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# 1. What is Coulomb? A coulomb is a quantity measurement for electrons One coulomb contains 6.25x1018, or 6,250,000,000,000,000,000 electrons.

trons. It is Similar to Saying Gallons of Water, or Liter Named for a French scientist-Charles Augustin de Coulomb The symbol for coulomb is the letter C. Coulombs law of electrostatic charges, states that the force of electrostatic attraction or repulsion is directly proportional to the product of the two charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

2. What is Ampere The ampere is a measurement of the amount of electricity that is flowing through a circuit. named for Andr Ampre ampere (A) is equal to 1 coulomb per second One ampere of current flows through a wire when 1 coulomb flows past a point in one second The letter I, which stands for intensity of current, andthe letter A, which stands for ampere, are both used

3. What is Electron Flow Theory? Current flows from the most Negative to Positive 4. What is Conventional Flow Theory? Current flows from the most positive point to the most negative. 5. What is Wavelength? Wavelength is the distance that current travels during one AC cycle 6. What is Short Circuit? when an unintended connection is created between two components that are supposed to be isolated 7. What are Ungrounded(Hot) Grounded(neutral) and Grounding(safety) wires for? Ungrounded(Hot)- The hot conductor supplies power to the load. Grounded (Neutral)- neutral conductor, provides the return path and completes the circuit back to the power source. Grounded(Safety)- The grounding conductor is generally connected to the case of the appliance to provide a low-resistance path to ground

8. What is Voltage? Voltage is defined as the potential difference between two points of a conducting wire carrying a constant current of 1 ampere It is the force that pushes the electrons through a wire and is often referred to as electrical pressure.

Referred to as potential difference or electromotive force (EMF). One thing to remember is that voltage cannot flow. To say that voltage flows through a circuit is like saying that pressure flows through a pipe it. Voltage often thought of as the potential to do something. The letter E, which stands for EMF, or the letter V, which stands for volt

9. What is Ohm? Resistance to Current flow The symbol used to represent an ohm, or resistance, is the Greek letter omega .The letter R, which stands for resistance An ohm is the amount of resistance that allows 1 ampere of current to flow when the applied voltage is 1 volt. Without resistance, every electric circuit would be a short circuit All electric loads, such as heating elements, lamps, motors, transformers, and so on, are measured in ohms. Any time current flows through a resistance, heat is produced.

10. What is Impedance? It is a resistance to flow in AC circuits 11. What is Watt? Wattage is a measure of the amount of power that is being used in a circuit. Represented either by the letter P, for power,or W, for watts. It is proportional to the amount of voltage and the amount of current flow. An important concept concerning power in an electric circuit is that before true power, or watts, can exist, there must be some type of energy change or conversion. In other words, electric energy must be changed or converted into some other form of energy before there can be power or watts.

Other Measurement of Power Watt found that the average horse working at a steady rate could do 550 foot-pounds of work per second. A foot-pound (ft-lb) is the amount of force required to raise a 1 pound weight 1 foot. This rate of doing work is the definition of a horsepower (hp): 1 hp = 550 ft-lb/s Horsepower can also be expressed as 33,000 foot-pounds per minute (550x60) Electric energy needed to produce one horsepower = 746 watts The joule is the SI equivalent of the watt.

The joule can also be expressed as the amount of work done by 1 coulomb flowing through a potential of 1 volt or work done by 1 watt for 1 second.

12. What is Ohms law? Ohms law states, that it takes 1 volt to push 1 ampere through 1 ohm In a DC circuit, the current is directly proportional to the voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance. E=IxR

13. Standard

Engineering notation

Part 2 1. What is Static Electricity Static electricity refers to electrons that are sitting still and not moving. Electrostatic charges are built up on insulator materials because insulators are the only materials that can hold the electrons stationary and keep them from fl owing to a different location. A static charge can be either positive or negative. If an object has a lack of electrons, it has a positive charge; and if it has an excess of electrons, it has a negative charge.

2. What is Electroscope? used to determine the polarity of the electrostatic charge of an object is the electroscope

## 3. Static electricity in nature? Best example- Lightening

Part 3 Magnetism

Magnet is the most important phenomena in the study of Electricity. The greek and Asians noticed its attraction to irons. Magnets allow them self to align North and South

## 1. What is Magnet? A magnet is a an object or a material that has a magnetic field.

2. What is Magnetic Declination? Magnetic declination the difference between the angle of the True north and Magnetics north 3. What Permanent magnet? There are two basic kinds of magnetspermanent and temporary. A permanent magnet retains its magnetic properties for a long time. A temporary magnet acts as a magnet only as long as it is in the magnetic field produced by a permanent magnet or an electric current. Permanent magnets are magnets that do not require any power or force to maintain their field. Example one law of Magnet states-energy is required to create a magnetic field, but no energy is required to maintain a magnetic field. 4. Three Materials that form natural magnets are ? Iron, Cobalt, Nickel 5. What is Magnetic Domains? A magnetic domain is region in which the magnetic fields of atoms are grouped together and aligned 6. Magnetic Materials can be divided in to three categories, what are they? Ferromagnetic materials- easily magnetized example are Iron, cobalt, Nickel and Manganese Paramagnetic materials- Can be magnetized but not as good as the Ferro Diamagnetic materials- Non magnetic 7. Magnetic lines of forces. Magnetic line of forces are called flux The symbol used to represent flux is Greek letter phi The Flux line repel each other 8. What is electromagnetics? Electromagnetic is when a magnetic field is created around an conductor when carrunt is passing through it. A basic law of physics states that whenever an electric current flows through a conductor, a magnetic field is formed around the conductor Electromagnets If the conductor is wound into a coil the magnetic lines of flux add to produce a stronger magnetic field. A coil with 10 turns of wire produces a magnetic field that is 10 times as strong as the magnetic field around a single conductor. The two factors that determine the number of flux lines produced by an electromagnet are the number of turns of wire and the amount of current flow through the wire. The strength of an electromagnet is proportional to its ampere-turns. Ampere-turns are determined by multiplying the number of turns of wire by the current flow.

