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XR-EE-ETK 2007:011

Royal Institute of Technology Department of Electromagnetic Engineering Teknikringen 33 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden

Engineering Teknikringen 33 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden Calculation models for estimating DC currents impact on

Calculation models for estimating DC currents impact on power transformers

Master of Science Thesis By Sergei Egorov

Supervisor Kurt Gramm ABB AB, Power transformers Ludvika, Product Development department

Examiner Göran Engdahl Professor at Electro Technical Design School of Electrical Engineering Acknowledgments

This master thesis has been carried out at ABB AB Power transformers department in Ludvika.

I want to acknowledge some of the people who have provided me with information and supported me during the work process.

First of all I would like to direct my foremost gratitude to my supervisor Kurt Gramm from the Product Development department at ABB, Sören Peterson the former transformer expert at ABB, Leif Andersson calculation expert at ABB and my examiner Göran Engdahl professor at Electro Technical Design at KTH for supporting me in my work.

Moreover I would like to thank Pavel Stuchl and Jan Johansson for their contribution to my work on finalizing state.

Abstract

The geomagnetic disturbances (magnetic storms) which can give rise to electrical potentials on the surface of the earth causing Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GIC), some times even called solar induced currents, are of great concern of many companies since many years ago. The frequency of GIC is very low - typically between 0,001 and 0,01Hz and can cause peak currents in the neutral of power system in the range of 200-300 A. There are lots of devices that get affected by GIC. This determined the selection of the theme for this research. The report concentrates on GIC influence on power transformers. In earlier estimations only some rough approximations were made in order to handle the DC problem for specific designs, but those approximations were not accurate enough, not sufficient for all the different power transformer types. New investigations are really needed, to increase general precision and time efficiency of calculations. This research concentrates on the investigation of the influence of Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GIC: which is basically a DC current created by solar storms) on the power transformers.

The addition of a DC current to the normal AC load current affects the magnetic flux in the transformer core and surrounding in such a way that it becomes shifted by some constant value directly related to the DC current. This shift influences the performance of the core and winding. This report will show the results of the investigations with respect to increased losses, permitted load time, noise calculations and the impacts on the winding e.g. possible hotspots in windings or constructive parts during the impact of dc current.

ABB has many different power transformer types, each of them having two different design types: Trafostar (characterized by non split core frame) and TCA (often split core frames). Those two transformer types react differently to the DC current influence due to chosen core type and particular design features.

The DC calculation models of the different transformers core types are created in Microsoft Excel and include some simplifying approximations. The DC calculations models of Microsoft Excel are created for Trafostar and TCA cases as well as for different type of magnetic materials. The treated models in this report are D, EY, DY, TY-3, TY-1 and T transformers.

FIGURES AND TABLES

Figures

FIGURE 1: THE BASIC CIRCUIT (SCHOOL BOOK EXAMPLE)

8

FIGURE 2: MAGNETIC CIRCUIT OF THE SCHOOL BOOK EXAMPLE

9

FIGURE 3: D-CORE TRANSFORMER

11

FIGURE 4: AIR AREA APPROXIMATION IN THE

12

FIGURE 5: MAGNETIC EQUIVALENT OF THE D-CORE POWER TRANSFORMER

12

FIGURE 6: THE DC CURRENTS INFLUENCE ON THE FLUX OF THE WINDING

14

FIGURE 7: CURRENT PLOT FOR THE SYMMETRICAL RESPECTIVE UNSYMMETRICAL CASE

15

FIGURE 8: WINDING AND DC CURRENT

16

FIGURE 9: EY-CORE TRAFOSTAR

17

FIGURE 10: EY-CORE TCA CASE

18

FIGURE 11: MAGNETIC EQUIVALENT OF THE HALF OF THE DY-CORE POWER TRANSFORMER WHICH IS VALID FOR BOTH THE TRAFOSTAR AND TCA DESIGNS

18

FIGURE 12: DY-CORE TRAFOSTAR

20

FIGURE 13: THE MAGNETIC EQUIVALENT OF THE DY-CORE TRAFOSTAR

21

FIGURE 14: DY-CORE TCA CASE

23

FIGURE 15: MAGNETIC EQUIVALENT OF OUR CIRCUIT

24

FIGURE 16: TY-3 CORE TRAFOSTAR

25

FIGURE 17: MAGNETIC EQUIVALENT OF THE TY-3 TRANSFORMER TRAFOSTAR TYPE

26

FIGURE 18: TY-1 CORE TRANSFORMER TRAFOSTAR CASE

29

FIGURE 19: MAGNETIC EQUIVALENT OF THE TY-1 TRANSFORMER CORE TRAFOSTAR

30

FIGURE 20: APPROXIMATION OF THE PERMITTED LOAD TIME COMPARED WITH LINE APPROXIMATION

35

FIGURE 21: TEMPERATURE RELATION OF THE MAIN PARAMETERS IN THE HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE DETERMINATION

 

