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3.

Design of Heat Exchanger (HE-102)

3.3.1

Introduction

This section is discussed to select and design a suitable heat exchanger before the reactor (R-101). The purposed of heat exchanger is to increase low temperature from premix vessel at 32C until 200C to the reactor. A comprehensive design study is to determine the heat exchanger chemical and mechanical details and also physical characteristics that contribute to the performance of heat exchanger. This section contains the operating criteria, the equipment selection, the thermal design , chemical design and mechanical design of heat exchanger.

Heat exchangers are equipment primarily for transferring heat between hot and cold streams. Heat exchanger use hot fluid in order to heat a cooler fluid and vice versa. Hot fluid and cold fluid used are depends on either the exchanger is cooler, heater, condenser or vaporizer. The most common hot fluid and cold fluid used are steam and cooling water respectively. The two fluids are not mix together. Barrier like tube wall or metal wall will separated both fluids (Lugwig, 2001).

Heat exchangers are used in a wide variety of applications including power plants, nuclear reactors, refrigeration and air conditioning systems, automotive industries, heat recovery systems, chemical processing, and food industries (Salimpour, 2009). Common examples of heat exchangers are shell and tube exchangers, automobile radiators, condensers, evaporators, air preheaters, and cooling towers. If no phase change occurs in any of the fluid in the exchanger, it is sometimes referred to as a sensible heat exchanger (Ravagnani, 2005).

Figure1: Design procedure for shell and tube heat exchanger

3.3.2

Selection of Equipment

Heat exchangers come in a wide variety of types and sizes. Here are the most common used in industry: Shell and tube heat exchanger Plate and Frame heat exchanger Double pipe heat exchanger

a)

Shell and tube heat exchanger

A shell and tube heat exchanger is a class of heat exchanger that is commonly found in oil refineries and other larger chemical processing plant. The shell and tube heat exchanger is designed to allow two fluids of different starting temperatures to flow through it. A first fluid flows through the tubes (the tube side), while the second fluid flows in the shell (the shell side) but outside the tubes. Heat is transferred between the two fluids through the tube walls, either from tube side to shell side or vice versa.

The fluids may be either liquids or gases on either the shell or the tube side. In order to transfer heat efficiently, a large heat transfer area is generally used, requiring many tubes, which are usually disposed horizontally inside the tank-like shell structure (Al-Hadrami, 2009). The major components of this exchanger are tubes (or tube bundle), shell, stationary or front end head, rear end head, baffles, and tube sheets (R.K.Shah et.al, 2004).

b)

Plate heat exchanger

Plate heat exchangers consist of a stack of parallel thin plates that lie between heavy end plates. Each fluid stream passes alternately between adjoining plates in the stack, exchanging heat through the plates. The plates are corrugated for strength and to enhance heat transfer by directing the flow and increasing turbulence. These exchangers have high heat-transfer coefficients and area, and they often provide very high effectiveness. However, they have relatively low pressure capability (Dean A. Bartlett).

c)

Double pipe heat exchanger

Double pipe exchangers are generally. The heat exchangers usually consist of concentric pipes. One fluid flows in the inner pipe and the other flows counter currently in the annulus between the pipes. This is perhaps the simplest heat exchanger. Flow distribution is better and cleaning process is done easily by disassembly. Stack of double-pipe or multitube-type heat exchangers are also used in some process applications with radial or longitudinal fins (R.K.Shah et.al, 2004). Table 1 below shows the comparisons between three types of heat exchanger.

Table 1: Comparisons between the heat exchanger types Heat Exchanger Type Shell And Tube Heat Exchanger Single phases, condensation or boiling can be accommodated in either the tubes or the shell, in vertical or horizontal positions. A great variety of materials of construction can be used and may be different for the shell and tubes. heavy fouling, corrosive, or viscous fluids can be accommodated The equipment is readily dismantled for cleaning or repair. Plate Heat Exchanger it can be fully disassembled for cleaning high overall heat transfer coefficient low heat transfer surface cost in $/ft2 Maximum pressure: 360psig (2.5MPa) Maximum operating temperature : 260C (500F) Pressure drop is very high compared to shell and tube exchanger Not suitable for erosive duties. Maximum pressure: 500 psig (35 bar) maximum operating temperature: 260C (500F) Require large plot (footprint) area to remove the bundle The cost of the heat transfer surface is relatively high Advantages Limitation

