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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Firstly I am very thankful to almighty GOD.

I would like to thank all those who encouraged me to complete this term paper project. I thank heartily, Mr. Vishal Bhalla, my young and dynamic teacher for his whole hearted co-operation and support, without his involvement this project would not have been possible. I am also thankful to all faculties and non-teaching staff of this university who have directly or indirectly helped me in this project .In spite of my best efforts ,some errors might have crept in for which I beg to excused with promise that these error s will be removed in the next project.

Kamlesh kumar

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List of content Acknowledgement ..1 List of content..2 List of figure3 Abstract .....4
CONTENT PAGE NO.

1: Introduction ..5 1.1: Transmission..5 1.1.1: Function of transmission...5 1.1.2: Types of transmission .6 1.2: Manual transmission6 1.2.1Manual-transmission gearboxes .....6 1.3: History of development of manual transmission ..7 1.4: Type of manual transmission system...9 1.4.1: Component of manual transmission system...9 1.5: Sliding-mesh gearbox.10 1.5.1: Working of sliding gear box .11 1.5.2: Disadvantages of the sliding mesh13 1.6: Constant-mesh transmission..14 1.6.1: The constant - mesh gearbox and its working..14 1.6.2: Advantages of constant gear box..15 1.7: Constant-mesh sequential gearbox.15 1.8: Synchromesh transmission.16 1.8.1: Synchromesh gearbox...17 1.8.2: Advantage of synchromesh gear box18 1.9: Non-synchronous transmission18 1.10: Selector mechanism ...19 1.11: Advantages of manual transmission over automatic transmission...20 1.12: Disadvantages of manual transmissions...20 1.13: Applications and popularity.21 1.14: References. ..21

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List of figure
1. Figure: 1 components of manual transmission system..10 2. Figure :2 sliding mesh gear box13 3. Figure :3 Simple Constant Mesh Gearbox....14 4. Figure: 4Synchromesh transmission arranged for steering column control..17 5. Figure: 5 clutches .18 6. Figure: 6 selector mechanism19

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Abstract
Automobiles have become a necessity in recent times. The transmission of power from the engine to the wheels of an automobile efficiently is one of the greatest challenges faced by automobile engineers.traditionally transmission of power in automobiles is done through gearbox using one or more sets of gear pairs .The commonly used gearboxs are manual and automatic gearboxes.Both types of gearboxes proide fixed gear ratio changes.this results in the engine not running at optimum performance at all times leading to inefficient performance and high emission from the engine.[1]This term paper mainly focus on the working of different type manual transmission system.It also includes the difference between automatic and manual transmission system.

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1:Introduction
In the recent times the craze for automatic transmission car has increased to great extent. Many people are attracted towards automatic transmission car. But it didnt decrease the sale of manual transmission car. Many companies of car manufacturing has manufactured both automatic and manual transmission car. A transmission basically transfers the power from a cars engine to drive shaft and the wheels. The gears present inside the transmission change the drive wheel speed and torque in relation to the engine speed and torque (pulling power), Lower gear ratios helps the engine to build up enough of power so that the car can easily accelerate from a halt. The transmission is a device that is connected to the back of the engine and sends the power from the engine to the drive wheels. An automobile engine runs at its best at a certain RPM (Revolutions per Minute) range and it is the transmissions job to make sure that the power is delivered to the wheels while keeping the engine within that range. It does this through various gear combinations. In first gear, the engine turns much faster in relation to the drive wheels, while in high gear the engine is loafing even though the car may be going in excess of 70 MPH. In addition to the various forward gears, a transmission also has a neutral position which disconnects the engine from the drive wheels, and reverse, which causes the drive wheels to turn in the opposite direction allowing you to back up. Finally, there is the Park position. [2]

1.1: Transmission Transmission is the mechanism which is used to transfer the power developed by engine to the wheels of an automobile. The transmission system of an automobile includes clutch, gear box, propeller shaft axle and wheels, etc. 1.1.2: Function of transmission The transmission system has to achieve different functions for efficient working of the vehicle .these functions are summarized as follows: 1. Disconnect and connect power from the driving wheels as needed by the driver.

