XREEETK 2007:011
Royal Institute of Technology Department of Electromagnetic Engineering Teknikringen 33 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
Calculation models for estimating DC currents impact on power transformers
Master of Science Thesis By Sergei Egorov
Supervisor Kurt Gramm ABB AB, Power transformers Ludvika, Product Development department
Examiner Göran Engdahl Professor at Electro Technical Design School of Electrical Engineering Acknowledgments
This master thesis has been carried out at ABB AB Power transformers department in Ludvika.
I want to acknowledge some of the people who have provided me with information and supported me during the work process.
First of all I would like to direct my foremost gratitude to my supervisor Kurt Gramm from the Product Development department at ABB, Sören Peterson the former transformer expert at ABB, Leif Andersson calculation expert at ABB and my examiner Göran Engdahl professor at Electro Technical Design at KTH for supporting me in my work.
Moreover I would like to thank Pavel Stuchl and Jan Johansson for their contribution to my work on finalizing state.
2
Abstract
The geomagnetic disturbances (magnetic storms) which can give rise to electrical potentials on the surface of the earth causing Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GIC), some times even called solar induced currents, are of great concern of many companies since many years ago. The frequency of GIC is very low  typically between 0,001 and 0,01Hz and can cause peak currents in the neutral of power system in the range of 200300 A. There are lots of devices that get affected by GIC. This determined the selection of the theme for this research. The report concentrates on GIC influence on power transformers. In earlier estimations only some rough approximations were made in order to handle the DC problem for specific designs, but those approximations were not accurate enough, not sufficient for all the different power transformer types. New investigations are really needed, to increase general precision and time efficiency of calculations. This research concentrates on the investigation of the influence of Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GIC: which is basically a DC current created by solar storms) on the power transformers.
The addition of a DC current to the normal AC load current affects the magnetic flux in the transformer core and surrounding in such a way that it becomes shifted by some constant value directly related to the DC current. This shift influences the performance of the core and winding. This report will show the results of the investigations with respect to increased losses, permitted load time, noise calculations and the impacts on the winding e.g. possible hotspots in windings or constructive parts during the impact of dc current.
ABB has many different power transformer types, each of them having two different design types: Trafostar (characterized by non split core frame) and TCA (often split core frames). Those two transformer types react differently to the DC current influence due to chosen core type and particular design features.
The DC calculation models of the different transformers core types are created in Microsoft Excel and include some simplifying approximations. The DC calculations models of Microsoft Excel are created for Trafostar and TCA cases as well as for different type of magnetic materials. The treated models in this report are D, EY, DY, TY3, TY1 and T transformers.
3
FIGURES AND TABLES
Figures
FIGURE 1: THE BASIC CIRCUIT (SCHOOL BOOK EXAMPLE) 
8 
FIGURE 2: MAGNETIC CIRCUIT OF THE SCHOOL BOOK EXAMPLE 
9 
FIGURE 3: DCORE TRANSFORMER 
11 
FIGURE 4: AIR AREA APPROXIMATION IN THE 
12 
FIGURE 5: MAGNETIC EQUIVALENT OF THE DCORE POWER TRANSFORMER 
12 
FIGURE 6: THE DC CURRENTS INFLUENCE ON THE FLUX OF THE WINDING 
14 
FIGURE 7: CURRENT PLOT FOR THE SYMMETRICAL RESPECTIVE UNSYMMETRICAL CASE 
15 
FIGURE 8: WINDING AND DC CURRENT 
16 
FIGURE 9: EYCORE TRAFOSTAR 
17 
FIGURE 10: EYCORE TCA CASE 
18 
FIGURE 11: MAGNETIC EQUIVALENT OF THE HALF OF THE DYCORE POWER TRANSFORMER WHICH IS VALID FOR BOTH THE TRAFOSTAR AND TCA DESIGNS 
18 
FIGURE 12: DYCORE TRAFOSTAR 
20 
FIGURE 13: THE MAGNETIC EQUIVALENT OF THE DYCORE TRAFOSTAR 
21 
FIGURE 14: DYCORE TCA CASE 
23 
FIGURE 15: MAGNETIC EQUIVALENT OF OUR CIRCUIT 
24 
FIGURE 16: TY3 CORE TRAFOSTAR 
25 
FIGURE 17: MAGNETIC EQUIVALENT OF THE TY3 TRANSFORMER TRAFOSTAR TYPE 
26 
FIGURE 18: TY1 CORE TRANSFORMER TRAFOSTAR CASE 
29 
FIGURE 19: MAGNETIC EQUIVALENT OF THE TY1 TRANSFORMER CORE TRAFOSTAR 
30 
FIGURE 20: APPROXIMATION OF THE PERMITTED LOAD TIME COMPARED WITH LINE APPROXIMATION 
35 
FIGURE 21: TEMPERATURE RELATION OF THE MAIN PARAMETERS IN THE HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE DETERMINATION
38 

