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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER CONCEPTS

Definition of computer A computer is a programmable machine designed to automatically carry out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations. The particular sequence of operations can be changed readily, allowing the computer to solve more than one kind of problem. An important class of computer operations on some computing platforms is the accepting of input from human operators and the output of results formatted for human consumption. The interface between the computer and the human operator is known as the user interface. Elements & Components of computer operation Basic elements of a computer system are Mouse, Keyboard, monitor, memory, CPU, motherboard, Hard Disk, Speakers, Modem, power Supply, and processor. Mouse: Mouse is sued for operating the system. You can also use computer without mouse, as by using motherboard but in this case it will be very tough to use a computer. Keyboard: Keyboard is used to giving input to the system and system gives output to the user. There are many things which we cannot do without keyboard as we cannot write anything without a keyboard. Monitor: Monitor is very essential part of a computer system. It is used to display things which we perform on a computer. Motherboard: Motherboard is also a necessary element of a computer system. It contains different elements as memory, processor, modem, slots for graphic card and LAN card. Memory is sued to run programs on a computer. LAN card issued for making a network between computers. Hard Disk: Hard disk is used to store data permanently on computer. Modem: Modem is used to connecting internet. Two types of modems exist. One is known as software modems and other is known as hardware modems. Speakers: Speakers are also included in basis elements of a computer. But it is not necessary as a computer can perform its function without this. However, we use it to for multiple purposes.

Generation of Computer http://www.scribd.com/doc/16329032/Generation-of-Computers

Classification of Computer

Palm PCs or Simputer

The Simputer is a self-contained, open hardware Linux-based handheld computer, first released in 2002. Laptop PCs Laptop PCs (also known as notebook computers) are portable computers weighing around 2 kgs. They have a keyboard, flat screen liquid crystal display, and a Pentium or Power PC processor. Personal Computers (PCs

The most popular PCs are desktop machines. Early PCs had Intel 8088 microprocessors as their CPU. Currently (2004), Intel Dual Core is the most popular processor. Workstations A workstation is a high-end microcomputer designed for technical or scientific applications. Intended primarily to be used by one person at a time, they are commonly connected to a local area network and run multi-user operating systems. The term workstation has also been used to refer to a mainframe computer terminal or a PC connected to a network. Workstations are also desktop machines. They are, however, more powerful providing processor speeds about 10 times that of PCs. Most workstations have a large colour video display unit (19 inch monitors). Normally they have main memory of around 256 MB to 4 GB and Hard Disk of 80 to 320 GB. Servers

Server is a physical computer (a computer hardware system) dedicated to running one or more such services (as a host), to serve the needs of users of the other computers on the network. Mainframes Computers There are organizations such as banks and insurance companies process large number of transactions on-line. They require computers with very large disks to store several Terabytes of data and transfer data from disk to main memory at several hundred Megabytes/sec. Supercomputers Supercomputers are the fastest computers available at any given time and are normally used to solve problems, which require intensive numerical computations.

Computer capabilities, limitations and failures Computer Capabilities Many have pictured computer systems as having human or superhuman traits. Such views tend to exaggerate certain computer capabilities. The computer has also been described to be dumb machine since it is dependent entirely on those who control it. Use the wrong or faulty program, or use the wrong or inaccurate data, and you will get the wrong answer. The computer cannot think for itself. What is can do is extend man's problem-solving capabilities by performing many arithmetic, logic, branching and input/output instructions with lightning speed. It is powerful tool for extending man's brain power. It may be rightly called an intelligence amplifier. 1. Ability to Perform Certain Logic Operations. Computers are symbol manipulators. It can manipulate in logical ways letter, numbers, words, sentences, mathematical expressions and other symbols to which people have giving meaning. 2. Ability to Provide New Time Dimensions. The computer works one step at a time; it adds and subtracts numbers; it multiples and divides numbers; and it can be programmed to perform other mathematical operations. 3. Ability to Store and Retrieve Information. The computer stores in internal storage both facts and instructions. 3. Ability to Store and Retrieve Information. The computer stores in internal storage both facts and instructions. 4. Ability to control error. It has been estimated that a person would make one error in every 500- 1000 operations with a desk calculator. 5. Ability to Check Itself. Computers have the ability to check its own work. By a method known as parity checking, computers check on data when they enter storage, when they are moved internally, and when they leave in the form of output.

