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# Scalar & Vector Control of Induction motor

20-06-2008

## Scalar control of induction motor

Voltage Frequency Flux Torque

20-06-2008

Ac supply

## V* Variable frequency Supply Flux control

f*

f*

) 3 s T = w ms R r' ) 2 + ( x + x ' ) 2 s r ( Rs + s

r2' V (
2 S

Induction motor

20-06-2008

20-06-2008

Controller

Induction Motor

Feedback

Speed Sensor

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## Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>

The conventional equivalent circuit of an Induction motor is capable of capturing the performance of the motor under steady-state conditions only. The equivalent circuit is used for sinusoidal excitation only.

20-06-2008

## dq0 model of Induction motor

A suitable linear model has to be developed to capture the performance of the motor. This model should be capable of capturing the dynamics involved with load disturbance, supply voltage/frequency disturbance or other non-linearities in the converters. In other words, the transient performance should also be obtained.
20-06-2008 Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>

The three-phase induction motor is simply converted into an equivalent two-phase machine by considering the POWER INVARIANCE.
q-axis + Vqr _ + Vqs _ + d-axis Stator _ Vds + Rotor

_ Vdr

## Two-phase Stator and Rotor Windings of an Induction motor

20-06-2008 Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>

Derivation of rotor flux state model of the Induction motor (in the arbitrary reference frame)

20-06-2008

## Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>

' ds = Llsids + Lm (ids + idr ) ' ds = ( Lls + Lm )ids + Lmidr ' ds = Lsids + Lmidr

## ' 'qr = Lmiqs + L'r iqr

We have the voltage equations of the d-q model of the induction motor in the arbitrary reference frame as: d d ' ' vds = rs ids + Ls (ids ) wLsiqs wLmiqr + Lm (idr ) (1) dt dt
vqs = rsiqs + Ls
' 0 = rr'idr + L'r

## d ' d ' (iqs ) + wLsids + wLmidr + Lm (iqr ) (2) dt dt

d d ' ' (idr ) (w wr ) L'r iqr (w wr ) Lmiqs + Lm (ids ) (3) dt dt d d ' ' ' 0 = rr'iqr + L'r (iqr ) + (w wr ) L'r idr + (w wr ) Lmids + Lm (iqs ) (4) dt dt
20-06-2008 Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>

## The rotor flux linkages are given by:

= Lmids + L i (5)
' dr ' ' r dr

i =
' dr

'dr Lmids
L'r

(7)

&i =
' qr

'qr Lmiqs
L
' r

(8)

## Upon substitution of (7) and (8) in (1) to (4), we get:

vds = rsids + L vqs = rsiqs + L d d (ids ) wL iqs w r ('dr ) (9) dt dt d d (iqs ) + wL ids + w r 'dr + r ('qr ) (10) dt dt

rr' ' rr' d 0 = ' qr ' Lmiqs + ('qr ) + (w wr )'dr (12) Lr Lr dt rr' ' rr' d 0 = ' dr ' Lmids + ('dr ) (w wr )'qr (11) Lr Lr dt

20-06-2008

## Substituting (11) in (9), we get:

dids vds R r rr' ' r = ids + wiqs + dr + wr 'qr (13) dt L L L L'r L diqs R r r rr' ' ' = iqs wids wr dr + qr (14) dt L L L L L'r vqs

where

R = rs + r2 rr'

## Equations (11) and (12) can be rewritten as:

d'dr rr' ' rr' = ' dr + ' Lmids + (w wr )'qr (15) dt Lr Lr d'qr rr' ' rr' = ' qr + ' Lmiqs (w wr )'dr (16) dt Lr Lr

The induction motor voltage equations (1) to (4) have been reduced to ' ' eqns. (13) to (16), which are a set of linear differential equations in ids , iqs , dr & qr Designating these quantities as the states of the induction motor, the rotor-flux state model of the induction motor can be represented in the standard State-Space form as:
20-06-2008 Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>

## In the standard State-space form where

1 v A= rr' r 0
i qs 'dr

v dx v v v v = Ax + Bu dt

rr' r

L r L L r 1 (w wr ) 1 (w wr )

r L r r wr

r wr

1 0 L 1 v B= 0 L 0 0 0 0

v x = i ds

'qr

v u = v ds

v qs

where

L = R

L'r r = ' rr

## The output vector

v y =

[i

ds

i qs

v = C x

where

1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 C=

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vds

ids iqs

'dr
'qr

vqs

Te + TL

m =

J B

Speed dynamics

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## Rewriting equation (15)

d'dr rr' ' rr' = ' dr + ' Lmids + (w wr )'qr (15) dt Lr Lr d'dr r + 'dr = Lmids + r wsl 'qr dt
L'r r = ' rr

Now,

Similarly,
d'qr dt +
1

r'

