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<_klgbd J==M. <ui. 4. <hklhd: Bkke_^h\Zgby. I_j_\h^u. F.:J==M, 2000, k.

52-86
:<Kfbjgh\
C1auonneuue uycynuuaucko pok1puuanuuo umcnu
u pauunn ucnauckan qunocoqun
(k nonpocy o nsauuuou nnunuuu ua npuuepe ZeNbdoZeZd[ZjAy Xauuqm)
< ZjZ[bklbq_kdbo b bkeZfh\_^q_kdbo bkke_^h\Zgbyo, ^Z\gh mk\hb\rbo
ljZ^bpbx kljh]hc jm[jbnbdZpbb, ijbgylh \_kvfZ `_kldh hl^_eylv lh, qlh \ gbo
bf_gm_lky 'nbehkhnb_c, hl lh]h, qlh gZau\Zxl 'j_eb]bhagh-^h]fZlbq_kdhc fuk-
evx, beb, bgh]^Z, 'l_heh]b_c. Fu g_ kh[bjZ_fky imkdZlvky a^_kv \ l_hj_lbq_kdmx
ihe_fbdm ih ih\h^m hij_^_e_gby kh^_j`Zgby wlbo ihgylbc beb hijZ\^Zgghklb ijb-
f_g_gby ex[h]h ba gbo \ hlghr_gbb deZkkbq_kdhc ZjZ[h-fmkmevfZgkdhc dmevlmju.
<f_klh wlh]h fu ij_^eZ]Z_f ihkfhlj_lv, gZkdhevdh l_dkl, ljZ^bpbhggh kqblZx-
sbcky \ujZ`_gb_f bkeZfkdh]h (lhqg__, kmggblkdh]h) j_eb]bhagh]h ijZ\h\_jby,
ijhgbdgml nbehkhnkdhc ijh[e_fZlbdhc, dZkZxs_cky jZajZ[hldb keh`g_cr_c l_h-
j_lbq_kdhc ijh[e_fu _^bgkl\Z-fgh`_kl\_gghklb \ ihgbfZgbb ;h]Z b _]h Zljb[m-
lh\ b \Z`g_cr_c wlbq_kdhc, gh lZd`_ \ dhg_qghf kq_l_ b hlghkys_cky d ^jm]bf nb-
ehkhnkdbf ^bkpbiebgZf, ijh[e_fu Z\lhghfbb q_eh\_q_kdh]h ^_ckl\by. Fu bf__f
\ \b^m Ze-Nbdo Ze-Zd[Zj, kqblZxsbcky \ ZjZ[h-fmkmevfZgkdhc ljZ^bpbb ijbgZ^e_-
`Zsbf :[m OZgbn_. Wlhl l_dkl \ _]h hkgh\guo qZklyo b \ _]h ihe_fbq_kdhf gZdZe_
gbdZd g_ fh`_l [ulv ihgyl [_a h[jZs_gby d jZajZ[hld_ wlbo \hijhkh\ bf_ggh \ nb-
ehkhnkdhf ^mo_ fmlZabeblZfb ij_^klZ\bl_eyfb rdheu, i_j\hc \ bklhjbb ZjZ[-
kdhc dmevlmju aZy\b\r_c h k\h_f `_eZgbb ihkljhblv ihke_^h\Zl_evgh jZpbhgZev-
gmx dZjlbgm Mgb\_jkmfZ.
L_dkl, kms_kl\mxsbc \ ZjZ[h-fmkmevfZgkdhc ljZ^bpbb ih^ gZa\Zgb_f
Ze-Nbdo Ze-Zd[Zj, bf__l \_kvfZ bgljb]mxsmx bklhjbx. < gZqZe_ gZr_]h \_dZ ba-
\_klguc k_fblheh] :.<_gkbgd \ k\h_c dgb]_ 'Dj_^h fmkmevfZg \ujZabe m^b\e_-
gb_ ih ih\h^m lh]h, qlh gb \ khqbg_gbyo gZ ZjZ[kdhf yaud_, gb \ _\jhi_ckdhf \hk-
lhdh\_^_gbb gbdh]^Z g_ jZaebqZeb ^\Z l_dklZ, dhlhju_ kh\_jr_ggh g_ kh\iZ^Zxl
f_`^m kh[hc, _keb bf_lv \ \b^m keh\_kgu_ nhjfmebjh\db
1
. H[Z hgb ijbibku\Zxl-
ky :[m OZgbn_, gh h^bg, khklhysbc \k_]h ba ^_kylb l_abkh\, ]hjZa^h dhjhq_ ^jm]h-
]h, aZgbfZxs_]h g_kdhevdh kljZgbp. I_j\uc l_dkl :.<_gkbgd gZa\Ze ';hevrhc
nbdo-I, ^jm]hc ';hevrhc nbdo-II. Ihfbfh gbo, ba\_kl_g _s_ h^bg Ze-Nbdo
Ze-Zd[Zj ';hevrhc nbdo-III, ijbibku\Z_fuc dZd ih^q_jdb\Z_l :.<_gkbgd,
kh\_jr_ggh eh`gh, wihgbfm rZnbblkdh]h fZaoZ[Z bfZfm Zr-RZnbb. ?keb ^h-
[Z\blv, qlh ihfbfh wlbo l_dklh\, ba\_kl_g _s_ Ze-Nbdo Ze-Z[kZl, 'Kj_^gbc nbdo,
Z\lhjhf dhlhjh]h lZd`_ kqblZ_lky :[m OZgbnZ, lh g_ljm^gh ihgylv, kdhev ^jZfZlb-
q_kdZy l_dklheh]bq_kdZy kblmZpby kdeZ^u\Z_lky \hdjm] g_[hevrh]h khqbg_gby, dh-
lhjh_ ij_l_g^m_l gZ lh, qlh[u [ulv i_j\uf baeh`_gb_f fmkmevfZgkdhc ^hdljbgu
\ __ kmggblkdhf \ZjbZgl_
2
.

1
Wensinck A. J. The Muslim Creed, Frank&Cass Co, L., 1965, p.103; i_j\h_ ba^Zgb_
Cambridge [Eng.], The University press, 1932.
2
DklZlb ]h\hjy, lZdZy g_q_ldhklv \ hij_^_e_gbb Z\lhjkl\Z h^gh]h ba hkgh\hiheZ-
]Zxsbo ^hdljbgZevguo l_dklh\, jZ\gh dZd b jZafulhklv \hijhkZ h _]h kh^_j`Z-
2 Bec1uuk PFFY. Bmn. 4. Boc1ok: Hccneponauun. Hepenopm. M.: PFFY, 2000
:.<_gkbgd, bkke_^h\Z\rbc Ze-Nbdo Ze-Z[kZl, kqblZ_l wlhl l_dkl Zml_g-
lbqguf
3
. Ihkdhevdm f_`^m wlbf l_dklhf b ';hevrbf nbdohf-I bf__lky, ih fg_-
gbx :.<_gkbgdZ, ihegh_ kh]eZkb_, lh b ';hevrhc nbdo-I hg kqblZ_l ohly b g_ ijb-
gZ^e_`Zsbf kZfhfm :[m OZgbn_, gh \h \kydhf kemqZ_ ij_^klZ\eyxsbf kh[hc ^hk-
lh\_jgh_ i_j_eh`_gb_ _]h ih^ebgguo \a]ey^h\
4
. Bgl_j_kgh hlf_lblv, qlh wlhl
l_dkl ^hr_e ^h gZk \ khklZ\_ dhff_glZjby, dhlhjuc ijbibku\Z_lky Ze-FZlmjb^b
ba\_klghfm fmlZdZeebfm, ijbgy\r_fm \h fgh]hf \a]ey^u Ze-:rZjb, gh qZklbqgh
hklZ\r_fmky gZ ihabpbyo fmlZabebafZ, gh, dZd kqblZ_lky, g_ ijbgZ^e_`bl _fm
5
.
< ihevam ih^ebgghklb wlh]h l_dklZ, dZd kqblZ_l :.<_gkbgd, ]h\hjbl b lhl nZdl, qlh
hg bf__l g_fZeh iZjZee_e_c \ Ze-<ZkbccZ ('AZ\_sZgb_), ^jm]hf l_dkl_ :[m
OZgbnu, dhlhjuc kdhj__ \k_]h, ih fg_gbx :.<_gkbgdZ, y\ey_lky ih^ebgguf
6
. Ba
wlh]h jy^Z ih^ebgguo beb ihqlb ih^ebgguo l_dklh\ [_amkeh\guf bkdexq_gb_f
hdZau\Z_lky ';hevrhc nbdo-II.
< kZfhf ^_e_, g_ gZ^h [ulv hq_gv djmiguf ki_pbZebklhf ih kj_^g_\_dh-
\hc ZjZ[h-bkeZfkdhc fukeb, qlh[u ihgylv, qlh ';hevrhc nbdo-II \ lhf \b^_, \ dZ-
dhf wlhl l_dkl ^hr_e ^h gZk, g_ ijbgZ^e_`bl gZ kZfhf ^_e_ :[m OZgbn_, wihgbfm
h^gh]h ba hkgh\guo q_luj_o kmggblkdbo fZaoZ[h\ nbdoZ (rdhe j_eb]bhagh-ijZ\h-
\hc b ^hdljbgZevghc fukeb), Z kha^Zg ZrZjblkdbf beb \h \kydhf kemqZ_ gZoh^y-
sbfky ih^ kbevguf \ebygb_f ZrZjbafZ Z\lhjhf. :[m OZgbnZ (mf.767) `be \ l_
\j_f_gZ, dh]^Z _s_ ^Z`_ g_ [ueb ihklZ\e_gu b kihegZ h[km`^_gu l_ ijh[e_fu, ih
dhlhjuf Z\lhj ';hevrh]h nbdoZ-II kihjbl k fmlZabeblZfb, dh]^Z _s_ [ue ^Ze_d
hl aZ\_jr_gby i_j\uc, gZb[he__ bgl_j_kguc \ nbehkhnkdhf hlghr_gbb wlZi jZa-
\blby dZeZfZ, aZ^he]h ^h wihob Ze-:rZjb (mf.935), hij_^_eb\r_]h ijbgpbiu ih^-
oh^Z d ijh[e_fZlbd_, bf_xs_c hlghr_gb_ d \_jhbkih\_^guf ^hdljbgZf, dhlhjuo
ijb^_j`b\Z_lky b Z\lhj l_dklZ
7
. Hlf_lbf \ wlhc k\yab hq_\b^gmx fgh]hkehcghklv
l_dklZ: ihfbfh ZglbfmlZabeblkdhc ihe_fbdb, hg kh^_j`bl qZklb, ijyfh hljZ`Zx-
sb_ ihabpbx bf_ggh fmlZabeblh\ (\ \hijhk_ h[ Z\lhghfbb ^_ckl\by q_eh\_dZ) b
ijhlb\hj_qZsmx khk_^kl\mxsbf l_abkZf, aZy\e_gguf \ ^mo_ ZrZjbafZ (iheh`_-
gb_ h 'ijbh[j_l_gbb ^_ckl\bc b k\yaZggu_ k gbf l_abku). Fgh]hkehcghklv wlZ
\j_f_ggZy (l_abku, hljZ`Zxsb_ jZagu_ wlZiu jZa\blby fukeb), `Zgjh\Zy (l_abku,
y\gh ijb\g_k_ggu_ fukevx dZeZfZ, khk_^kl\mxl k l_fb, qlh \ukdZau\Z_l nZdbo

gbb, dh]^Z \ klhev fgh]bo kemqZyo mihfbgZgby Ze-Nbdo Ze-Zd[Zj hklZ_lky g_yk-
guf, dZdhc bf_ggh l_dkl bf__lky \ \b^m, kem`bl _s_ h^gbf k\b^_l_evkl\hf km-
s_kl\_gghc hkh[_gghklb hlghr_gby d ^hdljbg_, g_ klZgh\ys_cky ijb hlkmlkl-
\bb bgklblmlZ, ZgZeh]bqgh]h P_jd\b \ ojbklbZgkdhc dmevlmj_, h[s_h[yaZl_ev-
ghc ^h]fhc.
3
Wensinck A. J. The Muslim Creed, Frank&Cass Co, L., 1965, p.123. DZd khh[sZ_l
:.<_gkbgd, hg ihevah\Zeky _^bgkl\_gghc ^hr_^r_c ^h gZk jmdhibkvx, ojZgb\-
r_cky \ DZbj_. L_dkl ij_^klZ\ey_l kh[hc hl\_lu, dhlhju_ :[m OZgbnZ ^Ze k\h-
_fm mq_gbdm :[m FmlbZ Ze-;Zeob gZ \hijhku, dZkZxsb_ky ^hdljbgu.
4
AZ bkdexq_gb_f l_abkZ 7 ';hevrh]h nbdoZ-I, dhlhjh_ g_ bf__l ZgZeh]Z \
'Kj_^g_f nbdo_: |>hdljbgZevgu_| jZkoh`^_gby \ |fmkmevfZgkdhc| h[sbg_
|;h`vy| fbehklv (\Z bolbeZn Ze-mffZ jZofZ).
5
:e-FZlmjb^b. RZjo Ze-Nbdo Ze-Zd[Zj. O_c^ZjZ[Z^, 1321 o., k.2-32.
6
Wlh fg_gb_ hkiZjb\Zxl g_dhlhju_ kh\j_f_ggu_ mq_gu_.
7
:.<_gkbgd ^Zlbjm_l \hagbdgh\_gb_ wlh]h l_dklZ k_j_^bghc ^_kylh]h \_dZ.
A.B.Cuupuon. C1auonneuue uycynuuaucko pok1puuanuuo umcnu u pauunn ucnauckan qunocoqun 3
ij_^klZ\bl_ev j_eb]bhagh-ijZ\h\hc b ^hdljbgZevghc fukeb), gZdhg_p, ijhklh ijh-
kljZgkl\_ggZy (l_abku, jZajZ[Zlu\Zxsb_ h^bg b lhl `_ \hijhk, \hkijhba\h^ylky
ihqlb gZ \k_f ijhkljZgkl\_ l_dklZ, bgh]^Z [_a \b^bfhc k\yab k dhgl_dklhf). <k_
wlh ih^l\_j`^Z_l fg_gb_ h lhf, qlh ';hevrhc nbdo-II, dhlhjuc ba\_kl_g gZf k_]h-
^gy, klZe j_amevlZlhf fgh]hqbke_gguo ^hjZ[hlhd b j_\babc
8
.
Fu \u[jZeb ^ey i_j_\h^Z bf_ggh wlhl \ZjbZgl ';hevrh]h nbdoZ, ]hjZa-
^h [he__ h[rbjguc, g_`_eb ';hevrhc nbdo-I, b aZljZ]b\Zxsbc agZqbl_evgh [h-
e__ rbjhdbc djm] \hijhkh\. :.<_gkbgd \ k\h_f h[rbjghf ljm^_ i_j_\_e b i_j\uc,
b \lhjhc \ZjbZglu l_dklZ. Qlh dZkZ_lky ';hevrh]h nbdoZ-II, lh hg ijhZgZebabjh-
\Ze _]h iZjZee_eb k ';hevrbf nbdohf-I, k l_dklhf Ze-<ZkbccZ, _]h k\yav k iheh`_-
gbyfb, kh^_j`Zsbfbky \ oZ^bkZo b DhjZg_, kh \a]ey^Zfb fmj^`bblh\, oZjb^`blh\,
jZnb^blh\, Z lZd`_ iha^gbo ij_^klZ\bl_e_c fmkmevfZgkdhc ^hdljbgZevghc fukeb.
< gZklhys_c im[ebdZpbb g_l kfukeZ ih\lhjylv ijh^_eZggmx :.<_gkbgdhf jZ[hlm.
Fu \b^bf k\hx aZ^Zqm \ ^jm]hf. Fu ij_^iheZ]Z_f hk\_lblv khhlghr_gb_ \a]ey-
^h\, aZnbdkbjh\Zgguo \ ^Zgghf l_dkl_, k b^_yfb fmlZabeblh\ b ihke_^mxs_c jZa-
jZ[hldhc l_o `_ \hijhkh\ \ ZrZjbaf_. Fu ohlbf lZdbf h[jZahf \uy\blv l_ \eby-
gby gZ l_dkl ';hevrh]h nbdoZ, dhlhju_ hklZxlky ^h gZklhys_]h \j_f_gb \ l_gb.
Ihkdhevdm hkgh\guf ^hdkh]jZnbq_kdbf iZfylgbdhf, ^hg_krbf ^h gZk fukev fm-
lZabeblh\, y\ey_lky FZdZeZl Ze-bkeZfbccbg \Z bolbeZn Ze-fmkZeebg ('H q_f ]h\h-
jbeb ex^b bkeZfZ b \ q_f jZahrebkv l\hjb\rb_ fhebl\m) Ze-:rZjb, bf_ggh wlhl
l_dkl [m^_l \ hkgh\ghf pblbjh\Zlvky \ gZrbo dhff_glZjbyo. < g_kjZ\g_ggh f_gv-
r_c kl_i_gb fu [m^_f h[jZsZlvky d [he__ iha^gbf rdheZf ZjZ[kdhc nbehkhnbb
i_jbiZl_lbafm, bkfZbebafm b kmnbafm. < j_amevlZl_ khihklZ\e_gby \a]ey^h\, aZ-
nbdkbjh\Zgguo \ ';hevrhf nbdo_-II, k l_dklZfb, baeZ]Zxsbfb fukev fmlZabeb-
lh\ b kZfh]h Ze-:rZjb, klZg_l ykgh, kdhev fgh]b_ l_abku ijyfh hij_^_e_gu ihe_-
fbdhc k fmlZabeblZfb beb, bgh]^Z, ijyfuf aZbfkl\h\Zgb_f bo iheh`_gbc, kdhev
fgh]b_ gxZgku nhjfmebjh\hd fh]ml [ulv h[tykg_gu lhevdh g_ihkj_^kl\_gghc
hjb_glbjh\Zgghklvx gZ wlb iheh`_gby.
Ihfbfh agZq_gby ^ey mykg_gby \hijhkZ h jheb jZgg_c bkeZfkdhc nbeh-
khnkdhc fukeb \ klZgh\e_gbb fmkmevfZgkdhc ^hdljbgu, im[ebdm_fuc l_dkl fh`_l
[ulv bgl_j_k_g kh\j_f_gghfm qblZl_ex ih fgh]bf ijbqbgZf. <h-i_j\uo, hg ijZd-
lbq_kdb g_ \uoh^bl aZ l_ jZfdb '^h[jhihjy^hqghklb b 'ijbklhcghklb \ baeh`_-
gbb hkgh\hiheZ]Zxsbo l_abkh\ kmggbafZ, dZdbfb bo hij_^_ebe [u nZdbo. < wlhf

8
GZf ljm^gh kh]eZkblvky k h^ghagZqghc hp_gdhc, dhlhjmx ^Z_l :.<_gkbgd l_d-
klm ';hevrh]h nbdoZ-II, dh]^Z ml\_j`^Z_l, qlh 'hg \hiehsZ_l hdhgqZl_evgh
\ujZ[hlZggmx ihabpbx |kmggblkdhc| h[sbgu \ hlghr_gbb fmlZabebafZ
(Muslim Creed, p.246). Hg Zj]mf_glbjm_l wlh, \ qZklghklb, l_f, qlh wlhl l_dkl
';hevrh]h nbdoZ y\ey_lky i_j\uf ba\_klguf ^hdmf_glhf, ]^_ mihlj_[e_g
l_jfbg dZk[ ('ijbh[j_l_gb_), dhlhjuc, kh]eZkgh ljZ^bpbb, \\_e Ze-:rZjb
(lZf `_). GZ kZfhf ^_e_ l_jfbg dZk[, ih k\b^_l_evkl\m kZfh]h Ze-:rZjb, jZa-
jZ[Zlu\Zeky _s_ fmlZabeblZfb, ohly \ ZrZjbaf_ ijbh[j_e hkh[h_ agZq_gb_. <
k\hbo dhff_glZjbyo fu ihdZau\Z_f, qlh km]m[h fmlZabeblkdb_ iheh`_gby ih
lZdhfm \Z`g_cr_fm j_eb]bhagh-wlbq_kdhfm \hijhkm, dZd Z\lhghfby ^_ckl\by
q_eh\_dZ, khk_^kl\mxl \ l_kl_ ';hevrh]h nbdoZ k ^_ckl\bl_evgh ZrZjblkdbfb
l_abkZfb hlghkbl_evgh 'ijbh[j_l_gby (dZk[) b l\hj_gby q_eh\_q_kdbo ^_ckl-
\bc ;h]hf (kf. ijbf. 30, 32, 37, 38.).
4 Bec1uuk PFFY. Bmn. 4. Boc1ok: Hccneponauun. Hepenopm. M.: PFFY, 2000
kfuke_ hg ^Z_l ^hklZlhqgh ohjhr__ [Zah\h_ ij_^klZ\e_gb_ h lhf, qlh gZau\Z_lky
bkeZfkdbf '\_jhmq_gb_f (Zdb^Z, ZdZb^) \ _]h kmggblkdhf \ZjbZgl_. L_dkl ^hklZ-
lhqgh dhfiZdl_g b ohjhrh h[hajbf b \ kbem wlh]h m^h[_g ^ey bkihevah\Zgby \
mq_[guo p_eyo, Z lZd`_ ^ey hagZdhfe_gby g_ki_pbZebklh\ k ^hdljbgZevgufb Zki_d-
lZfb bkeZfZ, ^h kbo ihj ihemqb\rbfb m^b\bl_evgh_ keZ[h_ hk\_s_gb_ \ gZr_c eb-
l_jZlmj_. <h-\lhjuo, wlZ h[sZy hkgh\Z, wlhl ^hdljbgZevguc bg\ZjbZgl ^hiheg_g
k`Zlufb, gh hq_gv _fdbfb khh[jZ`_gbyfb ih l_f hkgh\guf imgdlZf, \ dhlhjuo
k\h[h^gh_ h[km`^_gb_ nbehkhnkdhc ijh[e_fZlbdb \u\h^beh ij_^klZ\bl_e_c jZg-
g_]h dZeZfZ fmlZabeblh\ aZ ij_^_eu, ijbagZ\Z_fu_ kmggblkdhc ^hdljbgZevghc
fukevx. L_dkl \ wlhf kfuke_ ghkbl y\gh \ujZ`_gguc ZglbfmlZabeblkdbc oZjZd-
l_j, aZdj_ieyy h[s_ZrZjblkdmx l_g^_gpbx d aZij_lm ihklZgh\db l_o \hijhkh\, hl-
\_l gZ dhlhju_ \u\h^bl aZ ]jZgbpu '^h[jhihjy^hqgh]h kmggblkdh]h \_jhmq_gby, b
\\_^_gbx nbehkhnkdhc fukeb \ kljh]b_ b \_kvfZ madb_ rdhevgu_ jZfdb (ohly wlZ
aZ^ZqZ mkljZg_gby ke_^h\ \ebygby fmlZabebafZ \uiheg_gZ Z\lhjhf beb Z\lhjZ-
fb l_dklZ g_ iheghklvx). Ihwlhfm ki_pbZebkl gZc^_l \ g_f kha^Zggh_ kZfhc
ljZ^bpb_c djZldh_ ihkh[b_ ih j_r_gbx \ hkgh\ghf, \ ihevam ^h]fZlbabjh\Zggh-
]h j_eb]bhagh-^hdljbgZevgh]h fure_gby bgl_j_kg_crbo b hklj_crbo ijh[e_f
[h`_kl\_gguo Zljb[mlh\, khhlghr_gby \_qghklgh]h b \j_f_ggh]h, Zgljhihfhjnba-
fZ b l.i. GZdhg_p, [_amkeh\gh bgl_j_k_g b dhff_glZjbc d l_dklm, \uiheg_gguc
:[m Ze-FmglZoZ Ze-FZ]gbkZ\b \ ljZ^bpbyo fmkmevfZgkdhc mq_ghklb, \u^_j`db ba
dhlhjh]h fu ijb\h^bf. < gZrbo kh[kl\_gguo dhff_glZjbyo, dZd m`_ [ueh kdZaZgh,
hkh[h_ \gbfZgb_ h[jZs_gh gZ wdkiebpblgmx nhjfmebjh\dm nbehkhnkdhc ijh[e_-
fZlbdb, hklZ\r_cky aZ jZfdZfb l_dklZ, gh hq_\b^gh gZoh^ys_cky \ ihe_ aj_gby Z\-
lhjZ b \h fgh]hf kem`Zs_c ^ey g_]h ij_^f_lhf jZafure_gby.
I_j_\h^ \uiheg_g ih ba^Zgbx: :[m OZgbnZ, GmfZg [_g KZ[bl.
:e-Nbdo Ze-Zd[Zj (fZZ rZjob-ob eb-:[b Ze-FmglZoZ). DZaZgv, Lbi. Lhj]h\h]h >h-
fZ ';jZlvy DZjbfh\u, 1914
9
. < d\Z^jZlguo kdh[dZo mdZaZgu kljZgbpu hjb]bgZeZ.