2. COMPUTER SYSTEM a. Hardware -I/O Devices Input Device An input device is any device that provides input to a computer. There are dozens of possible input devices, but the two most common ones are a keyboard and mouse. Every key you press on the keyboard and every movement or click you make with the mouse sends a specific input signal to the computer. These commands allow you to open programs, type messages, drag objects, and perform many other functions on your computer. Output Device Any peripheral that receives or displays output from a computer. In the picture to the right, is an inkjet printer and a good example of an output device that can make a hard copy of anything on a computer.

Storage Device

A storage device is a hardware device capable of storing information. There are two storage devices used in computers; a primary storage device such as computer RAM and a secondary storage device such as a computer hard disk drive.

Process Devices

In computing, a process is an instance of a computer program that is being executed. It contains the program code and its current activity. Depending on the operating system (OS), a process may be made up of multiple threads of execution that execute instructions concurrently. A computer program is a passive collection of instructions; a process is the actual execution of those instructions. Several processes may be associated with the same program; for example, opening up several instances of the same program often means more than one process is being executed. CONTROL UNIT A driver typically communicates with the device through the computer bus or communications subsystem to which the hardware connects. When a calling program invokes a routine in the driver, the driver issues commands to the device. Once the device sends data back to the driver, the driver may invoke routines in the original calling program. Drivers are hardwaredependent and operating-system-specific. They usually provide the interrupt handling required for any necessary asynchronous time-dependent hardware interface.

Chapter 3 Electronic Data Processing Electronic Data Processing (EDP) - the processing of data through the use of computers. Data Processing - the manipulation of data into a more useful form. It is the modern name for paperwork and involves the collecting, processing, and distributing of facts and figures to achieve a desired result.

Data Processing Cycle


Input - in this stage the initial data, or input data, are prepared in some convenient form for processing. Processing - in this step the input data are changed, and usually combined with other information, to produce data into a more useful form. Output - here the results of the preceding processing steps are collected.

Classification of Data Processing 1. Business Data Processing - characterized by the need to establish, retain, and process files of data for producing useful information. Generally, it involves a large volume of input data, limited arithmetical operations, and a relatively large volume of output. 2. Scientific Data Processing - involves a limited volume of input and many logical or arithmetic calculations. Unlike business problems, most of the scientific problems are non-repetitive, requiring a "one-time" solution.

Data Processing Operations 1. Recording - refers to the transfer of data into some form or document. It relates to the documentation of intermediate figures and facts resulting from calculations. 2. Verifying - refers to the careful checking of the recorded data for any errors. 3. Duplicating - refers to the reproduction of the data into many forms or documents. 4. Classifying - refers to identifying and arranging items with like characteristics into groups or classes. 5. Sorting - refers to arranging or rearranging data in a predetermined sequence to facilitate processing. Sorting is done in alphabetic or a numeric order. 6. Calculating - refers to arithmetic manipulation of the data. 7. Summarizing and Reporting - it is here where a collection of data is condensed and certain conclusions form the data are represented in a meaningful format that is clear, concise and effective. 8. Merging - this operation takes two or more sets of data, all sets having been sorted by the same key, and puts them together to form a single sorted set of data. 9. Storing - refers to placing similar data into files for future reference 10. Retrieving - refers to recovering stored data and/or information when needed. 11. Feedback - refers to the comparison of the output(s) and the goal set in advance, any discrepancy is analyzed, corrected, and fed back to proper stage in the processing operation.

4 Methods of Processing Data

1. Batch Processing - a technique in which data to be processed are collected into groups to permit convenient, efficient, and serial processing. 2. On-line Processing - a technique that uses devices directly connected to the CPU either for data entry or inquiry purposes. 3. Real-time Processing - a method which has the capability of a fast response to obtain data from an activity or a physical process. 4. Distributed Processing - it generally consist of remote terminals linked to a large central computer system to help the user conduct inquiries about accounts, process jobs, or other data processing operations.