20-06-2008

## Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>

rr' r

iqs
+ +
r

ids

'dr
*

wsl

+ wsl

3 P Lm ( ) 2 2 L'r

Te

' qr

iqs
rr' r

ids
Dynamics of the electromagnetic torque Te, using the rotor- flux state model of the induction motor

20-06-2008

## Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>

as-axis Space vectors represented w.r.t the arbitrary reference frame when the d-axis is not aligned along the rotor flux-axis r xis e roto d-a th is ry g itra alon b d iqs Ar ne alig axis x flu
xis
ids

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is

iqs

r itra b Ar
'dr
'qr

is -ax yd

ids

## Rotor flux axis

'r

y rar bit Ar

q-a

The d-axis of the arbitrary reference frame is aligned along the rotor flux-linkage space vector as-axis
Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>

By aligning the d-axis of the arbitrary reference frame along the rotor-flux linkage space vector, one obtains the decoupling between the Torque producing and Flux producing components of the stator current space vector and as a consequence the drive torque dynamic performance is improved. This technique is hence called the Rotor field Oriented Control or simply Field Oriented Control (FOC).

With the Field Oriented Control (FOC), the dynamic performance of the Induction motor resembles that of an SEDC motor.
20-06-2008 Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>

20-06-2008

## Vector Control of Induction Motor

From the dynamic model of the induction motor, it is evident that the d-axis of the synchronously rotating reference frame must be aligned to the rotor-flux axis for a decoupling control. To meet this objective, it is necessary to determine the instantaneous position of the rotor-flux axis under all dynamic conditions.
Depending on the technique employed to sense the position of this rotor flux, Vector Control or Field Oriented Control can be classified as:
20-06-2008 Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>

(BLASCHE of SIEMENS) In 1972 VECTOR CONTROL or Field Oriented Control of Induction Motor

20-06-2008

## Direct Field Oriented Controlled Induction motor drive system

20-06-2008 Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>

## Direct Vector Control

The air-gap flux is sensed using Hall-sensors and flux-sensing coils. The motor has to be specially modified / designed for accommodating the sensing devices. Hall-effect sensors are sensitive to temperature & mechanical vibrations and the flux signal is distorted by large slot harmonics that cannot be filtered effectively. At low speeds below 1 Hz, the induced voltage will be significantly low and hence, would contain considerable noise as compared the actual signal. The measurements are not machine parameter dependent, which change with temperature and saturation.
20-06-2008 Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>

Block Diagram of a typical rotor field oriented Induction motor drive system
20-06-2008 Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>

Rotor Field Oriented control of induction motor Dynamic equivalent circuit in the rotor flux frame of reference

axis
bi Ar ry tra q-a xis

is

iqs

r itra b Ar

is -ax yd

i
ids

(t )

i
20-06-2008 Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>

axis

& 'dr = 'r

(1)

## Where, the new flux producing current component is given by:

' imr = [ids + (1 + r )idr ]

## Under field orientation,

3 P L Te = ( ) m 'dr iqs 2 2 L'r

'qr = 0

## From eqns. (7) and (3), we get

3 P L Te = ( ) m Lmimriqs (8) 2 2 L'r

## 3 P L Te = ( ) m 'r iqs (3) Q 'dr = 'r 2 2 L'r

' 'dr = Lmids + L'r idr (4)

## From eqns. (5) and (8), we get

Lm 3 P Te = ( ) imriqs (9) 2 2 (1 + r )

## Q L'r = Lm + L'lr = Lm (1 + r ) (5)

' 'dr = Lmids + Lm (1 + r )idr (6)

20-06-2008

## d-axis equivalent ckt

Under the field orientation condition in eqn. (1) earlier Therefore, from eqns. (11) & (12) ' = 0
qr

=
' dr

(1)

' r

d ' ' ' dr + rr'idr = 0 L (Q vdr = 0) (10) dt d ' ( Lm imr ) + rr'idr = 0 (11) dt

## d i i ( Lm imr ) + rr' mr ds = 0 (13) dt (1 + r )

Lm d imr ids (imr ) + = (1 + r ) (1 + r ) rr' dt Lm (1 + r ) d (imr ) + imr = ids rr' dt d (imr ) + imr = ids (14) dt

' idr =

20-06-2008

'qr = 0 'dr = 'r
(1)

## Therefore, from eqns. (17) & (15)

( ws wr )'dr + rr' (

Lm )iqs = 0 L'r

wsl = iqs

Lm

iqs

' qr

r imr

(18)