9. What is Core Material? The core material is the material the coil wire is wounded on. If the material is made of wood or plastic- it is known as air-core material. If it is made of Iron or soft steel- Iron-core material 10. What is Permeability? Permeability is a measure of a materials ability to become magnetized 11. What is Reluctance? Resistance to Magnetism

12. What is Saturation of a magnet force? It is a point where the electromagnetic field will slightly increase with the increase of current 13. What is residual Magnetism? Residual magnetism is the amount of magnetism left after the current is stopped. 14. What is Coercive force? The measurement of a materials to retain magnetism, High Residual magnetism material has high coercive force. 15. What is retentivit? Similar to Coercive force, ability of magnet to retain magnetism.

Measurement of magnetic Three systems used to measure magnetic field o English system o CGS system o SI system The English system is measured in term called Flux density To find Flux density o Flux density is measured in lines per square inch. o The Greek letter phi is used to measure flux lines o The letter B is used to represent flux density o So to Find the Flux Densityis B= /A To find the total force producing a magnetic field is measured in MMF ( Magnetomotive force) o o MMF= x rel ( reluctance) It is measured in Ampere-turn

## To Find the strength of a magnet o Pull(in pounds) = B x A/72,000,000

The CGS system ( centimetre, gram, sec) o One magnetic line of force is called Maxwell o A Gauss represents a magnetic force of 1 Maxwell per inch centimetre o The measuring unit in CGS is gilberts o 1 gilberts = 1.256 ampere turn o In CGS there is a standard called the unit magnetic pole is used- two magnets are separated by a distance of 1 centimeter. These magnets repel each other with a force of 1 dyne. The dyne is a very weak unit of force. One dyne is equal to 127,800 of an ounce. or it requires 27,800 dynes to equal a force of 1 ounce o Force (in dynes)= M1 x M2 / D*2 o M1 = strength of first magnet in unit magnetic poles o M2 = strength of second magnet in unit magnetic poles o D= distance between the poles in centimetres The SI ( MKS- Meter , Kilogram , Sec) o The weber is used to measure magnetic flux o 1 weber = 100,000,000 lines flux or 10x8

16. What is Demagnetizing? Removing the magnetic force Can be done 3 wayso AC current- by rapidly rapid movement of the AC current, and then moving the further apart as the electrical field gets weaker the alignment of the molecules with me distorted o Heat- When the temperature becomes hot enough the molecules rearrange themselves in a disordered fashion. o Hammer- The vibration of the hammer will disorder the molecules

Resistors

1. What Are resistors? Two benefits (1)-Resistors are components used in electricity to limit the flow of electrons If resistor was not included the resistance of the electron flow would only be limited by the conducting wire 2. What is the current, in a 15V, 30 Ohm device? E=IxR I=E/R I=15/30 =0.5 The current flows are 0.5 A 3. If the conducting wire has a resistance of 0.0001 with not resistors, what would be the current if 15V is present? E=IxR I=E/R I=15/0.0001 I=150,000 As you can see there is barely any resistance with a resistor component. This is known as Short circuits 4. What is the other benefit of resistor? They are used as a voltage dividers

Fixed Resistors
Fixed resistors only have one ohmic value which cannot be changed There are different types of fix resistors-

One of the most common fix resistor is the composition carbon resistor Composition carbon resistors are made of carbon graphite and (Ceramic clay) resin bond material Their ratio between the carbon and ceramic material determine the resistance value

Are cheap and easy to manufacture and readily available The range from 1ohm to 22 megaohms

## Another type of fix resistor is the Metal film resistor

Metal film resistors are constructed by applying a film of metal to a ceramic rod The resistance is determined by the type of metal used to form the film and the thickness of the film. They are better than the Carbon resin- because Metal film resistors do not change their value with age, and their tolerance is generally better than carbon resistors.

Another types is Carbon file Resistor made by coating a ceramic rod with a fi lm of carbon instead of metal. Carbon film resistors are less expensive to manufacture than metal film resistors have a higher tolerance rating than composition carbon resistors Another Fixed resistor is Metal Glaze resistor They are similar to metal film resistors The resistor is combining metal with glass Another- Wire wound Resistor made by winding a piece of resistive wire around a ceramic core The resistive is determined by 3 factors- the type of material used to make the resistive wire- the diameter of the wire- and the length of the wire Can operate on high temp and with high power applications.