spa (896) and ealspd, and likewise (Luc, v, 33) and samod, and together (C, 456) and sodlice, and verily (Matt., ii, 9) and to, (nine hundred), and (seventy)
; ; ;
; ; ;

too

(C, 1224).
xii,

Correlative: and .... and,hoih. .... and (John,

28)

so Wycliffe,

Mc, ix, 21, and


&gder
and,hoi\i
(ge)

often).
;

ge

.... and (edc) both .... and (By., 224) bn {bdtpa) .... .... and (Ex., 64, 12). samod .... and, both .... and, both .... and (C, 40, 31)
. ;

and (C. 239, 27).

logical relations,

general connective, and may connect clauses having various and with or without other specific conjunctions. Adversative God geseah pone deofol, and se deofol spd-peah pses bcdihled Godes gesihde, God saw the devil, and the devil though was deprived of the sight of God (Hom., 3, 448) and nd pe Iws, and nevertheless (Chr., 1011) ic pylle 7nild-hcortnysse, and nd onssegdnyssc,
(a.)

As

wish mercy, and not sacrifice (Matt.,

xii, 7)

so beginning a sentence

COPULATIVES.
to enforce a contrast
:

203
on your best attire? (Shake-

And do you now put

speare, J.

C,

i,

1).

and heo hid hdl, believe, and she shall be whole (Luc, and for pon 7ie, and not for that (Deut., i, 32). Distributive ipa/n and tpdm, by two and two (Mc, vi, 7). See ^ 392. sc pe nxfd, and pxt (i.) And is often an emphatic particle (Gr. /cai) Pe he hsefd, him bid xtbroden, whosoever hath not, even that which he hath, from him shall be taken away (Matt., xiii, 13) And pu pxre mid pjam Gali:

Causal
viii,

gelyf,
;

50)

leiscean, thou also

wast with the Galilean (INIatt., xxvi, 69) so in Wycliffe Go and yee, go ye also (Matt., xx, 4, and often) not in use now. 2. Bu, correlative with and; which see. 3. Eac, ec, eke with like clauses eordan porhte,ltf eac gesccop, God
; : ;

earth wrought,

life

also created (B., 97).

It is also

used as an emphatic

particle alone, and with and, ge, hpiedre, ne, odde, spa, spilce, Jjcdh.

Eal spa, see


;

spa.

Eornostlice, see sudlice, ^ 463, 8. with like clauses siv brxc ge stcorran forlcton, the sea broke, 4. Ge and the stars ceased their light (Ex., 70, 33, rare) words ealde ge

geonge, old
30)

and young (Jud., 166).


:

Strengthened xghpseder ge, both (^(ts. LL., 1) butu ge, both (C, 46, ge edc, and also (Cri., 1170); ge edc spd same, and also likewise (Met., 11, 10) ; somod gc, at once both (Bed., 2, 9) ge spylce, and so also
; ;
;

(B., 22.58).

and (B., 1864) xgdcr ge .'. ge, both ge, and (Job., XV, 24) ge and (C, 752), see and. G?i^, both he pundrode, and ealle ; gelice Iacdbum,i. e. laco5. Gelice, likewise likewise James (Luc, v, 9). bus, he wondered, and all (that were with him) 6. Ne, ne, with like clauses heorgds pxr ne muntds stedpe ne siondad,
Correlative: ge
.

hoth

there hills 7ior mountains steep stand (Ex., 199, 6) Ne ne eton ge, neither do you eat (Exod., xii, 8).

general connective

Correlative

ne
. .

ne, not

nor (Gii., 670).


.

ndder ne

nddor ne . .

ne (ne), neither nor (Levit., iii, 17; Psa.,xxxiv, 12). nor (Matt., vi, 20) nor (repeated). ne, neither nor (also not) (Boet., 16, 1). ne edc ?je, not
. .
.

ac edc spylce (spa) and nalxs Jmt an l)xt him nd {nalxs) pxt an pa fugelds, ac edc spd pd fixds, and not only that the birds (were sub. . . ;

ject) to him, but also the fishes (St. G., 9)

so Goth., ni pat ain

ac

jah

(I

Tim.,

v, 13).

Note piston and ne pendon, knew (not) and Strengthenings, see 400. hoped not (that they should see) (B., 1604). 7. Sam bid oferfrorcn, sam hit sy sumor sam pintcr, is frozen over both when it is summer and winter (Oros., 1, 1,23), compare ^ 464, 5; spd
:

same
8.

Samod,

spd, see after, spd. see and.


;

Sodlice

general

sign of connected discourse

Sudlice Philippus

204
;w5,
9.

DISJUNCTIVES.AD VEllSATIVES.
Philip was (from Bctlisaida) (Jolin, i, 41), see under and; simicornostlke (Matt., ii, 1) pitodlicc (iii, 11). Spa, correlative sprccan spa yfel spa god, to speak as well evil as
;
:

Now

lar are

good (Nic.,6);
30).
10.

for other uses o? spa, see ^

473

these natures the same as

men

(Boet., 33, 4)

spa same spa, hea.sts have eal spa, also (Matt., xxi,

To, sec under and

pitodlice, see sodllcc.

46 4.
1.

Disjunctives,
or/(/c,

2G2.
ye have no

Aj)cter, mtcr, strengthens

which

see.
;

2.

Elles

bcgymad ;
:

cllcs

nxbbe ge mtdc, take heed

else

reward (Matt., vi,


3.
4.

Hpaeder
Ottde;

alternative
;
:

could not, far or nigh (C, 1029 B., 2870). Strengthened dder odde on boclande odde on folclande, either on hookland or on folkland (LL. Edw., 1, 2) odde euc, or also (Psa., cxvii, 12)
;
: ;

See also 397. clauses: hi nc mihton, odde Id noldon, they or they would not (Chr., 1052) -words fcor odde nca/i,

^ 262, b. correlative with pe and oddc, which see.


1).

oddc hpxder (Gen., Correlatives: odde


.

xliii,
.

27).

o^e,

either

...

or

odde gcmeian,oMe getellan,


1)
;

odde dpegan, either measure, or count, or weigh (LL. iE(ts.,


cuter
.
.

odde, either
.

hpxdcr hpxder
5.

0(/i:?e,

or (Hy., 10, 42) whether ... or (Num., xiii, 20)


;
.

...

uder tpegd

or whether (Gen.,xliii, odde hpxder, whether 27) odde, other of two (^either) ... or (By., 208).
.
.

Sam:
34, 12).
2>e,

sa7n

pe

pillan,

sum pe

nyllan, whether
is hit

we

will or nill (Boet.,

G.

or

alternative clauses
xxii, 17)

dlyfed pe nd,

is it

lawful or no

(Matt,
357).

;^words

p'lfhddes pe peres, of female or male (Ph.,


to heal (whether) or to de-

Strengthened
stroy (Mc, Correlatives
:

geh&lan hpxdcr pe forspillan,


4).
.
.

iii,

pe

/e, whether
.

...

or

(Mc,

xiii,
;

35)

(Ex., 95, 8); hpxder pe


/e, whether

pe (Matt,

xxiii, 17)

hpxdcr pe hpxder hpxder


: . . . . . .

...

or whether (Joh.,vii, 17).

465.
1.

Ad VERS ATI VES,


:

262.

Ac, ach, ah, but


:

; contrasted clauses

nis pis mseden dead, ac heo

slxpdiP) (Mc.,v,39).

more
3.

ac spidur, but rather (Ap., 20) ; ac nddcmd, but none the ac pedh hpxdere, but however (Horn., 1, 276). (Chr., 11^7) 2. Butan, see 431, c/.

Strengthened

Git, yet, correlative with concessive pedh

is

not yet found in Anglo-

Saxon.

CAUSAL.ILLATIVE. SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS. 205


4.

Ono

/ipxt, hut yet (Bed., 3, 24,

5. }^)eali,

things (C, 179, 16). not go in though Strengthened: and ne code pedh i, and (=but) he did and spa pedh, Goth, sve pauh, and yet even so (Horn., 2, XX, 5) (John,
before
;

yet ; tliey did not

contrasted clauses
know
;

Smith's ed.). lir ne ciuton


:

peak

hie fela piston,

yet they

knew many

(Met., 9, 38) spa pedh hpxdere, yet however (Psa., 157); spd'^se (Gu., 934, and often) ac pedh hpxdere, see ac. Correlative oftenest with a concessive although.

448)

emn spa pedh

cxviii,

pedh (pe)
spa
6.
.
. .

pedh, although ... yet (Boet., 1G,3).


.

spa pedh, although


;

yet (El., 498).

And na

])e lees (Chr., 1011)

ac nd
i,

Jte

md

(Chr., 1127). nevertheless;

/or ^on, notwithstanding (Deut.,


46
1.

32).

6.
;

Causal. Illative.

Nu, now
com,
(I
;

that, since

causal

pu me ne forpyrne, nu

ic

pus fcorran

come pray) that thou wilt not deny me, since I thus far have nu pe, since that (An., 485). (B., 430) 2. Jia, since (causal) pa hie ofgifen hxfde, (now he could replenish the
;

earth) since they had given


3.

it

Be })am
(Mandr.).

l)e,

by

this that;

up (C.,9C), see ^ 252,11. because: ongist pu hi be pam


it

P)e

heo on
night

nihte seined, thou

mayst know

because

it

shineth

in

the

4.

god,

For ]3am ]j3 {pam^pan, pon), causal: for pam pe Drihten lehet we will do thee good,/o?- this that (=because) the Lord has
:

For l^am
5.

promised good (Num., x, 29). because (Boet., 19) (causal)

illative

therefore

(C,

97).

bonne,
ntrfd,

since (causal)

who

hpd sccal to his rice fon, ponne he broder shall to his throne succeed, since he has no brother (or chil:

dren) (Horn., 2, 146). G. l)y, therefore (illative) (C.,34, 21)

pij /-e,
.

Correlative
7.

p^J
;

For

causal (John, vii, 22). J-)y {ln,pe) . Correlative for pi for pan pe, for this reason
: .
.

Pll pe,

on this account

because (Chr., 836). because (Chr., 836).


.

because

(Horn., 1,288).

Subokdixate Con unctions.


.t

467.

A subordinate
word

conjunction connects
Avith whicli it

subordinate
h.
tlie

clause and the

combines, 278,

a word in (a.) Most are really relative adverbs, or adverbial phrases modifying cipal and another in the subordinate clause. word or phrase may denote different logical relations between (().) The same
pairs of phrases, but

prin-

different
283.

we

will follow our usual analysis of the subordinate clauses,

206 SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES. DECLARATIVE CONJUNCTIONS.


A. Substantive Clauses.
4GS.
1.

Declaeative Conjunctions.

])det,
1.

substantive sign (the article of a clause).

With a subject clause: pAr gccijdcd pcard pxt God helpe gefrcmede, there was made known that God help gave (An., 91); cor-

relative pxt or hit : nis pxt fcor hconon paU sc mere storidcd, it is not far hence that the mere stands (B., 13G2) hit gelamp pxt (hie)
;

cpomon,

happened that they came (El., 272); quasi-appositive pedtdcen pxt hie gesohton, the fatal sign (was spread) that they
it
:

2.

should seek (his death) (An., 1123). With an object clause (a) accusative
that thou
art

ic

put

Jixt pii eart, I

know

(El., 815)

;-: correlative

mxnig pxt

P}xt gepeorded, tliat

happen (An., 1439); apposition: P)d peddxd to prxce ne settc, pxt hie berxddon, he would not avenge the wicked dccd^ that they
{b.)

pxt or hit: pxt gecyded the multitude shall show that it shall

deprived (of life the guiltless) (El., 496). Dative to pam arod, pxt he nedde, ready for
:

this, that

he ventured

(Jud.,275). (c.) Genitive:

268)

gcmyndig pxt gcsohte, sought correlative ^a?5 pe pxs sculon hycgan, pxt pc,we should strive
;

hio

mindful that she

(EI.,
for
I

this, that

we,

etc.

(C, 398) ; appositive

crxftes,

pxt pa me gct&hte,
^ 473
;

would ask knowledge, that thou teach


^

me

(An., 485).

434

{d.) jjaet is also used in final clauses, ^ 433 ; modal, to introduce a wish or lamentation, ^ 421, 4. ;

consecutive,

The uses oi pxt correspond with those of Goth. Jjatei, O. H. Ger. daz, and generally with Lat. iit, quod, Gr. on, Cjq, 'iva, and uttojq, Sa.ns\i.jat,jdthd. 2. ]}cette<ipxt pc has the same uses as pjxt ; for examples, see Grein. 3. 2)aet is, introduces an explanatory clause: ongunnoa hi pxt Uf onhyrigean, pxt
to

apostoUce on singalum gebedum Drihtne peopdon, they began imitate the apostolic life, that is, they served the Lord in continual prayis,
;

ers (Bed., 1, 26)


lived) with

mid fcdpiim brodrum, pxt is, scofenum odde eahtum, (he few brothers, that is, seven or eight (Bed., 4, 3). Nemlice is given by Koch and Thorpe for Lat. videlicet,\\\ie English
;

namely

but

it

does not occur in the passages cited by them.

^Ifric

translates videlicet by pitodllce.