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2. Shock free mechanical connection between the engine and the driving wheels. 3. Reduction of driveline speed which results in increase in torque delivered to the driving wheels. 4. Variation of gear ratios to match the torque required by the driving wheels under various conditions. 5. Shift the power flow through 90 degrees from the driveline to the wheels using the differential. 1.1.3: Types of transmission Manual transmission Semi-automatic transmission Automatic transmission We will mainly concentrate on manual transmission system 1.2: Manual transmission In manual transmission type, the gear is selected by driver of the vehicle manually using a suitable gear shift mechanism. 1.2.1: Manual-Transmission Gearboxes Manual-transmission gearboxes are the simplest types of gearboxes and involve the manual movement of a sliding gear along the gearbox's main shaft using a shifter. The shifter is attached to a gear lever, which moves the sliding gear. When the driver engages the clutch, the sliding gear disengages from its existing position and can slide up and down the gearbox to re-engage in a higher or lower gear. Manual-transmission gearboxes contain a diagonal gear that sits beside the main gears and ensures that the sliding gear is synchronized with main gears. This synchronization allows the sliding gear to seamlessly engage with the main gears and prevents the gears from clashing with one another, which can damage the transmission. Modern gearboxes contain two sliding gears, one of which engages exclusively with the reverse main gear. This second sliding gear is constantly synchronized with the reverse main gear and allows the operator to seamlessly shift from forward to reverse.

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1.3: History of development of manual transmission Getting power from the engine to the wheels of an automobile has provided a seemingly endless challenge for rear-wheel-drive, front-wheel-drive, 4-wheeldrive, front-engine, rear-engine, and mid-engine cars, longitudinal, transverse, vertical, slant, and flat engines, plus an amazing array of hardware in between. George Selden's notorious 1877 patent was for a front-drive carriage with a transverse 3-cylinder engine, anticipating the Chevy/Suzuki Sprint by over a century. When it comes to car designs, there are very few new ideas, just progressively successful adaptations of old concepts. The heart of the drivetrain is the transmission. Because gasoline engines develop their torque over a very narrow speed range, several gears are needed to reach useful road speeds. (Steam engines and electric motors can be used in cars with no transmissions.) The modern transmission was introduced by a pair of Frenchmen -- Louis-Rene Panhard and Emile Levassor -- in 1894. The engineers had invited the press to a demonstration of "the most revolutionary advancement to date in the brief history of the motor car industry." Unfortunately, the engine in their demo vehicle died, and they were reduced to giving a chalk talk on multi-geared transmission theory to a bored press corps. One 19th-century newsman reported their invention as "more hocus-pocus from charlatans trying to cash in on the public's fascination with the new motor car." Maybe the inventors should have skipped the tech talk and just used the description later attributed to Panhard: "It's brutal, but it works!" Cars of the time transmitted engine power to the wheels in a simple fashion that was easy for non-engineers to visualize. The engine drove a set of bevel reduction gears that drove a shaft and pulley. Leather belts extended between the pulley and geared wheels on an axle. One wheel, the small one, got the car going by meshing with a ring gear on one of the driving wheels. The big wheel then took over to get the car to hustle along at a top speed of 20 mph. If the car encountered a hill that it did not have the power to climb, the driver would come to a dead stop so he could engage the small wheel. Thus did British auto pioneer F. W. Lanchester describe the transmissions in his cars: "One belt-driven HIGH gear that will go over everything and one bel-driven LOW gear in case the car had to climb a tree."
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It was not until a year after their disastrous news conference that Panhard and Levassor regained their reputations. At this time, they had their first car ready for the press to drive. With it, they changed a lot of minds. That 1895 Panhard-Levassor was revolutionary -- not the transmission alone, but the whole drivetrain layout. In fact, it has served as the prototype for most vehicles built in the 90 years since then. Unlike other cars of that day, it possessed a vertically mounted engine in the front of the vehicle that drove the rear wheels through a clutch, 3-speed sliding gear transmission and chain-driven axle. The only modern features missing from the setup were a differential rear axle and driveshaft. These came along three years later, in 1898, when millionaire-turned-auto-hobbyist Louis Renault connected a vertical engine with transmission to a "live" rear axle by means of a metal shaft. The live rear axle -- which Renault adapted from an idea developed in 1893 by an American, C. E. Duryea -- was called the differential rear axle. It used a number of gears to overcome the problem of rapid tire wear, which resulted on turns with the "dead" axles used by all other carmakers. "Differential" referred to the ability of the unit to turn the outer driving wheel faster than the inner driving wheel, eliminating tire scuffing in turns. By 1904, the Panhard-Levassor sliding gear manual transmission had been adopted by most carmakers. In one form or another, it has remained in use until recent times. Obviously, there have been improvements, the most significant being the invention of a synchronizing system that permits drive and driven gears to be brought into mesh with each other smoothly without gear clashing. This system allows both sets of gears to reach the same speed before they are engaged. The first of these synchromesh transmissions was introduced by Cadillac in 1928. An improvement to the design patented by Porsche is widely used today. Between the time the sliding gear-transmission was introduced and the perfection of the synchromesh, there were other attempts at making it easier for the driver to shift gears. One was the planetary transmission in the 1908 Model T Ford. It had a central gear, called the "sun" gear, surrounded by three "planet" gears. Today, planetary gears are more widely used in automatic transmissions than in manual. Some pretty elaborate planetary manual transmissions did evolve, however. One was developed by Walter Wilson and was called the Wilson Preselector. It came along in 1930.