9
Wlh ihke_^g__ ba ^hklmiguo gZf ba^Zgbc ZjZ[kdh]h l_dklZ. Ijhlhlbihf ^ey g_-
]h, gZkdhevdh fh`gh km^blv, ihkem`beh dZbjkdh_ ba^Zgb_ 1875 ]h^Z; k l_o ihj
wlhl l_dkl g_h^ghdjZlgh i_j_ba^Z\Zeky \ DZaZgb (\ 1902, 1912, 1914 ]].).
5
:[mOZgbnZGmfZgB[gKZ[bl
B O R L L O H O H K X
<hbfy;h]ZFbehklb\h]hbFbehk_j^gh]h
|2| Hkgh\Z
1
_^bgh[h`by
2
(Zke Zl-lZ\ob^) b ijZ\bevgh]h \_jhbkih\_^Z-
gby ]h\hjblv: y \_jmx \ ;h]Z, ?]h Zg]_eh\, ?]h ihkeZggbdh\, \ \hkdj_k_gb_ ihke_

D h f f _ g l Z j b b
1
'Hkgh\Z (Zke, fg.q. mkme) h^gh ba \Z`g_crbo eh]bdh-f_lh^heh]bq_kdbo
ihgylbc kj_^g_\_dh\hc ZjZ[h-fmkmevfZgkdhc fukeb. 'Hkgh\Zf ijhlb\hihk-
lZ\eyxlky '\_l\b (nZj, fg.q. nmjm). < ^Zgghf, j_eb]bhagh-^hdljbgZevghf
mihlj_[e_gbb wlh]h ihgylby _]h kfuke fh`gh hij_^_eblv ke_^mxsbf h[jZahf.
Ih^ 'hkgh\hc ihgbfZ_lky g_au[e_fh_ (mklZgh\e_ggh_ g_ ih^e_`Zsbfb khfg_-
gbx bklhqgbdZfb, lh _klv, \ ^Zgghf kemqZ_, DhjZghf b kmgghc) b [_amkeh\gh-bk-
lbggh_ iheh`_gb_, dhlhjh_ g_ fh`_l gb hljbpZlvky, gb ih^\_j]Zlvky khfg_-
gbx, gb i_j_lhedh\u\Zlvky gbdZdbf kms_kl\_gguf h[jZahf. J_qv, lZdbf h[jZ-
ahf, b^_l bf_ggh h lhf, qlh khklZ\ey_l g_dmx iZjZee_ev lhfm, qlh \ ojbklbZg-
kdhc dmevlmj_ bf_gm_lky ^h]fZlbdhc, ohly iZjZee_ev wlZ \_kvfZ mkeh\gZ, ih-
kdhevdm hlkmlkl\b_ bgklblmlZ P_jd\b \ bkeZf_ (\h \kydhf kemqZ_, \ kmggbaf_
gbdZd g_evay ]h\hjblv h ^_ckl\bl_evguo ZgZeh]Zo wlh]h bgklblmlZ) \ ijbgpbi_
g_ iha\hey_l hj]ZgbaZpbhggh b hnbpbZevgh ml\_j^blv h[s_h[yaZl_evguc klZ-
lmk l_hj_lbq_kdbo iheh`_gbc, hljbpZgb_ dhlhjuo fh`_l [ulv hnbpbZevgh gZ-
dZam_fh.
Ih^h[guo 'hkgh\ Z\lhj i_j_qbkey_l g_kdhevdh, \ k\yab k q_f \klZ_l \hijhk
h[ bo \aZbfghf kh]eZkh\Zgbb b g_ijhlb\hj_qb\hklb. >ey j_eb]bhagh-^hdljb-
gZevgh]h fure_gby ijbgpbibZevghc q_jlhc y\ey_lky aZij_l gZ bkke_^h\Zgb_
lZdhc g_ijhlb\hj_qb\hklb, ijh\h^bfuc [he__ beb f_g__, gh \k_]^Z ^hklZlhqgh,
ihke_^h\Zl_evgh, q_f hgh b hlebqZ_lky hl fure_gby nbehkhnkdh]h, ijbagZx-
s_]h b, [he__ lh]h, lj_[mxs_]h ijh\_^_gby lZdhc ijhp_^mju \gmlj_gg_]h kh-
]eZkh\Zgby. >ey gZr_]h Z\lhjZ, dZd b ^ey _]h dhee_], [_amkeh\gZy bklbgghklv
'hkgh\u hij_^_e_gZ m`_ kZfbf __ klZlmkhf b g_ ^he`gZ ih^l\_j`^Zlvky gbdZ-
dbfb jZpbhgZevgufb ijhp_^mjZfb.
Qlh dZkZ_lky '\_l\_c, lh ih^ gbfb ihgbfZxlky l_ ^hdljbgZevgu_ beb ijZd-
lbq_kdb-j_eb]bhagu_ \hijhku, dhlhju_ g_ h[eZ^Zxl klZlmkhf [_amkeh\ghc ml-
\_j`^_gghklb, oZjZdl_jghc ^ey 'hkgh\. Wlh g_ agZqbl, qlh '\_l\b h[eZ^Zxl
klZlmkhf qZklgh]h, Z 'hkgh\u h[s_]h agZgby, hlghr_gb_ f_`^m gbfb g_
kljhblky ih jh^h-\b^h\hfm ijbgpbim. '<_l\b fh]ml \u\h^blvky ba 'hkgh\ \
j_amevlZl_ hij_^_e_gguo jZpbhgZevguo ijhp_^mj, Z fh]ml b ijhklh ihklmebjh-
\Zlvky. IjbagZgb_ '\_l\_c g_ ij_^iheZ]Z_lky l_hjb_c \ dZq_kl\_ h[s_h[yaZ-
l_evgh]h, Z jZaebqgu_ j_eb]bhagh-ijZ\h\u_ b ^hdljbgZevgu_ l_q_gby \gmljb
kmggbafZ, gZijbf_j, h[jZamxlky ih ijbagZdm ijbagZgby lhc beb bghc ]jmiiu
'\_l\_c b g_ijbagZgby ^jm]hc bo ]jmiiu ijb h[s_f ijbagZgbb 'hkgh\. H jZa-
ebqguo lhedh\Zgbyo ihgylbc 'hkgh\u b '\_l\b \ ljZ^bpbb ZjZ[h-fmkmevfZg-
kdhc fukeb kf. lZd`_: :r-RZojZklZgb. Dgb]Z h j_eb]byo b k_dlZo. QZklv 1.
BkeZf (i_j. K.F.Ijhahjh\Z). F., 1984, k.173-182.
6 Bec1uuk PFFY. Bmn. 4. Boc1ok: Hccneponauun. Hepenopm. M.: PFFY, 2000
kf_jlb, \ lh, qlh |\k_| \ km^v[_ (dZ^Zj), b [eZ]h_ b aeh_ hl <k_\urg_]h. Km^guc
>_gv (obkZ[), <_ku, jZc, ieZfy \k_ wlh bklbggh. <k_\urgbc ;h] _^bgkl\_g
(\Zob^), g_ \ kfuke_ qbkeZ
3
, gh \ lhf kfuke_, qlh gbqlh g_ bf__l k Gbf gbq_]h h[-
s_]h (eZ rZjbd eZ-om). 'KdZ`b: Hg, ;h], _^bg; G_ijbklmiguc ;h]; Hg g_ jh`^Ze b
g_ jh`^_g; jZ\gh]h ?fm dh]h-eb[h g_ [u\Zeh
4
. Gbqlh ba l\hj_gby ?]h k Gbf g_
koh`_, b Hg g_ koh` gb k q_f ba l\hj_gby K\h_]h
5
.

2
LZ\ob^, beb 'ml\_j`^_gb_ _^bgkl\_gghklb (ljZ^bpbhggh i_j_\h^blky lZd`_
dZd '_^bgh[h`b_) hkgh\gZy g_baf_ggh ih^q_jdb\Z_fZy kmggblkdhc fukevx
q_jlZ bkeZfkdh]h fbjh\haaj_gby. HgZ ij_^iheZ]Z_l dZd ijbagZgb_ _^bgkl\_g-
ghklb b _^bgkl\Z ;h]Z, lZd b ml\_j`^_gb_ _]h \ dZq_kl\_ _^bgkl\_ggh]h bklbg-
gh]h Z]_glZ ijhbkoh^ysbo \ fbjha^Zgbb kh[ulbc. <k_ wlb klhjhgu 'ml\_j`^_-
gby _^bgkl\_gghklb [m^ml ih^jh[gh jZkkfhlj_gu Z\lhjhf gb`_.
3
L._. g_ \ lhf kfuke_, qlh ;h] h^bg b djhf_ G_]h gbq_]h g_l. :jZ[kdbc l_jfbg
\Zob^ i_j_^Z_l b^_x _^bgkl\_gghklb b _^bgkl\Z. < ^Zgghf kemqZ_ Z\lhjZ aZ[h-
lbl bklhedh\Zgb_ _^bgkl\_gghklb ;h]Z dZd _]h Z[khexlgh]h hlebqby hl fbjZ, Z
g_ _]h _^bgkl\Z, qlh ij_^iheZ]Zeh [u jZkkfhlj_gb_ ijh[e_fu fgh`_kl\_ggh-
klb. WlZ ijh[e_fZlbdZ [m^_l aZljhgmlZ gb`_, ijb h[km`^_gbb \hijhkZ h [h`_-
kl\_gguo Zljb[mlZo.
4
DhjZg, 112:1-4 (i_j. =.KZ[emdh\Z).
5
I_j_qbke_ggu_ l_abku \oh^yl \ qbkeh 'hkgh\ kmggblkdh]h \_jhmq_gby, dZd hgb
ijbagZxlky \ h[s_f b p_ehf ^h kbo ihj. Bgl_j_kgh ^ey kjZ\g_gby ijb\_klb
\u^_j`dm ba ^hdljbgZevgh]h khqbg_gby h^gh]h ba kh\j_f_gguo \ZooZ[blkdbo
b^_heh]h\ Zl-Lmjdb, :[^ZeeZ [_g :[^ Ze-Fmokbg. Fm^`fZe blbdZ^ Z`b-
ffZl Zk-kZeZn ('Kh\hdmigh_ baeh`_gb_ \_jhmq_gby gZrbo ij_^dh\). ;_cjml,
1993, k.37-42. A^_kv baeh`_gb_ oZgZnblkdbo 'hkgh\ \_jhmq_gby \uiheg_gh, ih
keh\Zf Z\lhjZ, \ khhl\_lkl\bb k ';hevrbf nbdohf :[m OZgbnu b ^Zevg_crbf
jZa\blb_f ^hdljbgu, dhlhjh_ hgZ ihemqbeZ \ khqbg_gbyo Zl-LZoZ\b, B[g LZc-
fbccb b kh\j_f_gguo b^_heh]h\. KjZ\g_gb_ ijb\h^bfh]h gb`_ l_dklZ k l_d-
klhf ';hevrh]h nbdoZ iha\hey_l e_]dh \uqe_gblv l_ f_klZ, dhlhju_, dZd wlh
\b^gh b k lhqdb aj_gby bo kh^_j`Zgby, ij_^klZ\eyxl kh[hc ZglbfmlZabeblkdmx
ihe_fbdm, \uiheg_ggmx \ ^mo_ ZrZjbafZ. :l-Lmjdb hlf_qZ_l, qlh aZ bkdexq_-
gb_f hij_^_e_gby '\_ju (bfZg), hklZevgu_ ba i_j_qbke_gguo l_abkh\ fh]ml
[ulv ijbagZgu ijhqbfb kmggblkdbfb fZaoZ[Zfb; qlh dZkZ_lky wlh]h hij_^_e_-
gby, lh ijhqb_ fZaoZ[u mdZau\Zxl \ dZq_kl\_ ih^l\_j`^_gby 'keh\_kgh]h we_-
f_glZ \_ju 'j_Zevgu_ ^_ygby, Z g_ 'm\_j_gghklv \ k_j^p_, dZd oZgZnblu.
BfZf :[m OZgbnZ (^Z ij_[m^_l k gbf fbehklv ;h`vy!) ]h\hjbl:
AgZcl_, ^hjh]b_ fhb ^jmavy b [jZlvy, qlh kmggblkdbc fZaoZ[ kh^_j`bl ^\_-
gZ^pZlv mklZgh\e_gbc:
I_j\h_. <_jZ, lh _klv ml\_j`^_gb_ gZ keh\Zo, ih^l\_j`^_ggh_ m\_j_gghklvx
\ k_j^p_. H^gh ml\_j`^_gb_ gZ keh\Zo - _s_ g_ \_jZ: [m^v wlh \_jhc, \k_ ebp_-
f_ju [ueb [u \_jmxsbfb. LZd `_ b h^gh]h agZgby ^ey \_ju g_^hklZlhqgh:
[m^v h^gh agZgb_ \_jhc, \k_ ex^b IbkZgby [ueb [u \_jmxsbfb.
H^gZdh \_jmxsbc - \_jmxsbc ih bklbg_, b g_\_jmxsbc - g_\_jmxsbc ih
bklbg_, b g_l khfg_gby \ lhf, qlh _klv \_jZ, dZd g_l khfg_gby b \ lhf, qlh _klv
g_\_jb_. <k_\urgbc ]h\hjbl: "Hgb - \_jmxsb_ ih bklbg_" (8:4), Z lZd`_: "Hgb
- g_\_jmxsb_ ih bklbg_" (4:151). Ex^b, ijbgZ^e_`Zsb_ d gZjh^m FmoZff_^Z
Ay Xauuqa. An-Oukx an-akap (Bonumo qukx) 7

(^Z [eZ]hkeh\bl b ijb\_lkl\m_l _]h ;h]!) b kh\_jrb\rb_ ]j_o, y\eyxlky ihbk-
lbg_ \_jmxsbfb, Z g_ g_\_jmxsbfb.
Ebrv <k_\urgbc ij_^hij_^_ey_l ^h[jh b aeh: _keb dlh-gb[m^v ijbf_lky
ml\_j`^Zlv, qlh g_ Hg, Z dlh-lh bghc ij_^hij_^_ey_l ^h[jh b aeh, wlh [m^_l g_-
\_jb_f \h <k_\urg_]h ;h]Z b hljbpZgb_f _^bgh[h`by.
<lhjh_. Fu ml\_j`^Z_f, qlh ^_ygby ljhydb: h[yaZl_evgu_, ^h[jh^_l_evgu_
b ]j_oh\gu_.
H[yaZl_evgu_ ^_ygby - l_, qlh kh\_jrZxlky ih ijbdZaZgbx ;h]Z b k ?]h kh-
ba\he_gby. Hg bfb ^h\he_g b Hg bo ij_^hij_^_ebe, bo kha^Ze b ij_^gZq_jlZe
gZ OjZgbfhc Kdjb`Zeb.
>h[jh^_l_evgu_ ^_ygby - l_, qlh kh\_jrZxlky g_ ih ijbdZaZgbx ;h]Z, h^gZ-
dh k ?]h khba\he_gby b kh]eZkby, Hg bfb ^h\he_g b bo ij_^hij_^_ebe, bo kha-
^Ze b ij_^gZq_jlZe gZ OjZgbfhc Kdjb`Zeb.
=j_oh\gu_ ^_ygby - l_, qlh kh\_jrZxlky g_ ih ijbdZaZgbx ;h]Z, k ?]h khba-
\he_gby, ohly hgb ?fm g_ ex[_agu; Hg bf k\_jrblvky iheh`be, ohly bfb g_ ^h-
\he_g, Hg bo ij_^hij_^_ebe, ohly bf g_ kihki_r_kl\m_l; hgb kh\_jrZxlky [_a
?]h ih^^_j`db, k ?]h \_^hfZ b ij_^gZq_jlZgby gZ OjZgbfhc Kdjb`Zeb.
Lj_lv_. Fu ml\_j`^Z_f, qlh <k_\urgbc b <k_keZ\guc ;h] \hkk_e - lh _klv
ml\_j^beky - gZ Ij_klhe_ [_a \kydh]h hj]ZgZ b qZklb l_eZ b [_a mijhq_gby. Hg
khojZgy_l b Ij_klhe, b \k_ ijhq__, \ lhf g_ gm`^Zykv, b[h _keb [u Hg bkiulu-
\Ze gm`^m, lh g_ fh] [u khl\hjblv fbj b mijZ\eylv bf.
Q_l\_jlh_. Fu ml\_j`^Z_f, qlh DhjZg - g_khl\hj_ggZy j_qv ;h`vy, Bf
\gmr_ggZy b Bf gba\_^_ggZy. HgZ - g_ Hg, gh b g_ g_qlh hl G_]h hlebqgh_: wlh
- bklbgguc Zljb[ml ?]h. HgZ aZg_k_gZ \ k\bldb, qblZ_fZ b ijhbaghkbfZ, \ ]jm^b
khojZgy_fZ, ohly b g_ \hiehsZ_fZ. : q_jgbeZ, [mfZ]Z b ibkvf_gZ khl\hj_gu,
b[h hgb ijhba\_^_gu ^_ckl\byfb jZ[h\ ;h`vbo: \_^v ibkvf_gZ, [md\u, keh\Z b
Zylu kmlv lh, qlh gZ DhjZg mdZau\Z_l, b[h jZ[u ;h`vb bf_xl gm`^m \ lZdhf
mdZaZgbb.
Iylh_. Fu ml\_j`^Z_f, qlh emqrbf \ gZjh^_ gZr_f ihke_ IjhjhdZ FmoZf-
f_^Z (^Z [eZ]hkeh\bl b ijb\_lkl\m_l _]h ;h]!) y\ey_lky :[m ;Zdj IjZ\^b\_c-
rbc, aZ gbf - MfZj, ^Ze__ - MkfZg, b aZl_f - :eb (^Z [m^_l d gbf \k_f fbeh-
klb\ ;h]!). <_^v j_d ;h]: "Dlh ij_`^_ ijhqbo - lhl jZgvr_ ijhqbo: hgb ijb[eb-
`_gu, hgb - \ kZ^Zo [eZ`_gkl\Z" (56:10-12). BlZd, dlh [eb`_ ^jm]bo d [eZ]m, lh-
]h ;h] ihqblZ_l emqrbf: bo ex[yl \k_ [eZ]hq_klb\u_ \_jmxsb_, b d gbf g_gZ-
\bklv iblZxl \k_ aehkqZklgu_ ebp_f_ju.
R_klh_. Fu ml\_j`^Z_f, qlh jZ[ ;h`bc khl\hj_g, jZ\gh dZd b \k_ _]h ^_y-
gby, ijbgylb_ \_ju b _]h agZgb_. : _keb khl\hj_g ^_ckl\h\Zl_ev, lh m` ^_ckl-
\by l_f [he__ khl\hj_gu.
K_^vfh_. Fu ml\_j`^Z_f, qlh <k_\urgbc khl\hjbe l\Zj_c [_kkbevgufb.
Hgb [_kkbevgu, b[h g_fhsgu b g_kihkh[gu: <k_\urgbc ;h] - L\hj_p bo b dhj-
fbe_p. H lhf j_d <k_\urgbc: 'Wlh ;h] khl\hjy_l \Zk, aZl_f \kdZjfeb\Z_l \Zk,
aZl_f mf_js\ey_l b \gh\v h`b\ey_l (30:40). Q_eh\_dm jZaj_rZ_lky ijbh[j_-
lZlv ^ha\he_ggh_ agZgb_ b [h]Zlkl\h, Z aZij_lgh_ - \hkij_sZ_lky.
<hkvfh_. Fu ml\_j`^Z_f, qlh kihkh[ghklv d ^_ckl\bx khimlkl\m_l kZfhfm
^_ckl\bx, g_ hi_j_`Zy _]h b g_ aZiZa^u\Zy. ?keb [u hgZ gZebq_kl\h\ZeZ ij_`-
^_ kZfh]h ^_ckl\by, jZ[ \ gm`guc fhf_gl g_ bkiulu\Ze [u ihlj_[ghklb \ ;h]_.
H^gZdh wlh ijhlb\hj_qbl l_dklmZevghfm k\b^_l_evkl\m, b[h <k_\urgbc ]h\h-
8 Bec1uuk PFFY. Bmn. 4. Boc1ok: Hccneponauun. Hepenopm. M.: PFFY, 2000
Hg [ue b hklZg_lky g_ij_klZg_g (eZf cZaZe \Z eZ cZaZe)
6
kh |\k_fb| K\hb-
fb bf_gZfb b Zljb[mlZfb kZfhklb b ^_ckl\by
7
. KZfhklgu_ kj_^b gbo: `bagv, fh]m-

