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Evolution Study Guide

Evolution is the changes in allele frequency over time.

Two areas of evolutionary study

Macroevolution – describes the details of how populations of organisms change from generation to generation and how new species originate.

Microevolution – describes patterns of changes in groups of related species over broad periods of time.

Phylogeny – the evolutionary relationships among species and groups of species

Lamark- early advocate of evolutionary ideas

1. Use + Disuse – body parts or organisms can develop with increased usage, while unused parts can weaken. This idea was correct. Examples: athletes

2. Inheritance of aquired characteristics – Body features acquired during the lifetime of an organism can be passed to their offspring. This idea was not correct – A dog that had her tail cut off will not give birth to tail-less puppies.

3. Natural transformation of species – described how organisms produced offspring with changes, transforming each subsequent generation into a slightly different form it itself. Species don't go extinct or transform into two or more species. This idea was also not correct.

Darwin – On the Origin of Species – Published 1859 - Descent with modification -evolution is both a pattern and a process

Adaption – Characteristics of an organism that enhance their survival and reproduction in specific environments. Natural Selection – the differences in survival and reproduction among individuals in a population as a result of their interaction with the environment.

Evidence for Evolution

1. Paleontology

2. Biogeography- uses geography to describe the distribution of species.

3. Embryology- reveals similar stages in development among related species

4. Comparative anatomy – Homologous structures- body parts that resemble eachother because they have evolved from a common ancestor. Analogous structures- body parts that resemble each other to serve the same purpose. Does not mean they are related. Butterfly and bird wing for example.

5. Molecular biology – examines the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of DNA and proteins from different species.

Some other peoples ideas about evolution and shtuff

Cuvier – catastrophism- differences in organisms he observed in the rock strata was due to

natural disasters that disrupted the flow of evolution.

James Hutton – Gradualism- profound geologic changes took place through the cumulative effects of slow but continuous processes. Erosion and crap.

Charles Lyell – Uniformitarianism – geology has been the same since the beginning over earth. Obviously false.

Lamark- early advocate of evolutionary ideas

Use + Disuse – body parts or organisms can develop with increased usage, while unused parts can weaken. This idea was correct. Examples: athletes

Inheritance of aquired characteristics – Body features acquired during the lifetime of an organism can be passed to their offspring. This idea was not correct – A dog that had her tail cut off will not give birth to tail-less puppies.

Natural transformation of species – described how organisms produced offspring with changes, transforming each subsequent generation into a slightly different form it itself. Species don't go extinct or transform into two or more species. This idea was also not correct.

Phylogeny and Evolutionary Tree

Systematics- an analytical approach to classifying the diversity and determing the evolutionary relationships. Taxonomy- Linnaeus was the guy who made it up. It's how organisms are classified. Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus species. Phylogenetic tree- evolutionary history Cladistics- clades – ancestral species and all of its descendents. Paraphyletic grouping- consists of some but not all of the descendents Polyphletic grouping – lack a common ancestor

Kinds of Selection

1.

Stabilizing selection- eliminates individuals that have extreme or unusual traits. Most common = best adapted.

2.

Directional selection- favors traits that are at one extreme of a range of traits. Leads to distinct changes in the allele frequencies of the populations. Ex. The darker the moth, the more likely its survival. Ex. Insecticide resistance. The individuals that possess resistance will be the only to survive. Can change allele pool within only a few generations.

3.

Disruptive Selection – occurs when the environment favors extreme or unusual traits, while selecting against the common traits. Ex. Weeds occur in a range of heights; tall forms predominate in wild grasslands, but only short forms of these weeds do well in lawns.

4.

Sexual Selection – the differential mating of males in a population. Females can increase their offspring's fitness by increase the quality of the offspring by choosing superior males to mate with. Male competition vs. female choice. Leads to sexual dimorphism – differences in the appearances of males and females of the same species.

5.

Artificial Selection- form of directional selection carried out by humans when they sow seeds or breed animals that possess desirable traits. Ex. The various breeds of dogs. Ex. Brussel sprouts, broccoli, and cabbage were all artificially selected from one type of mustard plant.

Intrasexual selection- Competition of males Intersexual selection – choosiness of females

Sources of Variation

1.

Mutations – Mutations provide the raw material for new variation. All other contributions to variation occur by rearanging existing alleles in new combinations. Mutations can create alleles that have never before existed in the gene pool.

2.

Sexual reproduction- creates individuals with new combinations of alleles. Genetic recombination occurs. Types of sexual recombination are crossing over, independent assortment of homologues and random joining of gametes.

3.

Diploidy – Is the presence of two copies of each chromosome in a cell. In the heterozygous condition (when two different alleles for a single gene locus are present), the recessive allele is hidden from natural selection allowing variation to be “stored” for future generations.

4.

Outbreeding – Mating with unrelated partners, increases the possibility of mixing different alleles and creating new allele combination.