38

FIGURE 22: FLUX, INDUCTION FIELD (B), CURRENT AND THE WINDING HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE PLOTS FOR PURE AC CASE (NO DC CURRENT CASE)

39

FIGURE 23: FLUX, INDUCTION FIELD (B), CURRENT AND THE WINDING HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE PLOTS FOR DC CURRENT CASE AT DC CURRENT OF 20A

40

FIGURE 24: LOAD FACTOR K VS TIME TO REACH A WINDING HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE OF 140, 130, 120 & 100 0 C 42 FIGURE 25: FLUX, INDUCTION FIELD, CURRENT AND THE WINDING HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE PLOTS FOR THE PURE

AC CASE (NO DC CURRENT CASE) FOR EY-CORE TRAFOSTAR

43

FIGURE 26: FLUX, INDUCTION FIELD, CURRENT AND THE WINDING HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE PLOTS FOR DC THE CURRENT CASE FOR EY-CORE TRAFOSTAR AT DC CURRENT OF 20

43

FIGURE 27: LOAD FACTOR K VS TIME TO REACH A WINDING HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE OF 140, 130, 120 & 100 0 C FOR EY-CORE

45

FIGURE 28: FLUX, INDUCTION FIELD (B), CURRENT AND THE WINDING HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE PLOTS FOR PURE AC CASE (NO DC CURRENT CASE) FOR DY-CORE TRAFOSTAR

46

FIGURE 29: FLUX, INDUCTION FIELD (B), CURRENT AND THE WINDING HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE PLOTS FOR DC CURRENT CASE FOR DY-CORE TRAFOSTAR FOR DC CURRENT OF 20A

46

FIGURE 30: FLUX, INDUCTION FIELD (B), CURRENT AND THE WINDING HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE PLOTS FOR PURE AC CASE (NO DC CURRENT CASE) FOR DY-CORE TCA

48

FIGURE 31: FLUX, INDUCTION FIELD (B), CURRENT AND THE WINDING HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE PLOTS FOR THE DC

CURRENT CASE FOR DY-CORE TCA FOR A DC CURRENT OF 150 A

49

FIGURE 32: PARTIAL LINEAR APPROXIMATION OF THE MAGNETIZING FIELD OF THE SELECTED ELECTRIC STEEL

52

FIGURE 33: DETERMINATION OF THE STARTING POINT OF THE CIRCULAR APPROXIMATION

54

FIGURE 34: DETERMINATION OF THE ENDING POINT OF THE CIRCULAR APPROXIMATION OF THE H(B)

54

FIGURE 35: FINAL AND THE LINEAR APPROXIMATIONS OF H(B) COMPARED TO EACH OTHER

55

FIGURE 36: PARTIAL LINEAR APPROXIMATION OF THE PERMEABILITY DEPENDENT OF THE INDUCTION FIELD

57

FIGURE 37: THE FINAL APPROXIMATION COMPARED WITH THE LINE APPROXIMATION

58

Tables

TABLE 1: TRANSFORMER RESIGNATIONS FOR D-CORE

11

TABLE 2: MAGNETIC RESIGNATIONS D-CORE

13

TABLE 3: TRANSFORMERS RESIGNATIONS EY-CORE

18

TABLE 4: MAGNETIC RESIGNATIONS EY-CORE

19

TABLE 5: TRANSFORMER RESIGNATIONS DY-CORE TRAFOSTAR

20

TABLE 6: MAGNETIC RESIGNATIONS DY-CORE TCA

21

TABLE 7: TRANSFORMER RESIGNATIONS DY-CORE TCA

23

TABLE 8: TRANSFORMER RESIGNATIONS TY-3 CORE TRAFOSTAR

26

TABLE 9: MAGNETIC RESIGNATIONS DY-CORE TRAFOSTAR

27

TABLE 10: THE RECOMMENDED THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR EXPONENTIAL EQUATIONS

38

TABLE 11: RESULTS REGARDING THE SHIFT, LOSS AND NOISE CALCULATIONS FOR THE 30R122 MATERIAL D-CORE

TCA

41

TABLE 12: RESULTS REGARDING WINDING HOT SPOT CALCULATIONS FOR 30R122 MATERIAL D-CORE TCA TABLE 13: RESULTS OF FLUX SHIFT, LOSSES, LOAD AND NOISE CALCULATIONS FOR THE 30R122 MATERIAL EY- CORE TRAFOSTAR TABLE 14: RESULTS OF THE WINDING HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE CALCULATION FOR 30R122 MATERIAL EY-CORE TRAFOSTAR TABLE 15: RESULTS OF THE FLUX SHIFT, LOAD, LOSSES AND NOISE CALCULATIONS FOR 30R122 DY-CORE TRAFOSTAR TABLE 16: RESULTS OF THE WINDING HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE CALCULATIONS 2 FOR MATERIAL 30R122 DY- CORE TRAFOSTAR TABLE 17: RESULTS OF SHIFT, LOAD, LOSS AND NOISE CALCULATIONS FOR MATERIAL 30R122 DY-CORE TCA TABLE 18: RESULTS OF THE WINDING HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE CALCULATIONS FOR MATERIAL 30R122 DY-CORE