Gram.,
:

p. 40.

4. Hu, how, object of cognition pe gehyrdon hu ge ofslogonVie heard how (that) ye slew (two kings) (Jos., ii, 10) gesdpon hu he pxs astigende, we saw how (that) he ascended into heaven (Nic, 18), frequent.
;

Prepositions sometimes govern clauses over where the child was (Matt., ii, 9).

siod ofer

pxr pxt

cild pxs, stood

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES ADVERBIAL CLAUSES.

207

4G9.

Intereogative Conjunctions.

1. Hpaeder: hefran hpmder folc Cristenp&re, asked whether the people were Christian (Horn., 2, 120). 2. Gif Jrxgn gif h'lm pivre, asked if to him were (B., 1319). 3. Similar is the use of hpanon, whence; hpai7\ where; hpxnne, when; 397-8. hpider, whither hu, how, and tiie like, see ^
:

4.

For

ne, ac, ah, hu, Id, as strengthening particles, see ^ 397.

470.

B.
"^^

Adjective Clauses.

These are connected


1.

to their substantive,

2.

By By

relative pronouns,

379-385, 427.

relative adverbs, ^ 398, 2.


;

(a.)

time, etc.

Adverbs of place connect to names of places of time, to names of on sumum dxge, pa pd Godes englds comon, on a day when
;

God's angels came (Horn.,

2, 440).

C. Adverbial Clauses.
connectives are relative adverbs pxr, where 428); pxr pxr, North, sua hucr, wherever (John, xii, 26) ne mxge ge cuman pyder ic fare, ye can not come whither I go (John, viii, 21) huer,

471.

Place.

The
vi,

(^

where (North., Matt.,


Correlative
/;?
.

21)

spa hpdr

5/;,

wherever

(^

428); spa hpider

spd, whithersoever {^ 428).


. .

472.

n.
(C,
h).

/a-b?-

(Matt., vi, 21).

Time.
:

junctive, ^ 429
ier Pjon

^r

Adverbial conjunctives mentioned under the subpon pxt (John, iv, 49, North.), xr pon pe (Jud., 252),
1.
;

2, 20),

xr, before (B., 676)

wr

xr

(B., 1370)

; oct

Jjxt,

od,
(^

till

(^ 429, a)

,})onne, hponnc, pcndcn, spa lange spa, pd hp'de pd

429,
2.

Others with prepositions


;

aefter

pam

pje ic arise, ic

cume,

after I arise

come (Mc, xiv, 28) mid pam pc (Horn., 2, 130), mid pij pc (Matt., xxvii, 12), mid pfj, whilst (Bed., 1, 1) ; of pon, since (Mc, ix. 20, North.) oa-mang (dmang) pam pe he Jmr pxs, while he was there (Chr., 1091),
I will
;

on

pam
3.

pe, while (Chr., 1050)


;

after that (100)

; sict pan, since (B., 656), as soon as (604), siddon pat (Chr., 1128) ; to pon pxt, until (B., 2591).

Without prepositions, pronominal: l)a, when (B.,632); pd pd pd (Chr., 1013), pd (Matt., iv, 2), pd pe ii, 3), /;a pd mid pam pe tlien when pd pd (Hom., 2, 450), mid pij pe pd (Nic, 15), pd (Chr., 1049), dmang pam pc 5), on pam pe (Ap., then (Horn., 2, on sumum dxge then whilst pd, on a day
.

(Matt.,

446)

sona pxs pe
nu,x\o\v

pe, after that (Bed.,

1,
.

then (Bed., 1, 12) pd, as soon after as J)ass nu (with causal shade), now that (Sat, 387) ; 11);

nu

since (C,,403).

208
4.
.

ADVERBDVL CLAUSES. CONJUNCTIONS OMITTED.


From nouns: hpllum
hp'ilc
.
.

(-on, -a?i)
. .

(Hy.,3,44, 45), sometimes


.

hp'ilc , \\\\\\c

then (Oros., 2, 4, 5)

sona spa
Jid, iis

hpllum (Ex., 15G, 30), hplle sometimes; lid liplle pe pa


.

spa, as soon as

so soon (Bed.,
1, 12).

1, 1);

sona pxs

Jje

soon

(;iftcr)

as

then (Bed.,

eal

473.

III.

Maimer

spa, see spa;

on

esfter

pam

pc, after the


jr/^a,

manner

that

(Luc,
;

efn, efen

likewise (Ps., 138, G)

gelice
;

ii,

24)

elpendes hyd pyle drincan pxtan gclic6 and spinge ded, elephant's hide will soak up water like (as) a sponge doth (Oros., 5, 7, 2) spylce gelice and seo p&re, such as if she were (Oros., 2, 4, 6) hu, see 468, 4
;

spa
. .

hcod gledpe spa nxddran, be wise as serpents (Matt., x, 16) spa spa, so as eal spa, wholly as (Horn., 2, 452) gelicost spa, most as if (Ex., 53, 15) then (Ex., 200, 16) (iElfrc.); spa .pa, as soon as spa spa Before and after an adjective or adverb spa, as ... so (Horn., 2, 450).
; ;
;
.

spa fela spa, so

many

as (^Ifrc.)

spa lange spa, so long as


;

(Mc,

ii,

19)

spa same spa, just as (Oros., 2, 4, 8) etc. Interrogatives spa hp&r spa, with comparatives spa (to such place as)=wheresoever (Matt., xxiv, 28) he hyd yldrd, spa he faegerra hyd, as it becomes older, so it becomes fairer
;

(Bed.,

1, 1)

; spilce,
:

as

if (^

430).
;

such a degree that (Bed., 4, 28) {to) pxs pe, so far as (B., 2410, 1350) py py ' hid py heardra, pe spidor hedtad, it becomes the harder, the stronger they beat against it (C, 80, 8), seo sdpul is ma ponne se lichama,i\ie soul is {b.) Comparison: J:)onne
(a.) Intensity

{to)

pxs

jjxt, to
\

more than the body (Luc,


(c.)

xii, 23).
;

Consecutive

spa, ^ 430, b

pxt

spd pxt, ^ 434.

474.IV. Causal,
475.
tive huton, nefne,
;

gif, on pxt gerdd, pid pam pe, and the neganemne, nymde, bulayi pxnne, butan pd, are illustrated in sc pe pille, whoever will, spd hpd spa, whopxr, if (C, 797) 431 nxre pxt, if it were not that (Chr., ever, see hypothetical relatives, ^ 427) ono gif, same compare gelice and, 943) ono nu, if now (Bed., 1, 27) an and and for if occur in Layamon, and are common in old ^ 473, III

V. Conditional:
;

^ 466.

English.

476. VI. Concessive pedh, though, see 432 spd forg'ifus gyltds, spd pe pidpe oft dbylgead, forgive us our debts, though we against thee often
:

sin

(Hy., 6, 23). 477. VII. Final: pxt, and the negative Py Ixs pe, see ^ 433; pxt, to the end that (John, i, 31).

to

pam

Conjunctions Omitted.
478.
1.

Copulatives

are often omitted.


: . . .

2.

Where Where

clauses are numbered by adverbs first secondly, etc recurring words mark the related clauses edld, pxt ic earn
:

ealles leds

.,

pxt

ic

ne

mxg

gerxcan, Alas, that

/am

of

all

bereft

rKlJsCIPAL RULES OF SYNTAX.


that

209

/may

(Psa., xlvi, 6)
3.

not reach (heaven) (C, 275, 7) ; singad, singad, sing, sing not so common as in English.
;
:

he is closely related, especially a climax ealrd hedhgesceaftd,frea xbnihtig, he is of power rmegnd sped, heafod the essence, head of all high creatures. Lord Almighty (C, 3).

Between circumstances

4.

Between

antithetic clauses or

words

pudu bxr sunu,fxder fyr, wood


row of copulates
cxlviii, 8);

the son bore, the father fire (C, 2887). are omitted from part only of a (a.) Sometimes they
fijr,forst, hcvgel,

and sndp,

fire, frost, hail,


:

and snow (Ps.,

especially between sets of pairs

frige and peope, sedele and unxdele, free

and

serf,

noble and unnoble (Ap., 12).

479.

Disjunctives
sets
if

are

seldom
:

omitted.

Sometimes between
north (C.,50, 10).

Sudan odde nordan,


480.

gif pind cymd pestan odde edsian, wind come from west or east, (or) from south or
of pairs

Adversatives
:

are

often omitted.
.

Between

antithetic clauses

or words, especially
.

negative

ne gelyfe pe

between a positive and pe sylfe gehyrdon, we do not believe (on


iv,

your report), we ourselves heard (John,


481.

42).

Causals aud
xi, 30.

illatives are

very often

omitted, John,

ii,

25

Gen,,

482.

PRINCIPAL RULES OF SYNTAX.

Substantives.
I.

A predicate
it

Agreement. noun denoting tlie same person or thing


case

as its subject,

agrees with
II.

in case, 286.

An

appositive agrees in

with

its

subject,

287.

Nominative Case.
III.

The subject

oio, finite verb is

put in the nominative,

288.

Vocative Case.
IV.

A compellative

is

put in the vocative,

289.

Accusative Case.
Objective Combinations.

V. The direct object of a verb is put in the accusative, 290. VI. Impersonals of appetite or 2}(ission govern an accusative of the
person suffering, 290,
c.

210
VII.

rRINCIPAL RULES OF SYNTAX.


Some verbs of asking and teaching may have two accusatives,
thing, 293.

one of a person, and the other of a

Quasi-predicative Combinations.

Vin. The subject of an infinitive is put in the accusative, 293. IX. Some verbs of making, naming, and regarding may have two
accusatives of the same person or thing,
294.

Adverbial Combinations.
X. The accusative
verbs, 295.
is

used to express extent of time and space after

XI.

The accusative

is

used with prepositions,

295,

c.

Dative and Instrumental Cases.


Objective Co?nbinations.
object of influence or interest is put in the dative, 297. XIII. Verbs of granting, refusing, and thanking may take a dative

XII.

An

and genitive, 297, d. XIV. Words of nearness and likeness govern the dative, 299. XV. The instnimental or dative may denote an object of mastery,
300.

XVI. Some words of separation may take an object from which in


the dative or instrumental, 301.

Adverbial Combinations.
or dative may denote instrument, means, manner, or cause, 302. XVII. The instrumental or dative may denote price, 302, c. XVIII. The instrumental or dative may denote measure of differ-

XVII. The instrumental

ence, 302,

d.

XIX.
302,
e.

Tlie

instrumental or dative may denote an object svj-orn by,

XX. The comparative degree may govern a dative, 303. XXI. The dative may denote time when or place where, 304. XXII. A substantive and participle in the dative may make an

ad-

verbial clause of time, cause, or co-existence, 304, d. XXni. The dative with a preposition may denote an object of influence or interest, association, mastery, or sejoaration or an instrumental,
;

ablative, or locative adverbial relation, 305.

Instrumental,

306-308.

FKINCirAL RULES OF SYNTAX.

211

Genitive.
Attributive Combinations.

XXIV. An attributive genitive may denote


of its
subject, 310.

the possessor or author

XXV. An attributive genitive may denote tlie subject or object of a verbal, 311. XXVI. An attributive genitive may denote tlie whole of which, its
subject
is

part, 312.

XXVn. An
subject, 313.

attributive genitive

may

denote a characteristic of

its

Predicative Combinations.
predicate substantive may be put ia the genitive to denote a possessor or characteristic of the subject, or the whole of

XXVin. A

which

it is part,

314.

Objective Combinations.

XXIX. The genitive may denote an exciting

object, 315.

XXX.

Verbs of asking, accusing, reminding,


315, .

may

take an accusative

and genitive,

XXXI. Verbs of granting, refusing, and thanking may take a dative and genitive, 315, 5. XXXn. The genitive may denote an object affected in part, 316. XXXIII. The genitive may denote an object of separation, 317. XXXIV. The genitive may denote an object of supremacy or use,
318.

XXXV. The
XXXVI. The
measure,
320.

genitive or instrumental
is

may denote

the material of

which any thing

made

or

full,

319.
adjectives

genitive in combination with

may

denote

XXXVII. The genitive in combination with adjectives may denote the part or relation in which the quality is conceived, 321.
Adverbial Combinations.

XXXVIII. The genitive may denote by what way, 322. XXXIX. The genitive may denote time when, 323. XL. The genitive may denote means, cause, or manner,
325.

324,

XLI. The genitive with a preposition is sometimes used to denote instrumental, ablative, or locative adverbial relations, 326.

212

PRINCIPAL EULES OF SYNTAX.

Peepositions.
XLII.
to

preposition govems a substantive, aud shows


in the clause, 337.

its

relation

some other word

Adjectives.
XLIII.

Au

adjective agrees with

its

substantive in gender, number,

and case, 361. XLIV. The Tveak forms are used after the definite article, demonand often in attributive vocatives, instrustratives, and possessives Comparative forms arc all weak, 363. mentals, aud genitives.
;

Pronouns.
XLV.

substantive pronoun agrees

-with its

antecedent in

gender,

mimier, and person, 365.

Adverbs.
XL VI. Adverbs
modify
veris, adjectives,

and other

adveu'ls, 395.