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This gear system, which used four individual planetary gear sets, allowed the driver to preselect one gear ratio by moving a small lever on the steering column. The driver could then "order up" the particular preselected gear by depressing a foot pedal. This caused a camshaft to disengage one gear and simultaneously allow the preselected gear set to engage. All transmission designs since the Panhard-Levassor unit have had one goal in common -- to make shifting easier. Obviously, the easiest to shift transmission is the automatic. [3] 1.4: Type of manual transmission system [4]

Sliding-Gear Transmission Constant-Mesh Transmission


Constant-Mesh Sequential Gearbox Synchromesh transmission Non-Synchronous transmission 1.4.1: Component of manual transmission system The diagram below shows a very simple two-speed transmission in neutral: The green shaft comes from the engine through the clutch. The green shaft and green gear are connected as a single unit. (The clutch is a device that lets you connect and disconnect the engine and the transmission. When you push in the clutch pedal, the engine and the transmission are disconnected so the engine can run even if the car is standing still. When you release the clutch pedal, the engine and the green shaft are directly connected to one another. The green shaft and gear turn at the same rpm as the engine.) The red shaft and gears are called the lay shaft. These are also connected as a single piece, so all of the gears on the lay shaft and the lay shaft itself spin as one unit. The green shaft and the red shaft are directly connected through their meshed gears so that if the green shaft is spinning, so is the red shaft. In this way, the lay shaft receives its power directly from the engine whenever the clutch is engaged. The yellow shaft is a splined shaft that connects directly to the drive shaft through the differential to the drive wheels of the car. If the wheels are spinning, the yellow shaft is spinning.