41

44

44

47

47

49

TCA

50

TABLE 19: SELECTED POINT FOR THE LINEAR APPROXIMATION OF H=H(B)

53

TABLE 20: THE RESPECTIVE VALUES FOR PERMEABILITY AND INCREASE FACTORS CALCULATED FROM THE VALUES

OF THE MAGNETIZING FIELD AND INDUCTION

56

TABLE OF CONTEST

1. INTRODUCTION

7

 

1.1 BACKGROUND

7

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT

7

1.3 GOAL

 

7

2. MAGNETIC EXAMPLE AND APPROXIMATIONS

8

2.1 INTRODUCTION OF THE MAGNETIC CIRCUITS (SCHOOLBOOK EXAMPLE)

8

2.2 MAIN PREPARATIONS BEFORE THE BUILDING OF MODELS FOR DIFFERENT POWER TRANSFORMERS TYPES

10

3. CONSTRUCTION OF THE TRANSFORMERS CALCULATION MODELS

10

3.1 D-CORE

 

10

3.2 INDUCTION FIELD SHIFT DETERMINATION AS THE RESULT OF THE INFLUENCE OF DC CURRENT

14

3.3 EY-CORE

 

17

3.4 DY CORE

20

 

3.4.1 DY-core Trafostar

20

3.4.2 DY-core TCA

22

3.5 TY-3-CORE

 

25

 

3.5.1

TY-3 core Trafostar

25

3.6 TY-1 CORE

29

 

3.6.1

TY-1 core Trafostar

29

4

MAIN CALCULATIONS

32

4.1 NO LOAD LOSSES INCREASE DURING INFLUENCE OF A DC CURRENT

32

4.2 HARMONICS DETERMINATION

33

4.3 CALCULATION OF THE INCREASE FACTORS OF THE WINDING LOSSES DUE THE INFLUENCE OF THE DC

CURRENT

 

33

4.4 PERMITTED LOAD TIME CALCULATION DUE TO CORE RESTRICTIONS (FLITCH PLATE)

35

4.5 DETERMINATION OF THE NOISE INCREASE DURING THE DC CURRENTS INFLUENCE

36

4.6 DETERMINATION OF THE WINDING HOT SPOTS TEMPERATURE VERSUS TIME DURING THE INFLUENCE OF DC

 

CURRENT

36

4.7 RESULTS

 

39

 

4.7.1

D-CORE

39

 

4.7.1.1

D-core TCA

39

 

4.7.2

EY-CORE

42

 

4.7.2.1

EY-core Trafostar

42

 

4.7.3

DY-CORE

45

4.7.3.1 DY-core Trafostar

45

4.7.3.2 DY-core TCA

48

4.7.4 TY-3 CORE, T-CORE & TY-1 CORE TYPES

50

4.7.5 COMMENTS OF THE RESULTS CALCULATIONS

50

5

CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK

51

APPENDIX

 

52

 

A.1 APPROXIMATION OF THE MAGNETIZING FIELD WITH KNOWN INDUCTION FIELD H = H (B)

52

A.2 APPROXIMATION OF THE PERMEABILITY WITH KNOWN INDUCTION FIELD μ = μ(B)

56

A.3 INPUT DATA SHEETS FOR THE CREATED MODELS

59

A.3.1 D-core

59

A.3.2 EY-core

60

A.3.3 DY-CORE

61

A.3.3.1 DY-core Trafostar

61

A.3.3.2 DY-core TCA

62

REFERENCE

 

63

1. Introduction

1.1 Background

The influence of DC currents on the power transformers have been an important question for many years, however no simple calculation tool have been developed. E.g. currently ABB had no general tool for determination of permitted load time, or even a trustful knowledge about the DC current influence on the properties of the involved constructing materials. Some rough approximations have only been made in the earlier works to describe this DC currents influence on the transformers.

The customers' demands for more detailed information about the influence of DC currents on power transformers have increased dramatically under the last couple of years. This makes this matter of highly priority.

There are several aspects to be considered that limits the possible applied load on the transformers such as no load loss and winding loss increase factors, permitted load time and the hot spot temperature in winding.

1.2 Problem statement

The problem with DC current influence on the transformers has been tackled before but only with some rough approximations and most of the calculations were performed manually for specific models. No general tool for simple calculations due to DC current influence exists at the moment. E.g. one of the approximations made in earlier calculations neglects the air flux in the winding. The reason why the problems haven't been handled properly earlier is lack of time (there was always something more urgent that had to be done). ABB has for a long time been aware of the problem, and has after customers' demands for more information about the matter, decided to work with this subject. This investigation report contributes to this work.

1.3 Goal

The aim of this project regarding the influence of DC currents was the following issues.