Verbs.
XLVII.
401.
Voices.

finite

Agreement. verb agrees with its subject

in

mmler and

2^srson,

XLVin. The

active voice
voice
is

is

used to make the agent the


olject

subject

of

predication, 408.

XLIX. The passive

used to make the direct

of the action

the sulject of predication, 409.

Tenses.
L. Principal tenses ical, 419.

depend on principal

tenses, historical

on histor-

Modes.
LI.

The indicative

is

used in
is

assertions, questions,

and assumptions

to

express simple predication, 430.


LII.

The subjunctive

used to express mere possibility, doubt, or


used by attraction in clauses subor-

wish,

431.

LIII. Tlie subjunctive dinate to a subjunctive,

may be
43fi.

PRINCIPAL RULES OF SYNTAX.


LIV. The subjunctive
ing something
427.
,
,'

213

may be used

in a substantive clause express-

said, asked, thozight, icished, or done, 423.

LV. The subjunctive may be used in indefinite adjective


L"\T!.

cUiuses,

The subjunctive may be used

in indefinite adverbial clauses

of place, 428.

LVII. The subjunctive


indefinite time, 429.

may be

used in adverbial clauses of future or


in clauses of

LVIII. The subjunctive


pressing that which
sible, the imperfect
is

may be used

comparison
of a force.

ex-

imagined or

indefinite, or descriptive

is used in a protasis when i)roposed as poswhen assumed as tinreal, 431. LX. The subjunctive may be used in a concessive clause, 432. LXI. The subjunctive is used in clauses expressing purpose, 433. LXII. The subjunctive may express a result, 434. LXin. The potential expresses power, liberty, permission, necessity,

LIX. The subjunctive

or duty, 435.

LXIV. The imperative is used in commands, 444. XLV. The infinitive is construed as a neuter noun, 446. XL VI. The gerund after the copula expresses what must,
should be done, 451.

mat/, or

LXVII. The gerund


453.

is

sometimes used to describe or define a noun,

LXVni. The gerund may bo used as a final object to express an act on the first object, 453. LXIX. The gerund is used to denote the purpose of motion, 454. LXX. The gerund with an adjective may express an act for which
any thing
is

ready, or in respect to

which any thing

is

pleasant, tinp)leas-

ant, easy, icortliy, 454.

LXXI.
case,

A participle
A

agrees with

its

substantive in gender, number, and


of
its verb,

456.

LXXII.

participle

may govern the case

456.

Interjections.
LXXIII. The interjection has the syntax of a clause,

46L

Conjunctions.
LXXIV. Co-ordinate
of a sentence,
4G2.

conjunctions connect sentences or like parts

LXXV. A subordinate conjunction connects a subordinate clause and the word with which it combines, 467.

214

AlUi.VXGElIENT OF

WORDS AND

CLAUSES.

ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS AND CLAUSES.


483. General rules for the arrangement of words and clauses are found
in

every language.

The

Latin order
;

is, 1.

subject; 2. attributives; 3. adverbial factors;

4.

objective factors Tlie German


jective factors
;

5. verb.

is, 1.

attributives; 2. subject; 3. adverbial factors; 4. ob-

5. verb.
is, 1.

The Anglo-Saxon
tors
;

attributives

2. subject

3.

verb

4. objective fac-

5. adverbial.

Deviation from the general

rules is frequent in all languages.

This

is

either rhetorical or poetical, for perspicuity, emphasis, or historical, preserving relics of old habits of the language.
is

euphony, or

When

any word

removed from

its

normal place,

its

attraction

may

take other words from

their places.
(a.) These deviations are generally freest in the early literature of early nations. Objects are there presented concretely with many attributes picturesquely grouped, and inverted constructions and unusual combinations are sought as part of the art of the poet and ora-

There is hardly a conceivable collocation of which examples may not be found in the Anglo-Saxon poetry, and the artificial meters and ornate periods of the Greeks and Komans. Very much of this freedom is still retained by the English poets and ornate prose writers. But the tendency of advancing speech is to an analysis of objects of thought, and to the use
tor.

of simple clauses, orderly arranged. The inflected languages allow more freedom in the placing of adjectives. In other combinations, the separable signs of inversion and of specific relations, possessed by the later
analytic languages, would seem to leave them freer. (&.) The additions of Alfred to Orosius, and his prefaces, models of natural arrangement in Anglo-Saxon.

have been specially studied as

Predicative Combinations.
484.
(a.)
(6.)

1.

The

subject precedes the predicate.


;

So throughout the Indo-Eiu-opean tongues

in the Semitic the verb leads.

The

rule holds for quasi-clauses,

281.

2.

The

copulative verb or auxiliary precedes the predicative noun or verb.

485. Exc2otions.
1.

Declarative clauses.

predicative noun may begin a clause for poetry, rare in prose) stod se j>rada boda, stood the fell envoy (C.,686); pxs se feond ful nedh, w&sihe fiend full nigh
(a.)

Emphasis.
:

emphasis

(verb very

The verb or common in

(C.,688);
great
six
is

(noun, not very common even in poetry) mycel ts se fxder, the father (St. Bas. 6) ; para pxron six stxl-hrdnds, of these were

(J).)

decoy deers (Oros., 1, 1, 15). Attraction. When an object or adverbial factor begins a clause, the

predicate is often drawn before the subject: (direct object) /eZa spclld him sdidon pa Beormds, many tales to him told the Beorms (Oros., 1, 1, 14)
;

PKEDICATIVE COMBINATIONS.EXCEPTIONS.
(dative)

215
;

and him pxs


;

a.

pid

see, to

him was always a wide sea

(1, 1, 13)

(adverb) ne mette he &r nan gehun land, not met he before any inhabited land (1, 1, 13) pa for he nordrihte, then went he northward (1, 1, 13) ; peer sceal beon ^e6?n?jc, there shall be drinking (1, 1, 21); p&r is 7nid Estum

pedp, there

is

among

the Esthonians a custom (1,


(1, 1, 16).
:

1,

21)

on

pdm morum

eardiad Finnds, in the moors dwell Finns


(c.)

Inserted clauses are


(5, 1, 1,

often inverted
;

quoth Orosius
1,

and often

tc pat, cpxd Orosius, I know, but in Alfred's own narration, he cpxd, 1,

16). 2.

See

also correlatives, ^ 485, 5, a.

Interrogative clauses.
:

In interrogative clauses the verb regularly precedes the subject, unless the subject contains the interrogative pronoun (so in other tongues) lufdst

pu

Tne, lovest

thou

me?

(John, xxi, 15)

but with an interrogative par-

ticle

there is often no inversion. See, for examples, ^^ 397-399. Questions of suggestion with no interrogative particle occur odde pe odres sceolon abidan, or we for another shall look ? (Matt., xi, 3).
:

3.

Exclamatory
:

clauses.

Exclamations with interrogative words often have the verb before the subject ed Id ! hu unprest is pela, alas how unstable is wealth (Chr.,
!

1087)

often

ed
;

Id,

hu egeslic peos stop

is,

how awful

this place is

(Gen., xxviii, 17)


4.

so in other tongues, ^ 421, 4.

Imperative clauses.
:

In imperative clauses the verb precedes the subject (so in other tongues) hdl p&s pit, be thou whole (Matt., xxvii, 29) purde god se ende, may The subject sometimes precedes a subthe end be good (Chr., 1006).
;

junctive form sib si mid eopic, peace be with you (Ex., 282, 25) other examples, sec ^ 421, 3.
:

for

5.

Co-ordinate clauses.

The

verb often follows next to the conjunction: and licgad pilde moras pid edstan, and lie wuld moors eastward (Oros., 1, 1, 16) and berad pa Cpends hyrd scypu ofer land, and the Cwens bear their ships over land (1, 1, 17) ac him pxs peste land,h\it. to him was waste land (1, 1,
; ;

13).
(a.)

Compare ^ 485,
often

b.

Correlatives

have the second clause inverted

ponnc

his ges-

treon bebd
is

pus

thus

all

panne hyrd man hine ut, when his wealth Parallelism is spent, then beareth one him out (1, 1,22).
eal dspended,
;
:

a marked feature of poetry the second clause is often inverted gdrocean roared, beat the sea waves secg hlynedc, beulon brimstredmus,
(An., 239).
6.

Subordinate clauses.
Substantive clauses generally have the
:

(a.)

subject

first,

even though

he dxode hu p&re peode an interrogative (in oralio obliqua) asked what the people's name might be (Horn., 2, 120).

nama p&re,\iQ

216
{[>.)

ARRANGEMENT. ATTRIBUTIVE COMBINATIONS.


Adjective clauses are inverted when the
:

relative is governed by
all flesh in

-d

preposition

eal fix.sc, on

pam pe
;

breath of

life

(Gen.,

vi, 17)

sometimes

is

lifes

gdst,

which

is

the

pxs ludas nama, one, to

whom was

with no preposition: &nne,])am Judas a name (El., 584).


inverted
(Oros.,
:

modal sometimes
devil
.sive, if

clauses of place and time are rarely (c.) Adverbial p&r bid man dead, he lid, when there is one dead, he lieth
:

ponne
21)
;

1, 1,

spa stod se deofol spa spa dcd se hlinde, so stood the


;

conditional and concesman (Horn., 2, 446) hid se tor pyrel, be the door opened (Jul., 402) ; nxfde he nsefre spa mycel yfel gedon, had he never so much evil done
as doth the blind

without sign

(=though he had) (Chr., 1087);


not though (Oros.,
7.
1, 1, 15).

sometimes with:

nsefde he peak, he had

Quasi-clauses.

(a.)

Participles sometimes precede their subjects

pe, all night toiling,

we

(took nothing)

(Luc,

v, 5)

absolute

ealle niht spincende


:

rixiendum

Eddbaldum, Eadbald ruling, (Mellitus departed) (Chr., 616). bearnleasne ge hahbad {b.) Factitives sometimes precede for emphasis
:

me gedonnc,

childless

ye have made

me

(Gen.,

xlii,

36).
2.

486. Exceptions to the second rule are frequent, 484,


;

Gefaren hxfdon, they had gone (Bed., 1, 23) he gyldan pille, he will pay (B., 1184) oferseon m&ge, may look over (Oros., 1, 1, 18) cal pxl his mun erian mxg, all that his man may till (1, 1, 16) pser hit smaUst p&re, wherever it smallest were (1, 1, 16); odde hyt eal died
;
; ;

but,

till

it

all laid is

(1, 1,

22)

him to be named (Luc, i, 62). So Romanic tongues (Diez, 3, 439).

polde hyne genemnedne beon, wished in the old French and other early

At'teibutive Combinations.
substantive, appositives
after.

487. Attributive adjectives or genitives stand next before their or preposi.tions with their cases next

So in the Teutonic tongues. In Latin, attributives generally follow their substantive. The Greek is freer. The old Komanic were free, the new have different habits for different words (Diez, 3, 433).
1.

Before.
hpxles

Jarae,

pilde moras, wild rnoors (Oros., 1, 1, 16); Descriptives whale's bone (1,1,15); on definitives, pronominal
:

sumum
2.

stopum, in some places (1,1, 16) heard spedd, their wealth numerals ipd7n pucum, in two weeks (1, 1, 16). (1,1, 15) his hldforde JElfrede, (said to) his lord, Alfred After. Appositive
;

(1, 1, 13)

Romanic (Diez,
of hair (Matt.,

Sidroc, se geonga, Sidroc, the young (Chr., 871), so in with preposition: red/ of hserum, garment 3, 431);

iii,

4).

488.

definitive precedes a descriptive.

ATTRIBUTIVE COMBINATIONS. EXCEPTIONS.


-Se

217
;

1, 1, 14) pa pildan an mycel ed, a great river (1, 1, 13) J)one ylcan s&s earm, (they have) the same sea's arm (1, 1, 12) So in other frarn his dgnum hdme, from his own home (1, 1, 13).

hetsta hpxl-huntad, the best whale hunting (Oros.,


(1, 1, 15)
;

hrdnds,i\ie wild rein-deer


;

tongues.

Of definitives, quantitatives precede dcmonsti'atives,"wbicli precede possessives, -which precede articles, which precede nu489.

merals.

Quantitatives:
spedd,
;

eal peus jwruld, all


1, 1,

this
;

world (C, 604); ealle Jus

all his

goods (Oros.,

22)

ealle

pd men,
;

all

the

men

(1, 1,

hutu pd scypu, both the ships (Luc, v, 7) healfne pone speoran, 22) half the neck (Jud., 105; Mc, vi, 23) ; sume pd bocerds, some of the
scribes (Matt., ix, 3)
;

a few of the truest

(John, X, 29).

So
:

in

mid fedpum pdm getrypestum, mannum, with (Ap., 6) xnig oder ping, any other thing Romanic (Diez, 3, 438).

men

Demonstratives
Possessives
17).
:

l)ds

mine pord, these

mhi

se gecorena sunu,

my my

(the)

words (Matt., vii, 24). chosen son (Matt.,

iii,

Articles

on p&re dnre mile, in the one mile (Oros., 1,1, 22) on p&m odrum prim dagum, in the second three days (Oros., 1, 1, 13 Chr., So in Romanic (Diez, 3, 436). 897).
:

{a.)