FIGURE 22: FLUX, INDUCTION FIELD (B), CURRENT AND THE WINDING HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE PLOTS FOR PURE AC CASE (NO DC CURRENT CASE) 
39 
FIGURE 23: FLUX, INDUCTION FIELD (B), CURRENT AND THE WINDING HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE PLOTS FOR DC CURRENT CASE AT DC CURRENT OF 20A 
40 
FIGURE 24: LOAD FACTOR K VS TIME TO REACH A WINDING HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE OF 140, 130, 120 & 100 ^{0} C 42 FIGURE 25: FLUX, INDUCTION FIELD, CURRENT AND THE WINDING HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE PLOTS FOR THE PURE
AC CASE (NO DC CURRENT CASE) FOR EYCORE TRAFOSTAR 
43 
FIGURE 26: FLUX, INDUCTION FIELD, CURRENT AND THE WINDING HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE PLOTS FOR DC THE _{C}_{U}_{R}_{R}_{E}_{N}_{T} _{C}_{A}_{S}_{E} _{F}_{O}_{R} EYCORE TRAFOSTAR AT DC CURRENT OF 20 
43 
FIGURE 27: LOAD FACTOR K VS TIME TO REACH A WINDING HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE OF 140, 130, 120 & 100 ^{0} C _{F}_{O}_{R} EYCORE 
45 
FIGURE 28: FLUX, INDUCTION FIELD (B), CURRENT AND THE WINDING HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE PLOTS FOR PURE AC CASE (NO DC CURRENT CASE) FOR DYCORE TRAFOSTAR 
46 
FIGURE 29: FLUX, INDUCTION FIELD (B), CURRENT AND THE WINDING HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE PLOTS FOR DC CURRENT CASE FOR DYCORE TRAFOSTAR FOR DC CURRENT OF 20A 
46 
FIGURE 30: FLUX, INDUCTION FIELD (B), CURRENT AND THE WINDING HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE PLOTS FOR PURE AC CASE (NO DC CURRENT CASE) FOR DYCORE TCA 
48 
FIGURE 31: FLUX, INDUCTION FIELD (B), CURRENT AND THE WINDING HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE PLOTS FOR THE DC
CURRENT CASE FOR DYCORE TCA FOR A DC CURRENT OF 150 A 
49 
FIGURE 32: PARTIAL LINEAR APPROXIMATION OF THE MAGNETIZING FIELD OF THE SELECTED ELECTRIC STEEL 
52 
FIGURE 33: DETERMINATION OF THE STARTING POINT OF THE CIRCULAR APPROXIMATION 
54 
FIGURE 34: DETERMINATION OF THE ENDING POINT OF THE CIRCULAR APPROXIMATION OF THE H(B) 
54 
FIGURE 35: FINAL AND THE LINEAR APPROXIMATIONS OF H(B) COMPARED TO EACH OTHER 
55 
FIGURE 36: PARTIAL LINEAR APPROXIMATION OF THE PERMEABILITY DEPENDENT OF THE INDUCTION FIELD 
57 
FIGURE 37: THE FINAL APPROXIMATION COMPARED WITH THE LINE APPROXIMATION 
58 
4
Tables
TABLE 1: TRANSFORMER RESIGNATIONS FOR DCORE 
11 
TABLE 2: MAGNETIC RESIGNATIONS DCORE 
13 
TABLE 3: TRANSFORMERS RESIGNATIONS EYCORE 
18 
TABLE 4: MAGNETIC RESIGNATIONS EYCORE 
19 
TABLE 5: TRANSFORMER RESIGNATIONS DYCORE TRAFOSTAR 
20 
TABLE 6: MAGNETIC RESIGNATIONS DYCORE TCA 
21 
TABLE 7: TRANSFORMER RESIGNATIONS DYCORE TCA 
23 
TABLE 8: TRANSFORMER RESIGNATIONS TY3 CORE TRAFOSTAR 
26 
TABLE 9: MAGNETIC RESIGNATIONS DYCORE TRAFOSTAR 
27 
TABLE 10: THE RECOMMENDED THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR EXPONENTIAL EQUATIONS 
38 
TABLE 11: RESULTS REGARDING THE SHIFT, LOSS AND NOISE CALCULATIONS FOR THE 30R122 MATERIAL DCORE
TCA
41
TABLE 12: RESULTS REGARDING WINDING HOT SPOT CALCULATIONS FOR 30R122 MATERIAL DCORE TCA TABLE 13: RESULTS OF FLUX SHIFT, LOSSES, LOAD AND NOISE CALCULATIONS FOR THE 30R122 MATERIAL EY CORE TRAFOSTAR TABLE 14: RESULTS OF THE WINDING HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE CALCULATION FOR 30R122 MATERIAL EYCORE TRAFOSTAR TABLE 15: RESULTS OF THE FLUX SHIFT, LOAD, LOSSES AND NOISE CALCULATIONS FOR 30R122 DYCORE TRAFOSTAR TABLE 16: RESULTS OF THE WINDING HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE CALCULATIONS 2 FOR MATERIAL 30R122 DY CORE TRAFOSTAR TABLE 17: RESULTS OF SHIFT, LOAD, LOSS AND NOISE CALCULATIONS FOR MATERIAL 30R122 DYCORE TCA TABLE 18: RESULTS OF THE WINDING HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE CALCULATIONS FOR MATERIAL 30R122 DYCORE
41
44
44
47
47
49
TCA 
50 
TABLE 19: SELECTED POINT FOR THE LINEAR APPROXIMATION OF H=H(B) 
53 
TABLE 20: THE RESPECTIVE VALUES FOR PERMEABILITY AND INCREASE FACTORS CALCULATED FROM THE VALUES
_{O}_{F} _{T}_{H}_{E} _{M}_{A}_{G}_{N}_{E}_{T}_{I}_{Z}_{I}_{N}_{G} _{F}_{I}_{E}_{L}_{D} _{A}_{N}_{D} _{I}_{N}_{D}_{U}_{C}_{T}_{I}_{O}_{N}
56
5
TABLE OF CONTEST
1. INTRODUCTION 
7 

