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# Theory of y Oscilloscope p

Introduction I t d ti
A graph-displaying device of electrical signal graph displaying
X axis: Time Y axis: Voltage g Z axis: Intensity or brightness

Introduction I t d ti
Information given by oscilloscopes
Time and voltage Frequency and p q y phase DC and AC components Spectral analysis Rise d f ll time Ri and fall ti Mathematical analysis

## Basic tti B i setting

Vertical system
attenuation or amplification of signal (volts/div)

Horizontal system
The Time base (sec/div)

Trigger system
To stabilize a repeating signal and to trigger on a single event

Architecture of Oscilloscope
Cathode-Ray Tube (CRT)

INTRODUCTION
The oscilloscope consist of the following major subsystems
CRT Trigger circuit Sweep Generator Vertical amplifier Horizontal amplifier Associated power supplies

The CROs are very fast X-Y plotters, displaying an input signal versus another signal or versus time.
The stylus of this plotter is a luminous spot which moves over the display area in response to an input voltage The luminous spot is produced by a beam of electrons striking a fluorescent screen

The normal form of a CRO uses a horizontal input voltage which is an internally generated ramp voltage called Time Base
This moves the luminous spot periodically in a horizontal direction from left to right over the screen

## The vertical input to the CRO is the voltage under measurement

This moves the luminous spot up and down in accordance with the voltage

When the input voltage repeats itself at a fast rate, the trace on the screen appears stationary on the screen CROs operate on voltages
However, it is possible to convert current, strain, acceleration, pressure and other physical quantities into voltages with the help of transducer, and visualize their behavior
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A CRO consist of a Cathode ray Rube (CRT), which is the heart of the tube, and some additional-circuitry to operate the CRT. The main part of CRT are:
Electron gun assembly Deflection plate assembly Fluorescent screen Glass envelop Base, through which connections are made to various parts

Electron gun assembly produces a sharply focused beam of electrons which are accelerated to high velocity
This focused beam of electron strikes the fluorescent with sufficient energy to cause a luminous spot on the screen

After leaving the electron gun, the electron beam passes through two pairs gun of Electrostatic deflection plates.
Voltages applied to theses plates deflect the beam vertically and horizontally
These two deflections are independent to each other, thus the beam may be p p , y positioned anywhere on the y screen
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## Cathode-Ray Tube (CRT)

Found in oscilloscopes, and similar devices are used in TV picture tubes and computer displays Use an electron beam
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Control Grid

Focusing anode

Electron gun

Deflecting plates

## Main parts of CRT

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Control Grid

regulates the number of electrons that reach the anode and hence control the brightness of the spot on the screen. ensures that electrons leaving the cathode in slightly different directions are focused down to a narrow beam and all arrive at the same spot on the screen.
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Focusing anode

Electron gun

consist of cathode, control grid, focusing anode, and accelerating anode An l t i field between th fi t pair of plates d fl t th A electric fi ld b t the first i f l t deflects the electrons horizontally, and an electric field between the second pair deflects them vertically. If no deflecting fields are present, th electrons t d fl ti fi ld t the l t travel i a l in straight line from the hole in the accelerating anode to the center of the screen, where they produce a bright spot.

Deflecting plates

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tube di t b diagram
anode d

yp plates

x plates p

heater supply

+ phosphor screen

H.T. supply

anode d

yp plates

x plates p

heater supply

screen

## Principle Elements of a CRT

The cathode, at the left end in the figure, is raised to a high temperature by the heater, and electrons evaporate from the surface of the cathode. The accelerating anode, with a small hole at its center, is maintained at a high positive potential V1, of the order of 1 to 20kV, relative to the cathode. This potential difference gives rise to an electric field directed from right to left in the region between the accelerating anode and the cathode. Electrons passing through the hole in the anode form a narrow beam and travel with constant horizontal velocity from the anode to the fluorescent screen. The area where the electrons strike the screen glows brightly.