Forma

(first)

plural describing a class, and are then arranged as descriptives, ^


;

and oder (second, other) are sometimes used in the 488 pd


; ;

preo forman gebedu, the three first prayers (Hom., 1, 270) tpegen odre mdnfulle, two other malefactors (Luc, xxiii, 32), so in other languages
iiTTu.

TUQ iaxurac, Lat. septem novissimas, the seven last (plagues) (English Bible, Rev., xv, 1 ; xxi, 9) ; I read to Albert the three first cantos of the

the Last Minstrel (Queen Victoria, Life in the Highlands, p. 40) tivo other keepers (Same, 70) our two eldest children (Same, 76, 234) les onze prein den scchs erstcn conjugationen (J. Grimm, D. G., 1, 1038)

Lay of

miers chapitres, the eleven first chapters (Renan, Hist. Sem. Lang., 1, 27) las dos primeras partes (Don Carlos, quoted in Motley, R. D. R., iii, 193)
las cuatro primeras
(6.)

(Don Quijote, 352)


many,

died primi

libri (Diez, 3, 436).

The English
in the

a, an, after

such, half, too (great), so (great),

how

(great), as (great),
(a)

etc., is

Old English, but not in Anglo-Sason: manig burh,

many

town

(Oros.,

1,

1, 20), etc.

490. JEJxcejytlons.
1.
(a.)

Descriptive

adjectives sometimes follow.

Two

descriptives the substantive often stands


3, 435])
:

between

(so in the

merds fersce, very large seas fresh (Oros., 1, 1, 17) tamrd deora unbebohtrd, tame deer unbought (1, 1, often with a conjunction: god man and chbne, good man and pure 1.5); sometimes both precede: pam fwgerestan reddan hlpc, o^ (Chr., 105G)
spide micle

Romanic tongues [Diez,

218

ARRANGEMENT. OBJECTIVE COMBINATIONS.


(Gt. G., 1);

the fairest red hue

for

p&m

mistlicum and manigfealdum

peoruld-bisgum, for tlie various and manifold secular occupations (Boat., sometimes both follow calru pingd, gesepenllcrd and ungesepenProf.) licrd, of all things seen and unseen (Horn., 1,274).
;

(i.) In poetry: gUd-egesa gri77i, fue-har grim (B., 2650); magopegn Poetic inversion is modig, hero spirited (B., 2757) mlhtig (1519), etc. used in all languages (Dicz, 3, 430).
;

2.

Definitives often
Quantitatives
J)ds
:

follow,

medo genoh, there is mead enough (Oros., 1, Jjxr land eal hyrad, those lands all belong (to Denmark) (1, 1, 20) land eal, all lands (Sal., 185) ure ealrd moder, mother of us all (Bas. Hex., 11); ?a^orfnA;mzce/, great youth-throng (B., 67); manig (B., 838) heard
(fl.)

bid.

1,

20)

legrd edgan, eyes of them both (Gen., iii, 7) (b.) possessives, in poetry often: peoden min, master mine (B., 365); hldford Jnnnc, loxi thine (B., 267); stnne, his (B., 2789); userne, our (B., 3107) eo/'erwe, your (B., 2889) (c.) numerals, rare {pd?n wdelestum ceastrum dnes pana prittigum, with the noblest towns, thirty less one (Bed., 1, 1). So sometimes Romanic
;
;

derivatives of totus, tantus, talis, and possessives (Diez, 3, 436, 437).


3.

Genitives

partitive
:

aud characteristic

freely follow.

Numerals (regularly) tpentig scedpd, twenty of sheep (Oros., 1, 1, 15) ; other words (occasionally) on ktre healfe psus mores, on the other side of the moor (1, 1, 17) ndn ping grenes, nothing green (Exod., x, 15) fevper
:

circulds hpites hipes, four circles of white hue (Chr., 1104) other genitives may sometimes follow, ^^ 310-313,

possessive and
;
:

4. Appositives in the genitive are often separated by a governing word Aldpulfes dohtor pxs ajninges, dvLUghter of Aldwulf the king (St. G., 18):

this
5.

was common as
Any
attributive

late as the

Morte d'Arthure.

separated by words which modify it, from its subject. Poetry allows the interposition of parenthetic clauses even, between the adjective and noun.
6.

may be

For participles and adjectives

in quasi-predicative combinations, see 4S4,

b.

491,
1,

Objective Combinations.

2,

A genitive follows

Objects

follow the verb ox iwedicate adjective. a dative which follows an accusative.


7, h.

For. the factitive object, see 484, h ; 485,

Hi brohton sume pscm

to the king (Oros,, 1, 1,14); beneeman nergendne Crist roderd rices, io deprive the Savior ondred he him ]ms, he took Christ of heaven's kingdom (C, 286, 3)
;

cyninge, they brought some

dative and genitive are seldom dread to himself at that (John, xix, 8). See after adjectives, ^ 315-319. found after the same verb, ^ 492, 3.

492, Exceptions.
1.

Emphasis.

An

object often begins a clause for emphasis


call rein-deer (Oros., 1, 1, 15)

/a deor

hi

hdlad hrdnds, those deer they

sometimes

ADVERBIAL COJIBINATIOXS.
:

219

a repeating pronoun follows pd ted hi brohton sume pxin cyninge, these teeth they brought some (of) to the king (1, 1, 15). hpxt godes do ic, what good must I (a.) So the interrogative regularly
:

do"? (Matt., xix, 16).


2.

Relics.

In

German

objects precede their verb, and their order is (1)

dative, (2) accusative, (3) genitive. genitive object very often immediately precedes the verb or adjec(a.)

tive.

For examples, see ^^ 315-319. (b.) The dative of the personal pronoun generally precedes impersonals and copulatives him puhte, it seemed to him (Oros., 1, 1, 14) him pxs, to him was (=he had) (1, 1, 13).
:

pe hit (c.) A direct object often stands between the subject and verb pilon,we it knew (Oros., 1, 1, 11) pe spyfteste hors habbad, who swiftest horses have (1, 1,22). Hi magon often stands between the auxiliary and verb (rf.) An object they can cold produce (Oros., 1,1, 23). cyle gepyrcan,
:

3.

Attraction.

Inversion of one part of the predicate draws others.


:

Two

objects very often precede the verb

tales to

him
i.

told (they) (Ores., 1,

1,

14).

fela spelld him sxdon, many See more examples, ^^ 297 a,

315, a,
(a.)

The
;

gdrsecg, pe man
1,

relative is regularly attracted to the beginning of its clause Cpen-sai heet, the sea, which one calls Cwen-sea (Oros., 1,
:

11)

gafole, pe

pd Finnds him gyldad,

tribute,

which the Finns

to

them

pay (1,1,15). 493.


1.

Adveebial Combinations.
follows
its

An adverb

verJ,

but precedes

its adjective

or

adverb.
2.

follows next the

preposition with its following word to which it shows


494, Exceptions.

(attributives +)

Hotin

the relation.

1.

Emphasis. Any adverbial factor may begin its clause for emphasis. On p&m landum eardodon Engle, in those lands dwelt Angles (Oros.,
1, 1,

19)

Edsteperd

hit

<

be

si.\ty

miles broad

(1, 1, 16)

mcvg bion syxtig mild brad, eastward it may Ne mette he, he met not (1, 1, 13).
; :

Adverbs of time, place, order, very often begin a clause pdfor he, then went he (I, 1, 13) pyder,he c/^^pt^, thither, he said (1, I, 18); panne xrnad hi ealle, next run they all (1, 1, 22).
(a.)
;

{b.)

Interrogatives regularly begin


is

their clause

hp&r

is

heard God,

where
2.

their God"? (Psa.,cxiii, 10).

Perspicuity. When two or more adverbial factors modify the same word, their order is free. They are usually some before and some after the word pd he piderpcard scglude fram Sciringes heale, when he
:

220

ARRANGEMENT.ADVERBIAL COMBINATIONS.
thither sailed from Sciringsheal (Oros., 1, 1, 19) ; ealle pa hpile he sceal scglian be lande, all the while he must sail along the land (1, 1, 18).

{a.)

In German the order

is (1)

gation, (G) mamicr, all before the verb. in Anglo-Saxon.

timr, (2) place, (3) cause, (4) co-existence, (5) modality or neThere is more or less approach to the same order

3.

Old

habits,

(a.)

the subject and verb : furthest go (Oros., 1,

Adverbial factors are very often found betvreen pa hpxl-huntan fyrrest farad, the whale hunters
1,

13)
;

he from his

dgnum home for, he from


:

his

own home went


{b.)
t^crb,

(1, 1, 13)

so regularly the negative

hy ne dors Ion,
its

they durst not (1, 1, 13). Adverbial factors are very often found
:

between
;

an auxiliary and
is

or the copula and predicate might in four days sail (1, 1, 13,

he mihtc onfeoper
16).
is

dagum

geseglian, he

and everywhere)

pmt land
regular
:

eastepeard

hrddost, the land


(c.)

is

eastward broadest (1,1,


before
its

The adverb

adjective or adverb

hyrd hyd but

spate god, their hide is

very good (1, 1, 14). {d) The preposition is sometimes separated from its case to take the Se here him fiedh beforan, the army him flee before place of an adverb (Cjir., 1016) pe he on bude, vjh.ich. he dwelt on (Oros., 1, 1, 18) pe heora
:
;
;

Sometimes spcdd on bead, which their riches are in (1, 1, 15; 1, 1, 22). it follows its case hi pyrcad pone cyle hine on, they produce cold on him (1, 1,23) ne dorston p&r on cuman,they durst n-ot there on come (I,
: ;

1, 13).

4.

Attraction.
house whence

Relative adverbs begin their clause hus,panon ic code, For other cases, see 485, b, I went (Matt., xii, 44).
:

and examples

in ^ 494, 2.

495.
1.

Akeangement

of Clauses.

Co-ordinate
Courtesy.

{a.)
first

clauses are free to follow the order of thought. Copulate subjects of different persons should have the

person follow the third, and the third follow the second. " " I and the girls," I royal speaker may perhaps be an exception Life in Highlands, 173). and Alice" (Queen Vict.,

Subordinate Clauses.
regularly follow their leading clause. see 468. amples, 2. Adjective clauses regularly follow the word they describe. amples, see ^ 470, and sections there referred to.
1.

Substantive clauses

For ex-

For ex-

3.

Adverbial
the

demands of emphasis,

clauses freely take any place in the sentence according to They incline to the perspicuity, or euphony.

(a.)

order of adverbial factors of a clause, ^^ 493, 494. Conditional and concessive clauses oftenest precede.

Examples,

^^431,432.

CLAUSES.

221
:

Leading clauses are sometimes inserted in subordinates (6.) Insertion. and nordepeard, he cpxd,p&r hit smalost p&re, pxt hit mihte heon, etc., and northward, he said, where it was narrowest, that it might be (three miles
broad) (Oros.,
1, 1, 16).

substantive and adjective clauses (c.) Variations are found with analogy of substantives and adjectives, ^^ 485-490.

after the

PAET

IV.

PEOSODY.
49G. 497.

Prosody

treats of the
is

Rhythm
is

rhythm of Poetry. an orderly succession of beats of sound.

This beat

called an ictus or arsis, and the syllable on which it falls is The alternate rennission of voice, and the syllables so uttered, are called the thesis.

also called the arsis.

498.
(a.)

Feet are the elementary combinations of syllables in verse.

Feet are named from the order and make of their arsis and thesis. A monosyllabic arsis-\-A. monosj'llabic Uitiis is a trochee ; -fa dissyllabic thesis is a dactyle, etc.

Stress. In Anglo-Saxon these depend on the accented syllables, which are determined by the stress they would, if the passage were prose, receive to distinguish them from other syllables of the same word, or from other words in the sentence.
Accent is therefore verbal, syntactical, or rhetorical. An unemphatic dissyllable may count as two unaccented syllables, like the second part of a compound. Secondary accents may take the arsis.
1.

2. 3.

4.
5.

two accented an unaccented+an accented an anapaest is two unaccented-fan accented a tribrach is three unaccented a single unaccented syllable is called an atonic; and unaccented syllables preliminary to the normal feet of a line are called an anacrusis (striking up)
;
;

A tonic is a single accented syllable-fa pause. A trochee is an accented+an unaccented syllable. A dactyle is an accented+two unaccented syllables. A paeon is an accented+three unaccented syllables. A pyrrhic is two unaccented syllables a spondee is
iambus
is
;

an

or base.
(6.)

Time. The time from each ictus to the next is the same in any section. It is not always filled up with sound. More time is given to an accented than an unaccented syllable.
Pitch.
verbal accent

(c.)

The English and most other Indo-Europeans raise the pitch vrtth the the Scots lower it. With the rhetorical accent the pitch varies every
;

way.
(d.)

Expression. Feet of two syllables are most conversational; those of three are more ornate those of one syllable are emphatic, like a thtui or the blows of a hammer. The trochee, dactyle, and pseon, in which the accented syllable precedes, have more ease, grace, and vivacity. Those feet in which the accented syllable comes last have more decision, emphasis, and strength (Crosby, 095). The Anglo-Saxon meters are trochaic and dactylic the English oftener iambic and anapsstic.
; ;

499.