Theoretically create the reasonable magnetic flux models for the different types of power transformers such as D, EY, DY, T, TY-3 and TY-1 core types both for Trafostar and TCA transformer types.

Create calculation tools in order to calculate the additional core losses, permitted load time, noise calculations, hot spot temperature and increase of the winding losses with the main focus on the Trafostar transformers

Well written program documentation for the calculation tools.

Project report in English.

2. Magnetic example and approximations

2.1 Introduction of the magnetic circuits (schoolbook example)

In figure 1 a typical school book example can be seen (without an air gap).

Note: In all the following figures only the magnetizing windings are shown

following figures only the magnetizing windings are shown Figure 1: The basic circuit (school book example)

Figure 1: The basic circuit (school book example)

It is assumed that the following parameters are known.

l

1

: Magnetic path length 1(red)

 

[ m

]

l

2

: Magnetic path length 2(green)

[ m

]

A

1

: Core area region 1

[

m

2

]

A

2

: Core area region 2

[

m

2

]

N: Number of turns in winding

I

Winding current Permeability region 1 (red) Permeability region 2 (green)

μ

μ

1

2

:

:

region 1 (red) Permeability region 2 (green) μ μ 1 2 : : ] ] Task

]

]

Task: Calculate the instantaneous values of the magnetic flux densities (inductions fields)

and

B

2 .

B

1

The equivalent magnetic circuit of the figure 1 can be seen in figure 2

Figure 2: Magnetic circuit of the school book example φ w φ F 1 R

Figure 2: Magnetic circuit of the school book example

φ

w

φ

F1

R

R

1

2

Total flux in winding Total flux in the iron core Reluctance region 1 Reluctance region 2

[Wb ]

[Wb ]

[

[

Reluctance region 1 Reluctance region 2 [ Wb ] [ Wb ] [ [ s )

Reluctance region 1 Reluctance region 2 [ Wb ] [ Wb ] [ [ s )

s)

s)

]

]

R

1 is the reluctance of the core leg and R

2 is the reluctance of the region 2 which will be

divided in two parts in the later calculations. Those parts are

to the sum of the upper and lower parts (yoke) in the region 2) and

corresponding to the vertical part of the region 2(side limb)) they are combined in this example because of the same area in both parts. The winding flux is equal to the total flux in

the core

R yoke

(reluctance corresponding

R

limb

(reluctance

φ

W

= φ

F1

(no air flux is considered).

R =

l

Aμ

(2.1-1)

Magnetic circuit law applied on the loop gives the following

H l

1

1

+ H

2

l

2

= NI

(2.1-2)

Well known relationship between induction field B[T] and the magnetizing field H[A/m] is

B = μH[T ]

=

B

H

[A m]

/

μ

(2.1-3)

By using equation (2.1-2) and (2.1-3) one gets

B

1

B

2

l

2

l

1

+

μ

1

μ

2

=

NI

The same flux in both regions yields

φ =

A B

1

B

2

=

1

=

A B

2

2

[Wb]

A

1

A

2

B [T]

1

(2.1-4)

(2.1-5)

Equation (2.1-5) inserted in equation (2.1-4) results in the new equation

B

1

l

A

1

B

1

μ

1

1

A

2

μ

2

+

l

2

=

NI

(2.1-6)

Our desired results can now be obtained from the equations (2.1-7) and (2.1-8)

B

B

1

2

=

=

NI

l

1

A

1

l

2

+

μ

1

A

2

μ

2

A

1

A

2

B

1

[T]

[T]

(2.1-7)

(2.1-8)

This was a typical school book example. Unfortunately in the real life it’s not always that simple but the main principle is the same For instance the permeability is not a constant and the known parameters are limited only to the dimensions of the particular circuit and feeding voltage source. The feeding voltage source determines the total winding flux, which can be approximated as long as the voltage, frequency and number of the winding turns are known.

The problem becomes more complicated when the air flux and the influence of the dc current have to be taken into consideration. But still the main magnetic principle of the circuit remains the same as in example above.

2.2 Main preparations before the building of models for different

power transformers types

In order to create the effective and helpful tool that could easily be used by a single user who is less interested in all the details of the calculation background. It is necessary to “construct” the relationship between H and i.e. H=H(B) Unfortunately one approximation wasn’t enough for creation of all the models. And another approximation for the determination of the permeability μ with known induction field B[T ] had to be created μ=μ(B). The reason for that was that Microsoft Excel could not find any solution for more advanced models with the first mentioned approximation, see Appendix A.1 and A.2.