What are the early developments in electronic data processing? As with other industrial processes commercial IT has moved in all respects from a bespoke, craft-based industry where the product was tailored to fit the customer; to multi-use components taken off the shelf to find the best-fit in any situation. Mass-production has greatly reduced costs and IT is available to the smallest company. LEO was hardware tailored for a single client. Today, Intel Pentium and compatible chips are standard and become parts of other components which are combined as needed. One individual change of note was the freeing of computers and removable storage from protected, air-filtered environments. Microsoft and IBM at various times have been influential enough to impose order on IT and the resultant standardizations allowed specialist software to flourish. Software is available off the shelf: apart from Microsoft products such as Office, or Lotus, there are also specialist packages for payroll and personnel management, account maintenance and customer management, to name a few. These are highly specialized and intricate components of larger environments, but they rely upon common conventions and interfaces. Data storage has also standardized. Relational databases are developed by different suppliers to common formats and conventions. Common file formats can be shared by large main-frames and desk-top personal computers, allowing online, real time input and validation. In parallel, software development has fragmented. There are still specialist technicians, but these increasingly use standardized methodologies where outcomes are predictable and accessible. At the other end of the scale, any office manager can dabble in spreadsheets or databases and obtain acceptable results (but there are risks). Advantages of electronic data processing 1. Speed It operates the speed of electric flow which is measured in billions and trillionth of a second. It is faster than any other machine designed to do similar works.

2. Accuracy High speed processing by computer is accompanied by high accuracy results the electronic circuitry of computer is such that, when the machine are programmed correctly and when incoming data is error free, the accuracy of the output is relatively assured. 3. Automatic operation

An electronic computer can carry out sequence of many data processing operations without human interaction, the various operations are executed by way of a stored computer program

4. Decision making capability A computer can perform certain decision instruction automatically

5. Compact storage Electronic data processing system have the ability to store large amounts of data in compact and easily retrievable form

6. Discipline imposes To solve problem-with computer you must, first understand the problem, second, program the computer to give you right answers. Understand a problem is one thing but understanding it to the depth of detail and insight required to program the computer is a completely different matter.

Chapter 4:FILE MANAGEMENT & BACK-UP

Filenames, extension & formats The filename is metadata about a file; a string used to uniquely identify a file stored on the file system. Different file systems impose different restrictions on length and allowed characters on filenames. A filename includes one or more of these components:

directory (or path) directory tree file base name of the file type (format or extension) indicates the content type of the file version revision or generation number of the file

Screenshot of a Windows command shell showing filenames in a directory.

A file format is a particular way that information is encoded for storage in a computer file. Any list of file formats would contain both proprietary and open source. Since a disk drive, or indeed any computer storage, can store only bits, the computer must have some way of converting information to 0s and 1s and vice-versa. There are different kinds of formats for different kinds of information. Within any format type, e.g., word processor documents, there will typically be several different formats. Sometimes these formats compete with each other.

File Locations, Folders and parts and dates

5. COMPUTER SECURITY, ETHICS AND PRIVACY

Background of computer Ethics

Computer Ethics is a branch of practical philosophy which deals with how computing professionals should make decisions regarding professional and social conduct. Computer Ethics was created in 1988, and it has been a dynamic, continually evolving course since then, regularly taking account of rapidly advancing and expanding information technology and the resulting social and ethical issues. In addition to a special textbook, which the students themselves helped to develop the course makes use of timely magazine and newspaper articles published while the course is being offered. http://www.slideshare.net/EiDyie/computer-ethics-2552434

chapter 6:NUMBER SYSTEM In mathematics, a 'number system' is a set of numbers, (in the broadest sense of the word), together with one or more operations, such as addition or multiplication.

Binary Binary means composed of two pieces or two parts. Decimal The decimal is a way of managing numbers that has ten as a starting point, or base. It is sometimes called the base ten or denary numeral system. The word "decimal" is also used instead of the word "period" to point out the dot that is sometimes used separates the positions of the numbers in this system. Almost everyone uses this nowadays and prefers the convenience of it probably because it shows up most often in calculations in nature and has "one" as another starting point for the system. The number one is usually the easiest to work with in calculations.

Octal The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. Numerals can be made from binary numerals by grouping consecutive binary digits into groups of three (starting from the right). Refers to the base-8 number system, which uses just eight unique symbols (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7). Programs often display data in octal format because it is relatively easy for humans to read and can easily be translated into binary format, which is the most important format for computers.

Hexadecimal In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal (also base 16, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16. It uses sixteen distinct symbols, most often the symbols 09 to represent values zero to nine, and A, B, C, D, E, F (or alternatively af) to represent values ten to fifteen.