jbl: ';h] [h]Zl b g_ gm`^Z_lky, Z \u [_^gu b gm`^Z_l_kv (47:38). Kihkh[ghklv
d ^_ckl\bx g_ fh`_l ihy\eylvky b ihke_ kZfh]h ^_ckl\by, b[h lh]^Z ^_ckl\b_
k\_jrZehkv [u [_a kihkh[ghklb b kbeu, qlh g_\hafh`gh.
>_\ylh_. Fu ml\_j`^Z_f, qlh hlbjZgb_ h[m\b y\ey_lky h[yaZl_evguf ^ey
`b\ms_]h gZ h^ghf f_kl_ \ l_q_gb_ kmlhd, Z ^ey iml_r_kl\mxs_]h - ljh_ kmlhd:
lZd kdZaZgh \ oZ^bk_. Ihkdhevdm hg g_^Ze_d hl ^hklh\_jghc \_klb, hljbpZxs_-
fm wlh ]jhabl g_\_jb_. < imlb lZd`_, dZd wlh ke_^m_l ba l_dklZ IbkZgby, jZaj_-
r_gh khdjZsZlv ihkl b jZa]h\eylvky.
>_kylh_. Fu ml\_j`^Z_f, qlh dh]^Z <k_\urgbc ijbdZaZe I_jm ibkZlv, hgh
kijhkbeh: Qlh `_ ibkZlv fg_, =hkih^b? B hl\_lbe <k_\urgbc: Ibrb \k_, qlh
_klv b [m^_l \iehlv ^h >gy <hkdj_k_gby. <_jm_f \ wlh, b[h <k_\urgbc ]h\h-
jbl: "<k_, qlh hgb ^_eZxl, \ghkblky \ dgb]b; \k_, fZeh_ b [hevrh_, aZibku\Z_l-
ky" (54:52-53).
H^bggZ^pZlh_. Fu ml\_j`^Z_f, qlh aZ]jh[gu_ fmdb, g_khfg_ggh, _klv, b
qlh FmgdZj b GZdbj, [_a khfg_gby, ^hijZrb\Zxl mkhirbo, b[h h lhf ]h\hjblky
\ oZ^bkZo; b qlh jZc b ]__ggZ, g_khfg_ggh, _klv, b[h kdZaZe <k_\urgbc: "<
>_gv <hkdj_k_gby Fu mklZgh\bf \_ku [_ahrb[hqgu_" (21:47); b qlh Dgb]Z ^_e,
g_khfg_ggh, [m^_l aZqblZgZ, b[h j_d <k_\urgbc: "QblZc Dgb]m ^_e k\hbo! Gu-
g_ lu kZf [m^_rv lj_[h\Zlv k k_[y hlq_lZ" (17:14).
>\_gZ^pZlh_. Fu ml\_j`^Z_f, qlh <k_\urgbc ihke_ kf_jlb h`b\bl b \hk-
dj_kbl ^mrb wlb \ ^_gv, qlh bkqbkey_lky iylvx^_kylvx lukyqZfb e_l, ^Z[u \ha-
^Zlv bf ^he`gh_ b gZ]jZ^blv ih aZkem]Zf, b[h j_d <k_\urgbc: "B \hkdj_kbl
;h] \k_o, dlh \ fh]beZo" (22:7). B bklbggh, [m^_l \klj_qZ k ;h]hf <k_\urgbf
^ey ex^_c bklbgu, [_kdZq_kl\_ggZy, gbq_fm g_ mih^h[ey_fZy b ebdZ g_ bf_x-
sZy. Bklbggh, Ijhjhd gZr FmoZff_^ (^Z [eZ]hkeh\bl b ijb\_lkl\m_l _]h ;h]!)
aZklmiblky aZ \k_o h[blZl_e_c jZy (^Z`_ aZ l_o, dlh kh\_jrbe \_ebdbc ]j_o). :c-
rZ (^Z [m^_l _x ^h\he_g ;h]!), emqrZy ba `_gsbg ihke_ \_ebqZcr_c OZ^b^`u,
\ ij_ex[h^_ygbb g_\bgh\gZ b qbklZ hl h[\bg_gbc, qlh \ha\h^yl jZnb^blu, Z
dlh [m^_l ml\_j`^Zlv, [m^lh hgZ \bgh\gZ \ ij_ex[h^_ygbb, lhl kZf - kug ]j_oZ.
H[blZl_eb jZy \h \_db \_dh\ \ jZx ij_[m^ml, b h[blZl_eb ]__ggu \h \_db \_dh\
\ ieZf_gb ij_[m^ml, b[h j_d <k_\urgbc h[ h[blZl_eyo jZy: "<hl hgb, jZy h[b-
lZl_eb, \_qgh \ g_f ij_[u\Zxl" (2:82), - b h[ h[blZl_eyo ieZf_gb: "<hl hgb,
ieZf_gb h[blZl_eb, \_qgh \ g_f ij_[u\Zxl" (2:39). ;h]m \k_ emqr_ \_^hfh!
6
<hijhk h lhf, fh`gh eb ml\_j`^Zlv g_ij_klZgghklv lZdbo Zljb[mlh\, dhlhju_
eh]bq_kdb k\yau\Zxl ;h]Z k \_sZfb fbjZ, [ue h^gbf ba ]eZ\guo \ ^bkdmkkbyo
fmlZabeblh\. Ljm^ghklv \hijhkZ aZdexqZeZkv \ ke_^mxs_f. Ihkdhevdm Zljb[ml
h[uqgh [u\Z_l \ujZ`_g fZk^Zjhf (hl]eZ]hevguf kms_kl\bl_evguf gZij.,
'l\hj_gb_), lh h[eZ^Zgb_ lZdbf Zljb[mlhf eh]bq_kdb ij_^iheZ]Z_l gZebqb_
h[t_dlZ ^_ckl\by (qlh[u [ueh 'l\hj_gb_, g_h[oh^bfh 'khl\hj_ggh_), Z agZ-
qbl, b baf_g_gb_ kZfh]h Zljb[mlZ \f_kl_ k baf_g_gb_f h[t_dlZ ^_ckl\by (Zljb-
[ml 'l\hj_gb_ ihy\ey_lky lh]^Z, dh]^Z ihy\ey_lky 'khl\hj_ggh_). LZdhc \u\h^
ijhlb\hj_qbl ZdkbhfZlbq_kdhfm ij_^klZ\e_gbx h g_baf_gghklb ;h]Z, Z ihlhfm
g_h[oh^bfh eb[h i_j_lhedh\Zlv kZfh ^_ckl\b_ lZd, qlh[u hgh hlghkbehkv g_
lhevdh d kms_kl\mxsbf \_sZf (gZij., 'agZgb_ h \_sZo g_dhlhju_ fmlZabeblu
lhedh\Zeb dZd 'agZgb_ h lhf, qlh \_sb [m^ml kms_kl\h\Zlv, Z lZdh_ agZgb_ g_
Ay Xauuqa. An-Oukx an-akap (Bonumo qukx) 9

baf_gy_lky k baf_g_gb_f \_s_c) gh lZdhc oh^ ljm^gh hkms_kl\bf \ hlghr_-
gbb Zljb[mlZ 'l\hj_gb_ b _fm ih^h[guo, eb[h gZeh`blv aZij_l gZ bkihev-
ah\Zgb_ ih^h[guo nhjfmebjh\hd. LZd b ihklmiZeb fmlZabeblu, h[km`^Zy \k_
gxZgku . Ex^b jZahrebkv \ \hijhk_ h lhf, fh`gh eb ]h\hjblv, qlh ';h] g_-
ij_klZggh l\hjys (eZf cZaZe Ze-eZo oZebdZg). H^gb k wlbf kh]eZrZebkv, ^jm-
]b_ g_l. L_, dlh g_ kh]eZrZebkv, jZahrebkv \ \hijhk_ h lhf, fh`gh eb ]h\hjblv,
qlh 'L\hj_p g_ij_klZg_g (eZf cZaZe Ze-oZebd). H^gb ]h\hjbeb: fu ]h\hjbf,
qlh 'L\hj_p g_ij_klZg_g, gh g_ ]h\hjbf 'Hg g_ij_klZggh l\hjys (eZf cZaZe
oZebdZg). >jm]b_ ]h\hjbeb: fh`gh ]h\hjblv, qlh 'L\hj_p g_ij_klZggh _^bg,
agZxs (eZf cZaZe Ze-oZebd \Zob^Zg ZebfZg) b lhfm ih^h[gh_, gh g_ ]h\hjyl:
'L\hj_p g_ij_klZg_g, ihkdhevdm kdZaZlv 'L\hj_p g_ij_klZg_g (eZf cZaZe
Ze-oZebd) \k_ jZ\gh qlh kdZaZlv 'Hg g_ij_klZggh l\hjys (eZf cZaZe
oZebdZg). Fu ]h\hjbf: 'L\hj_p g_ij_klZg_g (Ze-oZebd eZf cZaZe) b 'l\hj_p
g_ij_klZg_g (oZebd eZf cZaZe). LZd ]h\hjbe :[[Z^ [_g Kme_cfZg (Ze-
:rZjb, :[m Ze-OZkZg. FZdZeZl Ze-bkeZfbccbg \Z bolbeZn Ze-fmkZeebg. <bk[Z-
^_g, 1980, k.448). <hijhk h g_ij_klZgghklb \k_o Zljb[mlh\ ;h]Z eh]bq_kdb k\y-
aZg b k \hijhkhf h lh`^_kl\_ 'l\hj_gby b 'khl\hj_ggh]h, dhlhjuc jZa[bjZ_l-
ky gb`_ (kf. ijbf.11).
7
Ih^ 'Zljb[mlZfb kZfhklb (kbnZl Za-aZl) \ kj_^g_\_dh\hc ZjZ[h-fmkmevfZg-
kdhc fukeb ihgbfZxlky lZdb_ Zljb[mlu, ijhlb\hiheh`ghklv dhlhjuo g_ fh`_l
[ulv ijbibkZgZ ;h]m (_]h g_evay gZa\Zlv 'f_jl\uf, 'g_fhsguf, 'g_\_`_kl-
\_gguf, l.^.), Z ih^ 'Zljb[mlZfb ^_ckl\by (kbnZl Ze-nbe) l_, qlh kem`Zl
Zljb[mlZfb ;h]Z gZjZ\g_ kh k\h_c ijhlb\hiheh`ghklvx ('H`b\eyxsbc-
'Mf_js\eyxsbc, 'Kha^Zxsbc-'JZajmrZxsbc, 'GZ^_eyxsbc-'Hl[bjZx-
sbc, l.^.). G_kfhljy gZ lZdh_ gZa\Zgb_, Zljb[mlu kZfhklb fh]ml [ulv \ujZ`_-
gu hl]eZ]hevgufb kms_kl\bl_evgufb (fZk^ZjZfb) lZd `_, dZd b Zljb[mlu ^_c-
kl\by, Z ihlhfm bo ijhlb\hihklZ\e_gb_ g_ hagZqZ_l ijhlb\hihklZ\e_gby 'km[-
klZgpbZevgh]h b 'hlghkys_]hky d ^_ckl\bx: Zljb[mlu kZfhklb \ujZ`Zxl \
k\h_f ih^Z\eyxs_f [hevrbgkl\_ bf_ggh ^_ckl\by ;h]Z. Ohly dhebq_kl\_ggh
Zljb[mlu ^_ckl\by ij_h[eZ^Zxl gZ^ Zljb[mlZfb kZfhklb, \ nbehkhnkdhf hlgh-
r_gbb \lhju_ ]hjZa^h \Z`g__ i_j\uo. 'AgZgb_, 'fh]ms_kl\h b '\hey gZb-
[he__ agZqbfu_ \ nbehkhnkdbo ^bkdmkkbyo fmlZabeblh\ Zljb[mlu.
< nbehkhnkdhf ieZg_ \hijhk h [h`_kl\_gguo Zljb[mlZo wlh \hijhk h
lhf, dZdbf h[jZahf \hafh`gh lZdh_ bo ihgbfZgb_, dhlhjh_ g_ ijhlb\hj_qbeh
[u iheh`_gbyf, \h-i_j\uo, h _^bgkl\_ ;h]Z, Z \h-\lhjuo, h _]h \_qghklb. Wlhl
\hijhk [ue h^gbf ba p_gljZevguo, h[km`^Z\rboky \ jZgg_f dZeZf_, b \ oh^_
^bkdmkkbc [ueh \u^\bgmlh g_fZeh l_hjbc, iehoh kh\f_klbfuo k ^h]fZlbabjh-
\Zgguf ^hdljbgZevguf ihgbfZgb_f \hijhkZ. Gb`_ Z\lhj \u^\b]Z_l l_abku,
dhlhju_ nZdlbq_kdb hl\_j]Zxl kZfh hkgh\Zgb_ nbehkhnkdh]h jZkkfhlj_gby
wlhc ijh[e_fZlbdb, dZd hgh [ueh jZa\blh fmlZabeblZfb. Bo jZkkfhlj_gb_ hl-
ijZ\eyehkv hl ij_^klZ\e_gby h lhf, qlh ijZdlbq_kdb ex[hc ba [h`_kl\_gguo
Zljb[mlh\ fh`_l jZkkfZljb\Zlvky dZd dhgnb]mjZpby '^_ckl\b_-'^_ckl\h\Z-
l_ev-'ij_l_ji_\Zxs__, ]^_ '^_ckl\b_ b ij_^klZ\ey_l kh[hc \ujZ`_gguc
fZk^Zjhf [h`_kl\_gguc Zljb[ml, '^_ckl\h\Zl_e_f y\ey_lky ghkbl_ev wlh]h Zl-
jb[mlZ, lh _klv ;h], Z 'ij_l_ji_\Zxsbf fbj beb dZdZy-eb[h _]h qZklv. KdZ-
`_f, Zljb[ml 'agZgb_ ij_^iheZ]Z_l ^_ckl\b_ ('ihagZ\Zgb_), kh\_jrZ_fh_ ;h-
]hf ('ihagZxsbf, 'agZxsbf) \ hlghr_gbb \_s_c fbjZ, dhlhju_ kms_kl\mxl
10 Bec1uuk PFFY. Bmn. 4. Boc1ok: Hccneponauun. Hepenopm. M.: PFFY, 2000

beb fh]ml kms_kl\h\Zlv ('ihagZ\Z_fh_, 'ba\_klgh_ ;h]m). :ljb[ml '\hey ha-
gZqZ_l [h`_kl\_ggh_ ^_ckl\b_ ('\he_gb_, '`_eZgb_), [eZ]h^Zjy dhlhjhfm ;h]
ihgbfZ_lky dZd ^_ckl\h\Zl_ev ('\heysbc, '`_eZxsbc) \ hlghr_gbb \_s_c
fbjZ ('\hebfuo, `_eZ_fuo). G_ljm^gh \b^_lv, qlh lZdh_ ihgbfZgb_ [h`_kl-
\_gguo Zljb[mlh\ ij_^iheZ]Zeh, qlh bo h[km`^_gb_ klZgh\blky g_ ijhklh h[km-
`^_gb_f ihgbfZgby ;h]Z, gh g_ij_f_ggh ;h]Z \ _]h hlghr_gbb d fbjm. KZfZ
eh]bdZ lZdh]h ih^oh^Z, ^Ze__, ij_^iheZ]ZeZ \hagbdgh\_gb_ ^\hydhc l_hj_lbq_-
kdhc ljm^ghklb b g_h[oh^bfhklv __ mkljZg_gby. <h-i_j\uo, _keb 'ij_l_ji_\Zx-
s__ jZaebqguo ^_ckl\bc jZaebqgh beb, \h \kydhf kemqZ_, fh`_l fukeblvky
dZd jZaebqgh_ (gZijbf_j, 'ba\_klgh_ ;h]m fh`_l g_ kh\iZ^Zlv k '`_eZ_fuf
bf, kdZ`_f, ;h] [_amkeh\gh 'agZ_l h ]j_oZo, dhlhju_ ex^b kh\_jrbeb beb kh-
\_jrZl, gh g_evay ml\_j`^Zlv, qlh hg bf_ggh '`_eZ_l bo), lh wlh hagZqZ_l g_
qlh bgh_, dZd jZaebqb_ b kZfbo ^_ckl\bc, lh _klv [h`_kl\_gguo Zljb[mlh\, Z lZ-
dh_ jZaebqb_ klZ\bl ih^ khfg_gb_ [h`_kl\_ggh_ _^bgkl\h, ihkdhevdm jZaebqgh_
[_amkeh\gh fgh`_kl\_ggh. <h-\lhjuo, 'ij_l_ji_\Zxsbf nZdlbq_kdb ^ey \k_o
^_ckl\bc y\ey_lky beb fh`_l [ulv fbj beb _]h qZklb, Z ex[Zy \_sv fbjZ y\ey-
_lky g_ '\_qghc (dZ^bf), Z '\hagbdr_c (oZ^bk), lh _klv lZdhc, dhlhjZy ihy\b-
eZkv \ g_dhlhjuc fhf_gl \j_f_gb b dhlhjZy g_dh]^Z 'ih]b[g_l (nZgZ). H^gZ-
dh oZjZdl_jbklbdb ij_l_ji_\Zxs_]h g_ fh]ml g_ i_j_ghkblvky b gZ kZfh ^_ckl-
\b_, ihkdhevdm g_\hafh`gh ij_^klZ\blv, qlh[u \_qgh_ ^_ckl\b_ g_ bf_eh klhev
`_ \_qgh]h ke_^kl\by, b gZijhlb\, qlh[u ij_l_ji_\Zxs__ baf_gyehkv, lh]^Z
dZd ^_ckl\b_ hklZ\Zehkv [u g_baf_gguf. Ihwlhfm ih^ \hijhkhf hdZau\Z_lky b
\_qguc oZjZdl_j [h`_kl\_gguo Zljb[mlh\, qlh \ ex[hf kemqZ_ iehoh kh\f_klb-
fh k ij_^klZ\e_gb_f h \_qghklb kZfh]h ;h]Z. Ih wlbf \hijhkZf \ jZgg_f dZeZ-
f_ [ueh \ukdZaZgh fgh`_kl\h fg_gbc, \dexqZy b djZcgb_ fg_gby h \hafh`gh-
klb ijbibkZlv \hagbdgh\_gb_ [h`_kl\_gguf Zljb[mlZf. G_ i_j_qbkeyy \k_ bo,
ijb\_^_f kj_^b gZb[he__ bgl_j_kguo ljZdlh\dm :[m Ze-OmaZceZ Ze-:eeZnZ:
':[m Ze-OmaZce ]h\hjbe: Hg agZxsbc [eZ]h^Zjy agZgbx, dhlhjh_ Hg |kZf|,
Hg fh]ms_kl\_gguc [eZ]h^Zjy fh]ms_kl\m, dhlhjh_ Hg |kZf|, Hg `b\hc
[eZ]h^Zjy `bagb, dhlhjZy Hg |kZf|. LZd `_ hg ]h\hjbe h ?]h kemo_, aj_gbb,
\_qghklb, \_ebqbb, kbe_, \_ebdhe_ibb, \hag_k_gghklb b ijhqbo kZfhklguo Zljb-
[mlZo. Hg ]h\hjbe: Dh]^Z y ]h\hjx, qlh ;h] agZxsbc, y ml\_j`^Zx m G_]h agZ-
gb_, dhlhjh_ |kZf| ;h], hljbpZx aZ ;h]hf g_\_`_kl\h b mdZau\Zx gZ ihagZ-
\Z_fh_, qlh [ueh, _klv beb [m^_l. Dh]^Z y ]h\hjx 'fh]ms_kl\_gguc, y hljb-
pZx aZ ;h]hf [_kkbeb_, ml\_j`^Zx m G_]h fh]ms_kl\h, dhlhjh_ |kZf| ;h], b
mdZau\Zx gZ ih^\eZklgh_. ?keb y ]h\hjx, |qlh| m ;h]Z `bagv, y ml\_j`^Zx m G_-
]h `bagv, dhlhjZy |kZf| ;h], b hljbpZx aZ ;h]hf kf_jlv (Ze-:rZjb, :[m Ze-
OZkZg. FZdZeZl Ze-bkeZfbccbg \Z bolbeZn Ze-fmkZeebg. <bk[Z^_g, 1980, k.165).
Bgl_j_kgZ lZd`_ lhqdZ aj_gby Ze->`m[[Z`b, mqbl_ey Ze-:rZjb: ': bgu_ fmlZ-
abeblu ]h\hjbeb, qlh bf_gZ b Zljb[mlu jZaebqZxlky [eZ]h^Zjy jZaebqbx i_j_-
^Z\Z_fh]h bfb kfukeZ. =h\hjy, qlh ;h] agZxsbc, y khh[sZx l_[_ agZgb_ h G_f,
qlh Hg hlebq_g hl lh]h, qlh g_ kihkh[gh ihagZ\Zlv, hijh\_j]Zx l_o, dlh ]h\h-
jbl, qlh ;h] g_\_`_kl\_g, b mdZau\Zx gZ lh, qlh m G_]h _klv ihagZ\Z_fh_. LZdh\
kfuke gZr_]h j_q_gby ';h] agZxsbc. =h\hjy, qlh ;h] fh]ms_kl\_gguc, y kh-
h[sZx l_[_, qlh Hg hlebq_g hl lh]h, qlh g_ kihkh[gh fhqv, hijh\_j]Zx l_o, dlh
]h\hjbl, qlh ;h] [_kkbe_g, b mdZau\Zx gZ lh, qlh m G_]h _klv ih^\eZklgh_. KdZ-
aZ\, qlh Hg `b\hc, fu ^Z^bf l_[_ agZlv, qlh Hg g_ lZdh\, dZd lh, qlh g_ fh`_l
Ay Xauuqa. An-Oukx an-akap (Bonumo qukx) 11
s_kl\h, agZgb_, j_qv (dZeZf), kemo, aj_gb_ b \hey. |:ljb[mlu| ^_ckl\by: khl\hj_gb_
(lZoebd), iblZgb_ (lZjabd), kha^Zgb_ (bgrZ), ijhba\_^_gb_ (b[^Z), ^_eZgb_ (kmg)
8
b ijhqb_ Zljb[mlu ^_ckl\by. Hg g_ij_klZg_g kh |\k_fb| K\hbfb bf_gZfb b Zljb[m-
lZfb: d G_fm g_ ijb\oh^bl (eZf cZo^mk eZ-om) gb bfy, gb Zljb[ml. Hg g_ij_klZggh
(eZf cZaZe) agZxsbc [eZ]h^Zjy K\h_fm agZgbx
9
: agZgb_ [_agZqZevguc (ZaZe)
10