1.1 BACKGROUND 
7 

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT 
7 

1.3 GOAL 
7 

2. MAGNETIC EXAMPLE AND APPROXIMATIONS 
8 

2.1 INTRODUCTION OF THE MAGNETIC CIRCUITS (SCHOOLBOOK EXAMPLE) 
8 

2.2 MAIN PREPARATIONS BEFORE THE BUILDING OF MODELS FOR DIFFERENT POWER TRANSFORMERS TYPES 
10 

3. CONSTRUCTION OF THE TRANSFORMERS CALCULATION MODELS 
10 

3.1 DCORE 
10 

3.2 INDUCTION FIELD SHIFT DETERMINATION AS THE RESULT OF THE INFLUENCE OF DC CURRENT 
14 

3.3 EYCORE 
17 

3.4 DY CORE 
20 

3.4.1 DYcore Trafostar 
20 

3.4.2 DYcore TCA 
22 

3.5 TY3CORE 
25 

3.5.1 
TY3 core Trafostar 
25 

3.6 TY1 CORE 
29 

3.6.1 
TY1 core Trafostar 
29 

4 MAIN CALCULATIONS 
32 

4.1 NO LOAD LOSSES INCREASE DURING INFLUENCE OF A DC CURRENT 
32 

4.2 HARMONICS DETERMINATION 
33 

4.3 CALCULATION OF THE INCREASE FACTORS OF THE WINDING LOSSES DUE THE INFLUENCE OF THE DC 

CURRENT 
33 

4.4 PERMITTED LOAD TIME CALCULATION DUE TO CORE RESTRICTIONS (FLITCH PLATE) 
35 

4.5 DETERMINATION OF THE NOISE INCREASE DURING THE DC CURRENTS INFLUENCE 
36 
4.6 DETERMINATION OF THE WINDING HOT SPOTS TEMPERATURE VERSUS TIME DURING THE INFLUENCE OF DC
CURRENT 
36 

