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SCHATTEN p-NORM INEQUALITIES RELATED TO A CHARACTERIZATION OF INNER PRODUCT SPACES

arXiv:0801.2726v2 [math.FA] 4 Dec 2008

OMAR HIRZALLAH1 , FUAD KITTANEH2 AND MOHAMMAD SAL MOSLEHIAN3 Abstract. Let A1 , An be operators acting on a separable complex Hilbert Pn space such that i=1 Ai = 0. It is shown that if A1 , An belong to a Schatten p-class, for some p > 0, then 2p/2 np1
n X i=1

Ai

p p

n X i,j=1

Ai Aj

p p

for 0 < p 2, and the reverse inequality holds for 2 p < . Moreover,
n X i,j=1

Ai Aj

2 p

2n2/p

n X i=1

Ai

2 p

for 0 < p 2, and the reverse inequality holds for 2 p < . These inequalities are related to a characterization of inner product spaces due to E.R. Lorch.

1. Introduction Let B(H) be the algebra of all bounded linear operators on a separable complex Hilbert space H. Let A B(H) be compact, and let 0 < p < . The Schatten p-norm (quasi-norm) for 1 p < (0 < p < 1) is dened by A p = (tr|A|p )1/p , where tr is the usual trace functional and |A| = (A A)1/2 . Clearly |A|2 p/2 = A 2 for p > 0. For p > 0, the Schatten p-class, denoted by Cp , is dened to be p the set of those compact operators A for which A p is nite. When p = 2, the Schatten p-norm A 2 = (tr|A|2 )1/2 is called the HilbertSchmidt norm of A. For p > 0, Cp is a two-sided ideal in B(H). For 1 p < , Cp is a Banach space; in particular, if A1 , , An Cp , then the triangle inequality for p asserts that
n n

(1.1)
i=1

Ai
p

i=1

Ai

p.

However, for 0 < p < 1, the quasi-norm . p does not satisfy the triangle inequality. It has been shown in [2] (see, also, [3]) that if A1 , , An Cp are positive and 0 < p 1, then
n n

(1.2)
i=1

Ai

i=1

Ai
p

For more information on the theory of the Schatten p-classes, the reader is referred to [1, 6].
2000 Mathematics Subject Classication. Primary: 47A30; Secondary: 46C15, 47B10, 47B15. Key words and phrases. Schatten p-norm, positive operator, inequality, inner product space.
1

O. HIRZALLAH, F. KITTANEH, M.S. MOSLEHIAN

It is well-known that a normed space X is an inner product space if and only if for every x, y X, we have (1.3) x+y
2

+ xy

= 2( x

+ y 2) .

The identity (1.3) is known as the parallelogram law. A version of this fundamental law holds for the Hilbert-Schmidt norm. Generalizations of the parallelogram law for the Schatten p-norms have been given in the form of the celebrated Clarkson inequalities (see [3] and references therein). These inequalities have proven to be very useful in analysis, operator theory, and mathematical physics. Another known characterization of inner product spaces is due to E.R. Lorch [5]. He proved that a normed space X is an inner product space if and only if for a xed integer n 3, and x1 , , xn X with n xi = 0, we have i=1
n n

(1.4)
i,j=1

xi xj

= 2n
i=1

xi 2 .

Since C2 is a Hilbert space under the inner product A, B = tr(B A), it follows that if A1 , , An C2 with n Ai = 0, then i=1
n n

(1.5)
i,j=1

Ai Aj

2 2

= 2n
i=1

Ai

2 2

In this paper, we establish operator inequalities for the Schatten p-norms that form natural generalizations of the identity (1.5). Our inequalities presented here seem natural enough and applicable to be widely useful. 2. Main results To achieve our goal, we need the following lemma (see [2, 4]). Lemma 2.1. Let A1 , , An Cp for some p > 0. If A1 , , An are positive, then
n n p n p1 i=1

Ai p p

i=1

Ai
p

i=1

Ai

p p

(a)

for 0 < p 1; and


n n p n

Ai p p
i=1

i=1

Ai
p

np1
i=1

Ai

p p

(b)

for 1 p < . A commutative version of Lemma 2.1 can be formulated for scalars as follows: If a1 , , an are nonnegative real numbers, then
n n p n

(2.1) for 0 < p 1; and

p1 i=1

ap i

i=1

ai

i=1

ap i

(2.2)
i=1

ap i

i=1

ai

np1
i=1

ap i

SCHATTEN p-NORM INEQUALITIES

for 1 p < . These inequalities follow, respectively, from the concavity of the function f (t) = tp , t [0, ) for 0 < p 1, and the convexity of the function f (t) = tp , t [0, ) for 1 p < . Our rst main result can be stated as follows. It furnishes a generalization of (1.5). Theorem 2.2. Let A1 , , An , B1 , , Bn Cp , for some p > 0, such that n i,j=1 Ai Bj = 0. Then 2
p/2

n 1 p1

Ai
i=1

p p

+
i=1

Bi

p p

i,j=1

Ai Bj

p p

for 0 < p 2; and


n

Ai Bj
i,j=1

p p

p/2

n 1 p1

Ai
i=1

p p

+
i=1

Bi

p p

for 2 p < . Proof. Let 0 < p 2. Then


n n

Ai Bj
i,j=1

p p

=
i,j=1 n

|Ai Bj |2

p/2 p/2 p/2

i,j=1

|Ai Bj |2
p/2

(by the second inequality of Lemma 2.1(a))


n p/2

=
i,j=1 n

|Ai | + |Bj |
n

A Bj i
p/2

Bj Ai p/2

=
i,j=1

|Ai |2 +
i,j=1 n

|Bj |2
p/2 n p/2

p/2 i=1

|Ai | +
i=1 n

|Bi |

2 p/2 n

(2n)p/21 np/2
i=1 n

Ai

p p

+
i=1 n

Bi

p p

(by the rst inequality of Lemma 2.1(a)) = 2p/21 np1


i=1

Ai

p p

+
i=1

Bi

p p

This proves the rst part of the theorem. Based on Lemma 2.1(b), one can employ an argument similar to that used in the proof of the rst part of the theorem to prove the second part. An application of Theorem 2.2 can be seen in the following result, which is a natural generalization of (1.5).