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Figure: 1 components of manual transmission system [5] The blue gears ride on bearings, so they spin on the yellow shaft. If the engine is off but the car is coasting, the yellow shaft can turn inside the blue gears while the blue gears and the lay shaft are motionless. The purpose of the collar is to connect one of the two blue gears to the yellow drive shaft. The collar is connected, through the splines, directly to the yellow shaft and spins with the yellow shaft. However, the collar can slide left or right along the yellow shaft to engage either of the blue gears. Teeth on the collar, called dog teeth, fit into holes on the sides of the blue gears to engage them.[5]

1.5: Sliding-mesh Gearbox [6] Four-speed and Reverse Double-stage In the sliding-mesh gearbox, the individual gear ratio is chosen by sliding the selected gearwheel axially along the splined main output shaft until it meshes fully with the corresponding layshaft gear cluster. The sliding main shaft gearwheels and their corresponding lay-shaft gearwheel clusters have to be of the spur straighttooth form, so that when engaged there is no side thrust unlike helical-cut teeth. The major problem with this type of gear engagement is that, while attempting a gear change, the speeds of the input and output shafts are matched first, otherwise
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the sliding teeth of the mashing gearwheels does not align and hence crashes into each other. Transmission shafts and gears are generally manufactured using lowalloy nickel-chromium-molybdenum steels. This type of gearbox is presently used only in certain commercial vehicles where a large number of close gear ratios are required in a compact form. The engine shaft (clutch shaft) contains the main drive gear A, which rotates at the speed of the clutch shaft. The main drive gear is in constant-mesh with counter shaft (lay shaft) drive gear B. Since all the gears on the lay shaft are rigidly fixed, they also rotate along with the clutch shaft. The main shaft is held in line with the clutch shaft. All the gears on main shaft can be slid back and forth on the main shaft spines using shifting forks. 1.5.1: Working of sliding gear box The different gear ratios of sliding-mesh transmission may be obtained as follows. N and T with proper suffixes denote the rpm and number of teeth respectively. First or Low Gear Ratio, G1 The position of gears to obtain this ratio is shown in Fig:2. Transmission of power takes place from the engine shaft (clutch shaft) to lay shaft through gears A and B and finally it is transferred from lay shaft to main shaft (driven shaft) through gears C and D. Hence G1=(speed of engine shaft/speed of main shaft) =(NA/NB)*(NC/ND) =(TB/TA)*(TD/TC) Second Gear Ratio, G2 Figure: 2 show the second gear in action. Power from A goes to B and from there it goes to E, which is on the same shaft, i.e. lay shaft. From E it goes to F, on the main shaft. Hence G2=(speed of engine shaft/speed of main shaft) =(NA/NB)*(NE/NF) =(TB/TA)*(TF/TE) Third Gear Ratio, G3

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When the third gear is in action as shown in Fig: 2, the drive is from the engine shaft to lay shaft through the constant-mesh gear A and B and finally from layshaft to main shaft through gears G and H. Hence G3=(speed of engine shaft/speed of main shaft) =(NA/NB)*(NG/NH) =(TB/TA)*(TH/TG) Fourth or Top Gear Ratio, G4 The drive is direct from the engine shaft to main shaft by engaging gears, A and H with the help of dog teeth provided on them. The whole arrangement is shown in Fig: 2.The lay-shaft in this case revolves idly. The gear ratio is 1 to i.e. G4 = 1. In all the above cases, the direction of rotation of engine shaft and main shaft is the same. The lay shaft rotates in opposite direction. Reverse Gear, Gr The reverse gear works as shown in Fig:2. The idler is compound type having two wheels 7Iand I2 of different diameters mounted on a shaft, which is parallel to the main shaft. The idler is slid so that H engages pinion C and I\ comes in mesh with the gear D. The reverse drive takes place through A to B, then C to H and finally from ii to D. Hence GR=(speed of engine shaft/speed of main shaft) =(NA/NB)*(NC/NI2)*(N7I/ND) =(TB/TA)*(TI2/TC)*(TD/T7I) as(NB=NCand NI2=N7I)

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Figure :2 sliding mesh gear box [6] 1.5.2: Disadvantages of the sliding mesh Although the mechanical efficiency of the sliding mesh gearbox was high, it suffered from two great disadvantages: 1- Gear noise due to the type of gear.
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2- The difficulty of obtaining a smooth, quit and quick change of gear without the great skill and judgment.[7] 1.6: Constant-Mesh Transmission 1.6.1: The Constant - Mesh Gearbox and its Working: A constant mesh gearbox has various gears of which some can slide axially on the shaft and some that have no axial freedom. The most common form of constantmesh gearbox is shown in the figure below. (The working of the constant mesh gearbox is explained after the figure).