Chapter 7: Algorithm - a step-by-step procedure for calculations. Algorithms are used for calculation, data processing, and automated reasoning. Algorithms are used for calculation, data processing, and automated reasoning. Flowchart - A flowchart is a type of diagram that represents an algorithm or process, showing the steps as boxes of various kinds, and their order by connecting these with arrows. This diagrammatic representation can give a step-by-step solution to a given problem. Process operations are represented in these boxes, and arrows connecting them represent flow of control. Data flows are not typically represented in a flowchart, in contrast with data flow diagrams; rather, they are implied by the sequencing of operations. Flowcharts are used in analyzing, designing, documenting or managing a process or program in various fields.

ADVANTAGES OF USING FLOWCHARTS The benefits of flowcharts are as follows: Communication: Flowcharts are better way of communicating the logic of a system to all concerned. Effective analysis: With the help of flowchart, problem can be analysed in more effective way. Proper documentation: Program flowcharts serve as a good program documentation, which is needed for various purposes. Efficient Coding: The flowcharts act as a guide or blueprint during the systems analysis and program development phase. Proper Debugging: The flowchart helps in debugging process. Efficient Program Maintenance: The maintenance of operating program becomes easy with the help of flowchart. It helps the programmer to put efforts more efficiently on that part LIMITATIONS OF USING FLOWCHARTS Complex logic: Sometimes, the program logic is quite complicated. In that case, flowchart becomes complex and clumsy. Alterations and Modifications: If alterations are required the flowchart may require re-drawing completely. Reproduction: As the flowchart symbols cannot be typed, reproduction of flowchart becomes a problem. The essentials of what is done can easily be lost in the technical details of how it is done. Types of flowcharts High-Level Flowchart A high-level (also called first-level or top-down) flowchart shows the major steps in a process. It illustrates a "birds-eye view" of a process, such as the example in the figure entitled High-Level Flowchart of Prenatal Care. It can also include the intermediate outputs of each step (the product or service produced), and the sub-steps involved. Such a flowchart offers a basic picture of the process and identifies the changes taking place within the process. It is significantly useful for identifying appropriate team members (those who are involved in the process) and for developing indicators for monitoring the process because of its focus on intermediate outputs.

Most processes can be adequately portrayed in four or five boxes that represent the major steps or activities of the process. In fact, it is a good idea to use only a few boxes, because doing so forces one to consider the most important steps. Other steps are usually sub-steps of the more important ones. Detailed Flowchart The detailed flowchart provides a detailed picture of a process by mapping all of the steps and activities that occur in the process. This type of flowchart indicates the steps or activities of a process and includes such things as decision points, waiting periods, tasks that frequently must be redone (rework), and feedback loops. This type of flowchart is useful for examining areas of the process in detail and for looking for problems or areas of inefficiency. For example, the Detailed Flowchart of Patient Registration reveals the delays that result when the record clerk and clinical officer are not available to assist clients. Deployment or Matrix Flowchart A deployment flowchart maps out the process in terms of who is doing the steps. It is in the form of a matrix, showing the various participants and the flow of steps among these participants. It is chiefly useful in identifying who is providing inputs or services to whom, as well as areas where different people may be needlessly doing the same task. See the Deployment of Matrix Flowchart. When drawing a flowchart, every stage should be listed out in a logical order. The flowchart should be clear, neat and easy to follow. There should not be any room for misunderstanding or ambiguity. Only one flow line is used with a terminal symbol. GUIDELINES IN DRAWING FLOWCHART When starting your flowchart, the flow line leaves the terminal symbol When completing your flow chart, the flow line enters the terminal symbol Only one flow line should come out from a process symbol Only one flow line should enter a decision symbol, but two or three flow lines may leave it depending on the options that can be chosen

Start/End - the terminator symbol marks the starting or ending point of the process. It usually contains the word "Start" or "End." Action or Process - a box can represent a single step ("add two cups of flour"), or an entire subprocess ("make bread") within a larger process. Decision - a decision or branching point. Lines representing different decisions emerge from different points of the diamond. Input/Output - represents material or information entering or leaving the process, such as customer order (input) or a product (output). Data storage -indicates a step where data gets stored. For Example "Save Orders" Delay - indicates a delay in the process. For example "Wait 1 day" NOTATION USED IN FLOWCHART

Chapter 8 : TRENDS AND ISSUES IN IT

A. Computer Network - Definition of Computer Networks A computer network, often simply referred to as a network, is a collection of hardware components and computers interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing of resources and information. Where at least one process in one device is able to send/receive data to/from at least one process residing in a remote device, then the two devices are said to be in a network.