4.7 RESULTS 
39 

4.7.1 
DCORE 
39 

4.7.1.1 Dcore TCA 
39 

4.7.2 
EYCORE 
42 

4.7.2.1 EYcore Trafostar 
42 

4.7.3 
DYCORE 
45 

4.7.3.1 DYcore Trafostar 
45 

4.7.3.2 DYcore TCA 
48 

4.7.4 TY3 CORE, TCORE & TY1 CORE TYPES 
50 

4.7.5 COMMENTS OF THE RESULTS CALCULATIONS 
50 

5 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK 
51 

APPENDIX 
52 

A.1 APPROXIMATION OF THE MAGNETIZING FIELD WITH KNOWN INDUCTION FIELD H = H (B) 
52 

A.2 APPROXIMATION OF THE PERMEABILITY WITH KNOWN INDUCTION FIELD μ = μ(B) 
56 

A.3 INPUT DATA SHEETS FOR THE CREATED MODELS 
59 

A.3.1 Dcore 
59 

A.3.2 EYcore 
60 

A.3.3 DYCORE 
61 

A.3.3.1 DYcore Trafostar 
61 

A.3.3.2 DYcore TCA 
62 

REFERENCE 
63 
6
1. Introduction
1.1 Background
The influence of DC currents on the power transformers have been an important question for many years, however no simple calculation tool have been developed. E.g. currently ABB had no general tool for determination of permitted load time, or even a trustful knowledge about the DC current influence on the properties of the involved constructing materials. Some rough approximations have only been made in the earlier works to describe this DC currents influence on the transformers.
The customers' demands for more detailed information about the influence of DC currents on power transformers have increased dramatically under the last couple of years. This makes this matter of highly priority.
There are several aspects to be considered that limits the possible applied load on the transformers such as no load loss and winding loss increase factors, permitted load time and the hot spot temperature in winding.
1.2 Problem statement
The problem with DC current influence on the transformers has been tackled before but only with some rough approximations and most of the calculations were performed manually for specific models. No general tool for simple calculations due to DC current influence exists at the moment. E.g. one of the approximations made in earlier calculations neglects the air flux in the winding. The reason why the problems haven't been handled properly earlier is lack of time (there was always something more urgent that had to be done). ABB has for a long time been aware of the problem, and has after customers' demands for more information about the matter, decided to work with this subject. This investigation report contributes to this work.
1.3 Goal
The aim of this project regarding the influence of DC currents was the following issues.
• Theoretically create the reasonable magnetic flux models for the different types of power transformers such as D, EY, DY, T, TY3 and TY1 core types both for Trafostar and TCA transformer types.
• Create calculation tools in order to calculate the additional core losses, permitted load time, noise calculations, hot spot temperature and increase of the winding losses with the main focus on the Trafostar transformers
• Well written program documentation for the calculation tools.
• Project report in English.
7
2. Magnetic example and approximations
2.1 Introduction of the magnetic circuits (schoolbook example)
In figure 1 a typical school book example can be seen (without an air gap).
Note: In all the following figures only the magnetizing windings are shown
Figure 1: The basic circuit (school book example)
It is assumed that the following parameters are known.
l 
1 : Magnetic path length 1(red) 
[ m 
] 

l 
2 
: Magnetic path length 2(green) 
[ m 
] 

A 1 
: Core area region 1 
[ 
m 
2 
] 

A 2 
: Core area region 2 
[ 
m 
2 
] 
N: Number of turns in winding
I
Winding current Permeability region 1 (red) Permeability region 2 (green)
μ
μ
1
2
:
:
]
]
Task: Calculate the instantaneous values of the magnetic flux densities (inductions fields)
and
B
2 .
B
1
The equivalent magnetic circuit of the figure 1 can be seen in figure 2
8
Figure 2: Magnetic circuit of the school book example
φ
w
φ
F1
R
R
1
2
Total flux in winding Total flux in the iron core Reluctance region 1 Reluctance region 2
[Wb ]
[Wb ]
[
[
s)
s)
]
]
R
1 is the reluctance of the core leg and R
2 is the reluctance of the region 2 which will be
divided in two parts in the later calculations. Those parts are
to the sum of the upper and lower parts (yoke) in the region 2) and
corresponding to the vertical part of the region 2(side limb)) they are combined in this example because of the same area in both parts. The winding flux is equal to the total flux in
the core
R yoke
(reluctance corresponding
R
limb
(reluctance
φ
W
= φ
F1
(no air flux is considered).
R =
l
Aμ
(2.11)
Magnetic circuit law applied on the loop gives the following
H l
1
1
+ H
2
l
2
= NI
(2.12)
Well known relationship between induction field B[T] and the magnetizing field H[A/m] is
B = μH[T ]
⇒
=
B
H
[A m]
/
μ
(2.13)
By using equation (2.12) and (2.13) one gets
B
1
B
2
l
2
l
1
+
μ
1
μ
2
=
NI
The same flux in both regions yields
φ =
A B
1
⇒
B
2
=
1
=
A B
2
2
[Wb]
A
1
A
2
B [T]
1
(2.14)
(2.15)
9
Equation (2.15) inserted in equation (2.14) results in the new equation
B
1
l
A
1
B
1
μ
1
1
A
2
μ
2
+
l
2
=
NI
(2.16)
Our desired results can now be obtained from the equations (2.17) and (2.18)
B
B
1
2
=
=
NI
l
1
A
1
l
2
+
μ
1
A
2
μ
2
A
1
A
2
B
1
[T]
[T] 
(2.17) 
(2.18) 
This was a typical school book example. Unfortunately in the real life it’s not always that simple but the main principle is the same For instance the permeability is not a constant and the known parameters are limited only to the dimensions of the particular circuit and feeding voltage source. The feeding voltage source determines the total winding flux, which can be approximated as long as the voltage, frequency and number of the winding turns are known.
The problem becomes more complicated when the air flux and the influence of the dc current have to be taken into consideration. But still the main magnetic principle of the circuit remains the same as in example above.
2.2 Main preparations before the building of models for different
power transformers types
In order to create the effective and helpful tool that could easily be used by a single user who is less interested in all the details of the calculation background. It is necessary to “construct” the relationship between H and i.e. H=H(B) Unfortunately one approximation wasn’t enough for creation of all the models. And another approximation for the determination of the permeability μ with known induction field B[T ] had to be created μ=μ(B). The reason for that was that Microsoft Excel could not find any solution for more advanced models with the first mentioned approximation, see Appendix A.1 and A.2.
3. Construction of the transformers calculation models
3.1 Dcore
One of the simplest power transformers is the Dcore transformer, see figure 3 and table 1. It reminds a lot of the example in part 2.1 in this report "Introduction of the magnetic circuits". The main difference is that windings are placed on both limbs in the Dcore otherwise they are completely identical. For this core type it can be assumed that
10
Trafostar=TCA but only regarding the magnetic circuit principle (the same model can be used for the calculations). The mechanical construction is not identical for those two design types.
Figure 3: Dcore transformer
L 
h 
Limb height 
[m] 