Figure 3: Simple Constant Mesh Gearbox [8] Here the engine shaft A is integral with the pinion B which meshes with the wheel C on the layshaft .The latter is, therefore, driven by the engine shaft. Wheels E ,F and G are fixed to the layshaft just as in a sliding mesh gearbox, and the main shaft
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D is also Similarly Arranged .The gears E,F and G( the latter through a reverse idler ) are , however free to turn on the main shaft ,bronze bushes , or ball or roller bearings, being provided between them and the shaft. The gears H, J and I are therefore constantly driven by the engine shaft, but at different speeds, since the wheels E, F and G are of different sizes. If any one of the gears H, J or I is coupled up to the mainshaft then there will be driving connection between that shaft and the engine shaft. The coupling is done by means of dog clutch members L and M, which are carried on splined portions of the mainshaft. They are free to slide on those splined portions, but have to revolve with the shaft. If the member M is slid to the left it will couple the wheel I to the mainshaft giving the first gear. The drive is then through wheels B, C, F and I and the dog clutch M. The outer dog clutch is meanwhile in its neutral position, the member L is slid to the right, it will couple the wheel H to the mainshaft and give second gear, the drive being through the wheels B, C, E and H and the dog clutch L .If the member L is slid to the left it will couple the mainshaft directly to the pinion B and gibe direct drive, as in a Sliding-mesh gearbox. [8] 1.6.2: Advantages of constant gear box This type of gearbox has several advantages over the ordinary form of sliding mesh box. It facilitates the use of helical or double helical gear teeth which are quitter than straight teeth ;it lends itself to the incorporation of synchronizing devices more readily than the sliding-mesh box ; the dog clutch teeth can be made so that they are easier to engage than teeth of gear wheels ,and any damage that results from faulty manipulation occurs to the dog clutch teeth and not to the teeth of the gear wheels .Now, when once the dog clutches are engaged there is no motion between their teeth ,whereas when gear teeth are engaged the power is transmitted through the sliding action of the teeth of one wheel on those of the other. The teeth have to be suitably shaped to be able to transmit the motion properly, and if they are damaged the motion will be imperfect and noise will result .Damage is, however, less likely to occur to the teeth of the dog clutches, since all engage at once, whereas in sliding a pair of gears into mesh the engagement is between two or three teeth. 1.7: Constant-Mesh Sequential Gearbox A Constant-Mesh Sequential Gearbox is exactly the same as the Simple ConstantMesh Gearbox in which gears can only be engaged in a specific pattern in an ascending or descending sequence i.e. no gear can be selected randomly (A simple constant-mesh gearbox can be converted into a Sequential one by changing its selector mechanism). This type of a gearbox is mostly used in motorcycles with an international shift pattern of 1-N-2-3-4-5-6. [8]
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1.8: Synchromesh Transmission The synchromesh transmission is a type of constantmesh transmission. It synchronizes the speeds of mating parts before they engage to allow the selection of gears without their clashing. It employs a combination metal-to-metal friction cone clutch and a dog or gear positive clutch. These clutches allow the main drive gear and second-speed main shaft gear to engage with the transmission main shaft. The friction cone clutch engages first, bringing the driving and driven members to the same speed, after which the dog clutch engages easily without clashing. This process is accomplished in one continuous operation when the driver declutches and moves the control lever in the usual manner. The construction of synchromesh transmissions varies somewhat with different manufacturers, but the principle is the same in all. The driving member consists of a sliding gear splined to the transmission main shaft with bronze internal cones on each side. It is surrounded by a sliding sleeve having internal teeth that are meshed with the external teeth of the sliding gear. The sliding sleeve has grooves around the outside to receive the shift fork. Six spring-loaded balls in radially drilled holes in the gear fit into an internal groove in the sliding sleeve. That prevents the sliding sleeve from moving endwise relative to the gear until the latter has reached the end of its travel. The driven members are the main drive gear and secondspeed main shaft gear. Each has external cones and external teeth machined on its sides to engage the internal cones of the sliding gear and the internal teeth of the sliding sleeve. The synchromesh clutch operates as follows: when the driver moves the transmission control lever to the third-speed, or directdrive, position the shift fork moves the sliding gear and sliding sleeve forward as a unit until the internal cone on the sliding gear engages the external cone on the main drive gear. This action brings the two gears to the same speed and stops endwise travel of the sliding gear. The sliding sleeve slides over the balls and silently engages the external teeth on the main drive gear. When the transmission control lever is shifted to the second-speed position, the sliding gear and sleeve move rearward. The same action takes place, locking the transmission main shaft to the second-speed main shaft gear. The synchromesh clutch is not applied to first speed or to reverse. First speed is engaged by an ordinary dog clutch when constant mesh is employed by a sliding gear. Figure: 4 shows a cross section of a synchromesh transmission that uses constant-mesh helical gears for the three forward speeds and a sliding spur gear for reverse.[9]
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Figure: 4.-Synchromesh transmission arranged for steering column control. [10] 1.8.1: Synchromesh gearbox Manual transmissions in modern passenger cars use synchronizers to eliminate the need for double-clutching. A synchro's purpose is to allow the collar and the gear to make frictional contact before the dog teeth make contact. This lets the collar and the gear synchronize their speeds before the teeth need to engage as shown in figures.