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Electrostatic Focusing
The pre-accelerating anode is connected to a high positive potential
Hence, it collimates the electron beam which enters it through a small opening on the left hand side

The focusing and the accelerating anodes are co-axial with the pre-accelerating anode The pre-accelerating and accelerating anodes are connected to the same potential while the focusing anode is connected to a lower potential
Due to the difference of potential between the anodes, a non-uniform field exist on each of the two ends of the focusing anode The equi-potential surfaces, thus, form a double concave lens equi potential surfaces thus

Electrostatic Focusing
The electron beam entering the field at angles other than the normal to the equi potential surfaces, will be deflected towards equi-potential the normal
and the beam is thus focused towards the centre of the tube axis

By changing the voltage of the focusing anode, the refractive index of the electron lens is changed
and therefore the focal point of the beam can be changed d th f th f l i t f th b b h d The control is brought to the front panel, and is marked Focus

## Signal on the CRT

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Electrostatic Deflection
The parallel plates produces a uniform EF in Y-direction
Thus any electron entering the field will experience a force in Y Ydirection only, and will be accelerated in that direction No force either in X- or Z-direction

The loss of Potential Energy (PE) when electron moves from cathode to anode, PE = eVa The gain in Kinetic Energy (KE) by an electron, KE = mvox2

Electrostatic Deflection
Equating above energies, we get vox = (2eVa/m)2
This velocity remains in X-direction, with value remains same throughout the passage through deflecting plates, as there is no force acting in this direction

The EFI in Y-direction, Ey = Vd/d Force Fy = eEy = eVd/d also, l Fy = may thus, ay = Fy/m

Electrostatic Deflection
As there is no initial velocity in Y-direction, y = ayt2 = (eEy/m)t2 As the velocity in x-direction is constant, x = voxt or t = x/vox hence, y = (eEy/mvox2)x2 (Equation of parabola) the slope, Now, for x = ld, ( ) ( tan = (eEy/mvox2)ld = (eVdld/mdvox2) dy/dx = (eEy/mvox2)x

Electrostatic Deflection
The tangent intersect the X-axis at O given as x = [y/tan ] = ld/2
The apparent origin is the center of deflection plates

Thus the deflection D, on the screen is given as, D as D = Ltan = LldVd/2dVa We can conclude:
D is proportional to Ed i.e., for a given Ea & a particular dimension of CRT
Hence, the CRT may be used as a linear indicating device

## D does not depend upon e/m ratio

i.e., ion travel with electron, and are not concentrated at one point

Deflection Sensitivity: defined as the deflection of the screen per unit deflection voltage S = D/Vd = Lld/2dVa (m/V) Deflection Factor: defined th d fi d as the reciprocal of sensitivity i l f iti it G = 1/S = 2dVa/Lld

(V/m)

## The sensitivity can be increased by decreasing the value of accelerating voltage Va

But, this decreases the luminosity of the spot , y p Also, a high value of Va produces a highly accelerated beam and thus produces a bright spot

## Lissajous Patterns methods(LP) Lee-suhzhoo h

Electronic Engineer use LP to measure radio signal g g frequency They do this by analyzing the type of pattern an unknown signal produces when it is combined with a signal of a known frequency. LP is determined by applying sinusoidal wave to horizontal input(X) (unknown signal) and vertical input(Y) (known signal). (use X-Y mode) p ( )( g ) ( ) LP observed depends on the ratio of the two frequency ( Horizontal/Vertical or Vertical/Horizontal)
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## X Frequency= 1.000KHz and Y Frequency =1.000kHZ q y q y

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The purple line leads the g p p green line by a 90 degree p y g phase shift.

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The purple lags the green line by a 90 degree phase shift shift.

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x axis frequency (1kHz) is twice the y axis frequency (2kHz). 90o out of phase

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2:1

1:2

3:2

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## (b) Phase Angle P e Me easure ement

0o or Same phase p

90o

180o

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## ( ) (b) Phase Angle Measurement g

3. Phase Measurements or Time Delay, TD (Time/Div : 0.5ms/Div)

## Ym-maximum vertical deflection

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Example E l

If, in figure above, the distance Yo is 1.8cm and Ym=2.3cm, what is the phase angle?

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Solution: The phase angle can be determined by using equation sin = = = = = yo/ym y sin-1(yo/ym) sin-1(1.8/2.3) sin-1(0.783) 51.50o

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