L 
p 
Limb pitch 
[m] 

Y 
h 
Yoke height 
[m] 

A 
Area for respective region 
[m 
^{2} ] 

W 
h 
Winding height 
[m] 

l 
1 
Magnetic path length 1 region 1 (red) 
[m] 

l 
2 
Magnetic path length 2 region 2 (green) 
[m] 

l 
air1 
Magnetic path length of the air 1(in winding) 
[m] 

l 
air2 
Magnetic path length of the air 2 (outside) 
[m] 
Table 1: Transformer resignations for Dcore.
Due to the symmetry only half the circuit may be considered. This makes the model less complicated and results in the following equivalent magnetic circuit (see figure 5). By considering only half of the circuit one can make this model resemble the example in 2.1, but this time including the air flux and the influence of the DC current. That's why the model will be more complicated.
When it comes to the definition of the magnetic path length of the air flux, the Magnetic path
length
height in all following models, see figure 3. The reason for that is that the magnetizing field outside the winding is much smaller than the magnetizing field in the winding
l
air
2
will be neglected (assumed to be =0) and the
l
air
1
will be set equal to the winding
11
The equation (3.11) describes already an approximation, where the magnetizing field outside the winding is approximated by a constant. By using the earlier mentioned approximation
H
H
H
air 2
air
air
1
l
2
<< H
air1
air
1
+
H
air
<<
H
air
1
the magnetic air path can be reduced to just l
air1
in equation (3.12).
2
l
air
⇒
NI
2
=
H
air
1
l
air
1
(3.11) 

≈ 
NI 
(3.12) 
This approximation is absolutely not perfect but is accurate enough in order to give some reasonable results. The area approximation of the air flux is that it is assumed to be the area between the winding and the core limb, see figure 4, table 2 and equation (3.13)
Figure 4: Air area approximation in the winding.
A
Air
_{⎟}
= π ⎜ ⎛ W ⎞
⎠
d
⎝
2
2
−
A
limb
=
A
w
−
A
1
[
2
m
]
(3.13)
Figure 5: Magnetic equivalent of the Dcore power transformer
12
N 
Winding turn number 

I 
Winding current 
[A] 

Φ 
w 
Total flux in winding 
[Wb] 
Φ 
Air 
Air flux 
[Wb] 
Φ 
F1 
Total flux in the iron core 
[Wb] 
R 
Air 
Reluctance of the air 
[A/(V*s)] 
R 
1 
Reluctance of region 1 
[A/(V*s)] 
R 
2 
Reluctance of region 2 
[A/(V*s)] 
Table 2: Magnetic resignations Dcore
In order to solve this system a solver, which is a mathematic tool already existing in Microsoft Excel, has to be used. The solver basically guesses some value. In this case it is the induction
field value in the region 1
B
1 which has to fulfill the magnetic requirements of the circuit.
Under the assumption that induction field can be started.
B is known (correctly guessed) the model creation
1
The magnetizing field
approximation H (B[T ]) . The total flux in iron φ and induction field of the region 1.
H 1 is directly approximated from the induction field
F1
B 1 by using our
can be calculated by multiplying the area
B
1
⇒
⎧
⎨
φ
⎩
F 1
φ
F1
⇒
B
2
B
2
⇒ H
2
m
[
]
Wb
]
Induction field in region 2 
[T ] 
Magnetizing field in the region 2 
[ A / m ] 
Our magnetizing current can be calculated from the first loop equation (see figure 5) which is exactly the same as equation (2.12)
I =
H l
1
1
+
H l
2
2
N
[
A
]
Now when the magnetizing current is known the second loop can be used to determine the
magnetizing field in the air H
[ A / m]
equation (3.14)
Air
H
Air ^{=}
NI
l Air
[A/ m]
(3.14)
By using the magnetizing field of the air both the induction field B
Air
[T ]
and flux of the air
φ Air
[Wb]
can be determined by equations (3.15) and (3.16)
B
_{A}_{i}_{r} = μ
0
NI
l Air
= μ
_{0} H
Air
φ =
Air
A
Air
μ
0
NI
l Air
=
A
Air
[
T
]
B
Air
(3.15) 