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Figure: 5 clutches Synchromesh gearbox consists of cone shaped brass clutch engaged to the gear. The cone on the blue gear fits into the cone-shaped area in the collar, and friction between the cone and the collar synchronize the collar and the gear. The outer portion of the collar then slides so that the dog teeth can engage the gear. [11] 1.8.2: Advantage of synchromesh gear box 1. The synchromesh devices are used to simplify the operation of changing gear. 2. This device helps unskilled drivers to change gear without the occurrence of clashes and damages. 3. By this device the members which ultimately are to be engaged are 1 st brought into frictional contact and when the friction has equalized their speeds, the positive connection is made. 4. The synchronizer is free to slides on splines. 1.9: Non-Synchronous transmission The operation is much different in a non-meshed or non-synchronous transmission. In this type of transmission, none of the gears are moving while a selected gear is being used. In order to shift, the new gear must be brought up to the same speed as the current gear and then slid from the current gear and into the selected gear. This is accomplished by double clutching and revving the engine until the proper engine speed is matched with the correct gear speed. When double clutching a non-synchronous transmission, the clutch pedal is first pushed half way down and the transmission is pulled out of gear. Next, the clutch pedal is released allowing the engine speed to slow down to the proper speed to
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shift gears. Then, the clutch pedal is again pushed only half way down and the shifter is used to push the transmission into the chosen gear. The engine speed is manipulated by feathering the throttle pedal until the gear slips smoothly into place within the transmission. With practice, an operator can hear the correct engine speed and make gear changes by manipulating the throttle and without using the clutch pedal at all. The purpose for the non-synchronous transmission is that it is a much stronger transmission than the constant mesh version. The non-synchronous transmission is able to pull much heavier loads without damage to the gears. The extremely close ratio of the gearing also allows a machine to operate at very slow wheel speed while maintaining power and high engine speeds. 1.10: Selector mechanism There are many methods which have been used for selecting the desire gear and sliding the same to engage with corresponding gear on the lay shaft. This can divided into i. ii. iii. Shifting mechanism mounted on transmission case Shifting mechanism mounted on steering column Shifting mechanism mounted on floor with remote control linkage