-Types of Network Peer-to-Peer Networking This is a simple network configuration that requires some basic know-how to set up. Each of the interconnected machines shares dual capability and responsibility on the network. That is to say, that each machine serves a dual purpose or role, i.e. they are both clients and servers to some extent. Client/Server Networks Server based networks, or client/server networks as they are properly called, has a machine at the heart of its operations called the server. A server is a machine that provides services over a network by responding to client requests. Servers rarely have individuals operating it, and even then, it is usually to install, configure or manage its capabilities. The server's essential role on the network is to be continuously available to handle the many requests generated by its clients. -Classification of Network (accrg to distance covered) Geographical location by the network computer network classification according to their location and distribution can be divided into LAN, WAN and MAN three categories. LAN (Local Area Network) LAN is a local region, close to the composition of the computer network Internet, usually connected by cable, usually in the range between a few meters to several kilometers (less than 10 km).Such as a building or several neighboring interconnection network between buildings. WAN (Wide Area Network) WAN is composed of long-distance computer network interconnection, distribution of up to several thousand kilometers and even thousands of kilometers, even across borders, continents community, throughout the world. The Internet is a typical wide area network. MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) MAN largely confined to the size of a city within a range between WAN and LAN networks, distribution is generally more than ten kilometers to hundreds of kilometers room.

-Components of Networking Router is a device that transfers data from one network to another in an intelligent way. It has the task of forwarding data packets to their destination by the most efficient route.

Repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it at a higher level or higher power, or onto the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances.

Bridge device filters data traffic at a network boundary. Bridges reduce the amount of traffic on a LAN by dividing it into two segments. A bridge works at the data-link (physical network) level of a network, copying a data frame from one network to the next network along the communications path.

Hub is an unsophisticated device in comparison with, for example, a switch. A hub does not examine or manage any of the traffic that comes through it: any packet entering any port is rebroadcast on all other ports. Effectively, it is barely aware of frames or packets and mostly operates on raw bits. Consequently, packet collisions are more frequent in networks connected using hubs than in networks connected using more sophisticated devices.

A switch has a number of ports and it stores the addresses of all devices that are directly or indirectly connected to it on each port. As a data packet comes into the switch, its destination address is examined and a direct connection is made between the two machines.

A gateway converts the data passing between dissimilar networks so that each side can communicate with each other. i.e converts data into the correct network protocol. The gateway is a mixture of hardware components and software.

A modem converts the digital data from the computer into a continuous analogue wave form that the telephone system is designed to deal with. The reason for this is that the telephone system was originally designed for the human voice i.e. continuous signals. The modem also converts the analogue signal from the telephone network back into digital data that the computer can understand.

A network card is a piece of hardware that allows a computer to connect to a computer network. Sometimes the network card is integrated on the motherboard. Each network card has a unique number; this is used for addressing. It is called the MAC address. MAC addresses can be used to obtain an IP address (in those network cards that use IP).

-Network Topology and Protocols Network topology is the layout pattern of interconnections of the various elements of a computer or biological network. Network topologies may be physical or logical. Physical topology refers to the physical design of a network including the devices, location and cable installation. Logical topology refers to how data is actually transferred in a network as opposed to its physical design. In general physical topology relates to a core network whereas logical topology relates to basic network.

Bus Topology In local area networks where bus topology is used, each node is connected to a single cable. Each computer or server is connected to the single bus cable. A signal from the source travels in both directions to all machines connected on the bus cable until it finds the intended recipient.

Star Topology In local area networks with a star topology, each network host is connected to a central hub with a point-to-point connection. The network does not necessarily have to resemble a star to be classified as a star network, but all of the nodes on the network must be connected to one central device

Ring Topology A network topology that is set up in a circular fashion in which data travels around the ring in one direction and each device on the right acts as a repeater to keep the signal strong as it travels. Each device incorporates a receiver for the incoming signal and a transmitter to send the data on to the next device in the ring. The network is dependent on the ability of the signal to travel around the ring.

Mesh Topology Is a type of networking where each node must not only capture and disseminate its own data, but also serve as a relay for other nodes, that is, it must collaborate to propagate the data in the network.