A verse

is

an elementary division of a

j^oera.

VEESE. C^SUKA.RIME.
It

223

has a twofold nature

it is

a series of feet, and also a series

of words.
As a series of feet, it is a sing-song of regular nps and downs, snch as children sometimes give in repeating rhymes. As a series of words, each word and pause would be the same as if it were prose, as persons who do not catch the meter often read poetry. The cantilation never is the same as the prose utterance lines in which it should be
(a.)
;

prosaic. The art of versification consists' ia so arranging the prose speech in the ideal framework of the line that the reader may adjust one to the other without obscuring either,
(6.)

would be

and with continual happy

variety.

of adapting the arsis and tliesis to the prose pronunciation is different In Sanskrit, and classical Greek and Latin, the arsis was laid on syllables having a long sound, and variety was found in the play of the prose accent. In other languages, including modern Greek and Latin, the arsis is made to fall on accented syllables, and free play is given to long and short vowel sounds, and combinations of consonants. The Sanskrit and Greek varied farther from prose

The manner

in different languages.

speech in the recitation of poetry than modem habits and ears allow. still repeat Sanskrit poetry in recitative.

The Hindoos

500. Verses are named from the prevailing foot trochaic, dactylic,
bic,a.ni anapcBstic, etc.

la^n-

Verses are named from the number of feet. A monometer is a verse of one foot a dimeter of two a trimeter of three a tetrameter
; ;

of four

a
;

of seven
(a.)

pentameter of five a hexameter an octometer of eight.


;

of six

heptameter

A verse is catalectic when


when redundant.

it

wants a

syllable, acatalectie

when

complete, liypercata-

lectic

501. Caesura.
stichs.
ccESura
(a.)

Anglo-Saxon verses are made in two sections or hemiThe pause between these sections is called the caesura. A foot is made by the cutting of afoot by the end of a ivord.

of the cMsuras.

Expression. The character of versification depends much on the management When the weight of a verse precedes the caesura, the movement has
vivacity ;

more

when

it

follows,

more

gravity.

502. Rime.

Rime
it

Nations who
plainly.
1.

the rhythmical repetition of letters. unite arsis and prose accent need to mark off their verses
is

They do

by rime.

Other nations shun rime.


it is

2.

When When

the riming letters begin their words,

called alliteration.
it is

the accented vowels and following letters arc alike,

called

perfect rime (= rhyme).


3.

4.

it is called half rime. only the consonants are alike, the accented syllable is final, the rime is smgle ; when one unaccented syllable follows, the rime is double when two, it is triple.

When When

(a.)

Line-rime

is

between two words

in the

same

section.

Final-rime

between the
503.

last

words of two sections or verses.


is

Alliteration

the recurrence of the same

initial

sound

in the first
1.

accented syllables of words. Consonants. The first initial consonant

of alliterating syllables must

be the same, the other

consonants of a combination need not be;

22-1

ALLITERATION.
Beopulf: bremeWhhid (B., 18) Caines cynne'.'.cpealm (107) CrlstenrdwCyriacus (El., 1069); cudeWcniht {B., 372) funden::frdfrc {!) frxtpum fiet (2054); geong gear dum:: God (13); geogodc::
;
:

gleapost

(C, 221, 1); grimma gxst


:

(B., 102);

heofenum

hlceste
:

(52); hxledd

hryre'.'.hpate

(2052);
:

hn'UanWhrmgum
;

(Rid., 87, 4)

sijdlice'.'.speotolan (B.,
;

141); scearp

scyldwscdd (288); scridende ::


;

2.

sceapum (Trav., 135) Scottdwscip (Chr., 938) peodwprym (B., 2) pen plcnco'.'.prxc (338). Vowels. A perfect vowel alliteration demands different vowels
:

isig:utfus::xdelinges (B., 33) eorld eordan eoper (B., 248).


:

sometimes

the

same vowels repeat:

(a.) sc, sp, or

st seldom alliterate without repeating the whole combina:

tion

but:

137); str&ld
{h.)

scyppend:: serifen (B., 106); spere storm:: strengum (B.,3117).


:

sprengde:: sprang (By.,

Words

in ia-, io-, iu-,

Hie-,

alliterate

with those in g-.

They

are

mostly foreign proper names.

See ^^
;

28, 34.
;
:

Iacobes::gode (Psa.,lxxxvi,

1, and often) lafed gumrtncum (C.,1552) lobes:: God (Met., 26, 47) goda gedsne Iorda7je::grene (C, 1931) ::ludas (El., 924); Iuded::God (El., 209); gledp Godc::luhana
;
;
: :

and often); gomen geardum::iu (B., 2459), so frequently iu^geo, gio (formerly) and its compounds; Hierusolme:: God (Ps. C, Hierusalem (Giith., 785) written gold GO, 134) gongad gegnunga
(Jul., 131,
:

: :

Gerusalem:: luded (C.,260, 11).


(c.) It is

said that

p may

alliterate

323, 362).

No

sure examples found.

C, 287, 23, is

with s by Dietrich (Haupt Zeit., x, a defective line.

504.
bles,

two

perfect Anglo-Saxon verse has three alliterating syllain the first section, the other in the second.
\

Yrum'\sceaft''

Yir'\d^

||

Yeorr'\arC

recc'\an' (B., 91).


relate.

the origin of
(a.)

men

from

far

; the one in the second repeated The the chief-letter, the others the sub-letters. o^feorran couplet in frumsceaft and frd the the in the line above is the chief-letter

The

letter is

called the rtme-htter

sub-letters.
(b.)
(c.)

One
Four

of the sub-letters
or

is

often wanting.

more
.

rime-letters are sometimes found.


.

Itednes
In pairs
:

"Leohte

.
||

liete
\\

"Lange (C, 258).


\

Pxt' he
that he

God'e
to

pold'\e'

God

would

geong'\ra^ a vassal

peord'\an\ be (C, 277), where

g-

and
505.

both rime, and so often.

The Anglo-Saxons used


in

line-rime

and

final-rime as an oc-

casional ffrace of verse.


506. Verse
which

See 511.
and other rime ornamental, is the preSpecimens are found in Old High

alliteration is essential,

vailing form in Anglo-Saxon, Icelandic, Old Saxon.

COMMON NARRATIVE VERSE.


German.

225

Alliteration in these languages even ran into prose, and is one of the causes of the thoroughness with which the shifting of the initial consonants has affected the

whole speech,

41,

B.

final rime, and with alliteration as an occasional grace, is the common form in English and the modern Germanic and Romanic languages. It is common in the Low-Latin verses of the Anglo-Saxon poets, and it is by many supposed to have spread from the Celtic.
/ .

50

Verse with

CoMiroN Nakkative Vekse.


says of rhythm: "It is a modulated composition of words, not according to the laws of meter, but adapted in the number of its syllables to the judgment of the ear, * as are the verses of our vulgar poets. Yet, for the most part, you may find, by a sort of chance, some rule in rhythm; but this is not from an artificial government of the syllables. It arises because the sound and the modulation lead to it. The vulgar poets efi'ect
this rustically, the skillful attain it by their skill." Bed., 1, 57. These remarks on the native poets are doubtless applicable to their Anglo-Saxon verses as well as their Latin and whatever general rules we may find running through these poems, we may expect to
;

508. Beda

many exceptional lines, which belong in their places only because they can be recited with a cadence somewhat like the verses around them.
find

509.

The common

narrative verse has four feet in each section.

arsis /a//5 on every prose accent, 15, and the last syllable of But note contractions below, 7. every section. 2. At least one arsis on a primary accent, or two on other syllables follow

A.

1.

An

the chief alliterating letter, ^ 504. 3. An arsis should fall on the former of two unaccented syllables after an accented long (the vowel long or followed by two consonants), and on the
latter after

an accented

short.
||

acyld'\wn
4.

bi\acer' e\de\

acynd'\an' ge\ner'e\de' (Rime Song, 84).

An

arsis

should not

fall

on an unaccented proper prefix

{a-, he-, ge-,

etc.,'^ 15), or proclitic

monosyllables

{be, se,pe, etc.), or short

endings of

or short tense-endings dissyllabic particles {nefne, odite, ponne, etc.), two accented shorts in the same section.
5.

between

An

arsis

may
\

fall

on a long, on a short between two accents (after a

long frequent, after a short, less so), on the former of two unaccented shorts.
grorn'
spylc'e
xiip'\e'
I

torn
| I

^rsef'\ed\
|

||

^rwft'
\

rxft' hxf\ect'
\

(Rime Song,
on' (B., 11'3).

6G).

gi'

gant''

as'
||

\Pa' pid
nyd'\e''
\

God'e \punn'

niht'-\peard''

sceol'\de^
\

(C,
|

185, 1).

pord' purd'\i'
burh'
\

an.
\ \

||

Veol

him' on

tim'\bre'

de^
is

(C,

2840).

(C, 353). Rare with short penult of


;

inn'

mi^

trisyllable.

B.

6.

The

thesis
is

or synaloepha
7.

often

mute or monosyllabic but syncope, needed to reduce two syllables.

elision, synizesis,

anacrusis may introduce any section. It is of one syllable, rarely two, sometimes apparently three, with the same contractions as t'he tkesis.
Let'on p(d) ofer
I

An

fif'el
\

pxg'
||

\\

fdm'\i'ge
\

scrur\an' (El., 237).


\ \

puld'or\-cyn'ing\es''
Bpic'dd\{e)

pord'

ge)peot'an

ymb' pa

sap'\le' \\pe)

pa Jm pit'(S)gan pry \ An., 802). hire &r' pa aien'ie) on\ldh' (C, 607).
\
\

22G

COMMON NARRATIVE
lilcc.

N'KKSE.
like.

Synizesis oi -annc,-lic,-scipe,pendt'n,-A\\([ the


pc, and the

Sj/nalaepha

oi'

ge-,

Borh' is
I

me'
\

to

Becg'\an7ie^

on'
\\
\

scf'an

mhi'\u7n' (B., 473).

prxtlic'ne

pund' or\-ma(td'\ran''
fus'
| \

||

(B.,2171).

{yrd'\-scar'o

lieu'

\\

(B., 23-2J.
||

eaht'lo'don

eor/'|-5Cijoe^

(B., 3174).
||

pcs'an \pend'en

ic \peald'\e''

(B., 1859).
||

pegn'ds
/lar'a Jjc

synd'on ge\-ppivr'\c'
\

(B., 1230).

piit spa

inic'\lum^

\\

(C, 2095).
||

pxt niifre )Grrend'\cr spa

\fel'\a'

^ry'\ra' ge\frem'e
;

de" (B., 591).

So we

find hpsedere (B., 573), dissyllabic


;

hine (B., 688), ofer (B., 1273),

monosyllabic
8.

and

many anomalous
is free,

slurs in the thesis or anacrusis.

The

order of the feet

varying with the sense.

In later poetry,

as

more

particles are used, the fuller thesis

grows more common.

9. The Anglo-Saxons like to end a sentence at the cfcsura. So Chaucer and his French masters stop at the end of the first line of a rhyming conplet. So Milton says that "true musical delight" is to be found in having the sense " variously drawn out from one verse into another."

10.

ond

The two alliterating feet in the first section, and the corresponding pair in the secsection, are chief feet. Some read all the rest as thesis.

510. Irregular sections are found with three feet, or two.


1.

Sections with contracted words where the

full

form would complete the

four feet.

hedn huses^^hea\han'

hu'\ses^ (B., 116).


\

deddpic seuii=^dedd'\pic^
2.

seo'\haii
:

(B., 1275).

Sections with three feet and a thesis

prym'

Uf
Heyne
finds in

{ge)\-frun'\on' (B.,2). edc' {ge)\scedp' (B., 97).


\ I

Beowulf

feet of this kind with a-, xt-, be-, for-, ge-, of-,
:

on-, to-, purh-.

Similar sections with proclitic particles are found


\

men'

{ne)\cunn'\on' (B., 50); (be)\yd'\ldfW (B., 566); Let'

{se)\heard"\a' (B.,

2977)
3.

{pe)\him'

pxt'

Sections with Proper

pif (C.,707). Names. Foreign Names are


\

irregular

Semf
I

and'

Chain'
\

(C, 1551), and so


:

often.

4.

Sections with two feet and a thesis

man
51L.

{ge)\pe6n (B., 25).


is

Loth'
\

{on)\fm (C, 1938).

found occasionally in most Anglo-Saxon poems. fewcontain rhyming passages of some length. One has been found which is All sorts of rimes are crowded plainly a Task Poem to display riming skill.

Rhyme

together

in it.

It

has eighty-seven verses.

LINE-RIME.
Half-rime
:

sar'
|

and'

BOx'\ge'';

siisl'
||

\J)rop'\ed'\on\

pain

and

sorrow

sulphur suffered they (C.,75).

LONG NARRATIVE VERSE.


Perfect-rime
Single
:

227

Jidh' foul

mdh'
\

\fiit'\ed\ \\jian

man'

hpU'\ed\

[62).

fiend

fighteth, darts the devil whetteth


||

gdst'\d''

\peard'\urn.

HiBfd'\on'

gleam
light

They had
Double /rod'jne" and wise and
:
\

(Rime-song, and dream', and joy (C,


|

o-od'jne'

||

feeder
father
|1

'Un'\pen'\es\

[12).

good
|

of

Unwen
\

(Trav., 114).