Figure: 6 selector mechanism [12]


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The lower end of the selector lever fix into slots (selector gates) in the selector rods. For each selector sleeve separate selector rods are provided. The selector rod can slide but just to avoid unwanted engagement of gears, slots are made on selector rods and are provided with spring loaded balls.an interlocking mechanisms which ensures that one gear can engaged at a time is also used. When particular gear is to engage the corresponding selector rod is moved in the desired direction.[12] 1.11: Advantages of manual transmission over automatic transmission Following are advantages of the manual transmission system:: i. It is easier to build a strong manual transmission than an automatic one. This is because a manual system has one clutch to operate, whereas an automatic system has a number of clutch packs that function in harmony with each other. Manual transmissions normally do not require active cooling, because not much power is dissipated as heat through the transmission. Manual gearshifts are more fuel efficient as compared to their automatic counterpart. Torque convertor used to engage and disengage automatic gears may lose power and reduce acceleration as well as fuel economy. Manual transmissions generally require less maintenance than automatic transmissions. An automatic transmission is made up of several components and a breakdown of even a single component can stall the car completely.[13]

ii. iii.

iv.

1.12: Disadvantages of Manual transmissions: 1) Clutches wear out, though if driven carefully they can last for YEARS. I have had cars over 200K miles on the original clutch! 2) They require skill to drive. 3) You have to be paying attention to your driving to avoid grinding gears, burning out your clutch, or over-revving your engine. The average American driver is too
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busy to pay attention to what they are doing on the road, so this can be a hassle.[14] 1.13: Applications and popularity Sports cars are also often equipped with manual transmissions because they offer more direct driver involvement and better performance. Off-road vehicles and trucks often feature manual transmissions because they allow direct gear selection and are often more rugged than their automatic counterparts. Conversely, manual transmissions are no longer popular in many classes of cars sold in North America, Australia and some parts of Asia, although they remain dominant in Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America. Nearly all cars are available with an automatic transmission option, and family cars and large trucks sold in the US are predominantly fitted with automatics, however in some cases if a buyer wishes he/she can have the car fitted with a manual transmission at the factory. In Europe most cars are sold with manual transmissions. Most luxury cars are only available with an automatic transmission. In most cases where both transmissions are available for a given car, automatics are an at cost option, but in some cases the reverse is true. Some cars, such as rental cars and taxis, are nearly universally equipped with automatic transmissions in countries such as the US, but the opposite is true in Europe. As of 2008, 75.2% of vehicles made in Western Europe were equipped with manual transmission, versus 16.1% with automatic and 8.7% with other. [15] 1.18: References 1. http://epress.lib.uts.edu.au/dspace/bitstream/handle/2100/340/02whole.pdf?s equence=2 2. http://psrcentre.org/images/extraimages/1012137.pdf 3. http://www.motorera.com/history/hist10.htm 4. http://www.ehow.com/list_6981230_manual-transmission-types.html 5. http://mechanicalmania.blogspot.in/2011/07/components-of-manualtransmission.html 6. http://what-when-how.com/automobile/sliding-mesh-gearbox-automobile/ 7. http://thecartech.com/subjects/auto_eng/Auto_eng_3.htm 8. http://www.scribd.com/document_downloads/direct/58738307?extension=p df&ft=1351661079&lt=1351664689&source=read+page&uahk=Q8y3/PCQ 57GEwBe2II90QdHs7bU 9. http://enginemechanics.tpub.com/14037/css/14037_120.htm
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10. http://enginemechanics.tpub.com/14037/css/14037_121.htm 11. http://mechanicalmania.blogspot.in/2011/07/synchronized-transmission.html 12. http://www.scribd.com/doc/87545933/MODULE-NO-1-OF-AE 13. http://mechanicalmania.blogspot.in/2011/07/comparison-between-manualand-automatic.html 14. http://www.answerbag.com/q_view/53579 15. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manual_transmission#Applications_and_popula rity

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