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Sulphuric Acid, H2SO4

• Manufacture of detergents
• Manufacture of fertilizer
• Manufacture of paint pigments
• Manufacture of artificial fibres
• As electrolyte in car batteries(lead-acid accumulation)
• To remove metal oxides from metal(metallurgy)

Manufacture of Sulphuric acid

Sulphuric acid is manufactured through Contact Process. The raw
materials used are sulphur, air and water. This process consists
of three stages.
1. Production of sulphur dioxide gas. Molten sulphur is
burnt in dry air to produce sulphur dioxide in the furnace.
S + O2 SO2
2. Conversion of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide.
Sulphur dioxide with excess oxygen is passed over a few
plates of vanadium (V) oxide catalyst at 450ºC to produce
sulphur trioxide. This process happened in the converter.
2SO2 + O2 2SO3
3. Production of sulphuric acid. In the absorber the sulphur
trioxide is reacted with concentrated sulphuric acid(H2SO4)
to produce oleum. The oleum(H2SO4) is then diluted with
water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid in large
Environmental pollution by Sulphur Dioxide
Sulphur dioxide is the by-products of Contact Process. It also
produces during volcanic eruptions and burning of fossil fuels
Inhaling sulphur dioxide can cause respiratory problems such as
coughing and bronchitis.
Sulphur dioxide can cause acid rain. Acid rain occurs when pH of
the rain is between 2.5 and 5.0. This is due to the reaction of
sulphur dioxide with rainwater. Acid rain can
• Corrode buildings and metal structures
• Destroys trees in the forest
• Cause the salt leached out of the top soil and plant die of
• Increase the acidity of the river and may kill aquatic living

Ammonia, NH3 and Its Salts

• Manufacture nitrogenous fertilizers
• As a raw material for the manufacture of nitric acid in the
Ostwald process
• Converted into nitric acid and used to make explosives,
fibres, wood pulp, paints and varnishes
• As a cleaning agent to remove grease

The properties of Ammonia

• Alkaline
• Colourless and pungent gas
• Less dense than air
• Very soluble in water
• Gives a white fume when reacted with hydrogen chloride
gas, HCL
Manufacture of ammonia
Ammonia is manufactured in industries through Haber Process.
1. A mixture consisting of one volume of nitrogen gas and
three volumes of hydrogen gas is compressed to a pressure
of 200 atmospheres at a temperature of about 450ºC.
N2 + 3H2 2NH3
2. The mixture gas is then passed through layers of iron
catalyst to speed up the rate of reaction.
3. Ammonia formed is then liquefied and separated to get a
better yield.
4. The unreacted nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas are recycled
and passed back into the reactor together to be reacted
5. The reaction to produce ammonia is reversible.
Ammonium fertilizers
Ammonium fertilizers are one of the chemical fertilizers
added to soil to replace the elements used up by plants.
Ammonium fertilisers can be prepared from the reaction
between ammonium and an acid.

Pure Metals
• Pure metals are weak and soft because of the arrangement
of atoms in pure metals.
• The orderly arrangement of atoms enables the layers of
atoms to slide over each other easily when external force
is applied on them. This makes the metals ductile.
• There are imperfections in the arrangement of metal
atoms. Empty space exists in the structures of pure
metals. When pressed, metal atoms may slide into new
positions in these empty spaces. This makes metal
• An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain
composition in which the major component is a metal. Most
pure metals are weak and soft because of it arrangement of
• The aim of making alloys is to make them stronger, harder,
resistant to corrosion, have a better furnish and lustre.
• Example: bronze, brass, steel, stainless steel, duralumin and
Alloy Composition Uses
Duralumin • 93% aluminium In building of the body of
• 3% copper aeroplane and bullet train
• 3% magnesium
• 1% manganese
Brass 70% copper In the making of the musical
30% zinc instruments and kitchenware
Stainless 74% iron In the making of surgical
steel 8% carbon instruments
18% chromium

The factor why alloys are stronger than pure metals is because
the presences of atoms of other metals that are of different
sizes disturb the orderly arrangement of atoms in the metal. This
prevents the layers of atoms from sliding. Thus an alloy is
stronger and harder than its pure metal.
Synthetic Polymers
• Polymers are large molecules made up of many identical
repeating sub-units called monomers which are joined
together by covalent bonds. Monomers are joined by a
process called polymerisation.
• Some polymers occur naturally such as starch, cellulose,
wool, protein, silk and rubber.

Synthetic polymers are man-made polymers. The monomers used

are usually obtained from petroleum after going through the
refining and cracking processes.
• Examples of synthetic polymers are polythene, polyvinyl
chloride (PVC), nylon and terylene.
• Synthetic polymers are very stable and do not corrode or
decay. This means that they are difficult to dispose and
may cause environment pollution such as flash flood.
• The burning of polymers may release harmful and poisonous
• We should reuse, reduce and recycle synthetic polymers as
much as possible. The use of biodegradable polymers should
be encouraged.
Synthetic polymer Monomer Uses
Perspex Methylmethacrylate Safety glass,
reflectors and lens
Polypropene Propene Piping, bottle crate,
carpets and ropes
Polyvinyl chloride, Choloroethene Water pipes and
PVC artificial leather
Glass and Ceramics
1. Fused glass 2. Soda-lime glass
3. Borosilicate glass 4. Lead crystal glass
Fused glass – It is a highly heat resistant glass. It can be heated
to an extremely high temperature and can be plunged into icy
without cracking. It has great purity, optical transparency,
high temperature and chemical durability, and resistance to
thermal shock. Example: Laboratory glassware
Soda-lime glass – It is made by heating sand with limestone or
sodium carbonate. It can be melted at a relatively low
temperature (cannot withstand high temperature) and is easy
to be shaped and has a good chemical durability. It also has a
high thermal expansion coefficient. It does not withstand
heat. Example: mirror and electrical bulbs.
Borosilicate glass – It has low thermal expansion coefficient. It is
more resistant to chemical attacks than soda-lime glass
because it contains less alkali. Example: Cookware and
automobile headlight.
Lead crystal glass – It is soft and easy to melt. It is more
expensive than soda-lime glass. It is optically transparent.
Example: Chandeliers.
Ceramics – It can withstand high temperature and do not melt
easily. They are hard, brittle, chemically inert, do not corrode and
have a very high melting point. They are good insulators of
electricity and heat. Example: Tiles, cement, bricks and porcelain.

Composite materials
Material such as clay wood and metal are heavy, bulky or difficult
to be shaped. Therefore continuous researches have been done in
search of new raw materials.

Composite material - A structural material that is

formed by combining two or more different substances.
Example: Reinforced concrete, superconductors, fibre optic,
fibre glass and photochromic glass
1. Reinforced concrete – High tensile strength. It is used in
construction of framework for highways, bridges and high-
rise building.
2. Superconductors – capable of conducting electricity without
resistance when cooled. Example: Bullet trains in Japan and
medical magnetic-imaging.
3. Fibre optic – able to transmit
data, voice and images in a
digital format for
telecommunication. It used to
replace copper wire in a long
distance telephone lines. It is
cheap, high transmission
capacity and chemical stability.
4. Fibre glass - high tensile strength, can be easily coloured
and low in density. Example: Water and food storage
containers, small boat, skies and helmet.
5. Photochromic glass – Darken when light intensity is high,
becomes clear when light intensity is low. It is suitable for
making optical lenses, car windshields and light intensity

NAME: Ker De-Sheng

CLASS: 4 Amanah