[ulv `b\uf, b hijh\_j]g_f l_o, dlh ]h\hjbl, qlh Hg f_jl\. LZdh\ kfuke j_q_-
gby 'Hg `b\hc. LZd ]h\hjbe fg_ kZf Ze->`m[[Z`b (lZf `_, k.167-168).
Bgl_j_kgh kjZ\gblv ihabpbx, \ukdZau\Z_fmx gb`_ Z\lhjhf ';hevrh]h
nbdoZ, k wlbfb fg_gbyfb fmlZabeblh\. KhojZgyy m[_`^_gghklv \ g_h[oh^bfh-
klb jZkkfZljb\Zlv 'ij_l_ji_\Zxs__ \ dhgl_dkl_ h[km`^_gby ijh[e_fu [h`_-
kl\_ggh]h '^_ckl\by, hg \f_kl_ k l_f hldZau\Z_lky hl jZpbhgZevgh]h khhlg_k_-
gby b kh]eZkh\Zgby wlbo ihgylbc. <f_kl_ k l_f hg hldZau\Z_lky hlh`^_kl\eylv
Zljb[mlu ;h]Z (agZgb_, fh]ms_kl\h, l.^.) k kZfhklvx ;h]Z, aZgbfZy [he__ ijh-
[e_fZlbqgmx \ hlghr_gbb ml\_j`^_gby _^bgkl\Z ;h]Z ihabpbx, g_`_eb mihfb-
gZ\rb_ky \ur_ Ze-:eeZn b Ze->`m[[Z`b.
8
:[m Ze-FmglZoZ \ k\h_f dhff_glZjbb ibr_l, qlh 'lZoebd (khl\hj_gb_), bgrZ
(kha^Zgb_), kmg (^_eZgb_) bf_xl h^bg b lhl `_ kfuke bo^Zk (ijhba\_^_gb_)
\_sb ihke_ lh]h, dZd __ g_ [ueh, g_\Z`gh, ih ij_^r_kl\mxs_fm h[jZapm (fbkZe
kZ[bd) beb g_l, Z b[^Z (ijhba\_^_gb_) wlh bo^Zk (ijhba\_^_gb_) \_sb ihke_
lh]h, dZd __ g_ [ueh, ih ij_^r_kl\mxs_fm h[jZapm. LZdh_ ihgbfZgb_ wlbo
l_jfbgh\ g_ [ueh h[s_ijbgyluf \ ljZ^bpbb kj_^g_\_dh\hc ZjZ[kdhc fukeb.
LZd, \ dZeZf_ bo^Zk (ijhba\_^_gb_) ihgbfZehkv dZd [_amkeh\gh g_ihkj_^kl\_g-
gh_ ^_ckl\b_ ;h]Z, gh m`_ B[g KbgZ ^ey h[hagZq_gby lZdh]h g_ihkj_^kl\_ggh]h
^_ckl\by hklZ\ey_l lhevdh l_jfbg oZed, lh]^Z dZd bo^Zk b (g_ mihfbgZ\rbcky
a^_kv) lZd\bg gZau\Z_l hihkj_^h\Zggufb (B[g KbgZ. Zev-BrZjZl \Z-l-lZg[b-
oZl. Q.3, DZbj, 1958, k.524-525). :e-DbjfZgb h[hagZqZ_l g_ihkj_^kl\_ggh_ ^_c-
kl\b_ ;h]Z l_jfbghf b[^Z, ijbq_f lZdh_ l\hj_gb_ m g_]h bkdexqZ_l 'ij_^r_-
kl\mxsbc h[jZa_p (kf. OZfb^ Z^->bg Zev-DbjfZgb. Mkihdh_gb_ jZamfZ. F.,
1995, k.70).
9
:\lhj g_ hlh`^_kl\ey_l [h`_kl\_gguc Zljb[ml k kZfhklvx ;h]Z. DZd khh[sZ_l
Ze-:rZjb, [hevrbgkl\h fmlZabeblh\ b oZjb^`blh\, fgh]b_ fmj^`bblu b g_-
dhlhju_ a_c^blu aZgbfZeb ijhlb\hiheh`gmx ihabpbx, ml\_j`^Zy, qlh Zljb[m-
lu 'agZgb_, 'fh]ms_kl\h, '`bagv lh`^_kl\_ggu kZfhklb ;h]Z b g_ y\eyxlky
q_f-lh 'bguf, g_`_eb hgZ. <f_kl_ k l_f kms_kl\h\Zeh fg_gb_, ijbibku\Z_fh_
FmZffZjm, qlh ;h] y\ey_lky, gZij., 'agZxsbf [eZ]h^Zjy 'agZgbx, dhlhjh_
fukebehkv dZd g_qlh kZfhklhyl_evgh_, ijbq_f lZd `_ jZkkfZljb\Zebkv \k_ hk-
lZevgu_ Zljb[mlu (Ze-:rZjb, :[m Ze-OZkZg. FZdZeZl Ze-bkeZfbccbg \Z bolb-
eZn Ze-fmkZeebg. <bk[Z^_g, 1980, k.164, 168). LZdZy ihabpby [eb`_ d [md\Zev-
ghfm kfukem dhjZgbq_kdh]h l_dklZ, gh hgZ ijb\h^bl d ijh[e_fZf, k\yaZgguf k
\hijhkhf h[ bgZdh\hklb Zljb[mlh\ \ hlghr_gbb ^jm] ^jm]Z b [h`_kl\_gghc kZ-
fhklb, Z agZqbl, d ijh[e_fZlbqghklb ml\_j`^_gby [h`_kl\_ggh]h _^bgkl\Z.
<ijhq_f, Z\lhj ';hevrh]h nbdoZ ebrv ^h]fZlbq_kdb ml\_j`^Z_l kZfhklhy-
l_evghklv Zljb[mlh\, g_ ijh^mfu\Zy \hijhkZ h[ bo \aZbfghc bgZdh\hklb. :[m
Ze-FmglZoZ, dhff_glbjmxsbc wlhl iZkkZ` ';hevrh]h nbdoZ, ibr_l: Keh\Z
\_ebqZcr_]h bfZfZ 'Hg g_ij_klZggh agZxsbc [eZ]h^Zjy K\h_fm agZgbx... gZ-
ijZ\e_gu ijhlb\ fmlZabeblh\. L_ ]h\hjbeb, qlh Zljb[mlu ;h]Z wlh ?]h kZ-
fhklv, lZd qlh Hg AgZxsbc b Fh]ms_kl\_gguc [eZ]h^Zjy h^ghc kZfhklb, Z g_
12 Bec1uuk PFFY. Bmn. 4. Boc1ok: Hccneponauun. Hepenopm. M.: PFFY, 2000
Zljb[ml; fh]ms_kl\_gguc [eZ]h^Zjy K\h_fm fh]ms_kl\m: fh]ms_kl\h [_agZ-
qZevguc Zljb[ml; ]h\hjysbc [eZ]h^Zjy K\h_c j_qb: j_qv [_agZqZevguc Zljb[ml;
l\hjysbc [eZ]h^Zjy K\h_fm khl\hj_gbx: khl\hj_gb_ |3| [_agZqZevguc Zljb[ml;
^_ckl\mxsbc [eZ]h^Zjy K\h_fm ^_ckl\bx: ^_ckl\b_ [_agZqZevguc Zljb[ml.
>_ckl\mxsbc (nZbe) Hg, <k_\urgbc ;h], b ^_ckl\b_ (nbe) Zljb-
[ml \ \_qghklb. Ij_l_ji_\Zxs__ (fZnme) khl\hj_gh, Z ^_ckl\b_ <k_\urg_]h ;h]Z
g_ khl\hj_gh
11
. ?]h Zljb[mlu \ \_qghklb g_ ijhba\_^_gu (]Zcj fmo^ZkZ) b g_ khl\h-

[eZ]h^Zjy agZgbx b fh]ms_kl\m. GZf ^hklZlhqgh ^hdZaZl_evkl\Z, kh^_j`Zs_]h-
ky \ keh\Zo \_ebqZcr_]h bfZfZ b ijhqbo ijZ\_^guo bfZfh\ ex^_c kmggu b h[-
sbgu. Fu ]h\hjbf \ke_^ aZ l_fb bfZfZfb (^Z [eZ]hkeh\bl bo ;h]!): Zljb[mlu
<k_\urg_]h ;h]Z g_ kmlv kZfZ ?]h kZfhklv b g_ kmlv g_qlh bgh_, q_f ?]h kZ-
fhklv, bkke_^h\Zlv `_ wlhl \hijhk ^ey gZk g_ h[yaZl_evgh. Hg \iheg_ ijbgb-
fZ_l ZglbfmlZabeblkdmx ZrZjblkdmx ljZdlh\dm wlh]h \hijhkZ, aZy\e_ggmx Z\-
lhjhf ';hevrh]h nbdoZ, b \ibku\Z_l __ \ jZfdb l_jfbgheh]bb nbdoZ, hij_^_-
eyy __ dZd 'g_ h[yaZl_evgmx (eZ cZ^`b[). LZdbf h[jZahf, _keb agZgb_ h gZeb-
qbb Zljb[mlh\ m ;h]Z y\ey_l 'hkgh\hc b l_f kZfuf h[yaZgghklvx \_jmxs_]h,
[_a \uiheg_gby dhlhjhc hg klZgh\blky 'g_\_jmxsbf, lh bkke_^h\Zgb_ eh]bq_-
kdhc g_ijhlb\hj_qb\hklb wlh]h \hijhkZ m`_ \uoh^bl aZ jZfdb 'h[yaZl_evgh]h,
lZd qlh \_jmxsbc \iheg_ fh`_l m^h\e_l\hjblvky ^h]fZlbq_kdbf agZgb_f.
10
Kj_^g_\_dh\Zy ZjZ[kdZy fukev jZaebqZeZ g_kdhevdh ihgbfZgbc lh]h, qlh ijh-
lb\hiheh`gh \j_f_gghfm baf_g_gbx b qlh fu [u h[hagZqbeb dZd '\_qghklv.
L_jfbg ZaZe nbdkbjh\Ze \gbfZgb_ gZ hlkmlkl\bb gZqZeZ \h \j_f_gb, h[hagZqZy
lh, qlh fu, dZd [u h]ey^u\Zykv gZaZ^ ba lhqdb gZklhys_]h, \b^bf dZd gbdh]^Z
g_ gZqbgZ\r__ky. Bf_ggh hg mihlj_[e_g a^_kv, b fu i_j_\h^bf _]h dZd '[_agZ-
qZevghklv. IZjm k gbf h[jZam_l l_jfbg Z[Z^, mdZau\Zxsbc gZ lh, qlh g_ [m-
^_l bf_lv dhgpZ b qlh fu \b^bf ba gZr_c lhqdb gZklhys_]h dZd [_kdhg_qgh_,
gbdh]^Z g_ dhgqZxs__ky. ';_agZqZevghklv b '[_kdhg_qghklv kdhj__ \aZbfh^h-
ihegbl_evgu, g_`_eb ijhlb\hiheh`gu ^jm] ^jm]m. L_jfbg db^Zf lhqg__ \k_]h
[ueh [u i_j_\h^blv keh\hf '\_lohklv: lh, qlh h[eZ^Z_l wlbf dZq_kl\hf, [_amk-
eh\gh ij_^r_kl\m_l ex[hfm fhf_glm \j_f_gb, dhlhjuc fh`_l [ulv ihfuke_g,
Z agZqbl, b ex[hc \hagbdZxs_c, \j_f_gghc \_sb. L_jfbg db^Zf e_]dh h[jZam_l
kjZ\gbl_evgmx kl_i_gv: h^gh fh`_l [ulv Zd^Zf, '[he__ \_lobf, q_f ^jm]h_
(lh]^Z dZd fu [u g_ kdZaZeb '[he__ \_qgh_: \_qghklv \ lhf ihgbfZgbb, dhlhjh_
[ueh \ujZ[hlZgh \ aZiZ^ghc ljZ^bpbb, g_ ij_^iheZ]Z_l kjZ\gbl_evghc kl_i_gb
m`_ ihlhfm, qlh h^bgZdh\h hlghkblky dh \k_f fhf_glZf \j_f_gb, dZd [u \[bjZy
bo \ k_[y). Wlb ljb ihgylby h[jZamxl hkgh\ghc l_jfbgheh]bq_kdbc nhg^, dhlh-
juf hi_jbjh\Zeb fmlZdZeebfu ijb h[km`^_gbb lh]h, qlh lZd beb bgZq_ ijhlb-
\hiheZ]Z_lky \j_f_gb; rdheZ ZjZ[hyauqgh]h i_jbiZl_lbafZ \\_eZ, \ k\yab k h[-
km`^_gb_f Zjbklhl_e_\kdhc dhgp_ipbb \j_f_gb, lZd`_ b ^jm]b_ l_jfbgu. Bg-
l_j_kgh, qlh \k_ ljb l_jfbgZ lZd beb bgZq_ khhlghkbl_evgu, Z g_ Z[khexlgu:
hgb khhlghkyl hibku\Z_fmx bfb h[eZklv eb[h k nbdkbjh\Zgguf gZklhysbf
fhf_glhf (i_j\u_ ^\Z l_jfbgZ), eb[h k fhf_glhf, k^\b]Z_fuf \ ex[mx ijhba-
\hevgmx lhqdm hkb \j_f_gb (lj_lbc l_jfbg), Z g_ jZkkfZljb\Zxl \_qghklv dZd
lZdh\mx.
11
Wlhl l_abk ijyfh hlkueZ_l gZk d ihe_fbd_, dhlhjZy \_eZkv \ fmlZabebaf_ \h-
djm] \hijhkZ h lh`^_kl\_ beb jZaebqbb ihgylbc 'l\hj_gb_ (oZed) b 'khl\hj_g-
gh_ (fZoemd), jZ\gh dZd, \ [he__ h[s_f ieZg_, \hdjm] khhlghr_gby ihgylbc
Ay Xauuqa. An-Oukx an-akap (Bonumo qukx) 13
j_gu. Dlh ]h\hjbl, qlh hgb khl\hj_gu beb ijhba\_^_gu, beb dhe_[e_lky b khfg_\Z-
_lky \ wlhf
12
, lhl g_ \_jm_l \h <k_\urg_]h ;h]Z
13
.
DhjZg j_qv <k_\urg_]h ;h]Z, \ k\bldZo aZibkZggZy, \ k_j^p_ ojZgb-
fZy, yaudhf (ebkZg) ijhbaghkbfZy, ijhjhdm gbkihkeZggZy. GZr_ ijhbag_k_gb_, ib-
kZgb_ b ql_gb_ DhjZgZ khl\hj_gu, Z DhjZg g_ khl\hj_g. <k_, qlh <k_\urgbc ;h],
jZkkdZau\Zy h Fhbk__ b ijhqbo ijhjhdZo, Z lZd`_ nZjZhg_ b B[ebk_, mihfygme \
DhjZg_ \k_ wlh j_qv ;h`vy, h[ hguo khh[sZxsZy. J_qv ;h]Z g_ khl\hj_gZ, Z j_qv
Fhbk_y b ijhqbo l\Zj_c khl\hj_gZ
14
. DhjZg j_qv <k_\urg_]h, b wlh hgZ, Z g_ bo
j_qv, \_qgZ (dZ^bf)
15
.

'^_ckl\b_, '^_ckl\mxsbc, 'ij_l_ji_\Zxs__ (nbe, nZbe, fZnme). Qj_a\u-
qZcgh bgl_j_kgu k\b^_l_evkl\Z, ijb\h^bfu_ ih wlhfm \hijhkm Ze-:rZjb (Ze-
:rZjb, :[m Ze-OZkZg. FZdZeZl Ze-bkeZfbccbg \Z bolbeZn Ze-fmkZeebg. <bk[Z-
^_g, 1980, k.363-366). FmlZabeblZfb [ueb \ukdZaZgu ijZdlbq_kdb \k_ \hafh`-
gu_ \ZjbZglu hl\_lZ gZ \hijhk h lh`^_kl\_ l\hj_gby b khl\hjy_fhc \_sb: qlh
hgb lh`^_kl\_ggu (Ze->`m[[Z`b), qlh ^ey 'ih\lhjy_fh]h (fZ cZ^`ma Zg cmZ^)
hgb jZaebqgu, Z ^ey 'g_ih\lhjy_fh]h lh`^_kl\_ggu (ObrZf Ze-Nm\Zlbc),
qlh 'khl\hj_ggh_ wlh kZfZ \_sv \f_kl_ k 'l\hj_gb_f (:[[Z^ [_g KmeZc-
fZg), gZdhg_p, qlh l\hj_gb_ b khl\hj_ggh_ jZaebqgu (Ze-:eeZn, ;brj [_g
Ze-FmlZfbj b ^jm]b_). Ihke_^gb_ kihjbeb h lhf, khl\hj_gh eb kZfh 'l\hj_-
gb_ beb g_l, h q_f [ueb \ukdZaZgu ijhlb\hiheh`gu_ fg_gby \ bo jZaebqguo
\ZjbZglZo. Kf. l`. ijbf.6.
12
...\ wlhf \ \hijhk_ h 'khl\hj_gghklb beb 'ijhba\_^_gghklb Zljb[mlh\.
13
...g_ \_jm_l \h <k_\urg_]h ;h]Z \ hjb]bgZe_ dZnbj [b-eeZo lZZeZ. Bgl_j_k-
gh kjZ\gblv wlh ml\_j`^_gb_ k i_j\uf l_abkhf ';hevrh]h nbdoZ-I, dhlhjuc
a\mqbl ke_^mxsbf h[jZahf: 'Fu gbdh]h g_ h[ty\ey_f g_\_jmxsbf ba-aZ |kh-
\_jr_ggh]h bf| ]j_oZ b g_ hljbpZ_f gbqvx \_jm (eZ gmdZnnbj ZoZ^Zg [b-aZg[
\Z eZ gZgnb ZoZ^Zg fbg Ze- bfZg). <f_kl_ k l_f l_abku 8-10 ';hevrh]h nbdoZ-
I hij_^_eyxl \ dZq_kl\_ 'g_\_jby (dmnj) g_agZgb_ h lhf, [ueb eb Fhbk_c b
Bbkmk ihkeZggbdZfb; g_agZgb_ h lhf, gZ a_fe_ ;h] beb gZ g_[_; g_agZgb_ h aZ-
]jh[guo fmdZo. Wlb \hijhku, jZ\gh dZd b \hijhk h [h`_kl\_gguo Zljb[mlZo,
ijyfh k\yaZgguc k ihgbfZgb_f _^bgkl\_gghklb ;h]Z, hlghkylky d qbkem 'hk-
gh\, i_j_qbke_gguo Z\lhjhf gZklhys_]h l_dklZ \ kZfhf gZqZe_, Z ihlhfm g_
ijhklh khfg_gb_ \ gbo, gh b hlkmlkl\b_ agZgby ih wlbf \hijhkZf mgbqlh`Z_l
'\_jm. <f_kl_ k l_f ']j_o g_ aZljZ]b\Z_l wlbo hkgh\, Z ihlhfm g_ fh`_l, k
lhqdb aj_gby Z\lhjZ l_dklZ, kem`blv hkgh\Zgb_f ^ey hljbpZgby m q_eh\_dZ \_-
ju.
14
Wlhl iZkkZ` gZijZ\e_g ijhlb\ fg_gby fgh]bo fmlZabeblh\ h lhf, qlh ;h] g_
fh`_l h[eZ^Zlv j_qvx 'ih bklbg_ (oZdbdZ) b qlh _fm fh`gh ijbibku\Zlv j_qv
lhevdh \ i_j_ghkghf kfuke_ ([b-e-fZ^`Za). Ijhlb\hihklZ\e_gb_ 'bklbggh]h
b 'i_j_ghkgh]h [ueh jZajZ[hlZgh \ kj_^g_\_dh\hc nbeheh]bq_kdhc l_hjbb kZ-
fuf lsZl_evguf h[jZahf k deZkkbnbdZpb_c \b^h\ i_j_ghkguo agZq_gbc. < p_-
ehf ih^ 'bklbgguf ihgbfZeky ijyfhc kfuke keh\Z, lZd, dZd hgh 'mklZgh\e_g
\ yaud_, lh]^Z dZd 'i_j_ghkgh_ agZq_gb_ ihemqZ_lky aZ kq_l hlk_q_gby g_dhlh-
juo we_f_glh\ 'bklbggh]h, qlh fh`_l ^hihegylvky keh`ghc ijhp_^mjhc i_j_-
oh^Z d ^jm]bf agZq_gbyf. >ey fmlZabeblh\ 'bklbggh_ ihgbfZgb_ j_qb (Z j_qv,
gZihfgbf, y\ey_lky Zljb[mlhf ;h]Z, \ujZ`Zxsbf _]h j_Zevgh_ ^_ckl\b_) ij_^-
iheZ]Z_l g_ij_f_gghklv gZebqby ']h\hjys_]h b 'lh]h, dhfm ]h\hjyl, lh]^Z
14 Bec1uuk PFFY. Bmn. 4. Boc1ok: Hccneponauun. Hepenopm. M.: PFFY, 2000
Fhbk_c keurZe j_qv ;h`vx. <k_\urgbc ;h] j_d: 'K Fhbk__f `_ ;h] ]h-
\hjbe ijyfh
16
; <k_\urgbc ;h] y\ey_lky ]h\hjysbf
17
, ^Z`_ |ihdZ| g_ aZ]h\hjbe k
Fhbk__f (fbj _fm!), lZd `_, dZd <k_\urgbc y\ey_lky l\hjysbf \ \_qghklb, ^Z-
`_ |ihdZ| g_ khl\hjye l\hj_gb_
18
. : aZ]h\hjb\ k Fhbk__f, Hg aZ]h\hjbe k gbf lhc
j_qvx K\h_c, dhlhjZy khklZ\ey_l ?]h Zljb[ml \ \_qghklb. : \k_ ?]h Zljb[mlu \
\_qghklb, \ hlebqb_ hl Zljb[mlh\ l\Zj_c. Hg agZ_l g_ lZd, dZd fu agZ_f; b fh]ms_-
kl\_g g_ lZd, dZd fu fh]ms_kl\_ggu; b \b^bl g_ lZd, dZd fu \b^bf, b keurbl g_
lZd, dZd fu keurbf; b ]h\hjbl g_ lZd, dZd fu ]h\hjbf. Fu |4| ]h\hjbf k ihfhsvx

dZd f_lZnhjbqgh_ ihgbfZgb_ fh`_l g_ mqblu\Zlv h^bg beb h[Z wlbo we_f_glZ.
HljbpZgb_ j_qb m ;h]Z [ueh k\yaZgh m fmlZabeblh\ k bo h[s_nbehkhnkdbfb l_-
abkZfb. GZijbf_j, FmZffZj ml\_j`^Ze, qlh q_eh\_d g_ ijhba\h^bl \ kZfhf
k_[_ gb ^\b`_gby, gb ihdhy, gh qlh hg ijhba\h^bl \ kZfhf k_[_ \hex, agZgb_,
g_`_eZgb_, mfhaj_gb_ (gZaZj) b mih^h[e_gb_ (lZfkbe). Hg ]h\hjbe, qlh q_eh\_d
g_ ijhba\h^bl \ bghf gbq_]h, qlh hg g_^_ebfZy qZklbpZ b g_jZa^_ebfuc
kfuke, b qlh \ wlhf k\h_f l_e_ hg ihlhfm, qlh mijZ\ey_l (lZ^[bj) bf, gh g_ ih-
lhfm, qlh k gbf khijbdZkZ_lky beb \ g_]h \k_ebeky. Hg ]h\hjbe, qlh ihjh`^_g-
gh_ b lh, qlh \g_^jy_lky \ l_eZ: ^\b`_gb_, ihdhc, p\_l, \dmk, aZiZo, `Zj, oheh^,
\eZ`ghklv, kmohklv, y\ey_lky _kl_kl\_gguf ([b-lZ[b-ob) ^_ckl\b_f lh]h l_-
eZ, dm^Z wlh \g_^jbehkv; qlh f_jl\h_ _kl_kl\_gguf h[jZahf ijhba\h^bl Zdpb-
^_gpbb, dhlhju_ \ g_]h \g_^jyxlky, qlh `bagv ^_ckl\b_ `b\h]h, Z fh]ms_kl-
\h ^_ckl\b_ fh]ms_kl\_ggh]h, b lZd`_ kf_jlv ^_ckl\b_ f_jl\h]h. Hg ]h-
\hjbe, qlh <k_\urgbc g_ ijhba\h^bl Zdpb^_gpbc b g_ hibku\Z_lky dZd fh]m-
sbc ijhba\_klb Zdpb^_gpbx, `bagv, kf_jlv, kemo, aj_gb_; qlh kemo ^_ckl\b_
keurZs_]h, b lZd`_ aj_gb_ ^_ckl\b_ ajys_]h, Z ihklb`_gb_ ^_ckl\b_ ih-
klb]Zxs_]h, b qm\kl\_ggh_ \hkijbylb_ ^_ckl\b_ qm\kl\_ggh \hkijbgbfZx-
s_]h; qlh lZd `_ b DhjZg ^_ckl\b_ lh]h, hl q_]h hg [ue mkeurZg, [m^v lh Zg-
]_e, ^_j_\h beb dZf_gv, b qlh ;h] (KeZ\_g Hg b <_ebd!) g_ bf__l j_qb ih bklbg_
(ij_\_ebdh \hag_k_g =hkih^v gZr gZ^ ih^h[gufb j_qZfb!) (Ze-:rZjb, :[m
Ze-OZkZg. FZdZeZl Ze-bkeZfbccbg \Z bolbeZn Ze-fmkZeebg. <bk[Z^_g, 1980,
k.405). ;ueb b ^jm]b_ fg_gby, ml\_j`^Z\rb_ khl\hj_gghklv DhjZgZ.
15
L_abk gZijZ\e_g ijhlb\ l_o, dlh Zj]mf_glbjh\Ze khl\hj_gghklv DhjZgZ ke_^mx-
sbf h[jZahf: DhjZg khl\hj_g, ihkdhevdm _keb hg \_q_g, lh b j_qv \k_o ex^_c b
ijhqbo kha^Zgbc, mihfbgZ_fZy \ g_f, \_qgZ.
16
'H g_dhlhjuo ihkeZggbdZo Fu l_[_ m`_ jZkkdZaZeb, Z h g_dhlhjuo ihkeZggb-
dZo Fu l_[_ g_ jZkkdZau\Zeb. K Fhbk__f `_ ;h] ]h\hjbe ijyfh DhjZg,
4:164 (i_j. =.KZ[emdh\Z).
17
< hjb]bgZe_ \g_\j_f_ggh_ dZgZ: dZgZ Ze-eZo fmlZdZeebfZg.
18
:\lhj ijh^he`Z_l jZajZ[Zlu\Zlv l_fm khhlghr_gby '^_ckl\h\Zl_ey b '^_ckl-
\by, ml\_j`^Zy \hafh`ghklv i_j\h]h [_a \lhjh]h. Bgl_j_kgh khhlg_klb _]h ih-
abpbx k ihabpb_c g_dhlhjuo fmlZabeblh\, dhlhju_, i_j_lhedh\u\Zeb Zljb[ml
('^_ckl\h\Zl_ev, \ ^Zgghf kemqZ_ ']h\hjysbc) \ h[t_dl ^_ckl\by ('ij_l_j-
i_\Zxs__, \ ^Zgghf kemqZ_ 'lhl, k d_f ]h\hjyl). LZd ihklmiZe, gZij.,
Ze-:eeZn (kf. \ur_). Ihkdhevdm ijb wlhf \hagbdZe \hijhk h lhf, dZdbf h[jZ-
ahf oZjZdl_j ij_l_ji_\Zxs_]h \eby_l gZ oZjZdl_j ^_ckl\h\Zl_ey (^himklbfh eb
gZau\Zlv '\_qgh l\hjysbf lh]h, dlh _s_ g_ khl\hjbe l\hj_gb_), Z\lhj ';hev-
rh]h nbdoZ _s_ jZa ih^l\_j`^Z_l k\hx ihabpbx, khklhysmx \ [_amkeh\ghf
ml\_j`^_gbb \_qghklb Zljb[mlZ g_aZ\bkbfh hl oZjZdl_jZ ij_l_ji_\Zxs_]h.
Ay Xauuqa. An-Oukx an-akap (Bonumo qukx) 15
hjm^bc (ZeZl) b a\mdh\ (omjmn), Z <k_\urgbc ;h] ]h\hjbl [_a \kydh]h hjm^by b
_^bgh]h a\mdZ. ;md\u b a\mdb (omjmn)
19
khl\hj_gu, Z j_qv ;h`vy g_ khl\hj_gZ.
Hg
20
\_sv (rZc)
21
g_ lZdZy, dZd |\k_| \_sb
22
. '<_sv \ kfuke_
23
, qlh
Hg ml\_j`^_g (bk[Zl)
24
[_a l_eZ, [_a km[klZgpbb b [_a Zdpb^_gpbb. M G_]h g_l hi-