Triple

/er'iedje'

and
and

jier'ejde".

(God) led

Ftf\ten\a' saved (C, 1397).


dea.&'
\

stod',

FINAL-RIME.
Half-rime
:

spd' lif either life


\

spa
or

\\

spa
as to

Mm
him

le6f'\re'
liefer

bi&'.
\

death,

be

(Ex.,

37,

20

Crist., 596,

and a riming passage).


ne
nor
nor
\fyr'\es'' blesst',
fire's

Perfect-rime
Single

ne' \forst'\es'' j/nsest',

||

no

frost's

rage,
\

blast,
\

Double: ne)
nor

hasgl'les'
hail's

hryT'\e\\\ ne) hrim'\es'


fall,

rfryr'le',

rime's

descent (Phoenix, 15,

16
Triple: hlud'\e' (The harp) loud

Ex., 198, 25, where see more).


hlyn'e\de^;
||

hledd'\o7-^

sounded

the sound

dyn'e\de\ dinned (Rime-song, 28).

Long Narrative Verse.


512. The common narrative verse is varied by occasional passages The alliteration and general structure of the long verse longer verses.
the
in
is

same as of the common are oftenest added between

but the length of the section is six feet. Feet the two alliterating syllables of the first section,

and before the alliterating syllable of the second section.

Spa

cpxit anott'\or on mod'\e\ ge) swl' him' sund'\or^ set run'\e\ TiY' bid se'pe his tre6p'\e' ge\heald'\ed\\
\

||

{|

\\

ne) sceaV

n&f're his
|

torn' to
\ \

ryce\ne''

heorn'

of his 'bre6st'\u7n' d\cyd'\an\ nemd e he xr' pa \i6l'\e' cunn'\e\


\

eorl'

mid'
I I

pel'

gefremm'\an : bid pam' pe him a/je* sec'\ed\


\

eln'\e'

frdf'\re^ to

F<W|er' on
eal'

hcof'on\um\
\

peer
(a.)

us^

seo

{.vst'nung
is

5/7j<i |erf'

(Wanderer, 11 1+).
:

Sometimes a
|

section of four feet

coupled with one of six


\\

ge) pinn'les^
(6.)

pid'

heor'd
|

pald\end^

pit'\e^

pol'\iad^ (C.,323).

verse.

Four or more alliterative Three seldom fail.

letters are found oftener than in

common
is

secondary weak alliteration

some-

times found in one of the sections.

228
Cc.)

ENGLISH PROSE RHYTHM.


This verse
is

rather a variety of the

Common

Narrative than another

kind.
is the regular Old Germanic verse. of 509, are rules of that verse. In the 5th tlie Anglo-Saxon uses greater freedom. It also corresponds with the Old orse /orni/7'clala^. In it Old English alliterating poems

513.

The Common Narrative

Rules

1, 2, 8, 4, 6, 7,

are wi-itten.
/;*'

a
I

som
I

er
\

/)

shape

me
\

whan) soft' ivas' the so?m'|e^ sea'|on* in shroud'\es^ as) I a shep'e wer'\e''
||
| \ \

{|

In) hab'ite
I

as'
\

an
\

hcr'c\mite^
\

\\

un)hol'\7/

of
\

work'\es''

Went' wyd'e in pis ivorld' Ac) on a May' morn yng\e^


|
\

||

ivond'\res'' to
ori)

her'\e\
\

||

Mal'\uerne
\

hull'\es'

Me'

by\fel' a \fer\h/

||

of) fair' \i/

me

thou-^t'\e\

Piers the Plowman, 1-6.


(a.)

has a tendency to unite with the following accented The change of syllable, and start an iambic or anapastic movement. inflection endings for prepositions and auxiliaries has also favored the
it

The anacrusis

same movement. In Oht English See Final perfect-rime,^ 511.

often runs through the verses.

Alliteeative Pkose,
514.

Some

alliteration,

though not divided by


(St.

of the Anglo-Saxon prose has a striking rhythm, and frequent it into verses. Some of the Homilies of

^Ifric are so written

Cudbert).

Parts of the Chronicle have mixed

line-rime and alliteration.

to
is

515. Verses with the same general form as the Anglo-Saxon continued in English to the middle of the fifteenth Alliteration century. still found as an ornament of our poetry, and the old dactylic cadence runs
be written
all

through

racy Anglo-Saxon English style.


|

up to the Mountains to be|hoId the gardens and orchards, The vineyards and fountains of water; where also they drank and washed themselves, And did freely eat of the vineyards, Now there were on the tops of those Mountains,
| I! | |
I

So they went

II

Shepherds feeding their

fioclcs

The pilgrims therefore went to As is common with weary pilgrims, wlien they stand to talk with any by the way, They asked, Whose Delectable Mountains are these? And whose be the sheep, that feed upon them ? Buntan, Pilgrim's Progress,

and they stood by the highway side. them, and leaning upon their staffs.

INDEX OF WORDS.
For COMPOUNDS, look at the simples. prefixed, marks a suffix prefixed, marks a root [The figures refer to sections. or is placed between two words when one is derived suffixed, marks a prefix means equivalent to.] the angle pointing to the derived word from the other,

<

>

ANGLO-SAXON.
a, 14, 16, 23.

<a, 228, 240, 26S.


a<an, 228, 240, 268. a<jan, 228. a, 246. , 251.

Aprelis, 38. ?7irsf, 229, 243. ('/;, 229.


(ir?an, 297. drtst, 233. <lriea.s, 229.

hdd<Cbidan. bal(d)sam, 50, 270.

hannan, 208.
fc<,

230.

bxc-ere, estre, 208, 228. bxclinga, 251.

arn<CJrnan.
aron, 213. drste/, 229, 235.
268. dstellan, 189. <Jf , 228. <i/'a, 254. apacan, 267. ({/rfer, 136, 464. dpiht, 136, 389.
ass-a,
c,

bsed<^biadan.
bscftan, 257, 334.

, 24. a, 251. d, 15, 254. d, 129, 254.

6^r, 230. 6^re, 229, 243. bxrfot, 266. Mn<7, 233. biern-et,

abbudisHC, 232, 26S.

abu/an, 25T, 334. db&tan, 341.


ac, 260, 262, 397, 465. aean, 207. cu;h, see ac.

bedcnian, 297.
bead?*, 32, 90, 228. beaduldc, 233.

axe, 35.

6e/i<b?(jan.
6e/(, 230. 6ca?tf, 36.

dcsian, 292.
dctreo, 266. ddiine, 258. ad, 228.

X, 14, 16, 23.

^,24. &, 100.


129, 203. &, 254. a-rcr, 228.
;?,

bealu, 30, 32, 30 ; ffcs, 242. 6car, 230, 234, 203. bedtan, 208.

dder,4U.
ddsparing, 26C.
a/, 129. dgan, 212. tigegn, 258. (igen, 366. dgeii, 341. dgyldan, 297. n)i, see ac. rtA, 212. dhsie, 35. flfti, 136. dfcte, 36, 212.

bexftan, 257. bebeodan, 207.


becijme, 299.

xdeling, 228, 235. jEdelpulfing, 237. a?/, 129, 254.


;g/re, 251.
a-/t, .331.

be-edstan,
tecre?!,

healfe,foran, -^eontlcui. 334. 141, 490. hindan, neodan, be-heanan,


etc.,

a/ton, 252.

dhpxder, al, 228.

136, 391.

257, 334. a'/temest, 12Y. helgan, 203, 290. 15, 126, 129, 255, 328, 331, 6ean, 203. a/f^r, 472, 473. 6e?wf, 228. mftera, 127. 6eo, 100. beudan, 206. ff/ter/jcardfjs, 251. ^Bjr, a;(7rM, 82, 228. bedgan<^b ligan.

&g, 254
a-'l, 259.
^?<;,

hp&,

lipxcter, bedn,
415.

177-182,

213,

286,

298,

?an, 207. dinang, 341. an, 251, 257.

etc., 136, 390, 391, 403.

^qder, 136, 463.


130, 392. en, 268. xlmeahtig, 266.
i8n, 14.5. *n?(/, 136, 387, 489. ar, 126, 259, 332, 472. d:reHt, 127, 129. a-rn, 229. xt, 15, 2.%4, 328, 333.

ieoran<^6eran.
beord, 230. beorgan, 191, 204. beornan, 204. bep&ctc, 1S9.

an., 15. an, 254.

lelf,

aiKCunnan,

<in, 247.

212.

6er-an, 200, 319


bere, 230.

e,

22a

n, 136, 138, 366, 386. ana, 175.

aricor, 270.

berga7}=benrgan. bernan, 24S.


berninq, 233.
berstan, 192, 202.
bcKt'trgian., 297.

aJMf-,15, 254,328, 330. anrf, 138, 139, 262, 394, 46.3. andlong, 2.W, 329, 330.

a-t 257.
,

and nd pi

Ixk, 405.
15,

andspar-ian, dnedge, 266.


dn^-ged, 266. rin/iewJe, 260. dn, 262.

297

w, 2C5.

a;<<c<an.
setforan, 333.
&, 27,

be.'itdan, 258.

6efra, 6ca, 129. be<te, 189.

M,

30. 141.

betpcdhs

{x),

tpeonum,

258,

329, 334.

fcacan, 158, 191,207.

bctpuxt, 49.

230
he f)am pr, 4G6.
M., bi, be, 15, 4S, 25J,

INDEX OF WORDS.
byre, 84, 86.

gecynd, 235.
iryiierlce, 229, 235.

25T

com- bJ/r/ian<6oian.
c, 27, 28.

3S4. biiian, 205, 315. biddan, 19a.


lit

pounds

cyning, 268
fi/rde, 298.

dom, 229.

250.

6'-7<6i. biUiS, 35. bindan, 102, 201. binman, 257, 334.

can, 176, 212, 437. arcern, 229.

cyrnel, 236. cyssan, 188.


^.s^ 35.

rarJ
<;a,

ca, fugol,

etc., 6S. f}/ste, 35, 189.


d, 27, 29.

f/jrW

bergan.

(<}ern, 268.

birst, 35.

biHceop, 43 ; J'wre, 235. h!7, 230. fc?,ton, 205. tjter, 230. bitm; 242. bl&cern, 229. blandan, 208. bl&tan, 208. bl&pan, 208. ftLsi/, 269. fc/et, 35, 208. Uii'an, 205. /y/We, 321. /;/mii, 104, 105. Uinnan, 201.
fcjfss,

268. cealf, 82.

ccar-ful, le&s, 243, 266.


35. tvter,'33, 90, 101, 270. cede, 189. ccnnan, cende, 183, 189. ceorfan, 204.
e*(?d.s

d, nomi, 228. d, comp., 255. d, verb, 455.


dn/aji, 207.

ge-dafcnad, 299.
dar=:dea".

cc6sa, 197, 206, 286.

ceopan, 206.
rfrfan, 205, 297. cild, child, 34,

d^d, 90,231. ge-d&de<Cd6n. 'dag, 71, 229


; ;

cs,

251.

41,

82, 268

dicgesege, 265. d(irf, 228, 234.

had, 235
<-Zd,

isc, 228, 241.

dc&f<Cdvfcm.
dedg, {h)<jdugan. dear, 176, 212, 439.

100.

cWnheort, 2CG.
clcofan, 200. eh/, 269. clt/an, 205.

dearnvnga, 251.
delfan, 203. denian, 297. de?n a. end,

35.

blddredd, 266.
fc;6mo, 234. fctetan, 208. btopan, 208.
90, 100, 269. ioccre, 228. fcoja, 32, 230.

climban, 201.
clingan, 201.
cZ?pe, 189.

cr<",

232.

ge-denra^don.
'dcofolcund, 229, 241.

66^

bogan, bod, 224.

clipuian, 188. clype, 98. cnapan, 208. cnedan, 199. cneodan, 206. cnyssan, 188. coin, 35.

de6g<^dedgan.
dedj)c, 251. dcor, 41.

deorcunga, 251. deor/an, 204.

der, 228, 252, 255.


d(, 228.

Wife, 189.

cor^M^ceosan.
gecoren{n)e, 119, 107.

derian, 188, 297. dn/p, {y)<^d6n.


ilipjian, 188.

bonnan<Cbannan.
hdn<Cjbdgan.

corfcn<^ceorfan.

bdsom,

50.

crdpan, 208.
era;/*, 229, 269.

dohte<^dugan.
dohtor, 100
;

box, 270. brsegdan, brtedan, 202.

I'M, 93.

credo, 270. crebdan, 206.

ddm, 229.
dow, 160, 168, 17T, 213, 225, 29T,
406.

bredtan, 208.
fcrcran, 199, 200. bredan, 202, 224.

crcopan, 191, 200.


criiiean, 201.

bregdan, 202, 220, 224. brengan, 209, 210. breodan, 206.

cringan, {eg), 201. cr^pp, 194.


>, 91, 100. cwrf, 297.
c?M(?, 37, 176, 212.

dors^e^dMrmn.
dragan, 207. dranc<jlrincan.
dr<J/-,230.

breomu,

11.

breotan, 206.

cWes,

166.

dr^dan, 208, dr^/an, 248.


dreahte, 189. dreccan, 209.