Double Pipe Heat Exchanger

Easy to obtain counter-current flow Can handle high pressure Easy to maintain

The straight length is limited to a maximum of about 20 ft used for the small capacity application where the total heat transfer surface area is 50m2 (500ft2) or less

By considering all the specifications of each type of the heat exchanger, shell and tube heat exchanger have the high specification in terms of high temperature and pressure also its material which easily to maintain compared to the other type of heat exchanger.

3.3.2.1 Types of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

There are various types of shell and tube heat exchanger used in industries, each of it can give its own advantages and disadvantages. In shell and tube heat exchanger, basically it has three common types which are U-tube, fixed plates and floating head. Table 2 below shows the different specification of each type from shell and tube exchanger.

Table 2: Types of shell and tube heat exchanger (Coulson & Richardson, volume 6, 1999)

Types Fixed tube sheet design

Advantages
The simplest and cheapest type of shell and tube exchanger

Limitation
The tube bundle cannot be removed for cleaning There is no provision for differential expansion of the shell and tubes. This type is limited to temperature differences up to about 80

U-Tube

Cheaper than the floating-head types

The tubes and bundle are difficult to clean It is also more difficult to replace a tube in this type

Floating head

More versatile than fixed head and U-tube exchangers They are suitable for hightemperature differentials The tubes can be rodded from end to end and the bundle removed Easier to clean and can be used for fouling liquids

The clearance between the outermost tubes in the bundle and the shell roust be made greater than in the fixed and U-tube designs

From the Table 2, it can be conclude that, the best type of shell and tube exchanger is floating head type heat exchanger. Floating type has the highest specification among the other types. This type of heat exchanger can be apply in the chemical and hydrocarbon condenser plant, thus the maintenance for this heat exchanger are cheap and easy due to its compatibility compartment. When dealing with cleaning, the tube and shell in floating head can be done using the chemical and mechanical cleaning method thus increased its efficiency as one of the heat exchanger medium. An STHE is divided into three parts, the front head, the shell, and the rear head. Figure 2 illustrates the TEMA nomenclature for the various construction possibilities

Figure 2: TEMA designations for shell-and-tube heat exchangers (Rajiv Mukherjee,1998)

Table 3: The summarize of selection on type of shell and tube heat exchanger

Type Front end stationary head types Shell types Excellent for application Type A: channel and removable cover Type E : one pass shell Type S : floating head with backing devices

Reason Removable cover without breaking the flanges The most commonly used

Figure 3: Internal floating head with clamp ring (based on figures from BS 3274: 1960)

Tube side selection

a)

Dimension

Steel tubes for heat exchangers are covered by BS 3606. Table 4 show the selection on tube side characteristic.

Table 4: Selection On Tube Characteristic (Sinnott And Towler,5th Edition)

Tube Characteristic Material of construction Stainless steel

Reason The composition of the fluid is corrosive

Tube length selected

5.00 meter

It provides an adequate heat transfer surface area and pressure drop is below the allowable pressure drop

The outer diameter selected , D The inner diameter selected , Di Allocation stream

19 mm 14.83 mm Stream 8

Its common tube used

b)

Tube arrangements

The tubes in heat exchanger are usually arranged in an equilateral triangular, square, or rotated square pattern, see figure 4. For the design of this shell and tube exchanger, the square pitch pattern was use due to the heavily fouling fluids in the shell side, where it is necessary to mechanically clean the outside of the tubes

Figure 4: Tube pattern

c)

Tube-side passes

The fluid in the tube is usually directed to flow back and forth in a number of "passes" through groups of tubes arranged in parallel, to increase the length of the flow path. The number of passes is selected to give the required tube-side design velocity. The 2 side passes was selected in this design.

d) Shells sides selection

The shell diameter must be selected to give as close a fit to the tube bundle as is practical to reduce bypassing round the outside of the bundle. The clearance required between the outermost tubes in the bundle and the shell inside diameter will depend on the type of exchanger and the manufacturing tolerances, typical values. Table 5 shows the selection on shell characteristic. The British standard BS 3274 covers exchangers from 6 in. (150 mm) to 42 in (1067 mm) diameter.