3. Construction of the transformers calculation models

3.1 D-core

One of the simplest power transformers is the D-core transformer, see figure 3 and table 1. It reminds a lot of the example in part 2.1 in this report "Introduction of the magnetic circuits". The main difference is that windings are placed on both limbs in the D-core otherwise they are completely identical. For this core type it can be assumed that

Trafostar=TCA but only regarding the magnetic circuit principle (the same model can be used for the calculations). The mechanical construction is not identical for those two design types.

constructio n is not identical for those two design types. Figure 3: D-core transformer L h

Figure 3: D-core transformer

L

h

Limb height

[m]

L

p

Limb pitch

[m]

Y

h

Yoke height

[m]

A

 

Area for respective region

[m

2 ]

W

h

Winding height

[m]

l

1

Magnetic path length 1 region 1 (red)

[m]

l

2

Magnetic path length 2 region 2 (green)

[m]

l

air1

Magnetic path length of the air 1(in winding)

[m]

l

air2

Magnetic path length of the air 2 (outside)

[m]

Table 1: Transformer resignations for D-core.

Due to the symmetry only half the circuit may be considered. This makes the model less complicated and results in the following equivalent magnetic circuit (see figure 5). By considering only half of the circuit one can make this model resemble the example in 2.1, but this time including the air flux and the influence of the DC current. That's why the model will be more complicated.

When it comes to the definition of the magnetic path length of the air flux, the Magnetic path

length

height in all following models, see figure 3. The reason for that is that the magnetizing field outside the winding is much smaller than the magnetizing field in the winding

l

air

2

will be neglected (assumed to be =0) and the

l

air

1

will be set equal to the winding

The equation (3.1-1) describes already an approximation, where the magnetizing field outside the winding is approximated by a constant. By using the earlier mentioned approximation

H

H

H

air 2

air

air

1

l

2

<< H

air1

air

1

+

H

air

<<

H

air

1

the magnetic air path can be reduced to just l

air1

in equation (3.1-2).

2

l

air

NI

2

=

H

H

air

1

l

air

1

 

(3.1-1)

NI

(3.1-2)

This approximation is absolutely not perfect but is accurate enough in order to give some reasonable results. The area approximation of the air flux is that it is assumed to be the area between the winding and the core limb, see figure 4, table 2 and equation (3.1-3)

the core limb, s ee figure 4, table 2 and equation (3.1-3) Figure 4: Air area

Figure 4: Air area approximation in the winding.

A

Air

= π ⎜ ⎛ W

d

2

2

A

limb

=

A

w

A

1

[

2

m

]

(3.1-3)

⎞ ⎠ d ⎝ 2 2 − A limb = A w − A 1 [

Figure 5: Magnetic equivalent of the D-core power transformer

N

Winding turn number

 

I

Winding current

[A]

Φ

w

Total flux in winding

[Wb]

Φ

Air

Air flux

[Wb]

Φ

F1

Total flux in the iron core

[Wb]

R

Air

Reluctance of the air

[A/(V*s)]

R

1

Reluctance of region 1

[A/(V*s)]

R

2

Reluctance of region 2

[A/(V*s)]

Table 2: Magnetic resignations D-core

In order to solve this system a solver, which is a mathematic tool already existing in Microsoft Excel, has to be used. The solver basically guesses some value. In this case it is the induction

field value in the region 1

B

1 which has to fulfill the magnetic requirements of the circuit.

Under the assumption that induction field can be started.

B is known (correctly guessed) the model creation

1

The magnetizing field

approximation H (B[T ]) . The total flux in iron φ and induction field of the region 1.

H 1 is directly approximated from the induction field

F1

B 1 by using our

can be calculated by multiplying the area

B

1

φ

F 1

φ

F1

B

2

B

2

H

2

H A / 1 [ = A B 1 1 φ = F 1 A
H
A
/
1 [
= A B
1
1
φ
=
F 1
A
2

m

[

]

Wb

]

Induction field in region 2

[T ]

Magnetizing field in the region 2

[ A / m ]

Our magnetizing current can be calculated from the first loop equation (see figure 5) which is exactly the same as equation (2.1-2)

I =

H l

1

1

+

H l

2

2

N

[

A

]

Now when the magnetizing current is known the second loop can be used to determine the

magnetizing field in the air H

[ A / m]

equation (3.1-4)

Air

H

Air =

NI

l Air

[A/ m]

(3.1-4)

By using the magnetizing field of the air both the induction field B

Air

[T ]

and flux of the air

φ Air

[Wb]

can be determined by equations (3.1-5) and (3.1-6)

B

Air = μ

0

NI

l Air

= μ

0 H

Air

φ =

Air

A

Air

μ

0

NI

l Air

=

A

Air

[

T

]

B

Air

 

(3.1-5)

[

Wb

]

(3.1-6)

The requirement that has to be fulfilled by the solver is that

φ

w

φ

F

, where

1

φ

w

φ

Air

=

0

[Wb]

is known (by voltage) and

φ

F

1

[

Wb

]

,

φ

Air

[Wb]

(3.1-7)

have to be calculated.

3.2 Induction field shift determination as the result of the influence of DC current

At this moment our base model for the D-core is complete. The next step is to introduce the

DC current I

parameter resulting in a DC addition

result of the DC current influence on the transformer which leads to the change of the total winding flux: the total flux is no longer pure AC and now contains a DC component, see equation (3.2-1).