[ 
Wb 
] 
(3.16) 
The requirement that has to be fulfilled by the solver is that
13
φ
w
−
φ
F
, where
1
−
φ
w
φ
Air
=
0
[Wb]
is known (by voltage) and
φ
F
1
[
Wb
]
,
φ
Air
[Wb]
(3.17)
have to be calculated.
3.2 Induction field shift determination as the result of the influence of DC current
At this moment our base model for the Dcore is complete. The next step is to introduce the
DC current I
parameter resulting in a DC addition
result of the DC current influence on the transformer which leads to the change of the total winding flux: the total flux is no longer pure AC and now contains a DC component, see equation (3.21).
DC [ A]
into our model. This can easily be done by introducing an additional
φ shift
[Wb]
to the winding flux. This additional term is the
φ
wTot
AC
DC
= φ + φ
w
shift
[Wb]
(3.21)
The addition of the DC part in the winding flux will result in that the original AC part will be shifted by the DC component, see figure 6.
The influence of DC current on the flux in the winding
Degrees
FluxWindingAc[Wb]
FluxShift[Wb]
FluxWinding[Wb]
Figure 6: The DC currents influence on the flux of the winding
14
The DC shift in flux depends on magnitude of the DC current, transformer design, core type, and core material.
The addition of the DC current results in another noticeable effect: the extreme value of the excited current can for that unsymmetrical (DC current) case only be reached once in a period but two times for the symmetrical (pure AC) case, see figure 7.
Figure 7: Current plot for the symmetrical respective unsymmetrical case
In order to actually calculate the DC shift in the flux with the known DC current the solver has to fulfill another requirement; equation (3.22), see also figure 8
A
upper
= A
lower
, where:
A upper
A
lower
Current area above the DC current
Current area under the DC current
(3.22)
[
[ m
m
2
2
]
]
The resulting current during a period is only the DC component (the resulting AC current is 0)
In order to implement the aforesaid in Microsoft Excel the following has to be done for a half of the period:
• Subtract the DC current from the total magnetizing current I the DC current should be our new zero level.
• Divide the values of I in the area calculation.
w
−
I
DC
[ A]
, because
w
− I
[ A]
at the start and end phase positions to reduce the error
DC
15
• Now by summation of the all the values over a half of period of
I
w
−
I
DC
[ A]
the equal
area criteria can be checked in equation (3.22). The summation of over a half period
corresponds to an integration which yields A
fulfilled, see figure 8.
−
A
lower
= 0
if equation (3.22) is
upper
Figure 8: Winding and DC current plot.
After the DC currents are introduced in our model the induction field shift in the core limb
B
1
shift
[
T
] and the nominal magnitude of the induction field B
1nom
[T ]
(peak value of the
induction field in the core limb for pure AC case) can be calculated by use of equation (3.23) and (3.24)
^{B} nom
B
shift
=
=
B
max
−
B
min
B
nom
2
−
B
min
[ 
T 
] 
(3.2 3) 
(3.24) 
Those parameters will be useful in the loss calculation later on.
Note: The calculations of the above mentioned items were solved in Microsoft Excel in two steps, as Microsoft Excel could not solve it all at once. The first step was to determine the
induction field
current was introduced in order to calculate the influence on the transformer.
B
1
[
T
]
to meet the circuit magnetic requirements and in the second step the DC
Step 1 No DC current/flux shift considered
With start guess induction field for step 2.
B [T ] fulfill equation (3.25) in order to get the start values
1
16
Start guess:
B 1 [T]
Equation to fulfill
φ −−φ φ =
w
F
Air
0
(3.25)
Step 2 Determination of the circuits magnetic with DC current included
With DC current considered another guess parameter have to be introduced in solver the
constant flux shift Start guesses:
φ
shift
[
Wb
]
which have to fulfill the equal area criteria equation (3.22)
B [T ] and
1
φ
shift
[
Wb
]
Equations to fulfill
φ −−φ φ =
w
F
Air
A
upper
= A
lower
0
3.3 EYcore
The principal magnetically difference between Trafostar and TCA transformers models can be seen in figure 9 and 10 see also table 3. I.e. TCA has separated magnetic frame parts and differs from Trafostar.
Figure 9: EYcore Trafostar
17
Figure 10: EYcore TCA case
L 
h 
Limb height 
[m] 