Table 5: Selection on shell characteristic (Sinnott And Towler,5th Edition)

Selected Shell Characteristic Material of construction Stainless steel The composition of the fluid is high corrosive Shell pass Allocation stream 1 Stream 8

3.3.3

Chemical Design of Heat Exchanger

Hot steam in

Stream 9

Stream 10

HE-102

Hot steam out

Figure 5: Model input and output of heat exchanger, E-102

Table 6: Properties of inlet and outlet process stream of E-102 Parameter Temperature in (C) Temperature out (C) Mass flow rate (kg/h) Cp (kJ/kgC) Phase 32 200 2775 1.878 liquid Cold (tube side) 255 216 5990 90.89 liquid Hot (shell side)

**(IMPORTANT NOTE: The properties of each stream are abstracted from ASPEN simulation due to the unavailability of chemical data and properties for certain component for the streams at various temperature and pressure.)

Assumptions:

1. Heat exchanger is insulated from its surrounding, in which case only heat exchange is between the hot fluid and the cold fluid. 2. Axial conduction along the tubes is negligible.

3. Potential energy and kinetic energy changes are negligible. 4. Fluid specific heat is constant. 5. Overall heat transfer coefficient is constant.

3.3.3.1 Determination of Physical Properties

Table 7: Physical properties of the shell side fluid (Steam) Properties Temperature (C) Specific Heat (kJ/kgC) Thermal Conductivity (w/mC) Density (kg/m3) viscosity (Ns/m)
0.043 875.660 0.0001 0.027 452.080 0.0001 0.035 663.870 0.0001 4.380 4.320 4.350

Inlet
110.0

Outlet
92.0

Mean
101.0

Table 8: Physical properties of tube side fluid (mixture of methyl palmitate and butane)

Properties Temperature (C) Specific Heat (kJ/kgC) Thermal Conductivity (w/m C) Density (kg/m3) viscosity (Ns/m)

Inlet
24.000

Outlet
100.000

Mean
62.000

1.878

2.487

2.183

0.104 865.800 0.817

0.072 733.000 0.398

0.088 799.400 0.607

**Notes: all of the value was get from the ASPEN simulation

3.3.3.2 Heat Load in Shell and Tube Side

Calculation Heat load,

Value

Unit

Where,

127.89

kW

m = mass flow rate (kg/h) Cp = specific heat (kJ/kg.C )

3.3.3.3 Overall coefficient For E-102, the overall coefficient is in range of 350 - 950 W/m2C. Refer figure 12.1. Thus, take the first U, assume as 350 W/m2C.

3.3.3.4 Type and dimension T1 t2 T2 t1 Log mean temperature Difference, LMTD 30.24
( )

Where, T1 : inlet shell-side fluid temperature,

T2 : outlet shell-side fluid temperature , t1 : inlet tube-side temperature, t2 : outlet tube-side temperature

0.238

0.884

*R : two dimensionless temperature ratios *S : measure of the temperature efficiency of the exchanger Refer figure 12.19, the temperature correction factor, Ft 0.56

Thus mean temperature , Tm = Ft x LMTD

16.93

The following assumptions are made in the derivation of the temperature correction factor, Ft in addition to those made for the calculation of the log mean temperature difference: 1. Equal heat transfer areas in each pass 2. A constant overall heat-transfer coefficient in each pass 3. The temperature of the shell-side fluid in any pass is constant across any cross section 4. There is no leakage of fluid between shell passes

3.3.3.5 Heat Transfer Area

Heat transfer area


21.58

m2

3.3.3.6 Layout and Tube Size

Length, L Outer diameter, D0 Inner diameter, Di


Tube pattern Tube Pitch, pt

5.0 0.01905 0.01483


Square

m m m
m

=0.024

3.3.3.7 Number of Tubes

Area of one tube: Assumption : neglect the thickness of tube 0.299 m2

Number of tubes, 72 Number of tube per pass, 36 From Table 12.4, Number of passes, 2 0.249 2.207 Tube cross sectional area, 0.00017 Area per pass, 0.00623 m2 m2