5.

Balanced Polymorphism- the maintenance of different phenotypes in a population. Phenotype is the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interation of the genotype with the environment. Usually one phenotype is more advantageous than the other, resulting in selection.

Heterozygote advantage – occurs when the heterozygous condition bears a greater advantage than either homozygous condition. This results in the maintenance of both alleles and all three phenotypes in the population. Ex. Sickle cell disease.

Hybrid vigor(heterosis) – Describes the superior quality of offspring resulting from the offspring of two different species. Ex. Hybrid corn is better than nonhybrid corn.

Frequency-dependent selection – occurs when the least common phenotypes have a selective advantage. Common phenotypes are selected against. However, when rare phenotypes have this advantage, they slowly become the most common, then that the same phenotype gets selected against. This causes a cycle or fluctuation between the frequencies of phenotypes.

Neutral Variation - Variation that does not have selective value. Ex. Fingerprints differences in humans are not selected for in any way.

Causes of Changes in Allele Frequencies

1. Natural selection

2. Mutations – Introduce alleles that can be beneficial or harmful

3. Gene Flow – the introduction of removal of alleles from the population when individuals leave or enter the population.

4. Genetic Drift – random increase of decrease of alleles. Some alleles may increase or decrease for no other reason than by chance. More likely to occur in a small population.

Founder effect- Occurs when allele frequencies in a group of migrating individuals are, by chance, not the same as that of their population of origin.

Bottleneck effect – occurs when the population undergoes a dramatic decrease in size.

5. Nonrandom mating – Occurs when individuals choose mates based upon their particular traits. This includes: inbreeding, and sexual selection.

Hardy-Weinburg Equilibrium

When the allele frequencies in a population remain constant from generation to generation, the

population is said to be in genetic equilibrium. CONDITIONS OF HARDY-WEINBURG EQUILIBRIUM

1. All traits are selectively neutral

2. Mutations do not occur

3. The population is isolated from other populations (no gene flow)

4. The population is large (no genetic drift)

5. Mating is random

Math stuff for Hardy-Weinburg

p+q=1

p 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1

Speciation

A species is defined as a group of individuals capable of interbreeding. Speciation is the formation of new species, which occurs by the following processes.

1. Allopatric speciation – begins when a populations divides because of a geographic barrier

2. Sympatric speciation – doesn't have a geographic barrier. Different ways this can happen are:

Balanced polymorphism

(auto)polyploidy – the possession of more than the normal two sets of chromosomes found in a diploid. Occurs more in plants

Hybridization – Occurs when two distinctly different forms of a species mate and produce progeny along a geographic boundary called a hybrid zone.

Adaptive radiation – ex. Galapagos finches or marsupials.

Maintaining Reproductive Isolation

If species are not physically seperated by geography, various mechanisms commonly eist to maintain reproductive isolation and prevent gene flow. Divided into two groups. Prezygotic factors – consists of factors that prevent fertilization

1. Habitat isolation

2. Temporal isolation- (different mating seasons)

3. Behavioral isolation – does not recognize mating rituals

4. Mechanical isolation – genitalia physically incapable or reproducing

5. Gametic isolation – Male and female gametes just don't work

Postzygotic factors – factors that prevent the formation of fertile, fit offspring

1. Hybrid viability

2. Hybrid sterility

3. Hybrid Breakdown

Patterns of Evolution

1. Divergent Evolution- two species that originate from a common ancestor but eventually became different. (homologous structures)

2. Convergent Evolution – Two unrelated species that share related traits (analogous structures)

Phyletic gradualism – argues that evolution occurs by the gradual accumulation of small changes. Puncuated equilibrium- argues that evolutionary history consists of geologically long periods of stasis with little or no evolution punctuated by geologically short periods of rapid evolution.

The Origin of Life

Chemical evolution- the study of the development of the chemicals and stuff on early earth.

1.

The earth and its atmosphere formed. Lots of gasses. Little oxygen.

2.

The primordial seas formed. Consisted of water and minerals.

3.

Complex molecules synthesized. Organic soup. Amino acids and such. Bunch of experiments people did about this one. Stanley Miller.

4.

Polymers and self-replicating molecules were synthesized. Proteinoids- abiotically formed polypeptides.

5.

Organic molecules were concentrated and isolated into protobionts (the precursors to cells, they had a membrane and stuff but they were still pretty lame)

6.

Primitive heterotrophic prokaryotes. Heterotrophs could obtain energy by consuming organic substances.

7.

Primitive autotrophic prokaryotes were formed. Could produce its own food.

8.

Oxygen and the ozone layer formed.

9.

Eukaryotes! Yay.

Summary of endosymbiotic theory.

Eurkaryotic cells originated from a mutually beneficial association among various kinds of prokaryotes. Specifically, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and other organelles established “residence' inside another prokaryote, producing a eukaryote.