218.

breopan, 206. brimo, 77. bringan, 201. brinnan, 201, 204.


frrop, 91, 100.

broccn <^brecan.
l)rocen<^brucan.
bidder, 41, 87, /!<irf, 229.

100,

191, 200. 229, 241. eunnan, 212. euron, 35, 197. cp&don, 197. epealde, 189. epeahn, 234. 228, 232; cpeartcrn, 229. cpeccan, 209.

cuman, cund,

drencan, 248.
drenctc, 189. dreogan, 206. drebjMn, 206.

drebrd<^dr&dan.
dreosan, 206. drepan, 191, 199, 220.
drlf-an, t, 193, 205.

brohtc<^bringan.
brohtes, 160. br'ucan, 206, 300. fcw, D66, 463. fcw/a??, 257, 334. b'ngan, 206.
b-arpaii,
b^'in,

cpcden<jspedan. cpedan, 192, 199, 397.


te<Cepeccan, cpelan, 200. cpellan, 209.
(/ie7(

dWnc,

231.

drinc-an,

/),

194, 201.

dropen<Cdrepan. druncen, 455.

ge-cpeman, 297.
cpert, 228, 268.

drurun <jireusan.
drii, 100.

bugav, bfikm, hf(pian,


221, 224.

bum,

cpiman,

huUuca, 236.
(vi/ri;,

100, 101. 6^ifi, 45, 257, 334, 393, 4S1, 4C5. c/)om gefered, 458. ?;?/.?/, 360 ; ^d, 489. cycen, 230. hj/cgmi, 211. cycene, 239. t^j/a", 243. cydde<Cji-ydan, 297. 7)7/(7(;?K, 232. cymeni^cuman.

200. cpincan, 201. t-pisi, 35.

d?//a?), 206.

dugan, 212.
diin, 101. dMr(J, 93. durran, 176, 212, 439.

dpealde-ddpellan. dpelan, 200. dpellan, 209.

h'jrd<Cheran.

cyn, 101,229.

dpinan, 205.

INDEX OF WORDS.
dyde<Cd6n.
dypte, 1S9. d'jrstig, 454.
C, 14,

231
fiopan, 208. flugon, 206.

es, verb, 166, 225.

228. ea, 228.


c,

'iWgan, 248.
yo(ior, 232.
fofc, 101.

esl, 228.
16, 23.
esoJ, 41.

e<a, 22S.

e<a, verb, 164. c<CJa, 22S, 243, 2C5. 265. c<i, verb, 160. e<2a, g f ost. e<'aM, 22S, 240, 263.
ed, 100.

estre, 228, 268.

cf,

228.

/(W, 208, 210, 224, 247. f<md<^fuulan.


for, 15, 254, 255, 328, 337.

etan, 192, 169. ettan, 260.


/, 27, 30, 41.

for,
297
lia,

faccnstscf, 229.

oh, 263. edt, 254, 262, 335, 394, 463. e(tde^=edde. etide, 1'24.
',

fdhai\>fun. fa)id<Jindan. fangan, 216.


/ara;i, 191, 207, 445.

15, 254, 265; beodan, gifan, 207 ; gifemiJco242 gitan, 28 ; 197 sa, standan, 299 pt/rjian, 297. s/iorcn, 455;
; ;

fm-an, 252, 257, 328. /ord(i, 93. fwd, 15, 129.


/ure, 15, 129, 254, 255, 328, 337. fore-rinel, 232.

f djs, 95.

euyaealf, 266. eaTifa, 13S, 139.


eal, 33, 136, 251, 259, 395, 490.

/ar6M, 228. fxder, 228, 232.

fgon<^fcdH.

fore-peard, 129.

Mr, 37.

cd

Id, 263.

eald, 124 ; fxder, Miies, 251. eallunga, 251. cai/ie /"ejif, 251. ealofxt, 265. ea?J!P<J, 463, 473. eaJ jb<i, 483.

265.

/iPSt, 229, 243.


fiesten, 269. /a-^, 73.

for hpam, 260. /or intingan, 337. form^a, 126 ei, 127. /or /jam /)c, 460. for Pii, 466.
;

fedlK^feoil.
feald, /mJtZ, 143, 229, 245.
209.

./(/f,

41, 84, 100.


15, 254, 338, 409. 254, 255.

fox, 268.

/ram,
fr&,

fealdan, 208.
/(aide, 1S9, 209. fealh<Cf(lga-n:

eam=^eom.
ear, 269.

frxipe, 100.

frxtpian, 224.

eardigean, 28.
e<ire, 98. earni, 33.

feallan, 191. fealupe, 117.

fremian, 297. freinman, 188.


freogaii^frcdn, 47.

fed(pa), 136, 395, 489.


/ea.(;, 36.

earn<^irnan.
eart<ji(ym.
ednt, 251
;

freogan^reon, weak</rt.
freo'nd, 87, 100 ; -^Men, 229, 235 ; scijje, 229. frebsan, 197. fretan, 199. /rt, 115. fricgan, 199, 215.

an, 252

129; erne, 228. cdp, 263.


ejfe, 189.

/eccan<C.fecian, 34. emcs^ fecgan, 199. fed{cd), 190.


/e'ieis, 228, 232.

ed

ed,
c

15, 254 ; 22S, 243.

nipian,

15.

cdda, 262.
;ei, 101. efen, 15, 259; peorcan, l&can, 299. (f/j^, 263.

can, 247. 129, 186, '251. feld, 269. /cZdfJ, 93. /cW, 36. 267; fclqan, 203. fcllan, 209.

feg-an,

/ck,

frtdan (Grein)

frignan, 202, 217. frinan, 202, 224. fringan, 35, 201.

from^raTn,
ge-frngen
(i),

15.

c/f, 15.
fif/csa,

dVite, 35,

228. 189.

/CO, 37. /c6^, 100.

fruma,

199. 129, 140.


: ;

<-,259.

fcohan, 109. feohtan, 204.


/eohtldr, 229.

fugol, 79 carl-fugol, 268. /?, 15, 259 fyilan, 267. /m!, 229, 243.

ei, 22S. ele, 228. ElUitig, 223.

ftmdorK^fuidan.
furdor, 129.

fcoK^fcallan.
464;

cie, 129, 262,

fedl, 25.
7(f , 136.

ms, 242.
/(/k/c, 189.

eU,
en,

223. 455.

embc, 328, 360.

feold-Cfealdan. fediK^fcultan, 199, 247, 29T. fcdn<C^feogan, weak.


/c6)id, 87, 100. /cor, 124, 129, 251, 254, 259, 336, feorran, 252.

tvia,228, 268, 244.

fijlgian, 297. fijtstan, 297. ///rra, 129.

fys-an,
<7,

rfe,

189.

ende, 269.

e?id, 228, 4-15, 400.

/coper, 47, 138+.


fera7i, 248, 297. /esf, fet<i/dn.
fidel-ere, -estre, 26S.

28, 34, .503.

endleofan, 138. iifiri-e, 86, 238


241.

J,
.(/(J,

isc, 228, 238

250. 298, 41.5.

eode, 37, 213, 225. /rferw, 100. eum, 168, 177, 213, 225, 066, 298, /if, 37, 13S+.

gaf<.gifan. galan, 207.


208, 213, 225, 247, 286, 445. (jandra, 26S. 208, 213, 214, 210. gdrledc, 266. 5r<i, 208. .(;^rf, 208. .^.TSf, 85 cr?), 229. <7^<, 268.
,7<ira,

314,416,451. e(rrnad<^irnan.
eornosiltce, 463. eop, 130, .".60. edper, 132, 490. eo/Jic, 130, 366.

)?/fa?!,

201.221.

/iras, 100, 208. fitan, 109. /Ji;en, 232, 268.


Jledh<Cflt'<'>n.

gangan,

jUdt<Jlcbtan.
255.

er, compar., 122-129, er, 228.


ere, 228, 268.

Jleogan^fleon, 206. fleohanyjledn, 192, 200.


fle?ihin, 200.

j/c

eru,
es,

ern, 228, 245. 228. gen., 62, 251.

jU'op<C fli'ipan. jntan, wr>.


jlidnzrzjlcdn.

frnV 15, 254, 262, 403; rfrw, 77, 100 ; cynd, 235 /tP(5,13fi /icnrfc, 250, 339;
,

hpxder,
-lie, 299
;

391

hpilc, IVM ite, 463, 473


;

232
lienes, 2X5 ; litlian, 249 lomi, 259; Ujfed, 29S nticlian, 249 iiiAinn, 258 n&taii, 37 Ki/irf,' 2C9 mlit, 190; sprcfen, 455; Kpeoru, 100; ,v:;>eos^r, 9ii, 100 timbru, 100 ; pingct, 235; jbo/if, 228,234; /)'/if, 409; piht, 235; pi'i, 29S.

INDEX OF WOKDS.
;

hehban, 207.
;7<"w,

37, 91,100, 208.

/ic/erf,

;
;

GV?rt, 2:!8. grafaii, 207. graiioi, 2U4.


gr.i'da)!, to cry,

207. heflgtpvie, 229.


159, 218. 200.

hcgian, 188.
/ic/if,

slionld

be per

/tcia/!,

iu 208. f?r^d/(r, 228, 315. gra-f, 230.

haps

helian, 188.
/ic?j)an, 32, 203, 297. /jcn, 208.

For otiiei' words in ge, .lycavs, 51. aud look for the grStan, 208. drop ge

hcnep, 41.

heng<^hangan, hOn,
hcd, 37, 130.
/(CO dajjfe, 251.

rest.
re, 24, 2S, 3T, 130, 3C6.
'g,d, 261, 399.

grrdiian, 200. grcdtaii, 200.

grc('>p<^gr6pan.
grettc, 35, 189.

hedf<^hcafan.
hen/en, 234.

veaf<i_gifan.

gcatp<^gilpan. gcdn, 15.


'qc<'ip<ige6pan..
'./a'n-,

28;

da!(7,

229, 239.

23, 251. (jenrpc, 100, 454. 28. prar,


r/Cficrf,

grimman, 201. griiidan, 201. gringan, 201. gripan, 205. grtsan, 205.
f/ro/, 230.

hculd<^hcaldan. heonan, 252.


lieorcnian, 297. /icorfc, 209.

hc6p<Jieapan.
her, 252. /i(;rf, 209. lierian, 224. horpan, 224.

gcatpan<^geatpe, 100.
J/c.'/'i,

15.

grdpan, 191, 208. grund, 230. gryndan, weak.


gryrehptl, 265. gulpon<C.gilpan.

hest<Jtdn.
hi, 306.

gen, 15.
f?<i/ia,

251.

guma,

41, 268.
;

hicgan

ijj),

211.

^e<7,213. genoli, 490. <7c6, 252.


J7e6f , 28.

yum-cyn, 265 pegn, 268.

man,.

208

/ij'der,

H^c

15, 252=/i2(fer, 12G.


,

gurron<^girran. gy+, see f;i+.


ffjy(7en.,

503. h'ighii, 28. 203. /i?'!;,

gcogud, 28, 235.


(;coi,

28.

/^/ide?!,

228, 268. 244, 313.

hindan, 252, 255.


hindenia, 120.
/imc/e?-, 129.
/(!>(/,

geond, 15, 28, 133, 255, 32S, 340.

geondan, 257.
geovff, 28, 124, 22S. f/eo ng<C_ ganga n. iieiingan, 201. aeiingling, 228, 236. gidpan, 206. gcvrran, 204. 'gevtan, 206. frer, 28.
28, 261, 399. jyt'ta, 251. f//c, 225.
(/e.w,

gl/meli/st, 235. i/'/rdc, 189. J7i/, 262.


27, 14,228. 28, 31, S3, 35+.
7i,
7t,

/(tz-ei,

S3, 231. 229, 235.

A?s, 307.
Art, 130, 287, 300.

hlmlan, 207.
hldf-dige, ord, 208. hleahtor, 33, 57.

/w,

//, 263.

habban, 37, /M, 229. 168, 222.


haldan, 208.
halettan, 250. /(dm, 71,101,251. hdm-peard, 229, 251
251.
/tawrt, 95, 231, 208.
/jflSJid,

hledpan, 208.
hledt'dhleOtan.

hlehhan
;

(i,

y) (6, a), 20T.

hleudrcdc, 298.

peardes, hleuiK^hlcopan, warm.


/(^potaM, 206. /(/e^f, 35.

gielan, 203. gieng, 213.


(7?y,

260, 262, 469, 475.

(7)/a?i (i, eo, io, y), 8, 199, 297, 'gifta, 100.

92, 228, 267; gepeorc, hliccan, 199. 266 ; sellan, 207. hlidan, 205. hanyan, 203, 216, 224. hllgan, weak.
/(as, 50, 57.

o)f, 88, 228, 231. 'yihlan (ie, y), 203, 297. gillan, 203. gilpan {ic, ij), 203.

Idimmcm,

201.

/idtaJi, 208, 280.

hlbpan, 208.
AZijtoH, 206.

hdtian, 249. /(dMf 219.