O. HIRZALLAH, F. KITTANEH, M.S. MOSLEHIAN n i=1

Corollary 2.3. Let A1 , , An Cp , for some p > 0, such that Then


n n

Ai = 0.

2p/2 np1
i=1

Ai

p p

i,j=1

Ai Aj

p p

for 0 < p 2; and


n n

Ai Aj
i,j=1

p p

2p/2 np1
i=1

Ai

p p

for 2 p < . In particular, (1.5) holds in the case where p = 2. Proof. Since i=1 Ai = 0. Consequently, i=1 Ai = 0, we have i=1 Ai n A Aj = 0. Utilizing Theorem 2.2 with Bj = Aj (1 j n), we obtain i,j=1 i the result. Using the same reasoning as in the proof of Theorem 2.2, one can obtain the following result concerning operators having orthogonal ranges. Recall that ranges of two operators A, B B(H) are orthogonal (written ranAranB) if and only if A B = 0. Theorem 2.4. Let A1 , , An Cp , for some p > 0, such that ranAi ranAj for i = j. Then
n n n n n

(2n 2)p/2 np/21


i=1

Ai

p p

i,j=1

Ai Aj

p p

for 0 < p 2; and


n n

Ai Aj
i,j=1

p p

(2n 2)p/2 np/21


i=1

Ai

p p

for 2 p < . Our second main result, which also leads to a generalization of (1.5), can be stated as follows. Theorem 2.5. Let A1 , , An , B1 , , Bn Cp , for some p > 0, such that n i,j=1 Ai Bj = 0. Then
n n

Ai Bj
i,j=1

2 p

n2/p
i=1

|Ai |2 + |Bi |2

1/2 2 p

for 0 < p 2; and


n

n for 2 p < .

2/p i=1

|Ai | + |Bi |

2 2 1/2 p

i,j=1

Ai Bj

2 p

SCHATTEN p-NORM INEQUALITIES

Proof. Let 0 < p 2. Then


n n

Ai Bj
i,j=1

2 p

=
i,j=1 n

|Ai Bj |2

p/2

i,j=1 n

|Ai Bj |2
p/2

(by(1.2))

=
i,j=1 n

|Ai |2 + |Bj |2 A Bj Bj Ai i p/2 n

=
i,j=1 n

|Ai |2 +
i,j=1

|Bj |2
p/2

n
i=1 n

|Ai |2 + |Bi |2
p/2 2/p p/2 |Bi |2 p/2

n
i=1

|Ai | +

(by the second inequality of Lemma 2.1(a))


n

n n
i=1 n 2/p i=1

|Ai | + |Bi |

p 2 1/2 p 1/2 2 p

2/p

|Ai |2 + |Bi |2

(by the second inequality of (2.2) ). This proves the rst part of the theorem. Based on (1.1), the rst inequality of Lemma 2.1(b), and the rst inequality of (2.1), one can employ an argument similar to that used in the proof of the rst part of the theorem to prove the second part. An application of Theorem 2.5, which is another natural generalization of (1.5), can be seen as follows. Corollary 2.6. Let A1 , , An Cp , for some p > 0, such that Then
n n n i=1

Ai = 0.

Ai Aj
i,j=1

2 p

2n2/p
i=1 n

Ai

2 p

for 0 < p 2; and 2n2/p

Ai
i=1

2 p

i,j=1

Ai Aj

2 p

for 2 p < . In particular, (1.5) holds in the case where p = 2. Using the same reasoning as in the proof of Theorem 2.5, one can obtain the following result concerning operators having orthogonal ranges.

O. HIRZALLAH, F. KITTANEH, M.S. MOSLEHIAN

Theorem 2.7. Let A1 , , An Cp , for some p > 0, such that ranAi ranAj for i = j. Then
n n

Ai Aj
i,j=1

2 p

2n2/p1 (n 1)
i=1 n n

Ai

2 p

for 0 < p 2; and 2n2/p1 (n 1)


i=1

Ai

2 p

i,j=1

Ai Aj

2 p

for 2 p < . References


[1] R. Bhatia, Matrix Analysis, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1997. [2] R. Bhatia and F. Kittaneh, Cartesian decompositions and Schatten norms, Linear Algebra Appl. 311 (2000), 109116. [3] R. Bhatia and F. Kittaneh, Clarkson inequalities with several operators, Bull. London Math. Soc. 36 (2004), 820832. [4] F. Kittaneh, Norm inequalities for certain operator sums, J. Funct. Anal. 143 (1997), 337348. [5] E.R. Lorch, On certain implications which characterize Hilbert space, Ann. of Math. (2) 49 (1948), 523532. [6] B. Simon, Trace Ideals and their Applications, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1979.
1 Department

of Mathematics, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan. E-mail address: o.hirzal@hu.edu.jo


2 Department

of Mathematics, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan. E-mail address: fkitt@ju.edu.jo

3 Department of Pure Mathematics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box 1159, Mashhad 91775, Iran; Center of Excellence in Analysis on Algebraic Structures (CEAAS), Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. E-mail address: moslehian@ferdowsi.um.ac.ir and moslehian@ams.org