19
Y i_j_^Zx a^_kv l_jfbg oZjn ihgylbyfb 'a\md b '[md\Z, ihkdhevdm \ ^Zgghf
dhgl_dkl_ lZdZy ih^klZgh\dZ ^himklbfZ b \iheg_ i_j_^Z_l gZf_j_gb_ Z\lhjZ
l_dklZ. Y g_ bf_x \ \b^m gbdZdb_ agZq_gby, dhlhju_ l_jfbg oZjn bf_e [u \
kh[kl\_ggh ebg]\bklbq_kdhf dhgl_dkl_.
20
;h].
21
Kh]eZkgh :[m Ze-FmglZoZ, bf__lky \ \b^m Zyl: 'Qlh emqr_ \k_]h k\b^_l_evkl\m-
_l? KdZ`b: ;h]... (DhjZg, 6:19, i_j. fhc. - :.K.), [md\. - 'DZdZy \_sv emqr_ \k_-
]h....
22
DZd ihykgy_l :[m Ze-FmglZoZ, bf__lky \ \b^m Zyl: 'G_l \_sb, qlh [ueZ [u dZd
ih^h[gh_ ?fm (DhjZg, 42:11, i_j. fhc. - :.K.).
Wlb dhff_glZjbb mimkdZxl ba \b^m ijh[e_fm jZaebq_gby ;h]Z b \_s_c fbjZ
ijb keh\_kghf kh\iZ^_gbb l_o Zljb[mlh\, dhlhju_ ijbibku\Zxlky bf ('agZx-
sbf fh`_l kqblZlvky g_ lhevdh ;h], gh b q_eh\_d, l.^.). Ihabpby Z[khexlgh]h
jZaebq_gby ;h]Z b fbjZ \ukdZaZgZ _s_ fmlZabeblZfb bf_ggh \ lhc nhjf_, dZd
hgZ ijb\h^blky \ ';hevrhf nbdo_, gh k jZa\_jgmluf h[km`^_gb_f \hijhkZ:
:[m Ze-OmkZcg Zk-KZebob ]h\hjbe: Kfuke fh_]h j_q_gby, qlh ;h] agZxsbc g_
dZd \k_ agZxsb_, fh]ms_kl\_gguc g_ dZd \k_ fh]ms_kl\_ggu_, `b\hc g_ dZd
\k_ `b\u_, qlh Hg \_sv g_ dZd \k_ \_sb. LZd `_ hg ]h\hjbe h[ hklZevguo kZ-
fhklguo bf_gZo. ?keb _]h kijZrb\Zeb: LZd lu ]h\hjbrv, qlh 'Hg agZxsbc g_
dZd \k_ agZxsb_ bf__l lhl `_ kfuke, qlh 'Hg fh]ms_kl\_gguc g_ dZd \k_ fh-
]ms_kl\_ggu_? hg hl\_qZe: '>Z, kfuke wlh]h qlh Hg \_sv g_ lZdZy, dZd
\k_ \_sb. LZd `_ hg ]h\hjbe h[ hklZevguo kZfhklguo bf_gZo. Hg ]h\hjbe, qlh
'\_sv g_ lZdZy, dZd \k_ \_sb bf__l lhl `_ kfuke, qlh 'agZxsbc g_ dZd \k_
agZxsb_ (Ze-:rZjb, :[m Ze-OZkZg. FZdZeZl Ze-bkeZfbccbg \Z bolbeZn
Ze-fmkZeebg. <bk[Z^_g, 1980, k.168).
23
Ihke_ h[km`^_gby Zljb[mlh\ ;h]Z Z\lhj i_j_oh^bl d \hijhkm h [ulbb ;h]Z; hl-
f_lbf, qlh l_dkl ihkljh_g bf_ggh \ lZdhc ihke_^h\Zl_evghklb.
<hijhk h khhlghr_gbb ihgylbc '\_sv, '[ulb_ b 'ml\_j`^_gghklv [ue
ij_^f_lhf [hevrhc ^bkdmkkbb \ fmlZabebaf_. DZd khh[sZ_l Ze-:rZjb, fmlZ-
dZeebfu jZahrebkv \h fg_gbyo h lhf, bf_gm_lky eb L\hj_p '\_svx beb g_l.
>`Zof [_g KZn\Zg ]h\hjbe, qlh h L\hjp_ g_ ]h\hjblky '\_sv, ihkdhevdm hg
kqblZe, qlh '\_sv wlh lhevdh khl\hj_ggh_, bf_xs__ ih^h[b_. : [hevrbgkl-
\h fheysboky ]h\hjbl, qlh L\hj_p \_sv (Ze-:rZjb, :[m Ze-OZkZg. FZdZeZl
Ze-bkeZfbccbg \Z bolbeZn Ze-fmkZeebg. <bk[Z^_g, 1980, k.518). Bgl_j_kgh, qlh
ihgylb_ '\_sv g_ Zkkhpbbjm_lky \ ljZ^bpbb ZjZ[kdhc fukeb k ihgylb_f 'kh-
l\hj_gghklv. Hgh k\yau\Zehkv _s_ \ fmlZabebaf_ k ihgylb_f 'kms_kl\h\Zgb_
(\m^`m^), ijbq_f ijh[e_fZ lh`^_kl\_gghklb beb jZaebqby ihgylbc 'kms_kl\h-
\Zgb_ b 'ml\_j`^_gghklv (km[ml) klZeZ ij_^f_lhf ihe_fbdb fmlZabeblh\ b
ZrZjblh\: i_j\u_ ijb^_j`b\Zebkv ijbgpbiZ 'ml\_j`^_gghklv ^h kms_kl\h\Z-
gby, lZd qlh 'kms__ (fZ\^`m^) b 'g_-kms__ (fZ^mf) jZ\gh bf_gh\Zebkv 'ml-
\_j`^_ggufb, lh]^Z dZd \lhju_ hlh`^_kl\eyeb ihgylby 'ml\_j`^_gghklv b
'kms_kl\h\Zgb_ b, khhl\_lkl\_ggh, 'ml\_j`^_ggh_ b 'kms_kl\mxs__. >jm-
]b_ ]h\hjbeb: kfuke lh]h, qlh ;h] \_sv, wlh kfuke lh]h, qlh Hg kms_kl\m_l.
16 Bec1uuk PFFY. Bmn. 4. Boc1ok: Hccneponauun. Hepenopm. M.: PFFY, 2000
j_^_e_gby (oZ^^), m G_]h g_l ijhlb\hiheh`ghklb, m G_]h g_l jZ\gh]h (gZ^^), m G_]h
g_l ih^h[by
25
. B m G_]h _klv jmdZ, b ^mrZ, b ebd. <k_, qlh <k_\urgbc mihfbgZ_l \
DhjZg_ h ebd_, jmd_, ^mr_
26
\k_ wlh ?]h Zljb[mlu [_a |\hijhkZ| 'dZd?`. B g_evay
]h\hjblv, qlh ?]h jmdZ wlh ?]h fh]ms_kl\h beb ?]h [eZ]hklv (gbfZ)
27
, b[h wlbf
hljbpZ_lky (b[lZe) Zljb[ml (Z lZd ]h\hjyl dZ^Zjblu b fmlZabeblu); g_l, jmdZ ?]h
?]h Zljb[ml [_a |\hijhkZ| 'dZd?`
28
. ?]h ]g_\ b ^h\hevkl\h ^\Z Zljb[mlZ <k_-
\urg_]h [_a |\hijhkZ| 'dZd?`.

LZd ^mfZxl l_, dlh kqblZ_l, qlh g_l \_s_c bguo, g_`_eb kms__. : g_dhlhju_
]h\hjbeb: kfuke lh]h, qlh ;h] \_sv, wlh ml\_j`^_gb_ ?]h. LZd ]h\hjbeb l_,
dlh iheZ]Ze, qlh \_sb \_sb ^h k\h_]h [ulby b qlh hgb ml\_j`^_gu dZd \_sb
^h k\h_]h [ulby (Ze-:rZjb, :[m Ze-OZkZg. FZdZeZl Ze-bkeZfbccbg \Z bolbeZn
Ze-fmkZeebg. <bk[Z^_g, 1980, k.518). :[m Ze-FmglZoZ, dhff_glbjmy wlhl hlju-
\hd, aZgbfZ_l ml\_j^b\rmxky \ ZrZjbaf_ ihabpbx: '<_sv agZqbl 'ml\_j-
`^_ggh_ (kZ[bl), Z 'ml\_j`^_ggh_ agZqbl 'kms__ (fZ\^`m^). < [hevrbgkl\_
kibkdh\ kdZaZgh ml\_j`^Zlv ?]h}, l._. ml\_j`^Zlv lm \_sv: fu ml\_j`^Z_f
?]h.... < ^Zevg_cr_f \ bklhjbb ZjZ[kdhc nbehkhnbb khhlghr_gb_ ihgylbc
'ml\_j`^_gghklv b 'kms_kl\h\Zgb_ ijh^he`Zeh h[km`^Zlvky (kf. ijbf.28).
24
'=eZ^dbc i_j_\h^ gZqZeZ wlh]h Z[aZpZ a\mqZe [u ijbf_jgh lZd: 'Hg g_ lZdh\,
dZd \kz. =h\hjblv h G_f agZqbl ml\_j`^Zlv ?]h... LZdhc ohjhrh a\mqZsbc i_-
j_\h^ kh\_jr_ggh mkljZgbe [u ba l_dklZ ijh[e_fZlbdm mihlj_[e_gby ihgylbc
'\_sv, 'ml\_j`^_gghklv, 'kms_kl\h\Zgb_ hlghkbl_evgh ;h]Z. Fu khagZl_ev-
gh `_jl\m_f b g_ lhevdh a^_kv ]eZ^dhklvx jmkkdhc njZau jZ^b khojZg_-
gby kfukeh\hc gZiheg_gghklb hjb]bgZeZ.
25
Bgl_j_kgh, qlh wlhl hljbpZxsbc ih^h[b_ ;h]Z hlju\hd ihqlb ^hkeh\gh kh\iZ-
^Z_l k ZgZeh]bqguf iZkkZ`_f 'MdZaZgbc b gZklZ\e_gbc B[g Kbgu: I_j\hfm
g_l gb jZ\gh]h, gb ijhlb\hiheh`ghklb, m G_]h g_l gb jh^Z, gb \b^h\h]h hleb-
qby, lZd qlh g_l b hij_^_e_gby; gZ G_]h g_ mdZ`_rv bgZq_, dZd ijyfuf ihagZ-
gb_f jZamfZ (B[g KbgZ. :e-BrZjZl \Z-l-lZg[boZl. Q.3, DZbj, 1958, k.480). Ih-
eh`_gb_ h[ Z[khexlghc _^bgkl\_gghklb ;h]Z kem`beh gZqZehf b nbehkhnkdh]h
jZkkm`^_gby. < lh `_ \j_fy ml\_j`^_gb_ \ ke_^mxs_c njZa_ Zgljhihfhjnguo
Zljb[mlh\ \uiheg_gh \ ^h]fZlbq_kdhf ZrZjblkdhf ^mo_, hiylv-lZdb bkdexqZx-
s_f \kydbc \hijhk h eh]bq_kdhc hijZ\^Zgghklb lZdh]h l_abkZ b _]h kh]eZkh\Zg-
ghklb k ^jm]bfb.
26
:[m Ze-FmglZoZ ihykgy_l, qlh bf_xlky \ \b^m Zylu 55:27, 48:10, 5:116 khhl\_l-
kl\_ggh. Dhg_qgh, wlbfb ZylZfb g_ h]jZgbqb\Z_lky mihfbgZgb_ ^Zgguo Zljb[m-
lh\ ;h]Z.
27
LZd i_j_lhedh\u\Zeb wlhl Zljb[ml fmlZabeblu, _^bgh^mrgh g_ ^himkdZ\rb_
\hafh`ghklb ]h\hjblv h lhf, qlh m ;h]Z ']eZa beb 'jmdZ \ ijyfhf kfuke_ (kf.
Ze-:rZjb, :[m Ze-OZkZg. FZdZeZl Ze-bkeZfbccbg \Z bolbeZn Ze-fmkZeebg.
<bk[Z^_g, 1980, k.195). Qlh dZkZ_lky '^mrb (gZnk), lh wlhl Zljb[ml, jZ\gh dZd
b 'kZfhklv (aZl), fmlZabeblu kqblZeb mdZau\Zxsbf gZ 'hg ;h]Z (lZf `_,
k.218; kf. lZd`_ ijbf. 28).
28
Dhff_glZjbc :[m Ze-FmglZoZ: 'Bgufb keh\Zfb, hkgh\Z (Zke) ba\_klgZ, Z hib-
kZgb_ (\Zkn) g_\_^hfh gZf. Fu g_ hljbpZ_f ba\_klgmx hkgh\m ba-aZ khfg_gbc
b g_\hafh`ghklb ihklbqv hibkZgb_.
Ijbgpbi [b-eZ dZcn, '[_a |\hijhkZ| dZd, [ue \u^\bgml \ ZrZjbaf_ \h ba[_-
`Zgb_ ihiulhd i_j_lhedh\Zlv g_dhlhju_ ba mihfbgZ_fuo \ DhjZg_ Zljb[mlh\,
Ay Xauuqa. An-Oukx an-akap (Bonumo qukx) 17
<k_\urgbc ;h] khl\hjbe |\k_| \_sb ba gbq_]h (eZ fbg rZc)
29
.

dhlhju_ y\gh gZ\h^yl gZ fukev h[ Zgljhihfhjnbaf_. HljbpZgb_ mih^h[e_gby
;h]Z (lZr[bo) q_fm-eb[h ba \_s_c fbjZ, \dexqZy q_eh\_dZ, y\ey_lky h^gbf ba
djZ_m]hevguo dZfg_c kmggblkdhc ^hdljbgu (\ rbbaf_ \ l_o beb bguo nhjfZo
^himkdZ_lky g_dZy '[h`_kl\_gghklv \ q_eh\_d_) b iZjZ^b]fZlbq_kdbf iheh`_-
gb_f ^ey nbehkhnkdh]h fure_gby. FmlZabeblu, khojZgyy ib_l_l d DhjZgm dZd
lZdh\hfm, g_j_^dh ijhklh hljbpZeb Zgljhihjhfhjnbq_kdb_ Zljb[mlu. IhdZaZ-
l_evgh lZdh_ fg_gb_: |:[[Z^| g_ kh]eZrZeky k l_fb, dlh ]h\hjbe, qlh Hg
agZxsbc, fh]ms_kl\_gguc b `b\hc [eZ]h^Zjy KZfhfm K_[_ beb K\h_c kZfh-
klb, g_ kh]eZrZeky k mihfbgZgb_f 'k_[y (gZnk) beb 'kZfhklb (aZl), g_ kh]eZ-
rZeky ]h\hjblv, qlh m ;h]Z agZgb_, fh]ms_kl\h, kemo, aj_gb_, `bagv beb \_q-
ghklv. Hg aZy\eye: =h\hjy 'agZxsbc, y ml\_j`^Zx bfy ;h]Z b \f_kl_ k gbf
|gZr_| agZgb_ h |gZebqbb| ihagZ\Z_fh]h, ]h\hjy 'fh]ms_kl\_gguc, y ml\_j-
`^Zx bfy ;h]Z b \f_kl_ k gbf |gZr_| agZgb_ h |gZebqbb| ih^\eZklgh]h, ]h\hjy
'`b\hc, y ml\_j`^Zx bfy ;h]Z. Hg g_ kh]eZrZeky ]h\hjblv, qlh m L\hjpZ _klv
ebd, jmdb, ]eZaZ, [hd. Hg ]h\hjbe: Y qblZx DhjZg b ijhbaghrm \k_, qlh ]h\hjbe
;h] \ wlhf jh^_, gh lhevdh dh]^Z qblZx DhjZg (Ze-:rZjb, :[m Ze-OZkZg.
FZdZeZl Ze-bkeZfbccbg \Z bolbeZn Ze-fmkZeebg. <bk[Z^_g, 1980, k.166). < l_d-
kl_ \hijhk h[ Zljb[ml_ 'ebd (\Z^`o) hklZeky [_a h[tykg_gby. FmlZabeblu, ih
k\b^_l_evkl\m Ze-:rZjb, ke_^mxsbf h[jZahf lhedh\Zeb _]h. Hgb jZahrebkv
\h fg_gbyo, ]h\hjblky eb h ;h]_, qlh m G_]h ebd. H^gb ]h\hjbeb, qlh m ;h]Z
ebd, dhlhjuc Hg kZf (om\Z om\Z). LZd ]h\hjbe :[m Ze-OmaZce. >jm]b_ ih^q_j-
db\Zeb: fu ]h\hjbf 'ebd jZkrbjbl_evgh (lZ\ZkkmZg), Z hlkueZ_f d ml\_j`^_-
gbx ;h]Z, ihkdhevdm ml\_j`^Z_f lZdhc ebd, dhlhjuc Hg |kZf| (om\Z om\Z).
<_^v ZjZ[u aZf_sZxl \_sv 'ebdhf, gZijbf_j, fh`gh kdZaZlv: '?keb [u g_
l\hc ebd (eZ\ eZ \Z^`ZdZ), y [u g_ k^_eZe wlh]h, qlh agZqbl '_keb [u g_ lu,
y [u g_ k^_eZe wlh]h. LZd ]h\hjbe Zg-GZaaZf, [hevrbgkl\h [Zkjbckdbo fmlZab-
eblh\, Z lZd`_ [Z]^Z^kdb_ fmlZabeblu. Lj_lvb `_ hljbpZxl, qlh fh`gh mihfb-
gZlv 'ebd b ]h\hjblv 'm ;h]Z ebd. ?keb bo kijZrb\Zeb: ': jZa\_ KZf ;h] g_
]h\hjbl: <k_ ]b[g_l, djhf_ ebdZ ?]h (DhjZg, 28:88)?`, hgb hl\_qZeb, qlh qb-
lZxl DhjZg |lZd|, gh djhf_ dZd ijb ql_gbb DhjZgZ, g_ ]h\hjyl, qlh 'm ;h]Z ebd.
LZd ]h\hjbeb ihke_^h\Zl_eb :[[Z^Z (Ze-:rZjb, :[m Ze-OZkZg. FZdZeZl
Ze-bkeZfbccbg \Z bolbeZn Ze-fmkZeebg. <bk[Z^_g, 1980, k.189). Ke_^m_l aZf_-
lblv, qlh [hevrbgkl\h fmlZabeblh\ (\lhjh_ fg_gb_ ba baeZ]Z_fuo Ze-:rZjb)
i_j_lhedh\u\Zxl 'ebd g_ dZd '[ulb_, gh dZd 'hg. F_klhbf_gb_ lj_lv_]h eb-
pZ 'hg \ujZ`Z_l qbklmx 'ml\_j`^_gghklv lh]h, h q_f b^_l j_qv, g_ ij_^iheZ-
]Zy \ 'ml\_j`^Z_fhf gbdZdbo kh^_j`Zl_evguo oZjZdl_jbklbd. < ^Zevg_cr_f
hl wlh]h f_klhbf_gby [ue h[jZah\Zg l_jfbg 'hghklv (om\bccZ). MihfbgZgb_
'hghklb ijb wlhf fh]eh g_ hagZqZlv mihfbgZgby '[ulby (\m^`m^), ohly hagZ-
qZeh 'ml\_j`^_gb_ (bk[Zl); lZdmx ihabpbx aZgbfZ_l, gZij., Ze-DbjfZgb, ]h-
\hjy h ;h]_ (kf. OZfb^ Z^->bg Zev-DbjfZgb. Mkihdh_gb_ jZamfZ, F., 1995, k.64-
69).
29
Iheh`_gb_ h l\hj_gbb 'ba gbq_]h gZijZ\e_gh gZ hljbpZgb_ dZdh]h-eb[h ih-
kj_^gbdZ f_`^m ;h]hf b \_sZfb \ Zdl_ l\hj_gby: ;h] l\hjbl \_sb g_ihkj_^kl-
\_ggh, [_a \kydh]h hjm^by b fZl_jbZeZ. Wlh iheh`_gb_ g_ hljbpZ_l, qlh \_sv
y\ey_lky 'g_kms_kl\mxs_c (fZ^mf) ^h k\h_]h \hagbdgh\_gby, ijbq_f lZdh_
18 Bec1uuk PFFY. Bmn. 4. Boc1ok: Hccneponauun. Hepenopm. M.: PFFY, 2000
;h] \ \_qghklb agZe \_sb ^h lh]h, dZd bf klZlv, b wlh Hg ^Ze bf ij_^gZ-
q_jlZgb_ (dZ^^ZjZ) b ij_^hij_^_e_gb_ (dZ^Z). B \ wlhf fbj_, b \ fbj_ bghf \kz
k ?]h ba\he_gby (fZrbZ), kh]eZkgh ?]h agZgbx, ih ?]h ij_^gZq_jlZgbx b ij_^h-
ij_^_e_gbx, dZd Bf aZibkZgh \ OjZgbfhc Kdjb`Zeb (h^gZdh aZibkZgh Bf k hibkZ-
gb_f, Z g_ |ijhklh| dZd mklZgh\e_gb_
30
). Ij_^hij_^_e_gb_, ij_^gZq_jlZgb_ b ba\h-
e_gb_ ?]h Zljb[mlu \ \_qghklb [_a |\hijhkZ| 'dZd?.