L 
p 
Limb pitch 
[m] 

Y 
h 
Yoke height 
[m] 

A 
Area for respective region 
[m 
^{2} ] 

W 
h 
Winding height 
[m] 

l 
1 
Magnetic path length 1 region 1 
[m] 

l 
2 
Magnetic path length 2 region 2 
[m] 

l 
3 
Magnetic path length 3 region 3 
[m] 
Table 3: Transformers resignations EYcore
Due to symmetry only half of the circuits need to be considered for both the Trafostar and TCA cases. The magnetic principle for both design types are identical because of the symmetry assumption (Trafostar=TCA). The magnetic equivalent of half of that circuit can be seen in figure 11.
Figure 11: Magnetic equivalent of the half of the DYcore power transformer which is valid for both the Trafostar and TCA designs
18
N 
Winding turn number 

I 
Winding current 
[A] 

Φ 
w 
Total flux in winding 
[Wb] 
Φ 
Air 
Air flux 
[Wb] 
Φ 
F3 
Total flux in the iron core 
[Wb] 
R 
Air 
Reluctance of the air 
[A/(V*s)] 
R 
1 
Reluctance of region 1 
[A/(V*s)] 
R 
2 
Reluctance of region 2 
[A/(V*s)] 
R 
3 
Reluctance of region 3 
[A/(V*s)] 
Table 4: Magnetic resignations EYcore
Our start guesses for this transformer are the induction field This results in the following.
The magnetizing fields inductions fields
H
1
[
A
/
m
]
,
H
2
[
A
/
m
]
and
H
3
[
A
/
m
]
B
3
[
T
]
and flux shift
φ
shift
[Wb]
.
are directly obtained from the
The magnetizing current can be calculated by using the equation (3.31) (see loop 1 in figure
11.)
H l
3
3
+ H l
2
2
I
⇒ =
H
3
l
3
+ H l
1
1
+
H
2
l
2
= NI
+
H l
1
1
N
[
A
]
(3.31)
Thereafter the magnetizing current is calculated by use of the equations (3.14), (3.15) and (3.16) that can be used in order to calculate the magnetizing field, induction field and flux of the air.
⇒
⎧ H
B
A
]
WB
[
/
]
⎪
⎨
⎪
Air
[
T
Air
φ
⎩
Air
[
m
]
The flux shift in the core leg can be determined by checking the equal area criteria in the equation (3.22) and by using the equations (3.23) and (3.24). The induction field shift in the core leg can be determined in a similar way as in Dcore part.
19
3.4 DY core
3.4.1 DYcore Trafostar
The main model for DYcore for the Trafostar case can be seen in figure 12 and table 5. Even for this case the symmetry assumption is used and it brings results, although only half of the circuit is considered.
Figure 12: DYcore Trafostar
L 
h 
Limb height 
[m] 

L 
p 
Limb pitch 
[m] 

L 
ps 
Limb pitch side 
[m] 

Y 
h 
Yoke height 
[m] 

A 
Area for respective region 
[m 
^{2} ] 

W 
h 
Winding height 
[m] 

l 
1 
Magnetic path length 1(red) 
[m] 

l 
2 
Magnetic path length 2(blue) 
[m] 

l 
3 
Magnetic path length 
[m] 

3(orange) 

l 
4 
Magnetic path length 
[m] 

4(green) 

l 
Air 
Magnetic path length of the air region(Only the length parallel to core leg considered) 
[m] 
Table 5: Transformer resignations DYcore Trafostar
By observing our transformer model in figure 12 and by taking advantage of the symmetry criteria in the circuit, our magnetic equivalent got the following appearance, see figure 13.
20
Figure 13: The magnetic equivalent of the DYcore Trafostar
N 
Number of turns in winding 