DC [ A]

into our model. This can easily be done by introducing an additional

φ shift

[Wb]

to the winding flux. This additional term is the

φ

wTot

AC

DC

= φ + φ

w

shift

[Wb]

(3.2-1)

The addition of the DC part in the winding flux will result in that the original AC part will be shifted by the DC component, see figure 6.

The influence of DC current on the flux in the winding

1,5 1 0,5 0 -100 -50 0 50 100 -0,5 -1 Flux[Wb]
1,5
1
0,5
0
-100
-50
0
50
100
-0,5
-1
Flux[Wb]

Degrees

FluxWindingAc[Wb]FluxShift[Wb] FluxWinding[Wb]

FluxShift[Wb]FluxWindingAc[Wb] FluxWinding[Wb]

FluxWinding[Wb]FluxWindingAc[Wb] FluxShift[Wb]

Figure 6: The DC currents influence on the flux of the winding

The DC shift in flux depends on magnitude of the DC current, transformer design, core type, and core material.

The addition of the DC current results in another noticeable effect: the extreme value of the excited current can for that unsymmetrical (DC current) case only be reached once in a period but two times for the symmetrical (pure AC) case, see figure 7.

Current plot for the symmetrical and unsymmetrical cases 700 600 500 400 300 I (unsym)[A]
Current plot for the symmetrical and unsymmetrical cases
700
600
500
400
300
I (unsym)[A]
200
I (sym) [A]
100
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
-100
-200
-300
Degrees
I[A]

Figure 7: Current plot for the symmetrical respective unsymmetrical case

In order to actually calculate the DC shift in the flux with the known DC current the solver has to fulfill another requirement; equation (3.2-2), see also figure 8

A

upper

= A

lower

, where:

A upper

A

lower

Current area above the DC current

Current area under the DC current

(3.2-2)

[

[ m

m

2

2

]

]

The resulting current during a period is only the DC component (the resulting AC current is 0)

In order to implement the aforesaid in Microsoft Excel the following has to be done for a half of the period:

Subtract the DC current from the total magnetizing current I the DC current should be our new zero level.

Divide the values of I in the area calculation.

w

I

DC

[ A]

, because

w

I

[ A]

at the start and end phase positions to reduce the error

DC

Now by summation of the all the values over a half of period of

I

w

I

DC

[ A]

the equal

area criteria can be checked in equation (3.2-2). The summation of over a half period

corresponds to an integration which yields A

fulfilled, see figure 8.

A

lower

= 0

if equation (3.2-2) is

upper

see figure 8. − A lower = 0 if equation (3.2-2) is upper Figure 8: Winding

Figure 8: Winding and DC current plot.

After the DC currents are introduced in our model the induction field shift in the core limb

B

1

shift

[

T

] and the nominal magnitude of the induction field B

1nom

[T ]

(peak value of the

induction field in the core limb for pure AC case) can be calculated by use of equation (3.2-3) and (3.2-4)

B nom

B

shift

=

=

B

max

B

min

B

nom

2

B

min

[

T

]

(3.2 -3)

 

(3.2-4)

Those parameters will be useful in the loss calculation later on.

Note: The calculations of the above mentioned items were solved in Microsoft Excel in two steps, as Microsoft Excel could not solve it all at once. The first step was to determine the

induction field

current was introduced in order to calculate the influence on the transformer.

B

1

[

T

]

to meet the circuit magnetic requirements and in the second step the DC

Step 1 No DC current/flux shift considered

With start guess induction field for step 2.

B [T ] fulfill equation (3.2-5) in order to get the start values

1

Start guess:

B 1 [T]

Equation to fulfill

φ −−φ φ =

w

F

Air

0

(3.2-5)

Step 2 Determination of the circuits magnetic with DC current included

With DC current considered another guess parameter have to be introduced in solver the

constant flux shift Start guesses:

φ

shift

[

Wb

]

which have to fulfill the equal area criteria equation (3.2-2)

B [T ] and

1

φ

shift

[

Wb

]

Equations to fulfill

φ −−φ φ =

w

F

Air

A

upper

= A

lower

0

3.3 EY-core

The principal magnetically difference between Trafostar and TCA transformers models can be seen in figure 9 and 10 see also table 3. I.e. TCA has separated magnetic frame parts and differs from Trafostar.

see also table 3. I. e. TCA has separated magnetic frame parts and differs from Trafostar.