'g_-kms__ g_ y\ey_lky 'gbqlh (eZ rZc). Ihgylb_ 'g_-kms__ mihlj_[ey_lky
qmlv gb`_ (kf. ijbf.31).
30
< hjb]bgZe_: [b-e-\Zkn eZ [b-e-omdf. Ihkdhevdm wlh iheh`_gb_ bf__l [hevrh_
agZq_gb_ ^ey ijh[e_fZlbdb, k\yaZgghc k \hijhkhf h ij_^hij_^_e_gbb b Z\lhgh-
fbb \heb, ijb\_^_f fg_gb_ :[m Ze-FmglZoZ iheghklvx: dZdBfaZibkZgh\
OjZgbfhc Kdjb`Zeb}: Ijhjhd (^Z [eZ]hkeh\bl b ijb\_lkl\m_l _]h <k_\ur-
gbc ;h]!) kdZaZe: 'Ij_`^_ \k_]h ;h] khl\hjbe I_jh b kdZaZe _fm: Ibrb! - Qlh
`_ ibkZlv fg_, =hkih^b? - kijhkbeh I_jh. <k_\urgbc kdZaZe: Ibrb \k_, qlh
[m^_l (dZbg) ^h >gy <hkdj_k_gby; h^gZdh aZibkZgh Bf k hibkZgb_f Z g_
dZdmklZgh\e_gb_}: \ OjZgbfhc Kdjb`Zeb \kydZy \_sv aZibkZgZ kh k\hbfb Zl-
jb[mlZfb (\Zkn) - djZkhlhc b mjh^kl\hf, ^ebghc b rbjbghc, dZd fZeZy b \_eb-
dZy, fZehqbke_ggZy b fgh`_kl\_ggZy, e_]dZy b ly`_eZy, ]hjyqZy b oheh^gZy, kh
\eZ`ghklvx b kmohklvx, ihkemrZgb_f b g_ih\bgh\_gb_f, \he_c, fh]ms_kl\hf
(dm^jZ) b kly`Zgb_f b ijhqbfb Zljb[mlZfb, khklhygbyfb b gjZ\Zfb. Gbqlh g_
aZibkZgh dZd ijhklh ihklZgh\e_ggh_, qlh hgh ijhbahc^_l, [_a Zljb[mlh\ b ijb-
qbg. GZijbf_j, \ g_c g_ aZibkZgh: 'Imklv A_c^ [m^_l \_jmxsbf, Z :fj - g_\_-
jmxsbf. ?keb [u [ueh aZibkZgh bf_ggh lZd, A_c^ [ue [u ijbgm`^_g (fZ^-
`[mj) d \_j_, Z :fj - d g_\_jbx, \_^v lh, q_fm ;h] ihklZgh\be ijhbahclb, h[y-
aZl_evgh kemqblky: ihklZgh\e_gb_ ;h`v_ g_ hlf_gy_lky. G_l, \ g_c aZibkZgh,
qlh A_c^ [m^_l \_jmxsbf ih k\h_fm \u[hjm (bolbcZj) b [eZ]h^Zjy k\h_fm fh-
]ms_kl\m (dm^jZ), qlh hg [m^_l `_eZlv \_jblv b g_ [m^_l ohl_lv g_ \_jblv. < g_c
aZibkZgh, qlh :fj [m^_l g_\_jmxsbf ih k\h_fm \u[hjm b [eZ]h^Zjy k\h_fm
fh]ms_kl\m, qlh hg [m^_l `_eZlv g_ \_jblv b g_ [m^_l ohl_lv \_jblv. =h\hjy:
H^gZdh aZibkZgh Bf k hibkZgb_f Z g_ dZd mklZgh\e_gb_, \_ebqZcrbc
bfZf ohq_l mkljZgblv ijbgm`^_gb_ (^`Z[j) ba ^_ygbc jZ[h\ ;h`vbo b hijh-
\_j]gmlv mq_gb_ ^`Z[Zjblh\. Bgl_j_kgh hlf_lblv, qlh wlhl dhff_glZjbc g_k_l
gZ k_[_ y\guc hli_qZlhd kh[kl\_ggh fmlZabeblkdbo ^hdljbg, k gZb[hevr_c kb-
ehc b ihke_^h\Zl_evghklvx \ bklhjbb ZjZ[kdhc fukeb ml\_j`^Z\rbo Z\lhgh-
fbx q_eh\_q_kdh]h ^_ckl\by. FmlZabeblu jZa^_eyeb kn_ju 'fh]ms_kl\Z (dm^-
jZ) q_eh\_dZ b ;h]Z b ml\_j`^Zeb, qlh 'ih^\eZklgh_ (fZd^mj) q_eh\_dm g_ \oh-
^bl \ qbkeh ih^\eZklgh]h ;h]m. LZdbf h[jZahf, q_eh\_d, kh]eZkgh wlhfm \a]ey-
^m, y\ey_lky Z\lhghfguf ^_yl_e_f, g_ hij_^_ey_fuf \ k\hbo ^_ckl\byo gbdZ-
dbf 'ijbgm`^_gb_f (^`Z[j). Ih^h[gu_ ^hdljbgu ihemqbeb \ ZjZ[kdhc ^hd-
kh]jZnbb gZa\Zgb_ mq_gbc dZ^Zjblh\. Kf. h[ wlhf Ze-:rZjb, :[m Ze-OZkZg.
FZdZeZl Ze-bkeZfbccbg \Z bolbeZn Ze-fmkZeebg. <bk[Z^_g, 1980, k.199-200,
227, 407 b ^j. Bgl_j_kgh, qlh dhff_glZjbc :[m Ze-FmglZoZ y\gh jZkoh^blky k
lhc qZklvx l_dklZ ';hevrh]h nbdoZ, ]^_ j_qv b^_l h 'kly`Zgbb (kf. ijbf. 38)
b ]^_ ijyfh aZy\e_gZ kh[kl\_ggh ZrZjblkdZy ihabpby, g_ ijbfudZxsZy g_ih-
kj_^kl\_ggh gb d ihabpbb ^`Z[Zjblh\, gb d ihabpbb dZ^Zjblh\.
Ay Xauuqa. An-Oukx an-akap (Bonumo qukx) 19
<k_\urgbc ;h] agZ_l g_kms_kl\mxs__ (fZ^mf)
31
dZd g_kms_kl\mxs__ \
g_[ulbb (Z^Zf) hgh]h, b agZ_l, dZdbf hgh [m^_l, dh]^Z Hg ^Zkl _fm kms_kl\h\Zgb_.
<k_\urgbc ;h] agZ_l kms__ dZd kms__ \ khklhygbb _]h kms_kl\h\Zgby, b agZ_l, dZd
hgh ih]b[g_l (nZgZ). ;h] agZ_l klhys_]h dZd klhys_]h, dh]^Z hg klhbl, Z _keb lhl
ky^_l, Hg agZ_l _]h dZd kb^ys_]h, dh]^Z hg kb^bl. |5| Ijb wlhf ?]h agZgb_ g_ f_gy-
_lky b d G_fm g_ ijb\oh^bl |gh\h_| agZgb_: baf_g_gb_ b jZaebqb_ khklhygbc ijb-
\oh^bl d l\Zjyf.
Hg khl\hjbe l\Zj_c [_a g_\_jby beb \_ju
32
, ihlhf ]h\hjbe k gbfb, ijb-
dZau\Zy b aZij_sZy. : l_i_jv dlh g_ \_jm_l g_ \_jm_l kh[kl\_gguf ^_ckl\b_f
33
,
dlh hljbpZ_l b g_ ijbagZ_l bklbgm |^_eZ_l wlh| [_a kh^_ckl\by ([b-obaeZg)
34
<k_-
\urg_]h. : dlh \_jbl, lhl \_jm_l ^_ckl\b_f k\hbf, ml\_j`^Z_l b ijbagZ_l ?]h
35
ijb kihki_r_kl\h\Zgbb (lZ\nbd) ;h]Z b kh^_ckl\bb (gmkjZ) ?]h.
Hl iehlb (kme[) :^ZfZ Hg ijhba\_e jh^ _]h, k^_eZe bo jZamfgufb b ]h\h-
jbe k gbfb, ^Z\ bf gZdZa b aZij_l. Hgb ijbagZeb ]hkih^kl\b_ (jm[m[bccZ) _]h, b wlh

K ijh[e_fhc ij_^hij_^_e_gby b Z\lhghfbb \heb ijyfh k\yaZgZ b ijh[e_fZ
ihkemrZgby b hkemrZgby (b khhl\_lkl\_ggh gZdZaZgby b gZ]jZ^u), dhlhjZy h[-
km`^Z_lky gb`_ (kf. ijbf. 42).
31
'G_-kms__ l_jfbg, Zdlb\gh h[km`^Z\rbcky \ dZeZf_. Kh]eZkgh fmlZabeb-
lZf, 'g_-kms__ y\ey_lky lZdhc `_ \_svx, dZd kms__, aZ bkdexq_gb_f Zljb[mlZ
kms_kl\h\Zgby.
32
<hijhk h lhf, y\eyxlky eb '\_jZ b 'g_\_jb_ kh[kl\_ggufb ^_ckl\byfb ex^_c
beb khl\hj_gu ;h]hf, klhye \ p_glj_ ^bkdmkkbc fmlZabeblh\ h[ Z\lhghfbb q_-
eh\_q_kdh]h ^_ckl\by b kem`be hkgh\Zgb_f ihkljh_gby bo wlbdb Z\lhghfgh]h b
hl\_lkl\_ggh]h ^_ckl\by. Ihqlb \k_ fmlZabeblu \ukdZau\Zeb bf_ggh lm ihab-
pbx, dhlhjZy hljZ`_gZ \ l_dkl_ ';hevrh]h nbdoZ: \_jZ b g_\_jb_ g_ l\hjylky
;h]hf, gh y\eyxlky kh[kl\_gguf ^_ckl\b_f ex^_c, dhlhju_ \ kbem wlh]h b g_-
kml ihegmx hl\_lkl\_gghklv aZ k\hc \u[hj (kf. Ze-:rZjb, :[m Ze-OZkZg.
FZdZeZl Ze-bkeZfbccbg \Z bolbeZn Ze-fmkZeebg. <bk[Z^_g, 1980, k.154, 227-
228 b ^j.).
33
< wlhf f_kl_ :[m Ze-FmglZoZ ^h[Z\ey_l: '...kh\_jrZ_fuf ih \u[hjm, lh _klv
Z\lhghfgh. Wlh jZkkm`^_gb_ h k\h[h^_ \heb ijyfh k\yaZgh k jZa]h\hjhf h ij_-
^hij_^_e_gbb (kf. ijbf. 30).
34
Hlf_lbf, qlh wlh klZ\r__ ZdkbhfZlbqguf ^ey kmggbafZ iheh`_gb_ ijyfh \lh-
jbl ba\_klghfm l_abkm fmlZabeblh\. :e-:rZjb khh[sZ_l: <k_ fmlZabeblu kh-
]eZrZebkv, qlh <k_\urgbc g_ ohq_l hkemrZgby, aZ bkdexq_gb_f Ze-Fmj^ZjZ,
dhlhjuc ]h\hjbe, qlh Hg ohq_l wlh]h, ihkdhevdm ^himklbe jZ[h\ d wlhfm (Ze-
:rZjb, :[m Ze-OZkZg. FZdZeZl Ze-bkeZfbccbg \Z bolbeZn Ze-fmkZeebg. <bk[Z-
^_g, 1980, k.228). L_jfbg obaeZg ijhlb\hihklZ\ey_lky \ baeh`_gbb Ze-:rZjb
l_jfbgm gmkjZ ('ih^^_j`dZ). Kh]eZkgh wlhfm ^hdkh]jZnm, \ jZgg_c bkeZfkdhc
fukeb obaeZg lhedh\Zeky dZd 'ij_djZs_gb_ fbehklb ;h]Z \ hlghr_gbb jZ[Z, Z
lZd`_ dZd ijyfh_ 'gZdZaZgb_ (lZf `_, k.264-265); hq_\b^gh, qlh wlb lhedh\Zgby
g_ihkj_^kl\_ggh aZ\bkyl hl h[u^_ggh]h agZq_gby keh\Z, dhlhjh_ hagZqZ_l 'hk-
lZ\eylv [_a ih^^_j`db, Z lZd`_ 'gZghkblv ihjZ`_gb_. Ijb\h^bfh_ gb`_ hi-
j_^_e_gb_ obaeZg (kf. klj.27) ijZdlbq_kdb kh\iZ^Z_l k i_j\uf lhedh\Zgb_f, dh-
lhjh_ ^Z\Zeb l_jfbgm fmlZabeblu.
35
:[m Ze-FmglZoZ ihykgy_l, qlh fu "ml\_j`^Z_f" ;h]Z (bdjZj) yaudhf, Z "ijb-
agZ_f" (lZk^bd) k_j^p_f b ^mrhc (^`ZgZg).
20 Bec1uuk PFFY. Bmn. 4. Boc1ok: Hccneponauun. Hepenopm. M.: PFFY, 2000
[ueh k bo klhjhgu \_jhc. K lZdhc ijbjh^hc (nbljZ)
36
hgb b jh`^Zxlky. Dlh ihke_
lh]h g_ \_jm_l, lhl ba\jZsZ_l ([Z^^ZeZ) b baf_gy_l (]ZccZjZ). : dlh \_jm_l b ijb-
agZ_l (kZ^^ZdZ), lhl ^_j`blky hgh]h g_baf_ggh.
Gbdh]h ba l\Zj_c K\hbo Hg g_ ijbgm`^Z_l g_ \_jblv beb \_jblv b g_ kh-
l\hjy_l bo \_jmxsbfb beb g_\_jmxsbfb. G_l, Hg khl\hjy_l bo dZd hkh[_c, Z \_jZ
b g_\_jb_ ^_ckl\b_ jZ[h\ |;h`vbo|. B g_\_jmxs_]h <k_\urgbc agZ_l dZd g_\_-
jmxs_]h, dh]^Z lhl g_ \_jm_l, _keb `_ ihke_ lh]h m\_jm_l, Hg agZ_l _]h dZd \_jmx-
s_]h, dh]^Z lhl \_jm_l, b ex[bl _]h, b ijb wlhf gb agZgb_, gb Zljb[ml ?]h g_ i_j_-
f_gyxlky
37
.
<k_ ^_ckl\by jZ[h\ |;h`vbo|, b ^\b`_gb_ b ihdhc, kmlv ihbklbg_ bo ijb-
h[j_l_gb_ (dZk[)
38
. Khl\hj_gu l_ ^_ckl\by ;h]hf
39
, b \k_ hgb ih ba\he_gbx ?]h,

36
L_jfbg nbljZ i_j_^Z_l \ kj_^g_\_dh\hc ZjZ[kdhc fukeb b^_x \jh`^_gghklb b
ijbkmsghklb. Kfuke hlju\dZ khklhbl \ ml\_j`^_gbb h ijbkmsghklb \_ju q_-
eh\_dm b Zdp_gl_ gZ [_amkeh\ghf ijbhjbl_l_ g_baf_gghklb gZ^ ex[ufb gh\h-
\\_^_gbyfb. JZa\blb_ k wlhc lhqdb aj_gby fh`_l [ulv lhevdh j_]j_kkhf, ih-
kdhevdm f_gy_l bagZqZevgh _kl_kl\_ggh_, gZbemqr__ b gZb[he__ mklhcqb\h_.
37
Wlhl iZkkZ`, ih\lhjyxsbc \ukdZaZggmx jZg__ fmlZabeblkdmx ihabpbx Z\lh-
ghfbb ^_ckl\by, ijyfh ijhlb\hj_qbl ke_^mxs_fm, ]^_ aZy\e_gZ ZrZjblkdZy ih-
abpby khl\hj_gghklb q_eh\_q_kdbo ^_ckl\bc.
38
:[m Ze-FmglZoZ ihykgy_l: 'H[s_yaudh\h_ agZq_gb_ keh\Z dZk[ ('ijbh[j_l_-
gb_) 'ihbkd ijhiblZgby, Z \hkoh^bl hgh d 'kh[bjZgbx; \ dZq_kl\_ l_jfb-
gZ hgh agZqbl k\yau\Zgb_ \heb b fh]ms_kl\Z (dm^jZ) jZ[Z k _]h ^_ckl\b_f.
Ihgylb_ dZk[, klhev Zdlb\gh bkihevah\Z\r__ky \ ZrZjbaf_, [ueh \u^\bgmlh
_s_ fmlZabeblZfb. :e-:rZjb khh[sZ_l: Ex^b jZahrebkv \ \hijhk_ h lhf,
qlh lZdh_ 'ijbh[j_lrbc (fmdlZkb[). H^gb fmlZabeblu ]h\hjbeb: wlh bf__l
lhl kfuke, qlh ^_yl_ev k^_eZe g_qlh k ihfhsvx hjm^by, hj]ZgZ beb khl\hj_g-
ghc kbeu. :e->`m[[Z`b ]h\hjbe, qlh 'ijbh[j_lrbc wlh lhl, dlh ijbh[j_lZ-
_l ihevam eb[h \j_^, [eZ]h eb[h aeh, dh]^Z ijbh[j_l_ggh_ bf y\ey_lky bguf,
g_`_eb hg kZf (ijbh[j_lZxsbc. :.K.), dZd ijbh[j_l_gb_ [h]Zlkl\Z b lhfm
ih^h[gh]h. Ijbh[j_l_gb_ bf [h]Zlkl\Z bgh_, g_`_eb hg kZf, gh [h]Zlkl\h
_]h ijbh[j_l_gb_ ih bklbg_, ohlv hgh b g_ y\ey_lky ^ey g_]h ('[h]Zlkl\h ^ey
'ijbh[j_lZxs_]h :.K.) ^_ckl\b_f. Y `_ kqblZx bklbgguf kfukehf 'ijb-
h[j_l_gby (dZk[) qlh g_qlh kemqZ_lky [eZ]h^Zjy kha^Zgghfm fh]ms_kl\m
(dm^jZ fmo^ZkZ) b y\ey_lky ijbh[j_l_gb_f ^ey lh]h, [eZ]h^Zjy qv_fm fh]ms_kl-
\m hgh kemqbehkv (Ze-:rZjb, :[m Ze-OZkZg. FZdZeZl Ze-bkeZfbccbg \Z bolb-
eZn Ze-fmkZeebg. <bk[Z^_g, 1980, k.542). Ihabpby Ze-:rZjb b _]h rdheu \ \h-
ijhk_ h lhf, Z\lhghfgh q_eh\_q_kdh_ ^_ckl\b_ beb g_l, hdZau\Z_lky lZdbf h[-
jZahf ijhf_`mlhqghc f_`^m ^hdljbgZfb dZ^Zjblh\ b ^`Z[Zjblh\.
39
Wlhl l_abk ijyfh ijhlb\hj_qbl ba\_klghfm iheh`_gbx fmlZabeblh\ h lhf, qlh
^_ckl\by ex^_c g_ khl\hj_gu ;h]hf. DZd khh[sZ_l Ze-:rZjb, \k_ fmlZabeb-
lu kqblZeb, qlh <k_\urgbc g_ khl\hjbe gb g_\_jb_, gb hkemrZgb_, gb \hh[s_
qlh-eb[h ba ^_ckl\bc bguo, g_`_eb Hg, |^_ckl\h\Zl_e_c|, aZ bkdexq_gb_f h^-
gh]h ba gbo, dhlhjuc ml\_j`^Ze, qlh ;h] khl\hjbe bo, khl\hjb\ bo bf_gZ b hl-
ghkysb_ky d gbf ghjfu (ZodZf); ]h\hjyl, qlh wlh [ue KZebo Dm[[Z (Ze-
:rZjb, :[m Ze-OZkZg. FZdZeZl Ze-bkeZfbccbg \Z bolbeZn Ze-fmkZeebg. <bk[Z-
^_g, 1980, k.227). DZd fu ]h\hjbeb \ur_ (kf. ijbf_q.32), Z\lhj ';hevrh]h nbd-
oZ \ \hijhkZo h \_j_ b g_\_jbb ijb^_j`b\Z_lky ihabpbb, \ukdZaZgghc fmlZab-
Ay Xauuqa. An-Oukx an-akap (Bonumo qukx) 21
kh]eZkgh ?]h agZgbx, ih ?]h ij_^hij_^_e_gbx b [eZ]h^Zjy ?]h fh]ms_kl\m. <k_
ihkemrZgby (lZZ), qlh h[yaZl_evgu (\Z^`b[Z)
40
ih ijbdZaZgbx <k_\urg_]h,
hgb ex[bfu Bf b Hg bfb ^h\he_g, hgb k ?]h \_^hfZ, ih ?]h ba\he_gbx, ij_^h-
ij_^_e_gbx b ij_^gZq_jlZgbx, Z \k_ hkemrZgby (fZZkbg) k ?]h \_^hfZ, ih ?]h
ij_^hij_^_e_gbx}
41
, ij_^gZq_jlZgbx b ba\he_gbx, gh g_ \ kbem lh]h, qlh hgb ex-
[bfu Bf, beb Hg bfb ^h\he_g, beb hgb ih ijbdZaZgbx ?]h
42
.

eblZfb. A^_kv \ [he__ h[s_f dhgl_dkl_ ^_ckl\bc \hh[s_, aZljZ]b\Zxs_f, \ijh-
q_f, \hijhku ihkemrZgby, Z agZqbl, k\yaZgghf b k \hijhkhf h \_j_, fu \klj_qZ-
_f g_kh\f_klbfmx k fmlZabeblkdhc lbibqgh ZrZjblkdmx ihabpbx, khklhysmx
\ ijbagZgbb khl\hj_gby ;h]hf ^_ckl\bc q_eh\_dZ, dhlhju_ lhl 'ijbk\Zb\Z_l
[eZ]h^Zjy 'fh]ms_kl\m, dhlhjh_ lZd`_ khl\hj_gh ;h]hf.
40
<Z^`b[ 'h[yaZl_evgh_ h^gZ ba dZl_]hjbc nbdoZ. <k_ ihklmidb ^_eylky gZ
'h[yaZl_evgu_ (\Z^`b[), 'j_dhf_g^m_fu_ (fZg^m[), '[_ajZaebqgu_ (fm[Zo),
'g_j_dhf_g^m_fu_ (fZdjmo) b 'g_iha\hebl_evgu_ (oZjZf). LZdZy deZkkbnbdZ-
pby [ueZ ijbagZgZ \k_fb hkgh\gufb kmggblkdbfb rdheZfb nbdoZ. Ih^ 'h[yaZ-
l_evguf ihkemrZgb_f ihgbfZxlky l_ h[jy^u ihdehg_gby b j_eb]bhagu_ ^_c-
kl\by, dhlhju_ \f_g_gu \_jmxs_fm \ h[yaZgghklv b g_\uiheg_gb_ beb g_ijZ-
\bevgh_ \uiheg_gb_ dhlhjuo y\ey_lky 'hkemrZgb_f.
41
WlZ eZdmgZ \ l_dkl_ ';hevrh]h nbdoZ \hkklZgh\e_gZ gZfb ih l_dklm dhff_glZ-
jby.
42
JZkkm`^_gby h ihkemrZgbb b hkemrZgbb b hij_^_e_gb_ wlbo dZl_]hjbc k\yaZgu
k \hijhkZfb h k\h[h^_ \heb b ij_^hij_^_e_gbb (kf. \ur_, ijbf. 30). ?klv
kfuke iheghklvx ijb\_klb a^_kv dhff_glZjbc :[m Ze-FmglZoZ d wlhfm f_klm,
l_f [he__, qlh hg pblbjm_l ^jm]hc l_dkl, Ze-<ZkbccZ, dhlhjuc kqblZ_l ijbgZ^-
e_`Zsbf :[m OZgbn_: <k_\urgbc kdZaZe: ';h] g_ ex[bl g_q_klby (nZkZ^ -
DhjZg, 2:205, i_j. =.KZ[emdh\Z); Z lZd`_: '?fm g_ijbylgZ \ jZ[Zo ?]h g_ijb-
agZl_evghklv (dmnj, l`. 'g_\_jb_ - DhjZg, 39:7, i_j. =.KZ[emdh\Z); Z lZd`_:
';h] g_ aZih\_^m_l ]gmkgh]h (DhjZg, 7:28, i_j. =.KZ[emdh\Z), lh _klv ]Z^dbo
^_e \jh^_ g_\_jby beb hkemrZgby. :\lhj (^Z [m^_l d g_fm fbehklb\ ;h]!) \
k\h_c dgb]_ 'AZ\_sZgb_ (Ze-<ZkbccZ) ibr_l: 'Fu ml\_j`^Z_f, qlh _klv ljb
|\b^Z| ^_ygbc: h[yaZl_evgu_ (nZjb^Z), ^h[jh^_l_evgu_ (nZ^beZ) b hkemrZgb_
(fmkbcZ). H[yaZl_evgu_ |kh\_jrZxlky| ih ijbdZaZgbx <k_\urg_]h, ih ?]h `_-
eZgbx, Hg bo ex[bl b hgb ?fm ijbylgu, |hgb kh\_jrZxlky| ih ?]h ij_^hij_^_-
e_gbx (dZ^Z), ij_^mklZgh\e_gbx (dZ^Zj) b khl\hj_gbx, ih ?]h mklZgh\e_gbx,
k ?]h agZgby b kh^_ckl\by, [eZ]h^Zjy ?]h aZibkb \ OjZgbfhc Kdjb`Zeb. >h[jh-
^_l_evgu_ - g_ ih ijbdZaZgbx <k_\urg_]h, gh ih ?]h `_eZgbx, Hg bo ex[bl b
hgb ?fm ijbylgu, [eZ]h^Zjy ?]h ij_^mklZgh\e_gbx, ?]h mklZgh\e_gbx, k ?]h
agZgby b kh^_ckl\by, [eZ]h^Zjy ?]h khl\hj_gbx b aZibkb \ OjZgbfhc Kdjb`Z-
eb. HkemrZgb_ `_ g_ ih ijbdZaZgbx <k_\urg_]h, gh ih ?]h `_eZgbx (fZ-
rbZ), g_ k ?]h ex[\b, gh ih ?]h ij_^hij_^_e_gbx, hgb ?fm g_ ijbylgu, gh -
|kh\_jrZxlky| ih ?]h ij_^mklZgh\e_gbx b khl\hj_gbx, g_ k ?]h kh^_ckl\by, gh
ijb ?]h hklZ\e_gbb [_a ih^^_j`db (obaeZg), k ?]h \_^hfZ, gh [_a ?]h ihfhsb, b
k ?]h aZibkb \ OjZgbfhc Kdjb`Zeb. AgZc, qlh ]j_ob (fZZkbg) ^\mo \b^h\: \_-
ebdb_ (dZ[Zbj) b fZeu_ (kZ]Zbj). <_ebdbo ]j_oh\ ^_\ylv. KZn\Zg [_g =ZkkZe
jZkkdZau\Z_l: 'H^bg _\j_c kdZaZe ^jm]hfm: Ihc^_f, hl\_^b f_gy d wlhfm ijh-
jhdm`. Lhl _fm hl\_qZe: G_ ]h\hjb ijhjhd! DZd [u hg g_ mkeurZe l_[y`. Hgb
ijbreb d ihkeZggbdm ;h`v_fm (^Z [eZ]hkeh\bl b ijb\_lkl\m_l _]h ;h]!) b aZ^Z-
22 Bec1uuk PFFY. Bmn. 4. Boc1ok: Hccneponauun. Hepenopm. M.: PFFY, 2000