20-06-2008

## Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>

Therefore, the machine dynamic equations under field orientation can be summarized recalling the eqns. (14), (18), (9) as:

axis
xis q-a
r dimr + imr = ids dt

## Under field orientation

is

iqs d ws = = wr + dt r imr

iqs

is -ax d

dwm 2 Lm = imriqs dt 3 (1 + r )

ids

d P = wr = wm dt 2

axis

0 0 3 2

i a ib 3 ic 2

20-06-2008

ia ib ic

imr

and

ids

FLUX ESTIMATOR

iqs

wr

20-06-2008

## Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>

Indirect Field Oriented Control of Induction motor with feedback scheme NOTE: Here, the d-axis is forced along the rotor flux axis
20-06-2008 Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>

Indirect Field Oriented Control of Induction motor with feed-forward scheme NOTE: Here, the rotor flux axis is forced along the d-axis
20-06-2008 Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>

## Indirect Field Oriented Control (IFOC)

The flux estimator is used to estimate the flux linkage space vector magnitude and angular position. Indirect sensing of flux space vectors give a versatile drive system and hence IFOC has emerged as a more popular method. Since, flux linkage space vector position is estimated from the motor model, all indirect methods are sensitive to variations in same machine parameters like stator & rotor time constants. If rotor flux oriented control is used it is sensitive to rotor time constant. If stator flux oriented control is used it is sensitive to stator time constant. If air gap flux oriented control is used it is sensitive to both the stator & rotor time constants. Therefore, parameter adaptation is essential to overcome the undesirable effects of the parameter variation and for proper decoupling.
20-06-2008 Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>

What is decoupling?
It can be noted that under proper field-orientation, the stator current components ids and iqs are decoupled and therefore the controller output can be used as command values for the CSI. In the case of a VSI, the stator voltage components Vds and Vqs are not decoupled as it is evident from the d-q model of the induction motor.

If these coupling terms are not compensated, then the torque and the flux producing components of the rotor current will not be decoupled. Hence, the feed-forward terms must be added to the outputs of the daxis and the q-axis current controllers.

20-06-2008

## Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>

From this it is evident that the d-axis stator circuit loop and the q-axis stator circuit loop has coupling terms w and w
qs

ds

w qs

w ds

## d d ' (ids ) + Lm (ids + idr ) wqs dt dt

vds = rs ids + Ls

'qr = 0

## ' We know that idr =

imr ids (1 + r )

+ Lmiqs = 0

vds = rs ids + Ls

' iqr

## L = m iqs L'r L2 m iqs L'r

Lm d Lm d imr vds = rs ids + Ls ids wLs iqs + (1 + r ) dt (1 + r ) dt d Lm Lm d imr vds = rs ids + Ls 1 ids wLs iqs + (1 + r ) dt (1 + r ) Ls dt

qs = Ls iqs

L2 qs = iqs ( Ls m ) L'r

Let us define
qs = Lsiqs (1

L2 (1 m' ) Ls Lr L2 m ) Ls L'r

## It is easy to show that :

Lm = (1 ) Ls (1 + r )

and

L'r = Lm (1 + r )

vds = rs ids + Ls

qs = Lsiqs

20-06-2008

## Similarly, from the q-axis rotor dynamic equivalent circuit

vqs = rs iqs + Ls d d ' ' (iqs ) + Lm (iqr ) + w( Ls ids + Lmidr ) dt dt

## Under field orientation :

'qr = 0
' L'r iqr + Lmiqs = 0

' iqr =

Lm iqs L'r
L2 d d ' iqs m iqs + wLs ids + wLmidr ' dt Lr dt

vqs = rs iqs + Ls

## L2 d i i = rs iqs + Ls m iqs + wLs ids + wLm ( ms ds ) ' 1+ r Lr dt

vqs = rs iqs + Ls Lm imr d iqs + wids Ls + wLm dt (1 + r ) (1 + r )

vqs = rs iqs + Ls

## Lm imr d iqs + wids Ls + wLm dt (1 + r ) (1 + r )

vqs = rs iqs + Ls

20-06-2008

## Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>

Recalling the earlier derived equations When operating below base speed in steady-state condition :

## drop along d-axis

drop along q-axis The controller has to see this small drop for taking necessary control action.

Note: The control gain G is to be considered only when iqs and ids are power circuit currents

## The scheme to generate the reference voltages for VSI

20-06-2008 Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>

PWM Modulator
The VSI operates from a constant DC link voltage and generates variable voltage output at variable frequency. The output depends on the PWM scheme adopted to control the inverter. Finally, the performance and cost of the drive determines the choice of PWM strategy for a specific application. The PWM strategies of IM drive influences the structure of the current control loops.
Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>

20-06-2008

## Current Control and PWM generation in the stator reference frame

20-06-2008 Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>

## Stator current components are DC values

Current Control in the synchronous reference frame and PWM generation using SPWM
20-06-2008 Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>

## Stator current components are DC values

Current Control in the synchronous reference frame and PWM generation using SVPWM
20-06-2008 Dr.S.Srinivas, EED, NIT-Warangal <srsrini12@yahoo.co.in>