Tree topology The type of network topology in which a central 'root' node (the top level of the hierarchy) is connected to one or more other nodes that are one level lower in the hierarchy (i.e., the second level) with a point-to-point link between each of the second level nodes and the top level central 'root' node, while each of the second level nodes that are connected to the top level central 'root' node will also have one or more other nodes that are one level lower in the hierarchy.

B. International Network -Introduction to Internet http://www.unicom.com/pw/web-intro/#7

What is the Internet? The Internet links are computer networks all over the world so that users can share resources and communicate with each other. Some computers have direct access to all the facilities on the Internet such as the universities. And other computers, e.g. privately-owned ones, have indirect links through a commercial service provider, who offers some or all of the Internet facilities. In order to be connected to Internet, you must go through service suppliers. Many options are offered with monthly rates. Depending on the option chosen, access time may vary. The Internet is what we call a metanetwork, that is, a network of networks that spans the globe. It's impossible to give an exact count of the number of networks or users that comprise the Internet, but it is easily in the thousands and millions respectively. The Internet employs a set of standardized protocols which allow for the sharing of resources among different kinds of computers that communicate with each other on the network. These standards, sometimes referred to as the Internet Protocol Suite, are the rules that developers adhere to when creating new functions for the Internet. The Internet is also what we call a distributed system; there are no central archives. Technically, no one runs the Internet. Rather, the Internet is made up of thousands of smaller networks. The Internet thrives and develops as its many users find new ways to create, display and retrieve the information that constitutes the Internet.

-Brief History of Internet The history of the Internet began with the development of computers in the 1950s. This began with point-to-point communication between mainframe computers and terminals, expanded to point-to-point connections between computers and then early research into packet switching. Packet switched networks such as ARPANET, Mark I at NPL in the UK, CYCLADES, Merit

Network, Tymnet, andTelenet, were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s using a variety of protocols. The ARPANET in particular led to the development of protocols for internetworking, where multiple separate networks could be joined together into a network of networks. In 1982 the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) was standardized and the concept of a world-wide network of fully interconnected TCP/IP networks called the Internet was introduced. Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation (NSF) developed the Computer Science Network (CSNET) and again in 1986 when NSFNET provided access to supercomputer sites in the United States from research and education organizations. Commercial internet service providers (ISPs) began to emerge in the late 1980s and 1990s. The ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990. The Internet was commercialized in 1995 when NSFNET was decommissioned, removing the last restrictions on the use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic. Since the mid-1990s the Internet has had a drastic impact on culture and commerce, including the rise of near-instant communication by electronic mail,instant messaging, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) "phone calls", two-way interactive video calls, and the World Wide Web with its discussion forums,blogs, social networking, and online shopping sites. The research and education community continues to develop and use advanced networks such as NSF'svery high speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS), Internet2, and National LambdaRail. Increasing amounts of data are transmitted at higher and higher speeds over fiber optic networks operating at 1-Gbit/s, 10-Gbit/s, or more. The Internet continues to grow, driven by ever greater amounts of online information and knowledge, commerce, entertainment and social networking. It is estimated that in 1993 the Internet carried only 1% of the information flowing through twoway telecommunication. By 2000 this figure had grown to 51%, and by 2007 more than 97% of all telecommunicated information was carried over the Internet.

-Definition and Application of terms in the Internet USENET The name given to the computer network which carries newsgroups - newsgroups are arranged in hierarchies based loosely on subject matter - the USENET is often confused with the INTERNET in the news media - started by two students at Duke University.

World Wide Web - WWW - W3 The name given to the collection of computers which serve information in hypertext format to the INTERNET - invented by Dr. Tim Berners-Lee, at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN), who wrote the first hyper text transfer protocol daemon (HTTPD) and the first hyper text markup language (HTML) browser, as a way to allow nuclear physicists to exchange working papers over the computer networks.

HTTPD - Hyper-text Transfer Protocol Daemon Computer program which manages the transfer of hypertext and multimedia documents over the INTERNET.

HTML - Hyper Text Markup Language The text markup language used to insert tags which allow a Web browser to correctly display a hyper-text document. HTML1, HTML +, HTML 2 and HTML 3 are versions of HTML in use at this time. HTML is a subset of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) first invented to display legal texts and now the world standard for large documentation projects.

VRML - Virtual Reality Modeling Language Tagging language for conveying three dimensional information over the Internet using a VRML browser.