eb _fm \hijhk h ^_\ylb ykguo ZylZo. IhkeZggbd ;h`bc (^Z [eZ]hkeh\bl b ijb-
\_lkl\m_l _]h ;h]!) hl\_qZe bf: G_ ijb^Z\Zcl_ ;h]m gbdZdbo khmqZklgbdh\, g_
djZ^bl_, g_ ij_ex[h^_ckl\mcl_, g_ mf_js\eycl_ [_a bklbggh]h hkgh\Zgby ^m-
rm, dhx ;h] aZij_lbe m[b\Zlv, g_ i_j_^Z\Zcl_ \ jmdb \eZklv ij_^_j`Zsbo g_\b-
gh\gh]h, ^Z[u l_ m[beb _]h, g_ dhe^mcl_, g_ \abfZcl_ kkm^guc ijhp_gl, g_ ih-
jhqvl_ p_ehfm^j_ggmx, g_ hl\hjZqb\Zcl_kv, lh _klv g_ m[_]Zcl_ \ ^_gv gZklmi-
e_gby; b hkh[h ^ey \Zk, _\j__\ g_ \hxcl_ \ km[[hlm`. Lh]^Z hgb ihp_eh\Zeb
_fm jmdb b gh]b kh keh\Zfb: K\b^_l_evkl\m_f, qlh lu ijhjhd!` Lh]^Z ihq_-
fm [u \Zf g_ ihke_^h\Zlv aZ fghc?` >Z\b^ (fbj _fm!) fhebe =hkih^Z k\h-
_]h, qlh[u \k_ ijhjhdb [ueb ba _]h jh^Z, b fu [hbfky, dZd [u _\j_b g_ m[beb
gZk, _keb fu ihke_^m_f aZ lh[hc`.
<hijhk h lhf, dZdb_ bf_ggh ]j_ob ke_^m_l kqblZlv '\_ebdbfb, lZd b g_ [ue
hdhgqZl_evgh j_r_g \ bkeZfkdhc fukeb, jZ\gh dZd b g_ [ueh \ujZ[hlZgh hdhg-
qZl_evgh]h hij_^_e_gby ihgylby '\_ebdbc ]j_o. J_eb]bhagh-ijZ\h\Zy kmggbl-
kdZy fukev k\yau\Z_l, dZd ijZ\beh, ihgylb_ '\_ebdh]h ]j_oZ eb[h k 'ij_k_q_-
gb_f (oZ^^), eb[h k 'm]jhahc (\Zb^): '\_ebdbf ]j_ohf y\ey_lky lhl, dhlhjuc
ij_k_dZ_lky gZdZaZgb_f (ih[b_gb_ dZfgyfb beb ie_lvfb aZ ij_ex[h^_ygb_, hl-
k_q_gb_ dhg_qghklb aZ \hjh\kl\h \ur_ mklZgh\e_ggh]h fbgbfmfZ, mf_js\e_-
gb_ aZ \_jhhlklmigbq_kl\h, l.^.) b aZ kh\_jr_gb_ dhlhjh]h, dZd ijZ\beh, DhjZg
beb kmggZ m]jh`Zxl aZ]jh[guf gZdZaZgb_f; ijZ\^Z, fh]ml [ulv ihklmidb, ih-
iZ^Zxsb_ \h \lhjmx dZl_]hjbx, gh g_ y\eyxsb_ky, \ aZiZ^ghf kfuke_ keh\Z,
xjb^bq_kdbfb ij_klmie_gbyfb b ihlhfm g_ 'ij_k_dZ_fu_ gZdZaZgb_f, Z hdZ-
au\Zxsb_ky nZdlbq_kdb wlbq_kdbfb ij_klmie_gbyfb. ?^bguc i_j_q_gv lZdbo
'\_ebdbo ]j_oh\ g_ mklZgh\e_g b \ rbbaf_. Kh]eZkgh h^ghfm ba oZ^bkh\, aZ-
]jh[gh_ gZdZaZgb_ m]jh`Z_l gZjmrb\r_fm _^bgh[h`b_, kh\_jrb\r_fm \hjh\-
kl\h, ij_ex[h^_ygb_, m[bckl\h k\hbo ^_l_c, de_\_lgbdm b lhfm, dlh g_ ke_^m_l
ijbau\m kh\_jrZlv ^h[ju_ ^_eZ (Ze-;moZjb. Zk-KZobo, DblZ[ Ze-bfZg, dg.2,
17). Wlhl kibkhd bgl_j_kguf h[jZahf kh_^bgy_l j_eb]bhagh_ ij_klmie_gb_
(gZjmr_gb_ _^bgh[h`by, kqblZxs__ky \ bkeZf_ kZfuf ly`dbf ij_klmie_gb_f,
[_amkeh\gh \e_dmsbf Z^kdb_ fmdb, kh]eZkgh ijZdlbq_kdb \k_f mq_gbyf), ij_-
klmie_gby \ xjb^bq_kdhf kfuke_ keh\Z, kqblZ\rb_ky lZdh\ufb gZ ijhly`_gbb
\k_c bkeZfkdhc bklhjbb (ij_ex[h^_ygb_, \hjh\kl\h), aZij_l, gZijZ\e_gguc gZ
ij_k_q_gb_ ijZdlbdb ^hbkeZfkdbo ZjZ[h\, nZdlbq_kdb bkq_agm\r_c \ wjm bkeZ-
fZ (m[bckl\h gh\hjh`^_gguo, hkh[_ggh ^_\hq_d, ijZdlbdh\Z\r__ky [_^mbgZfb
\ kbem hkh[_ggh ly`_euo mkeh\bc `bagb), aZij_l, \ua\Zgguc i_jbi_lbyfb ebq-
ghc `bagb FmoZff_^Z (h[\bg_gby \ Z^j_k h^ghc ba _]h `_g, hl\_j]gmlu_ bf
dZd de_\_lgbq_kdb_), b qbklh wlbq_kdbc bfi_jZlb\ 'g_ hldZau\Zcky hl ijbau\Z
^_eZlv ^h[ju_ ^_eZ. >jm]b_ oZ^bku kh^_j`Zl m]jham aZ]jh[gh]h gZdZaZgby aZ
^jm]b_ ihklmidb, kdZ`_f, aZ m[bckl\h fmkmevfZgbgZ, Z lh b ijhklh gZg_k_gb_
_fm l_e_kguo ih\j_`^_gbc beb ex[mx \jZ`^m k fmkmevfZgZfb, ohly ^Ze_dh g_
\k_ fmkmevfZgkdb_ l_hj_lbdb kqblZxl lZdb_ ij_klmie_gby \uau\Zxsbfb aZ-
]jh[gh_ gZdZaZgb_. Ijb\h^bfuc :[m Ze-FmglZoZ kibkhd \_ebdbo ]j_oh\ bgl_-
j_k_g l_f, qlh hg kh^_j`bl fZdkbfZevgh h[h[s_ggmx nhjfmebjh\dm 'm[bckl\h
[_a hkgh\Zgbc, q_f hlebqZ_lky hl fgh]bo oZ^bkh\.
Ay Xauuqa. An-Oukx an-akap (Bonumo qukx) 23
Gb gZ dhf ba ijhjhdh\ |6| g_l ]j_oZ fZeh]h beb \_ebdh]h, g_\_jby beb
kd\_jgu (dZ[Zbo)
43
. H^gZdh hgb kh\_jrZeb ijhklmidb (aZeeZl)
44
b h]j_ob
(oZlZcZl)
45
.
FmoZffZ^ (^Z [eZ]hkeh\bl b ijb\_lkl\m_l _]h ;h]!) ?]h ex[bf_p, ?]h
jZ[, ?]h ihkeZggbd, ?]h ijhjhd, ?]h qbkl_crbc ba[jZggbd. Gb _^bgh]h fb]Z hg g_
[ue b^hehihdehggbdhf beb fgh]h[h`gbdhf, hg gbdh]^Z g_ kh\_jrZe gb fZeh]h, gb
\_ebdh]h ]j_oZ.
Ihke_ ijhjhdh\ emqrb_ ba ex^_c :[m ;Zdj, Z bf_ggh, :[^ZeeZ B[g
:[b DmoZnZ Zk-Kb^^bd ('IjZ\^b\_crbc), ihke_ g_]h :[m :[^ZeeZ MfZj [_g
Ze-OZllZ[ Ze-NZjmd ('Fm^j_crbc), aZl_f MkfZg B[g :nnZg Am-g-gmjZcg
('>\mk\_lguc), aZ gbf :[m Ze-OZkZg :eb B[g :[b LZeb[ Ze-FmjlZ^Z ('Kgb-
kdZ\rbc >h\hevkl\h) (^Z [m^_l bfb \k_fb ^h\he_g ;h]!), bklbggh Bklbgghfm ih-
dehgyxsb_ky. D gbf \k_f fu iblZ_f ijbyagv b kih^\b`gbdh\ (kZoZ[Z) ihfbgZ_f
g_ bgZq_ dZd ^h[jhf.
GbdZdh]h fmkmevfZgbgZ, kh\_jrb\r_]h ]j_o, ^Z`_ _keb lh ]j_o \_eb-
dbc (dZ[bjZ), fu g_ kqblZ_f g_\_jmxsbf, _keb lhevdh hg g_ khql_l hgh_ ^ha\he_g-
guf. Fu g_ hlgbfZ_f m g_]h bf_gb \_ju b gZau\Z_f _]h \_jmxsbf ihbklbg_
(oZdbdZlZg)
46
: hg fh`_l [ulv g_q_klb\uf (nZkbd) \_jmxsbf, gh g_ g_\_jguf
(dZnbj).
H[lbjZgb_ h[m\b kmggZ
47
. >hihegbl_evgu_ fhebl\u (lZjZ\bo) \ f_ky-
p_ jZfZ^Zg kmggZ
48
. Fheblvky ^himklbfh ihaZ^b ex[h]h ijZ\_^gh]h ([Zjj) beb
g_q_klb\h]h (nZ^`bj)
49
fmkmevfZgbgZ.

43
L_jfbghf dZ[bo (fg.q. dZ[Zbo) \ fmkmevfZgkdhc j_eb]bhagh-ijZ\h\hc b wlbq_-
kdhc fukeb h[hagZqZeky '^mjghc ihklmihd, ijhlb\hiheh`guc '^h[jhfm
(oZkZg). IZjZ dZ[booZkZg nmgdpbhgbjh\ZeZ dZd gZb[he__ h[sZy b ihlhfm
gZb[he__ jZkieu\qZlZy b ih^\_j]Z_fZy fgh]bf lhedh\Zgbyf. G_dhlhju_ hlh-
`^_kl\eyeb __ k iZjhc 'ihkemrZgb_-hkemrZgb_, g_dhlhju_ hlh`^_kl\eyeb ih-
gylb_ 'kd\_jguc ihklmihd (dZ[bo) b ']j_o (kZccbZ wlhl l_jfbg bkihevah-
\Zg \ l_dkl_ ';hevrh]h nbdoZ qmlv gb`_; oZlbZ, aZg[). < gZr_f l_dkl_ ij_^eh-
`_g k\hc \ZjbZgl khhlghr_gby wlbo l_jfbgh\, dhlhjuc kdhj__ klhbl ijbagZlv
j_eb]bhagh-^hdljbgZevguf.
44
GZijbf_j, :^Zf kt_e y[ehdh, ihykgy_l :[m Ze-FmglZoZ.
45
GZijbf_j, ihykgy_l :[m Ze-FmglZoZ, Fhbk_c m[be _]bilygbgZ, g_ `_eZy lh]h, Z
gZf_j_\Zykv ebrv m^Zjblv _]h.
46
H ijhlb\hihklZ\e_gbb 'bklbggh]h b 'i_j_ghkgh]h agZq_gbc keh\Z kf.
ijbf.14.
47
JZnb^blu b oZjb^`blu g_ ijbagZ\Zeb \hafh`ghklv aZf_gblv hfh\_gb_ i_j_^
fhebl\hc h[lbjZgb_f kZg^Zebc. Kmggblu kqblZxl ^hklh\_jgufb oZ^bku, \ dh-
lhjuo FmoZff_^ jZaj_rZ_l wlh.
48
DZd ihykgy_l :[m Ze-FmglZoZ, wlh f_klh gZijZ\e_gh ijhlb\ jZnb^blh\, hl\_j-
]Z\rbo ^hihegbl_evgu_ fhebl\u \ jZfZ^Zg_ b ml\_j`^Z\rbo, qlh gZ^h h[lb-
jZlv gh]b, Z g_ gh]b \ h[m\b.
49
'IjZ\_^ghklv b 'g_q_klb\hklv, ihykgy_l :[m Ze-FmglZoZ, hagZqZxl dZq_kl\Z
q_eh\_dZ \ _]h ^hevg_c `bagb.
Bgl_j_kgh, qlh \ukdZaZgguc a^_kv l_abk ihqlb [md\Zevgh kh\iZ^Z_l k ijb\h-
^bfhc m`_ Ze-:rZjb nhjfmebjh\dhc. Hgb ^_j`Zebkv ^\mo fg_gbc \ \hijhk_
h lhf, ^he`_g eb kh\_jrb\rbc fhebl\m ihaZ^b g_q_klb\h]h (nZ^`bj) |ij_^-
24 Bec1uuk PFFY. Bmn. 4. Boc1ok: Hccneponauun. Hepenopm. M.: PFFY, 2000
Fu g_ ml\_j`^Z_f, qlh fmkmevfZgbgm g_ ih\j_^yl ]j_ob, beb qlh hg g_
ihiZ^_l \ ieZfy, beb qlh hg ij_[m^_l \ g_f \_qgh, ^Z`_ [m^v hg g_q_klb\uf, _keb
lhevdh ihdbgme fbj k_c \_jmxsbf. < hlebqb_ hl fmj^`bblh\, fu g_ ]h\hjbf, qlh
gZrb ^h[ju_ ^_eZ (oZkZgZl) ijbgylu |;h]hf|, Z g_^h[ju_ (kZccbZl) ijhs_gu. |7|
Fu ml\_j`^Z_f, qlh _keb dlh khl\hjbe ^h[jh_ ^_eh kh]eZkgh \k_f g_h[oh^bfuf
mkeh\byf (rZjZbl), ba[_`Z\ ^_eZxsbo |_]h| g_^_ckl\bl_evguf batygh\ (mcm[
fmnkb^Z) b mgbqlh`Zxsbo |_]h| kfukeh\ (fZZgbg fm[lbeZ), b gbq_f g_ i_j_q_jd-
gme _]h, ihdZ g_ ihdbgme fbj k_c \_jmxsbf, lh <k_\urgbc g_ ^Zkl hghfm ^_ygbx
ijhiZklv, gh ijbf_l _]h b \hagZ]jZ^bl aZ g_]h lh]h q_eh\_dZ. Qlh dZkZ_lky ]j_oh\
(djhf_ fgh]h[h`by b g_\_jby), \ dhlhjuo hg g_ ihdZyeky, lh ^_eh ;h]Z: aZohq_l, gZ-
dZ`_l _]h fmdhc, Z aZohq_l, ijhklbl b \h\k_ g_ klZg_l gZdZau\Zlv _]h \ ieZf_gb.

klhyl_ey| ih\lhjblv __ beb g_l. H^gb ]h\hjbeb, qlh gb iylgbqgmx, gb dZdmx-
eb[h ^jm]mx fhebl\m g_evay kh\_jrZlv ihaZ^b g_q_klb\h]h bfZfZ, Z kh\_jrb\-
rbc __ ^he`_g __ ih\lhjblv. LZd ]h\hjbeb [hevrbgkl\h fmlZabeblh\. G_dhlh-
ju_ fmlZabeblu b ^jm]b_ |fmkmevfZg_| ]h\hjbeb, qlh fheblvky fh`gh ihaZ^b b
ijZ\_^gh]h b g_q_klb\h]h b qlh lhfm, dlh fhebeky ihaZ^b g_q_klb\h]h |ij_^-
klhyl_ey|, g_ gZ^h ih\lhjylv __ (Ze-:rZjb, :[m Ze-OZkZg. FZdZeZl Ze-bk-
eZfbccbg \Z bolbeZn Ze-fmkZeebg. <bk[Z^_g, 1980, k.450-451). @_kldZy ihab-
pby [hevrbgkl\Z fmlZabeblh\ \ \hijhk_ h fhebl\_ k\yaZgZ k h[sbfb iheh`_-
gbyfb bo \_kvfZ jb]hjbklbq_kdhc wlbdb, ij_^klZ\eyxs_c kh[hc gZb[he__ ih-
ke_^h\Zl_evgh_ ijh\_^_gb_ iheh`_gby h [_amkeh\ghc hl\_lkl\_gghklb aZ g_ijZ-
\_^gu_ ihklmidb. WlZ ebgby kh\_jr_ggh g_ kh\iZ^Z_l k h[s_kmggblkdhc l_g-
^_gpb_c d kfy]q_gbx wlbdb.
H[km`^Z_fuc l_abk k\yaZg b k h^ghc ba p_gljZevguo mklZgh\hd kmggbafZ
g_h[oh^bfhklvx [_kij_dhkeh\gh]h ih\bgh\_gby \eZklv bfmsbf, g_\Z`gh, ijZ-
\_^_g \eZklbl_ev beb g_ijZ\_^_g. Kmggblkdb_ Z\lhjbl_lu h[hkgh\u\Zxl wlhl
l_abk g_h[oh^bfhklvx ba[_`Zlv jZkdheZ h[s_kl\Z b khojZgblv _^bgkl\h fm-
kmevfZg. ?]h \\_^_gb_ [ueh k\yaZgh k [mjghc [hjv[hc aZ \eZklv, gZqZ\r_cky
kjZam ihke_ kf_jlb FmoZff_^Z b ijb\_^r_c d ihy\e_gbx fgh]hqbke_gguo
]jmii, g_ kh]eZkb\rboky k ijbagZ\Z_fuf kmggblZfb i_j_oh^hf \eZklb. >himk-
lbfhklv fhebl\u ihaZ^b ex[h]h fmkmevfZgbgZ hagZqZ_l \hafh`ghklv ijbagZlv
ex[h]h fmkmevfZgbgZ bfZfhf (oZebnhf) g_aZ\bkbfh hl _]h 'ijZ\_^ghklb.
Wlhl l_abk, lZdbf h[jZahf, ijyfh gZijZ\e_g ijhlb\ ^hdljbg jZggbo bkeZfkdbo
]jmiibjh\hd b fmlZabeblh\. OZjb^`blu, a_c^blu, fgh]b_ fmj^`bblu b fmlZ-
abeblu ijbagZ\Zeb \hhjm`_ggmx [hjv[m ijhlb\ g_kijZ\_^eb\h]h ijZ\bl_ey,
h]h\Zjb\Zy __ mkeh\b_f '_keb k ihfhsvx f_qZ \hafh`gh mkljZg_gb_ g_kijZ-
\_^eb\uo ex^_c b mklZgh\e_gb_ bklbgu. JZnb^blu hl\_j]Zeb, \hh[s_ ]h\hjy,
\hhjm`_ggh_ khijhlb\e_gb_ ^Z`_ i_j_^ ebphf kf_jlb b ijbagZ\Zeb _]h \ha-
fh`guf lhevdh ijb gZebqbb ijbdZaZ k\h_]h bfZfZ, Z :[m ;Zdj Ze-:kZff ]h\h-
jbe h \hafh`ghklb \hhjm`_gghc [hjv[u, lhevdh _keb \ h[sbg_ ^hklb]gmlh _^b-
gh]eZkb_ hlghkbl_evgh lh]h, dlh ^he`_g [ulv 'kijZ\_^eb\uf (Z^be) ijZ\bl_-
e_f, b \k_ khh[sZ gZqbgZxl [hjv[m aZ gbkijh\_j`_gb_ ijbl_kgbl_ey. <hah[eZ-
^ZeZ `_, \h \kydhf kemqZ_ kj_^b kmggblh\, ihy\b\rZyky lh]^Z `_ _s_ [he__ `_-
kldZy ihabpby, ij_^klZ\bl_eb dhlhjhc ml\_j`^Zeb g_\hafh`ghklv \hhjm`_ggh-
]h khijhlb\e_gby \eZklb Z[khexlgh gb ijb dZdbo mkeh\byo, ^Z`_ g_kfhljy gZ
m]jham nbabq_kdh]h bklj_[e_gby (Ze-:rZjb, :[m Ze-OZkZg. FZdZeZl Ze-bk-
eZfbccbg \Z bolbeZn Ze-fmkZeebg. <bk[Z^_g, 1980, k.125, 451-452).
Ay Xauuqa. An-Oukx an-akap (Bonumo qukx) 25
Ebp_f_jb_ (jbcZ), jZ\gh dZd b ls_keZ\b_ (m^`m[), ^_eZxl g_^_ckl\b-
l_evguf ex[h_ ^_ygb_
50
.
Qm^_kZ (ZcZl) g_khfg_ggh khl\hj_gu ijhjhdZfb, b qm^_kgu_ ^_ygby
(dZjZfZl)
51
\hbklbgm ijbgZ^e_`Zl k\yluf. : hlghkys__ky d \jZ]Zf ?]h (lZdbf, dZd
B[ebk, nZjZhg beb :glbojbkl), h q_f \ \_klyo ih\_^Zgh, qlh hgh [ueh b [m^_l, fu
g_ gZau\Z_f qm^hf beb qm^_kguf ^_ygb_f, gh bf_gm_f hgh_ m^h\e_l\hj_gb_f bo
gm`^. LZdh\h_ fh`_l gZ[ex^Zlvky b m \jZ]h\ ?]h, b[h <k_\urgbc m^h\e_l\hjy_l
gm`^u \jZ]h\ K\hbo, aZfZgb\Zy b gZdZau\Zy bo: hgb \ h[hevs_gbb \iZ^Zxl \ _s_
[hevr__ g_\_jb_ b g_kijZ\_^eb\hklv (lm]cZg). <k_ wlh ^himklbfh b \hafh`gh.
;h] [ue l\hjysbf ^h lh]h, dZd khl\hjbe, b iblZxsbf ^h lh]h, dZd gZib-
lZe.
<k_\urgbc ;h] [m^_l \b^bf \ fbj_ bghf. <_jmxsb_ \ jZx \b^yl ?]h
kh[kl\_ggufb ]eZaZfb, [_a \kydh]h mih^h[e_gby b [_kdZq_kl\_ggh ([b-eZ lZr[bo
\Z eZ dZcnbccZ), b g_l f_` Gbf b l\hj_gb_f ?]h gbdZdh]h jZkklhygby (fZkZnZ)
52
.
<_jblv agZqbl ml\_j`^Zlv b ijbagZ\Zlv
53
(Ze-bfZg om\Z Ze-bdjZj \Z-l-
lZk^bd). <_jZ h[blZl_e_c g_[_k b a_feb g_ ijbjZklZ_l b g_ mfZey_lky. <_jmxsb_
jZ\gu (fmklZ\mg) |8| ih \_j_ b _^bgh[h`bx, jZaebqZxlky (fmlZnZ\blmg) `_ ^_y-
gbyfb.
BkeZf hagZqZ_l ij_^Zgb_ k_[y ih\_e_gbyf <k_\urg_]h b ke_^h\Zgb_ bf.
K lhqdb aj_gby yaudZ _klv jZagbpZ f_`^m '\_jhc (bfZg) b 'bkeZfhf, h^gZdh g_
[u\Z_l \_ju [_a bkeZfZ beb bkeZfZ [_a \_ju: hgb dZd ^\_ klhjhgu h^ghc fhg_-
lu
54
. : j_eb]by (^bg) bfy, ijbeZ]Z_fh_ d \_j_, bkeZfm b \k_f AZdhgZf.