Figure 9: EY-core Trafostar

Figure 10: EY-core TCA case L h Limb height [m] L p Limb pitch [m]

Figure 10: EY-core TCA case

L

h

Limb height

[m]

L

p

Limb pitch

[m]

Y

h

Yoke height

[m]

A

 

Area for respective region

[m

2 ]

W

h

Winding height

[m]

l

1

Magnetic path length 1 region 1

[m]

l

2

Magnetic path length 2 region 2

[m]

l

3

Magnetic path length 3 region 3

[m]

Table 3: Transformers resignations EY-core

Due to symmetry only half of the circuits need to be considered for both the Trafostar and TCA cases. The magnetic principle for both design types are identical because of the symmetry assumption (Trafostar=TCA). The magnetic equivalent of half of that circuit can be seen in figure 11.

of half of that circuit can be seen in figure 11. Figure 11: Magnetic equivalent of

Figure 11: Magnetic equivalent of the half of the DY-core power transformer which is valid for both the Trafostar and TCA designs

N

Winding turn number

 

I

Winding current

[A]

Φ

w

Total flux in winding

[Wb]

Φ

Air

Air flux

[Wb]

Φ

F3

Total flux in the iron core

[Wb]

R

Air

Reluctance of the air

[A/(V*s)]

R

1

Reluctance of region 1

[A/(V*s)]

R

2

Reluctance of region 2

[A/(V*s)]

R

3

Reluctance of region 3

[A/(V*s)]

Table 4: Magnetic resignations EY-core

Our start guesses for this transformer are the induction field This results in the following.

⎧ H A / m ] 3 [ B 3 ⇒ ⎨ ⎩ φ =
H
A
/
m
]
3 [
B
3 ⇒
φ
= A B
[
Wb
]
F
3
3
3
φ
⎧ B
=
F
3
[
T
]
2
A
2
φ
3 ⇒
F
φ
B
=
F
3
[
T
]
1
A
1
B
⎧ H
A
/
m
]
1 [
1
B
⇒ ⎨
H
A
/
m
]
2 [
2

The magnetizing fields inductions fields

H

1

[

A

/

m

]

,

H

2

[

A

/

m

]

and

H

3

[

A

/

m

]

B

3

[

T

]

and flux shift

φ

shift

[Wb]

.

are directly obtained from the

The magnetizing current can be calculated by using the equation (3.3-1) (see loop 1 in figure

11.)

H l

3

3

+ H l

2

2

I

⇒ =

H

3

l

3

+ H l

1

1

+

H

2

l

2

= NI

+

H l

1

1

N

[

A

]

(3.3-1)

Thereafter the magnetizing current is calculated by use of the equations (3.1-4), (3.1-5) and (3.1-6) that can be used in order to calculate the magnetizing field, induction field and flux of the air.

H

B

A

]

WB

[

/

]


Air

[

T

Air

φ

Air

[

m

]

The flux shift in the core leg can be determined by checking the equal area criteria in the equation (3.2-2) and by using the equations (3.2-3) and (3.2-4). The induction field shift in the core leg can be determined in a similar way as in D-core part.

3.4 DY core

3.4.1 DY-core Trafostar

The main model for DY-core for the Trafostar case can be seen in figure 12 and table 5. Even for this case the symmetry assumption is used and it brings results, although only half of the circuit is considered.

results, a lthough only half of the circuit is considered. Figure 12: DY-core Trafostar L h

Figure 12: DY-core Trafostar

L

h

Limb height

[m]

L

p

Limb pitch

[m]

L

ps

Limb pitch side

[m]

Y

h

Yoke height

[m]

A

 

Area for respective region

[m

2 ]

W

h

Winding height

[m]

l

1

Magnetic path length 1(red)

[m]

l

2

Magnetic path length 2(blue)

[m]

l

3

Magnetic path length

[m]

 

3(orange)

l

4

Magnetic path length

[m]

 

4(green)

l

Air

Magnetic path length of the air region(Only the length parallel to core leg considered)

[m]

Table 5: Transformer resignations DY-core Trafostar

By observing our transformer model in figure 12 and by taking advantage of the symmetry criteria in the circuit, our magnetic equivalent got the following appearance, see figure 13.

Figure 13: The magnetic equival ent of the DY-core Trafostar N Number of turns in

Figure 13: The magnetic equivalent of the DY-core Trafostar

N

Number of turns in winding

 

I

Winding current

[A]

Φ

w

Total flux in winding

[Wb]

Φ

Air

Air flux

[Wb]

Φ

F3

Total flux in the iron core

[Wb]

R

Air

Reluctance of the air

[A/(V*s)]

R

1

Reluctance of region 1

[A/(V*s)]

R

2

Reluctance of region 2

[A/(V*s)]

R3

Reluctance of region 3

[A/(V*s)]

R

4

Reluctance of region 4

[A/(V*s)]

Table 6: Magnetic resignations DY-core TCA

The start guesses for the solver in Microsoft Excel in this case are the inductions fields

B

3

[

T

]

and the flux shift

φ

shift

[Wb]

. These result in the following:

B

2

[

T

]

B

B

3

2

[

[

T

T

]

]

φ

F

φ

F

3

2

= B

3

A

3

μ

3

= B

2

A

2

μ

2

[

Wb

]

[

Wb

]

, where the permeability values

see Appendix A2.