108, 169, 415, 410, 453. il7. /ia-Zte, 189. Aa-^p, 86. /(&;?<, 269.
/(a-fiftc,

hhjsb^re, 243.
hlijstan, 297. hndtan, 208.

giltan,

weak.

ginan, 205. ginnan, 201.

/ia-/de, 108,

hncdp>an, 208.

gwng-^gangan.
gipan, 199. girranz=georran. girpan, 224.
<7!.sf,

Iid'nt<^hd!i.

hnigan, 205, 297. hnipan, 199. hnttan, 205.


hoqode, 211, 222.
/io/i,
/(<irt,

28.

28, 465. f/!^, pron., 130, 287, 360. gitan (ie, y), 199.
;?)?,

hditan, 249. 235. 24, 130. hedfan, 208.


/(a*<!{,
/(e,

100.

208, 216, 224.

f!lAd<^qli'dan. (/(/Tf/, 106, 125.

heafod, 41, 79 hedge, 251.


/(ca/i,

^nan,

266.

hoppcstre, 268. horsern, 229, 239.


//().<i,

37.

118, 124.

hrade, 454.

glcdman, 229.
gl'idan, 205.

healdan, 208.
/iea?/, 147, 394.

hrankjirinan.
hrdp, 100.
/(/a-rf,

gnagan, 207. gnidan, 205.


P'V, 129
;

!es,
;

228.

god-cund,

229, 266 golclfmt, 31.^ goldsmid, 260.


/fc,

229

229 pei, 266.


Ze<i,

hreds<^hreusan. hedri^hedd, -pp. to exalt (weak). hrcddan, 188, 189. heard, 229, 243. hrcodan, hrcodeii, 200. hearp-ere, etrc, 268. hrcofan, 200. heauod, 30. hrcosan, 197, 200. hedpan, 208. hreopan, 200.

healJ lie pone, 489. healp<ihelpan.

125.

INDEX OF WOEDS.
hrgpan, Ons. hrinan, 2(i5, 293. hrindan, 201.
lirvpan, 20S.

2ot>
1

innan, 252, 257, 32S, 329, 341.


inne, 252.
126. imiera, 129. innian, 57. 341.

lice, 251.
qe-lice

and, 473.

innema,

^icorfc, 299.

licgan {licgcan), 102, 199, 248,


286.

hroren<^hrebxan. hruron<^hredsan.
hriitan, 206. hrpman, 248.
252, 2G0, 262, 397, 46S, 4C9. hit, Interj., 263. htcdan, hxidon, 200. hitgu, 136. hnlic, 135.

mW,

Jldan, 205.

inpeardlice, 15.

;Won, 197.
lid, 37.

io=eo, 33.

M,

to, 503.
'/o,

25.

irnan, 204.
iS<[om, wc, 228, 241.

;j<ia, 205. it/an, 205. lifian, 222.

liget<Clicgan, 193.

+(i/ian, 205, 297.


?!(;,

lmlpon<Chelpan.
huiid,

13S+.

hunt-ad,
AiMi, 37.

btt,

nad, 233.

Mt
n(i-,

tsgicel, 200.
,

270.

503.

iw, 252, 390.


jM/ir/,

limpan, 201. 228.


i?H<7,

hCtsincle, 22S.

228. 28.

h-Unnan, 201.
litlian, 249.

hpA, 135, 377, 382, 390. hpd, 13G, 390. hpanan, 252, 260, 4G9. h panne, 252, 469.
469.
A/>^)-, 252, 260, 469.

;,

27, 29, 33, 35.

litlum, 251. lofsuni, 242.

l<ra,

228.

lomp<Clvmpan.
lucan, 200.
Ziz/ede, 38.

Id, 260, 263, 397.


?ca?!, 101, 208.

hpxder, 126, 135, 260, 878, 4W, Ide, 229.


ldd<^ltdan.
ldgon<ilir<ian. laguflod, 205.

luf-ian, 1S3

igmn,
;

3G.

hpxt, 125.
///-a^i,

luf-sum, 242 t^mc, 229, 242. Lundenisc, 241.


lunge, 97.
iws, 91, 100.

135, 263, 377, 382.

hpset godes, 312.

hpxthiigu, 136, 390.


hpelati, 200. hpeorfan, 204. hpetan, 199. hpetstdn, 266. /'/'i, 135, 252, 260.
/(/-Wer, 252, 260, 262, 409. A/'i/e, 262. hptlum, 251, 262, 472. Iipiiutn, 205. 7t/'0M, 135, 395. hpopan, 208.

lamb, 82, 268.

lamp'CJimjmn.
land, 101
;

ia)),

26G;

sceap,

;j<.s,

209

fc^rc, 229.
?

iittaJi,

206.

229, 235

scipc, 38, 205.

hjccan (Grein)

?an7, 124. langad, 297.


/^(an, 250. I^ce-cra-ft, l^dan, 248.

cyn, dom, 235.

l^g<licgan. lhte<j&can. l&nan, 207.


i/gran, 292. ?2;.s, 259, 342, 393. Ixssa, 127, 129. mstes, 166. ?a^ 128. ?a>^a (e), 208. Ixtema, 126.

gelj/fan, 297. ?2/.sie. 290. Zi/i, 129, 136, 3C5. /yte?, 129. i^sde, 189. ?^a;e, 189.
!, 27, 30, 33, 35, 44.

hpnrfon<Jipeorfan.
hpylc, 135, 378, 332. hi/cgan, 211, 222.
fti/ffc,

m<[r/ta, 228. ma<Cman, 22S.


2.'il.

mi, 129,

86

sceaft, 220, 235.

viacian, 286.

hijldan, 248. J)(/>mu, 248.

mddm, maddum,
mdg-a, e, 208.
212. vidgon, 212. magu, 231.

290.

hpran, 183, 1S9, 297. hyrcnian, 250. ge-hymed, 243. ge-h^rsum-ian, 297.
A!/rte, 1S9.

magan,
r/in,

ledg<Cle6gan, 3S. leahan, 207.


ifdji, 207.

hyse-cild, 268.
1,

lednian, 297. 229, 243, 400.


ie<iN,

23.

lcdt<Cliitan. leccan, 209.

84, cjW, 100, 101, 136, 389 cyn, 229; cpelere,208; 208. 260 ge-man, 212. 229.
;
;

cu;,

jjidJi,

2,24.

<?, 22S, 240, 263. <Oa, 228. ia^zea, 33. ta, 246, 247. m
,

iccgan, 188, 209, 248. Z^tJ*-, 189, 209, 224. iegrde, 189.

rnanfj/,

136,

395,

489,

490

feald, 229, 266.


indra, 129.

lendenu, 100. leddan, 200.


86. ;(-'<V, 297. ;<;()//, 206. ico/rtrf, 222.
;fldc,

mdpan,

208.

."503

m&den-cild, fifmme, 269; hdd,2'l9.

iJiovi,

w,
?<i,

261.
25. 41, 130, 306.

w,

idxges, 251.
jdc, 101.

j</,

164.

f^=e<i, e5, 25. ie^aja, 228. ?jr, 228, 243. iffe, 268. ih, 228. ?Vi^ 228, 243.

in, IS, 2.'S4, 328,341. iVf, iivcer, inrit, 130, 132. ing (verbal), 228, 460. iiig, 228, 237. in viiddum, 258.

leofen, 228, 232. ?P07an, 192, 194, 20C. lenhte, 189, 209. leolr, 159, 208, 218. leomd, 77. icwcf, l.')9, 208, 218. fnr-leosan, 197, 200. ^(o^ 208. laian, 192. ?, 208. letan, 208.

mxg, 176, 212, 436. mdig, 208. m^gden, 228, 236. 7i^i/rf, 228. nuegenheard, 229, 243. m&gr&den, 229. TO/gi, 229. mSraian, 250.

rjii^st,

129.

ge-mittan, 290.
!, 24, 37, 130, 366.

meahte, 176, 212.


Micarft, 33, 80, 268. TOc, 130, 366. medema, 126.

Uhhan, 222.

itr,

269.
133, 130, 229, 241, 242, 302.

ifc,

melcan, 203. meltan, 203.

234:
viemicn, 2GS.
tiu'odo, 3S.
,

INDEX OF WORDS.
w*!,

463.

<*/(, 124, 251, 259, 341.

nferflcopan, 207. dlfrian, 35.


o/t, 251.

mtoiuc, vieornan, 204.


tiwople, 230. merde, 189. i/i(>re, 38.
')tu'r-e,

32, 50.

inc,

ihe, 2G3.

be-nrali, 212. nciVibiir, 266. nedlilmnd, 259. neahlsbhtc, 299. neahtes, 251.

of-puhte, 297.

oi, 228.

oleccan, 297.
on<^?(?i/tan. on, 15, 254, 257, 323, 341, 350; bxc, 251 ; bi(t<tn, 257, 323, 341 ; dred, 298 ; ef(fi)n, 258, 341, 473; foran, 328, 341 ; /oii, 299 ; gcdn, 251 ;

nealles, 261.

iiieritje, 2(is.

nedn, 252.
ne<Jr, 344.

vittan, 199.
ntetor, 50. (, 1S9.
1)1^

ncarpc, 251. nodes, 251.

pincp, 297.
i)i(J,

ge-nedan, 37.
c, 268. 259, 345. Ji/t, tielist, 344. nclla7i=znrllan. mmde, 189, 280. tiemlice, 408. nemn<?,35, 259, 431. neodan, 252, 257, 340. motan, 206, 300.

129, 394, 490. 251. 'inifUan, 249. miclum, 251.


Mifoc;,

p/-a,

gegn,
nionjr,

9iV?e

(//!,

'/c253, 323, 341 ; 258, 328, 341 ; innan, 257, 341; lihan, 297

liifte,
;

15, 254, 255, 323, 343, 472. ((?, 228. iiiidde, 114. iiiid-dxg, 20G. midlen, 239. mutan, 205. mi^an, 205. mi'hte, 212. mildheortnes, 235. ge-miltsian, 297. iHi/i, 130, 132, 367, 490. 7)1 i sc, 4S9. 1/iiS, 15, 254, 250. iniadon, 267. ?(>'/, 269. vwdor, 100.
-)/(/,

472

258 niiddan,
; ;

rfron, 251

Mppan,257,328,341; pxg,
251. 247.
6;i,
?c,

Viang, 341 341 vfan, 257, 341


;

.swn-

wr-e,

?>/aw,
ecte,

ond, 202. igean, 28, 36, 160, ono, 202, 405.


(7n,

law,

1S3, 165, 228. 247.


w*"*,

ono nu

ono

gif, 475.

ge-nesan, 199.

Wse, 261, 399.


ne^eie, 232.
wirfe, 129.

nidema, 126.
ni<^er, 15, 255.

15, 254. 228, 242. ortgcard, 266. 6.s<re, 270. o<, 228. ox'rt, 97.

or, or,

Oxendford, 205.
?
J>,

ntgan (Greiu)

Monandasg, 2C5. morgen, 100.


wkXsJc, 30, 176, 212. motan, 176, 212, 433. 7(i?frf, 24, 37. viugan (a), 212.

nigon, 138-}-. nihtcgalc, 267. niht-'hnvfen, 260. nillan, 212.

27, 30.

palant, 270. persuc, 270.


^n'stoi, 43, 270.

nim,

172, 298.

pluma,

41.

nimaii, 173, 200, 246.


173. m7n, 104, 170. nimcnde, 173. niotan, 200. ntpan, 205. niton (e, V), 212. no, 201. no/j?, 261, 400. iioht.c<^>uah, 212.

pri'jfian, 280.

inuiiec, c?i, 268. iiiurctra, 228. 100. i((s, 90, )ii.///^rf, 22S. mgnte, 189. lii^J'c, 232.

nimanrw,

?-,

27, r<ra, 223.

29.

r<:h,

252. ra, compar., 120, 255.

rafan, 207.

n, 27, 28, 29, 35, 42-51. 254. , 250. , w<na, 228. <;i2, 228. JW, 175, 228. nu, 261, 399, 400.

n n

rarK^rinnan. rdpinde, 236.


JV?.s<^rt,'*rt/i.

noWc<ii?'Han.

Mom=?iam.
won, 270.
n(w-rf,l29; frjic, 245; 245. nw, 228.

ri:>(/an, 203, 297, 300.

ri&dels, 223.

peard,

rMen,
j%-a,
j-^2)te,

229. 263.
e,

45. warf, 22S. lu'igan, 212. <i/iff, 212.

nabban,

nw,

w(/, 24, 252, 262, 406, 472.

nw?nei, 173.

189. r^ran, 243. r^sf?, 189.

nymde, 431.
mjtan, 212.
0,23.

reahte<yeccan.
rec, 85. rccaji, 189, 210.

linia-s, 201, 400.

7iarn, 166.

naTMfl, 228.
IJMOlfi, 171.

166. ?tM, 252. , 45, 261, 387. ge-ndpan, 203.


'))driM7i,

o<w, 205. o<a, 228. o<iy<i, 228.


d<aja,
,

reccan, 209.

-red
rfld

(), 229.

(x)<jrebrd.

6,24.

228, 247.

napilit, 261, 389, 400, i:'(ii, 228, 232. n^h, 344. n^ /(/, 136, 387. nxrende, 213. iiigre