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Nama Jurusan NPM

: Dewi Lestari Natalia : Teknik Metalurgi & Material : 1006704530

Question 1

A. In your own words, describe what is a metal? B. What makes metals are commonly ductile? C. Are metallic materials usually crystalline or amorphous? Offer your explanation. D. Give three examples of engineering application of metals. E. Compare the possible fracture surface of metals, ceramics and polymers on the same scale. F. Why do ceramic materials have lower ductility than metallic materials? G. Dissemble a torch. Investigate: (i) how many parts do you find in a torch, (ii) investigate on what type of materials each part is made of. Answer 1 A. Metal is materials which compose of one or more metallic elements (such as iron, aluminum, copper, titanium, etc) and often also nonmetallic elements (for examples, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) in relatively small amounts. Metal also has high strength and readily deformable, yet ductile, and good conductors of electricity and heat. B. The way in which atoms are arranged and their metallic bonds make metals are commonly ductile. High degrees of ductility occur due to metallic bonds, which are found predominantly in metals and leads to the common perception that metals are ductile in general. C. Metallic materials usually crystalline because atoms in metallic material and their alloys are arranged in a very orderly manner and in comparison to the ceramics and polymers relatively dense. D. Railway technology, locomotive engines, and boogies. E. The possible fracture surface of metals, ceramics, and polymers on the same scale : Metals are resistant to fracture, ceramics are highly susceptible to fracture, and polymers are not too resistant and also not too susceptible to fracture. F. Ceramics are extremely brittle. Its because ceramics dont have metallic bonds like metals but they have ionic bonds and covalent bonds. G. There are some parts in a torch, usually a rod-shaped piece of wood with a rag soaked in pitch and/or some other flammable material wrapped around one end. Each part is made of insulator and conductor material types.

Question 2 A. Compare the general characteristics of metals, polymer and ceramics and give 5 examples of the application of the three materials. B. What is composite material? Give three examples of structures made of composite materials. C. Describe and give examples of crystalline and amorphous materials. D. Describe ionic bonding and give three examples of materials having this kind of bonding. E. Describe metallic bonding and the properties of materials possessing metallic bonding. Answer II A. Materials Metals



Characteristics metallic bonding much of the periodic table high strength readily deformable, ductile good conductors of electricity and heat covalent + van der Waals bonds organic - carbon, hydrogen extremely flexible light weight corrosion resistance low cost distinctive by ionic or covalent bonding high strength and hardness excellent temperature stability thermal and electrical insulator brittle

Examples Jewelry Boogies Silverware Coins Bolt

Plastic tableware Billiard ball Pipe Plastic bottle Gallon

Mirror Glass Floor tile Roof tile Glass vase

B. Composite material is composed of two (or more) individual materials, which come from the metals, polymers, or ceramics. The design goal of composite is to achieve a combination of properties that is not displayed by any single material, and also to incorporate the best characteristics of each of component materials. The structures made

of composite materials are fiberglass, aircraft and aerospace application, and high-tech sporting equipment. C. : atoms are arranged in a repeating or periodic array over large distances. Examples: quartz, metals. Amorphous material : atoms are randomly arranged. Example: glass. D. Ionic bonding always found in compounds that are composed of both metallic and nonmetallic elements, required electron transfer, and large difference in electronegativity required. Examples: NaCl, MgO, dan CaF2 . E. Metallic bonding is found in metals and their alloys. A relatively simple model has been proposed that very nearly approximates the bonding scheme. Metallic bonding is found for Group IA and IIA elements in the periodic table, and, in fact, for all elemental metals. The properties of materials possessing metallic bonding usually high strength, readily deformable, ductile and good conductors of electricity and heat Crystalline material

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