μ and

2

μ

3 are directly obtained from μ=μ(B) approximation,

After the values of the total flux in the iron core

obtained the flux φ

φ

F

3

[

Wb

]

and the flux

F

4

[

Wb

]

could be determined by equation (3.4-1)

φ

F

2

[

Wb

φ

F

4

= φ φ

F

3

F

2

[

Wb

]

(3.4-1)

]

have been

,

Then it follows

φ ⎫ F 2 B [ T ] 1 = ⎪ A ⎪ 1 ⎬
φ
F
2
B
[
T
]
1 = ⎪
A
1
φ
F
4
B
=
[
T ]
4
A
4
B
1
H
= /
[
A
m
]
1
μ
1
B
2
H
= /
[
A ]
m
2
μ
2
B
3
H
= /
[
A ]
m
3
μ
3
B
4
H
= /
[
A ]
m
4
μ
4

μ

1

μ

4

From the equation (3.4-2) obtained from a loop in the figure 13 the magnetizing current can be calculated.

NI = H l

1

1

I

⇒ =

H l

1

1

+ H l

+

2

2

H

2

+ H l

3

3

l

2

+

H

3

l

3

N

[

A

]

(3.4-2)

After the magnetizing current is known (by using the equations (3.1-3), (3.1-4) and (3.1-5)) the magnetizing field, the induction field and the flux in the air can be obtained.

The solver requirements that have to be met are:

φ

w

H l

4

4

φ

F

3

φ

Air

= 0

H l

2

2

H l

1

1

 

(3.4-3)

=

0

(3.4-4)

The flux shift and the induction field shift can be calculated in a similar way as in earlier models.

μ(B[T ]) approximation was used in this model for determination of the magnetic requirements of the system instead of the H (B[T ]) used in the previous models as the solver didn't manage to find the solution with the H (B[T ]) approximation in this model

3.4.2 DY-core TCA

The figure 14 shows the drawing of the DY-core transformer TCA case. The symmetry of the circuit makes it possible to consider only the half of the circuit. It simplifies the calculations considerably. The magnetic equivalent of this model can be seen in figure 15, see also table 7 for transformer parameters.

Figure 14: DY-core TCA case   L h Limb height [m]   L p Limb

Figure 14: DY-core TCA case

 

L

h

Limb height

[m]

 

L

p

Limb pitch

[m]

 

L

ps

Limb pitch side

[m]

 

Y

h

Yoke height

[m]

 

A

Area for respective region

[m

2 ]

 

W

h

Winding height

[m]

l

11

Magnetic path length

[m]

 

11(green)

l

12

Magnetic path length 12(red)

[m]

l

13

Magnetic path length

[m]

 

13(blue)

l

21

Magnetic path length

[m]

 

21(orange)

l

22

Magnetic path length

[m]

 

22(pink)

Table 7: Transformer resignations DY-core TCA

Figure 15: Magnetic equivalent of our circuit Calculation procedure: Introduced solver guess parameters B 13

Figure 15: Magnetic equivalent of our circuit

Calculation procedure:

Introduced solver guess parameters

B

13

B

21

[T ]

[T ]

φ

shift

[

Wb

]

Induction field in the wound limb (outer frame)

Induction field in the wound limb (middle frame)

Flux shift in the winding flux

From which it follows

B

B

13

21

φ

F

φ

F

13

21

φ

F

φ

F

13

[

Wb

]

μ

13

21

[

Wb

]

μ

21

⎫ ⎬

B

⇒ ⎨ B

12

11

B

22

F A 12 F A 11 F A 22
F
A
12
F
A
11
F
A
22

φ

= 13

φ

= 13

φ

= 21

[

[

T

T

]

]

[ T

]


μ

12

μ

11

μ

22

, where the permeability values are directly approximated from the inductions fields.

B 12

B 11

B

22

,

,

,

μ 12

μ 11

μ 22

H

H

12

11

H

22

=

=

=

B 12 μ 12 B 11 μ 11 B 22 μ 22
B 12
μ
12
B 11
μ
11
B 22
μ
22

A

[

A

[ A

[

/

/

/

m

m

m

]

]

]

The loop equations which are taken from the magnetic equivalent in figure 15 results in the following relation for the magnetizing current.

H

l

11 11

+ H

l

12 12

+ H

l

13 13

= NI

I =

H

l

11 11

+

H

l

12 12

+

H

l

13 13

N

[

A

]

(3.4.2-1)

With the current being known the equations (3.1-4), (3.1-5) and (3.1-6) can be used to calculate the magnetizing field, induction field and flux of the air.

I

⎧ = NI [ A / m ] H Air l Air ⎪ B =
= NI
[
A
/
m
]
H Air
l
Air
B
=
μ
NI
=
μ
H
[
T
]
Air
0
0
Air
l Air
φ
=
A
μ
NI
=
A
B
[
Wb
Air
Air
0
Air
Air
l Air

]

Finally the magnetic requirements for solver to fulfill are

φ

w

H

φ

l

11 11

F

φ

+ H

Air

l