50
Lhfm _klv g_fZeh ih^l\_j`^_gbc \ DhjZg_, ^h[Z\ey_l :[m Ze-FmglZoZ, gZijb-
f_j: '<_jmxsb_! G_ ^_eZcl_ \Zrbo fbehklugv ls_lgufb qj_a mij_db b mdhju,
dZd lhl, dlh `_jl\m_l ba k\h_]h bfms_kl\Z, ebp_f_jy ij_^ ex^vfb... (DhjZg,
2:264, i_j. =.KZ[emdh\Z).
Wlhl l_abk ijyfh k\yaZg k p_gljZevguf iheh`_gb_f bkeZfkdhc wlbdb, ihem-
qb\r_f hljZ`_gb_ b \ j_eb]bhagh-ijZ\h\hc fukeb (nbdo_): qlh[u ihklmihd
[ue 'ijZ\bevguf (kZobo), ^_ckl\b_ ^he`gh khijh\h`^Zlvky khhl\_lkl\mxsbf
gZf_j_gb_f (gbccZ). GbdZdh_ ^_ckl\b_ [_a ijZ\bevgh]h gZf_j_gby g_ aZkqblu-
\Z_lky, lh]^Z dZd gZf_j_gb_ ijb h[t_dlb\ghc g_\hafh`ghklb kh\_jrblv ^_ckl-
\b_ ijbjZ\gb\Z_lky d kh\_jr_gghfm ^_ckl\bx. GZf_j_gb_ [u\Z_l lhevdh bk-
dj_ggbf, \k_, qlh ijhlb\hiheh`gh bkdj_gghklb Z gZb[he__ g_kh\f_klbfh k
g_c, kh]eZkgh [hevrbgkl\m bkeZfkdbo Z\lhjh\, bf_ggh ebp_f_jb_ mgbqlh`Z-
_l gZf_j_gb_ b l_f kZfuf ^_eZ_l b ^_ckl\b_ g_^_ckl\bl_evguf. Wlb iheh`_gby
jZkijhkljZgyxlky jZ\gh gZ jblmZevgu_ b h[uqgu_ ^_ckl\by b oZjZdl_jgu jZ\-
gh ^ey kmggbafZ b rbbafZ.
51
:[m Ze-FmglZoZ ihykgy_l wlbfheh]bx keh\Z dZjZfZl: wlh g_h[uqgu_ ^_ygby,
dhlhju_ [ueb ^Zjh\Zgu ;h]hf K\hbf "m]h^gbdZf" (k\yluf Z\ebcZ, beb
"ijb[eb`_gguf d ;h]m") jZ^b "ihq_lZ b m\Z`_gby" (bdjZfZg eZ-omf).
52
:[m Ze-FmglZoZ ihykgy_l, qlh ih^ "jZkklhygb_f" a^_kv ihgbfZ_lky "f_klh" b
"|ijhkljZgkl\_ggh_| gZijZ\e_gb_" (^`boZ): ;h] - \g_ ijhkljZgkl\Z b f_klZ.
53
Kf. ijbf. 35.
54
< hjb]bgZe_ - b^bhfZ dZ-a-aZoj fZZ-e-[Zlg ('dZd kibgZ b `b\hl). < ljZ^bpbb
ZjZ[kdhc fukeb bf__lky [h]ZlZy ihe_fbdZ ih \hijhkm h khhlghr_gbb ihgylbc
'\_jZ, 'j_eb]by, 'bkeZf. GZijbf_j, Ze-=ZaZeb ibr_l h \hafh`ghklb hleb-
qZlv '\_jm, ihgbfZ_fmx dZd khijy`_gghklv \g_rg_]h b \gmlj_gg_]h 'ijbagZ-
26 Bec1uuk PFFY. Bmn. 4. Boc1ok: Hccneponauun. Hepenopm. M.: PFFY, 2000
Fu agZ_f <k_\urg_]h ;h]Z bklbggh, dZd Hg hibkZe K_[y \k_fb Zljb[m-
lZfb \ IbkZgbb K\h_f. Gh gbdlh g_ fh`_l bklbggh ihdehgylvky <k_\urg_fm ;h]m
lZd, dZd Hg d lhfm jZkiheZ]Z_l, ihdehgyxlky ?fm ih ih\_e_gbx ?]h, dZd Hg ijbdZ-
aZe
55
.
<k_ \_jmxsb_ jZ\gu \ agZgbb (fZjbnZ), m[_`^_gghklb (cZdbg), mih\Z-
gbb (lZ\Zddme), ex[\b (fZoZ[[Z), ^h\hevkl\_ (jb^Z), kljZo_ (oZ\n), fhev[_ (jZ^-
`Z) b \_j_ (bfZg), h^gZdh \g_ \_ju jZaebqZxlky \h \k_f wlhf
56
.
<k_\urgbc ;h] [eZ]hkdehg_g (fmlZnZ^^be) d jZ[Zf K\hbf b kijZ\_^eb\
(Z^be). Hg fh`_l \hagZ]jZ^blv \ [eZ]hkdehgghklb (lZnZ^^me) K\h_c fgh]hdjZlgh
ijhlb\ aZkem`_ggh]h jZ[hf ?]h, gZdZaZlv aZ ]j_o ih kijZ\_^eb\hklb (Z^e) K\h_c
beb ijhklblv ih [eZ]hkdehgghklb (nZ^e) K\h_c.
AZklmigbq_kl\h ijhjhdh\ b aZklmigbq_kl\h ijhjhdZ gZr_]h FmoZffZ^Z
(^Z [eZ]hkeh\bl b ijb\_lkl\m_l _]h ;h]!) aZ kh]j_rb\rbo \_jmxsbo, Z lZd`_ l_o ba
gbo, dlh kh\_jrbeb \_ebdbc ]j_o b aZkem`b\Zxl gZdZaZgby, bklbggh. B \a\_rb\Z-
gb_ ^_ygbc gZ <_kZo \ >_gv <hkdj_k_gby bklbggh. Bklbggh b ^himklbfh, qlh ijh-
lb\gbdb \ >_gv <hkdj_k_gby |9| k\_^ml kq_lu [eZ]bfb ^_ygbyfb; Z _keb g_ hdZ`_l-
ky m gbo [eZ]bo ^_ygbc, lh bf [m^ml \f_gylvky aeu_ ^_eZ
57
. B <h^h_f ijhjhdZ (fbj
_fm!) bklbgZ
58
.

gby ;h]Z (Zl-lZk^bd [b-e-eZo), hl 'bkeZfZ (bkeZf) dZd lhevdh \g_rg_]h ih^-
qbg_gby ;h]m (BocZ memf Z^-^bg, DZbj, 1933, l.1, k.103), ijbq_f \_^_l j_qv
bf_ggh h ihgylbcghf, Z g_ yaudh\hf, khhlghr_gbb wlbo l_jfbgh\, ihkdhevdm
qmlv jZgvr_ ]h\hjbl h 'yaudh\hf agZq_gbb l_jfbgh\ b mdZau\Z_l, qlh ih-
kdhevdm 'bkeZf ex[h_ ih^qbg_gb_, lh hg [he__ h[s__, q_f '\_jZ, ih-
kdhevdm '\_jZ ]g_a^blky \ k_j^p_, Z bkeZf ih^qbg_gb_ ex[h]h hj]ZgZ.
55
DZd ihykgy_l :[m Ze-FmglZoZ, 'ihdehg_gb_ wlh ijhkeZ\e_gb_ b \ha\_ebqb\Z-
gb_ =hkih^Z, Z ihkdhevdm <_ebqb_ ;h]Z [_kdhg_qgh, jZ[ \ ijbgpbi_ g_ fh`_l
^hklhcgh ijhkeZ\eylv ;h]Z. ;_kkq_lgu_ [eZ]h^_ygby ;h]Z ij_^iheZ]Zeb [u
klhev `_ [_kkq_lgh_ ih\lhj_gb_ h[jy^h\ ihdehg_gby kh klhjhgu jZ[Z, qlh g_-
\hafh`gh.
56
WlZ g_ \iheg_ ykgZy b, \hafh`gh, bkdZ`_ggZy i_j_ibkqbdZfb beb ba^Zl_eyfb
l_dklZ njZaZ fh`_l bf_lv ke_^mxs__ lhedh\Zgb_: ihklhevdm, ihkdhevdm j_qv
b^_l h '\_j_, i_j_qbke_ggu_ dZq_kl\Z h^bgZdh\u ^ey \k_o \_jmxsbo, ihkdhev-
dm '\_jZ ij_^iheZ]Z_l h^gh b lh `_ 'agZgb_ h[ Zljb[mlZo ;h]Z b l.^., \ dhlh-
jhf dZ`^uc \_jmxsbc ^he`_g [ulv 'm\_j_g h^bgZdh\h g_dhe_[bfh, h^bgZdh-
\h_ 'mih\Zgb_ b 'ex[h\v d ;h]m, '^h\hevkl\h k\h_c km^v[hc, 'kljZo ij_^
;h]hf, ij_^iheZ]Zxsbc g_ij_f_ggh b h[jZs_gb_ d G_fm k 'fhev[hc h[ mkljZ-
g_gbb hiZkghklb; \h \k_o ijhqbo kfukeZo ex^b fh]ml h[eZ^Zlv wlbfb dZq_kl\Z-
fb \ jZaghc kl_i_gb. <ijhq_f, \ kbem lmfZgghklb l_dklZ fu ebrv ij_^eZ]Z_f
wlhl \ZjbZgl, g_ gZklZb\Zy gZ g_f.
57
:[m Ze-FmglZoZ ijb\h^bl oZ^bk h lhf, qlh ex^yf \ >_gv <hkdj_k_gby ijb^_lky
bkdmiZlv k\hb aeu_ ^_eZ g_ ^bgZjZfb b ^bjo_fZfb, Z [eZ]bfb ^_ygbyfb; _keb
`_ lZdh\uo g_ hdZ`_lky, aeu_ ^_eZ ijhlb\gbdZ [m^ml \f_g_gu \ \bgm lZdhfm
q_eh\_dm.
58
:[m Ze-FmglZoZ ijb\h^bl \ wlhf f_kl_ oZ^bk: 'J_d ihkeZggbd ;h`bc (^Z [eZ]h-
keh\bl b ijb\_lkl\m_l _]h ;h]!): Fhc <h^h_f |^ebghc| \ f_kyp imlb, bf__l ijy-
fu_ m]eu, _]h \eZ]Z [_e__ fhehdZ, _]h aZiZo [eZ]hmoZgg__ fmkdmkZ, b dm\rbgh\
Ay Xauuqa. An-Oukx an-akap (Bonumo qukx) 27
JZc b ieZfy khl\hj_gu m`_ k_]h^gy
59
b g_ ij_c^ml gbdh]^Z. B \_db \_q-
gu_ ij_[m^ml |^Zggu_| ;h]hf gZdZaZgb_ b gZ]jZ^Z
60
.
<k_\urgbc ;h], dh]h ih`_eZ_l, ih kgbkoh`^_gbx K\h_fm \_^_l |d bklb-
g_|, Z dh]h ih`_eZ_l, ih kijZ\_^eb\hklb K\h_c \\h^bl \ aZ[em`^_gb_
61
. <\_^_gb_ \
aZ[em`^_gb_ wlh ij_djZs_gb_ kh^_ckl\by; Z 'ij_djZs_gb_ kh^_ckl\by (obaeZg)
agZqbl, qlh Hg g_ kihki_r_kl\m_l jZ[m \ lhf, q_f [ue [u ^h\he_g. Wlh kijZ\_^-
eb\hklv k ?]h klhjhgu. LZdh\h `_ b gZdZaZgb_ Bf |jZ[Z|, hklZ\e_ggh]h [_a kh^_ckl-
\by (fZoame), aZ g_ihkemrZgb_.
Fu g_ ]h\hjbf, qlh KZlZgZ kbehc b ijbgm`^_gb_f hlgbfZ_l \_jm m \_-
jmxs_]h jZ[Z ?]h. Fu ]h\hjbf lZd: jZ[ hklZ\ey_l \_jm, b lh]^Z-lh KZlZgZ b hlgb-
fZ_l __ m g_]h.
Bklbggh, FmgdZj b GZdbj ^hijZrb\Zxl \ fh]be_. Bklbggh, jZ[m [m^_l
\ha\jZs_g ^mo (jmo) _]h. <hbklbgm, \k_ g_\_jmxsb_ [_a bkdexq_gby b g_dhlhju_ ba
hkemrZ\rboky fmkmevfZg l_jiyl fh]bevgmx fmdm
62
, bgu_ `_ fmkmevfZg_, bklbggh,
ihemqZxl [eZ]h^Zlv.
Fh`gh ijhbaghkblv \k_ Zljb[mlu <k_\urg_]h, mihfygmlu_ gZ i_jkb^-
kdhf yaud_ mq_gufb fm`Zfb, aZ bkdexq_gb_f 'jmdb. Fh`gh ]h\hjblv [Z jmc-b
om^Z
63
[_a mih^h[e_gby b [_kdZq_kl\_ggh.
Qlh ;h] [ebahd beb ^Ze_d |d jZ[m|, g_ hagZqZ_l, qlh Hg gZoh^blky gZ
[hevr_f beb f_gvr_f jZkklhygbb, g_ hagZqZ_l [eZ]hjh^kl\Z (dZjZfZ) beb gbahklb
(oZ\Zg) |jZ[Z|. G_l, ihkemrguc [ebahd d G_fm [_a |\hijhkZ| "dZd?", Z hkemrZ\rbc-
ky |10| ^Ze_d hl G_]h [_a |\hijhkZ| "dZd?". ';ebahklv, 'm^Ze_gghklv b 'ijb[eb`_-
gb_ (bd[Ze) hlghkylky d g_ij_klZggh h[jZs_gghfm |d ;h]m jZ[m| (fmgZ^`bg). LZd-

m g_]h qlh a\_a^ \ g_[_; hlib\rbc ba g_]h gZ\k_]^Z aZ[m^_l fmdb `Z`^u
(Ze-;moZjb, Zk-KZobo, dg. 76 (Zj-JbdZd), 581).
59
Kj. DhjZg, 3:131, 3,133, ]^_ ]h\hjblky h[ 'm`_ m]hlh\Zgguo ]j_rgbdZf b [eZ-
]hq_klb\uf Z^_ b jZ_.
60
>`Zof [bg KZn\Zg \ukdZaZe ba\_klgh_ fg_gb_ h lhf, qlh jZc b Z^ khl\hj_gu b
h^gZ`^u ih]b[gml, lZd qlh ;h] hklZg_lky h^bg, dZd ^h l\hj_gby.
61
Wlhl l_abk [_amkeh\gh k\yaZg k mihfygmluf \ qbke_ 'hkgh\ kmggblkdh]h \_jh-
mq_gby iheh`_gb_f h lhf, qlh '\k_ [eZ]h_ b ^mjgh_ hl ;h]Z. < DhjZg_ g_fZ-
eh Zylh\, \ujZ`Zxsbo lm `_ fukev, gZij.: 'G_ lu klZ\brv gZ ijyfhc imlv, dh-
]h l_[_ ex[h; gh ;h] klZ\bl gZ ijyfhc imlv, dh]h ohq_l (DhjZg, 28:56, i_j.
KZ[emdh\Z), 'G_ gZ l_[_ e_`bl jmdh\h^kl\h bfb, gh ;h] \_^_l ijyfuf iml_f,
dh]h ohq_l (DhjZg, 2:272, i_j. DjZqdh\kdh]h). AZf_lbf, qlh \ k\h_f g_ihkj_^-
kl\_gghf a\mqZgbb ih^h[gu_ iheh`_gby g_ kh]eZkmxlky k \ukdZaZgguf \ur_
(kf. ijbf_q.32) l_abkhf h lhf, qlh \_jZ b g_\_jb_ y\eyxlky kh[kl\_ggufb ^_c-
kl\byfb jZ[Z, Z g_ khl\hj_gu ;h]hf. < ke_^mxs_c njZa_ Z\lhj ';hevrh]h nbd-
oZ i_j_lhedh\u\Z_l wlb l_abku lZd, qlh[u hgb g_ ijhlb\hj_qbeb ij_^klZ\e_-
gbx h kijZ\_^eb\hklb ke_^mxsbo aZ \_jhc b g_\_jb_f gZ]jZ^u b gZdZaZgby
(kf. l`. ijbf.33, 34).
62
OZjb^`blu b fmlZabeblu hljbpZeb fh]bevgmx fmdm. ;ueh \ukdZaZgh b fg_gb_
h lhf, qlh fmdm b gZkeZ`^_gb_ ;h] ihkueZ_l lhevdh ^mrZf (Zj\Zo), lh]^Z dZd
l_eZ, ihdZ hgb gZoh^ylky \ fh]beZo, g_ hsmsZxl wlh]h (Ze-:rZjb, :[m Ze-
OZkZg. FZdZeZl Ze-bkeZfbccbg \Z bolbeZn Ze-fmkZeebg. <bk[Z^_g, 1980, k.430).
63
'I_j_^ ;h]hf, [md\. 'i_j_^ ebphf ;h]Z (i_jk.).
28 Bec1uuk PFFY. Bmn. 4. Boc1ok: Hccneponauun. Hepenopm. M.: PFFY, 2000
`_ b khk_^kl\h k Gbf \ jZx, b qlh [m^_f gZoh^blvky 'f_` jmd ?]h |fu ijbgbfZ_f|
[_a |\hijhkZ| dZd?.
DhjZg gbkihkeZg ihkeZggbdm ;h`v_fm (^Z [eZ]hkeh\bl b ijb\_lkl\m_l
_]h ;h]!) b \ k\bldZo aZibkZg. <k_ Zylu DhjZgZ dZd j_qv jZ\gu \ k\h_f ^hklhbgkl\_
b \_ebqbb. Gh h^gb ba gbo h[eZ^Zxl b ^hklhbgkl\hf mihfbgZgby
64
, b ^hklhbgkl\hf
mihfbgZ_fh]h, dZd, gZijbf_j, Zyl h Ljhg_. <_^v mihfygmlh \ g_f \_ebqb_ ;h]Z, ?]h
fh]ms_kl\h b ?]h Zljb[ml, Z ihlhfm \ g_f kh_^bg_gu h[Z ^hklhbgkl\Z: ^hklhbgkl\h
mihfbgZgby b ^hklhbgkl\h mihfbgZ_fh]h. Qlh dZkZ_lky hibkZgbc g_\_jmxsbo, lh
hgu_ bf_xl ebrv ^hklhbgkl\h mihfbgZgby, gh ebr_gu ^hklhbgkl\Z mihfbgZ_fh]h.
LZd `_ b \k_ bf_gZ b Zljb[mlu |;h]Z| jZ\gu ih ^hklhbgkl\m b \_ebqbx, b g_l f_`
gbfb jZaebqby.
Jh^bl_ev ihkeZggbdZ ;h`v_]h (^Z [eZ]hkeh\bl b ijb\_lkl\m_l _]h ;h]!)
g_ mf_j \ g_\_jbb. Fu lZd`_ g_ \ughkbf km`^_gby h g_\_jbb ^y^b _]h :[m LZeb-
[Z
65
. DZkbf, LZobj b B[jZobf kugh\vy ihkeZggbdZ ;h`v_]h (^Z [eZ]hkeh\bl b
ijb\_lkl\m_l _]h ;h]!). NZlbfZ, AZcgZ[, JmdbccZ b `Mff Dmekmf ^hq_jb ihkeZg-
gbdZ ;h`v_]h (^Z [eZ]hkeh\bl ;h] hlpZ bo b ^Z [m^_l ^h\he_g _]h ^_lvfb!)
66
.
<klj_lb\ dZdh_-eb[h aZljm^g_gb_ \ lhgdhklyo gZmdb _^bgh[h`by, ke_^m-
_l bkih\_^h\Zlv lh, qlh <k_\urgbc kqblZ_l ijZ\bevguf, ihdZ g_ \klj_lbrv mq_gh-
]h fm`Z b g_ aZ^Zrv _fm k\hc \hijhk. G_evay hldeZ^u\Zlv ihbkd hl\_lZ, Z g_j_r_g-
ghklv |aZljm^g_gby| g_ba\bgbfZ: |11| hldeZ^u\Zy j_r_gb_, klZgh\brvky g_\_jmx-
sbf.
Ba\_klby h \hag_k_gbb (fbjZ^`) bklbggu, Z hl\_j]Zxsbc bo aZ[em`-
^Z_lky b \\h^bl gh\r_kl\Z. Ihy\e_gb_ :glbojbklZ, =h]Z b FZ]h]Z, \hkoh^ khegpZ
gZ aZiZ^_, khr_kl\b_ BbkmkZ ([eZ]hkeh\_gb_ b fbj _fm!) b ijhqb_ ijbagZdb >gy
<hkdj_k_gby, dZd h gbo ih\_^Zgh \ ^hklh\_jguo \_klyo \k_ wlh \hbklbgm _klv.
;h] \_^_l ih ijyfhfm imlb l_o, dh]h ih`_eZ_l.

64
>hklhbgkl\h mihfbgZgby \ hjb]bgZe_ nZ^beZl Za-abdj. <_jhylgh, '^hklhbg-
kl\h mihfbgZgby k\yaZgh k 'g_ih^jZ`Z_fhklvx (b^`Za) dhjZgbq_kdh]h l_d-
klZ.
65
HibjZykv gZ Zyl: "Fu g_ gZdZau\Z_f, g_ gZijZ\b\ ihkeZggbdZ" (DhjZg, 17:15,
i_j. fhc. - :.K.), :[m Ze-FmglZoZ ihykgy_l, qlh gZa\Zggu_ ebpZ g_ ihiZ^Zxl \
qbkeh mebqZ_fuo \ g_\_jbb (dmnj).
66
Wlhl iZkkZ` gZijZ\e_g ijhlb\ l_o, dlh eb[h mfZeye, eb[h m\_ebqb\Ze qbkeh ^_-
l_c FmoZff_^Z ijhlb\ mklZgh\e_ggh]h a^_kv.

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