Hypertext Documents which contain links to other documents within them - footnotes are a form of hypertext link.

Multimedia Documents which contain text, sound, graphics and video elements that are all capable of being displayed to the user.

Hypermedia Documents which combine hypertext links and multimedia elements.

NNTPD Network news transfer protocol daemon which serves USENET newsgroups across the Internet.

NNTP Server Computer which you connect to to receive USENET newsgroups and post USENET news articles.

DNS

Domain Name System which identifies each computer as a network node on the Internet using an internet protocol addresses system to translate from domain names to IP numbers and viceversa.

DNS Server Computer you use to access the DNS to allow you to contact other computers on the Internet.

FAQ Frequently Asked Questions document which answers FAQs about various subjects.

RFC - Request for Comments Document which defines Internet operating protocols - despite the name it is more a statement of agreed standards than a request.

Internet Access Provider (IAP)/Internet Service Provider (ISP) An organization or commercial enterprise which provides access to the Internet. -Structure of the Internet

The structure of the Internet The Internet is basically a hierarchy that allows any Internet connected device in one geographic location, talk to another Internet connected device in another geographic location. The way that the information is transmitted varies greatly, and in some countries, wireless ham radios are even used to transmit email. Keep in mind that the word "connected" is used very loosely here.

C. Management Information System -What is MIS? A management information system (MIS) provides information which is needed to manage organizations efficiently and effectively. Management information systems involve three primary resources: people, technology, and information or decision making. Management information systems are distinct from other information systems in that they are used to analyze operational activities in the organization. Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the group of information management methods tied to the automation or support of human decision making, e.g. decision support systems, expert systems, and executive information systems.

-Issues on Artificial Intelligence

Ethical and moral issues of artificial intelligence Debates about the social impact of creating intelligent machines has occupied many organizations and individuals over the past decades. Since many of the early science fiction speculations and predictions from the late 19th century through to the 1960's have already become reality there is no reason to assume that robots and intelligent machines will not happen. We are already living in that era's future, experiencing a golden age of There are no clear answers here. Research is widespread and diverse, covering all of the aspects of artificial intelligence. We don't even agree on what exactly defines intelligence and already we are creating artificial ones. So who is to say what is right? But if we do build android machines with a designed intelligence that think and behave like humans, shouldn't they be made absolutely

technology, with no end, or limit, in sight. The moral and ethical implications of artificial intelligences are obvious and there are three sides to the argument. While one party argues that there are already too many of us living in poverty without work there is little or no reason to create mechanical laborers (that can think independently). And that we certainly should not create machines that can argue with us about such issues. Another party argues that society cannot develop or take advantage of resources without the help of machines that can think for themselves at least a little. And party number three simply doesn't care about the issue at all, as is typical of human society. On a more detailed level, opinions also differ about the extent to which we should make machines intelligent and what these machines should look like. Are we talking about autonomous devices like space explorers or robots that mimic human form, thought and behavior? As more and more of society gets automated will we entrust our children, educational institutions, businesses, and governments to reasoning machines as well? -->

subservient to us? Isaac Asimov, the science fiction author, well known for his robot novels (amongst the myriad others), wrote the Three Laws of Robotics early in the last century which were incorporated into the "positronic" brains of his robots in order to protect humans from a "robot revolution", and to prevent other humans abusing them. :

-E-commerce, Engineering, E-learning Electronic commerce, commonly known as e-commerce or e-comm, refers to the buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. Electronic commerce draws on such technologies as electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange(EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web at least at one point in the transaction's life-cycle, although it may encompass a wider range of technologies such as email, mobile devices and telephones as well.

Information engineering (IE) or information engineering methodology (IEM) in software engineering is an approach to designing and developing information systems. It can also be considered as the generation, distribution, analysis and use of information in systems.

E-learning comprises all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching. The information and communication systems, whether networked learning or not, serve as specific media to implement the learning process.[1] The term will still most likely be utilized to reference out-of-classroom and in-classroom educational experiences via technology, even as advances continue in regard to devices and curriculum. E-learning is essentially the computer and network-enabled transfer of skills and knowledge. Elearning applications and processes include Web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual education opportunities and digital collaboration. Content is delivered via the Internet, intranet/extranet, audio or video tape, satellite TV, and CD-ROM. It can be self-paced or instructor-led and includes media in the form of text, image, animation, streaming video and audio.