3.3.3.8 Bundle and Shell Diameter

From Table 12.4, for 2 tube passes: = 0.249 = 2.207 Bundle diameter, [ ] [ ] 0.248 m

For a Pull-through floating head exchanger the typical shell clearance from Figure 12.12 is 88 mm, so the shell inside diameter Ds = 0.248 + 0.088 = 0.243 m So, the shell inside diameter was following the British standard BS 3274, because its still in range of the BS. 0.337 m

3.3.3.9 Tube-Side Heat Transfer Coefficient

Volumetric flow rate at tube side, 0.001 Where, mt = mass flow rate in the tube side (kg/s) = density in the tube side (kg/m3) Tube side velocity, 1.0 Reynolds number, 19516.18 Prandtl number, 15.05 Where, kf = Thermal Conductivity (w/m C) m/s m3/s

337.15 Refer to Figure 12.23, tube side heat transfer factor, jh = 0.004 Heat transfer coefficient for tube side,

W/m2.C 1191.52

3.3.3.10

Shell-Side Heat Transfer Coefficient

Baffle spacing, 0.067 For square tube pitch, m

0.024 Shell cross flow area,

0.005 Where pt = tube pitch, = tube outside diameter, Ds = shell inside diameter, m, Bs = baffle spacing, m. Equivalent diameter,

m2

0.014

Volumetric flow rate on shell side, 0.002 Shell side velocity, 0.545 m/s m3/s

Reynolds number,

48941.43 Prandtl number, 12.47

Baffle cut chosen , 25% Refer to Figure 12.29, shell side heat transfer factor, jh= 0.003 Heat transfer coefficient for cold stream,

870.56

W/m2.C

3.3.3.11

Overall Coefficient

Outside fluid film coefficient, h0 Inside fluid film coefficient, hi Outside fouling factor coefficent, hod Inside fouling factor coefficent, hid Thermal conductivity of the tube wall material, kw Tube inside diameter,d0 Tube outside diameter, di Calculated overall heat transfer coefficient,

870.56 1191.52 3000 5000 58 0.01483 0.01905

W/m2 C W/m2 C W/m2 C W/m2 C W/m C m m

[ Thus ,

350
* ( )+

W/m2 C

The U0,calc value is same the initial estimate of 350 W/m2.C, thus the design has adequate area for the duty.

3.3.3.12

Tube Side Pressure Drop

Reynolds number, 19516.18

From Figure 12.24,tube side friction factor, jf =0.004 Tube side pressure drop, Assumption: neglect viscosity correction * * [ [ * + ][ + ][ ] ] +

11054.41 0.11 11.05

N/m2 bar kPa

*Within the specification for tube side fluid pressure drop

3.3.3.13

Shell Side Pressure Drop

Reynolds number,

48941.43

Baffle cut chosen, 25% From Figure 12.30, shell side friction factor, jf = 0.035 Shell side pressure drop, Assumption : neglect viscosity correction ( )( )( )( ) 155204.48 N/m2

1.6 ( )( )( ) 155.20

bar kPa

3.3.3.14

Conclusion

The proposed design is satisfied. With the pressure drop on shell and tube side is both below the allowed pressure drop. The heat exchanger use are shell and tube exchanger (pull through, floating head, one shell pass, two tube passes).Therefore there is some scope for improving the design.

Table 6: Summarize of Chemical Design for Heat Exchanger

Parameter Process condition, Heat load, Q Heat transfer coefficient, U0,calc

Value

Units

127.89 350

kW W/m2.C

Tube side (hot stream) Inlet temperature, T1 Outlet temperature, T2 Flow rate Outside diameter, D0 Inside diameter, Di Pitch, pt Number of tube Pressure drop, pt 24 100 2775 0.01905 0.01483 0.024 72 11.05 kPa C C Kg/hr m m m

Shell side (cold stream) Inlet temperature, t1 Outlet temperature, t2 Flow rate Shell inside diameter, Ds Passes, Ns Pressure drop, Ps 110 92.0 5900 0.337 2 51.03 kPa C C Kg/hr m