I 
Winding current 
[A] 
Φ w 
Total flux in winding 
[Wb] 
Φ Air 
Air flux 
[Wb] 
Φ F3 
Total flux in the iron core 
[Wb] 
R Air 
Reluctance of the air 
[A/(V*s)] 
R 1 
Reluctance of region 1 
[A/(V*s)] 
R 2 
Reluctance of region 2 
[A/(V*s)] 
R3 
Reluctance of region 3 
[A/(V*s)] 
R 4 
Reluctance of region 4 
[A/(V*s)] 
Table 6: Magnetic resignations DYcore TCA
The start guesses for the solver in Microsoft Excel in this case are the inductions fields
B
3
[
T
]
and the flux shift
φ
shift
[Wb]
. These result in the following:
B
2
[
T
]
B
B
3
2
[
[
T
T
]
]
⇒
⇒
⎧
φ
F
⎨
⎩
⎧
φ
⎨
⎩
F
3
2
= B
3
A
3
μ
3
= B
2
A
2
μ
2
[
Wb
]
[
Wb
]
, where the permeability values
see Appendix A2.
μ and
2
μ
3 are directly obtained from μ=μ(B) approximation,
After the values of the total flux in the iron core
obtained the flux φ
φ
F
3
[
Wb
]
and the flux
F
4
[
Wb
]
could be determined by equation (3.41)
φ
F
2
[
Wb
φ
F
4
= φ −φ
F
3
F
2
[
Wb
]
(3.41)
]
have been
,
21
Then it follows
⎧
⎨
⎩
μ
1
μ
4
From the equation (3.42) obtained from a loop in the figure 13 the magnetizing current can be calculated.
NI = H l
1
1
I
⇒ =
H l
1
1
+ H l
+
2
2
H
2
+ H l
3
3
l
2
+
H
3
l
3
N
[
A
]
(3.42)
After the magnetizing current is known (by using the equations (3.13), (3.14) and (3.15)) the magnetizing field, the induction field and the flux in the air can be obtained.
The solver requirements that have to be met are:
φ
w
−
H l
4
4
φ
F
3
−
φ
Air
= 0
− H l
2
2
− H l
1
1
(3.43) 

= 
0 
(3.44) 
The flux shift and the induction field shift can be calculated in a similar way as in earlier models.
μ(B[T ]) approximation was used in this model for determination of the magnetic requirements of the system instead of the H (B[T ]) used in the previous models as the solver didn't manage to find the solution with the H (B[T ]) approximation in this model
3.4.2 DYcore TCA
The figure 14 shows the drawing of the DYcore transformer TCA case. The symmetry of the circuit makes it possible to consider only the half of the circuit. It simplifies the calculations considerably. The magnetic equivalent of this model can be seen in figure 15, see also table 7 for transformer parameters.
22
Figure 14: DYcore TCA case
L h 
Limb height 
[m] 

L p 
Limb pitch 
[m] 

L ps 
Limb pitch side 
[m] 

Y h 
Yoke height 
[m] 

A 
Area for respective region 
[m 
^{2} ] 

W h 
Winding height 
[m] 

l 
11 
Magnetic path length 
[m] 

11(green) 

l 
12 
Magnetic path length 12(red) 
[m] 

l 
13 
Magnetic path length 
[m] 

13(blue) 

l 
21 
Magnetic path length 
[m] 

21(orange) 

l 
22 
Magnetic path length 
[m] 

22(pink) 
Table 7: Transformer resignations DYcore TCA
23
Figure 15: Magnetic equivalent of our circuit
Calculation procedure:
Introduced solver guess parameters
B
13
B
21
[T ]
[T ]
φ
shift
[
Wb
]
Induction field in the wound limb (outer frame)
Induction field in the wound limb (middle frame)
Flux shift in the winding flux
From which it follows
B
B
13
21
φ
F
φ
F
13
21
⇒
⇒
⎧
φ
F
⎨
⎩
⎧
φ
⎨
⎩
F
13
[
Wb
]
μ
13
21
[
Wb
]
μ
21
⎫ ⎬
⎭
⎧ B
⎪
⇒ ⎨ B
⎪
⎩
12
11
B
22
φ
= 13
φ
= 13
φ
= 21
[
[
T
T ⇒
]
]
[ T
]
⎧
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎩
μ
12
μ
11
μ
22
, where the permeability values are directly approximated from the inductions fields.
B 12
B 11
B
22
,
,
,
μ 12
μ 11
μ 22
⎫
⎪
⎬
⎪
⎭
H
⇒ H
12
11
H
22
=
=
=
A
[
A
[ A
[
/
/
/
m
m
m
]
]
]
The loop equations which are taken from the magnetic equivalent in figure 15 results in the following relation for the magnetizing current.
H
l
11 11
+ H
l
12 12
+ H
l
13 13
= NI
I =
H
l
11 11
+
H
l
12 12
+
H
l
13 13
N
[
A
]
(3.4.21)
24
With the current being known the equations (3.14), (3.15) and (3.16) can be used to calculate the magnetizing field, induction field and flux of the air.
I ⇒
]
Finally the magnetic requirements for solver to fulfill are
φ
w
H
φ
−
l
11 11
F
−
φ
+ H
Air
l
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