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TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT

Introduction Total Quality Management Concepts of TQM. Principles of TQM History and Evolution of TQM Methods of achieving TQM Quality Management Quality Management Principles Quality Planning Measuring quality performance using World Class Manufacturing (WCM) techniques. Analytical Tools and Techniques Brainstorming 5 whys analysis Process Flow Diagrams/Flowcharts/Process Mapping Checksheets /Check Lists Runcharts Histograms Scatter Diagrams/Scatter Plot Cause and Effect/Fishbone/Ishikawa Diagrams Identifying sources & causes of variation Control/Shewart Charts/DPU Charts Cpk and Ppk Analysis Pareto Analysis Bottleneck Analysis Benchmarking FMEA FTA HAZOP PDCA/DMAIC/DMADV SIPOC Total Quality can only be fully achieved when the customer expectations are clearly understood, when products/services are provided when required, right first time and with all waste identified and eliminated. This involves concepts such as JIT, Lean, Sigma, Value Mapping, employee involvement and understanding the voice of the customer. The presentation therefore also includes the following: Just In Time (JIT) Basic working practices Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) Set-up reduction Visibility / Kanban control

Flow layout Increasing capacity through minimal investment Pull scheduling / Level scheduling Lean Processes

Evolution of Lean Processes The various (eight) types of Waste Understanding the Value Stream Value Added Activity vs Non Value Added Activity Involvement of everybody Continuous Improvement Six Sigma

What is Six Sigma Understanding Variation Types and Causes Measuring Process Performance through Variation Reduction of variation and consequent process improvement Mapping Manufacturing Processes

Use flow charts to Map Processes Identification of Process Bottlenecks Cycle Time Analysis Statistical Process Control Measuring process performance.

Statistical Process Control (SPC) Common and Special causes of variation Creating a Control Chart Types of Control Chart, Variable, Attribute, Moving Range Interpreting Control Charts, Advantages and Disadvantages Customer Focus

Identifying & Categorising Customers Gathering Customer Data Prioritising the data and setting specifications Listening for customer value Project Management

Essential elements of project management Project lifecycle Stages of a project The Critical Path The project schedule.

Communication, motivation & teams. Team dynamics Characteristics of a team Team development Building effective teams Motivation Theory Motivation within a work environment Communication flows The environment and communication Change Management Reasons for implementing change How to implement an effective change process Potential problem areas associated with change management Organizational culture Corporate and organizational culture The effect of culture on performance Can you change culture Potential resistance to culture change

TQM Tools and Techniques

500 page desktop informational presentation on TQM Tools and Techniques.


Total Quality Management Tools and Techniques. When implementing any improvement process within a manufacturing or service environment, you need to have the ability to identify potential improvement opportunities, then systematically implement those opportunities for ongoing improvement. A key requirement in an effective process improvement strategy is that change is based on fact, involves input and buy-in from key stakeholders, is cost effective, timely, measurable and can be maintained. To achieve the above you need a set of tools and techniques, which you can apply, to problem solving or opportunity achievement.

Details of the TQM Tools and Techniques presentation >>>> Presentation views >>>>
Below is a short introduction to the key TQM tools & techniques and an introduction to Total Quality Management.

Introduction to Total Quality Management:


What is TQM? Total Quality Management is an approach to business that aims to maximize the competitiveness of an organization through continued improvement of it's products, people, processes, services, systems and operating environment.

Total Quality Management is an approach to quality and continuous business improvement which enables an organization through a coordinated strategy of teamwork and innovation to satisfy continually increasing customer expectations, needs and requirements. What does implementing TQM involve? The implementation of TQM means the empowerment of all employees through increased communication, education and training. Successful implementation requires the use of specialist knowledge. "Experts" are used to set up quality standards, procedures and work practices to effect the cultural change of the organization. While the initial investment is relatively high, the investment pays dividends in the long run. Worker expectations are fulfilled, customer loyalty & satisfaction generated, good operating standards raised. The result is that lower overall operating costs can be expected. In the TQM organization, the focus of management is directed towards a) meeting customer needs, which are all important and from which sales and profits will follow b) empowering all employees who are seen as resources to be developed, c) treating suppliers as business partners whose success is vital to the success of the business itself and who have invaluable technical expertise which can be utilized in improving the end customer experience. TQM and Process Variation. TQM places an emphasis on the understanding of process variation, the importance of measurement and diagnosis, the role of the customer and the involvement of employees, at all levels in an organization, in pursuit of continuous improvement. As part of the continual improvement process a detailed understanding of the various TQM Tools and Techniques is of benefit to all involved within the organization.

You need to approach Total Quality Management via..


Strategic initiatives Customer Focus (Internal & External) Obsession with Quality Scientific approach to decision making and problem solving Long term commitment Teamwork Continual process improvement Education and Training Unity of Purpose Employee involvement and empowerment at all levels Implementing an effective total quality process should be seen as a long term objective for an organization, however, while the project may be long term, the benefits will start to accrue in the short term and will exponentially increase as the TQM system develops.

Looking briefly at the "Strategic Initiatives" above:


An organization needs to consider the development of plans designed to give a sustainable competitive advantage. What is the organization's Vision Statement (e.g. best in class for cost of goods sold - COGS), what is the organizational Mission Statement? Are the organization's objectives made known to all employees? Have the details of the activities required to achieve these objectives (e.g. quality getting a higher priority than throughput, more frequent production campaigns, etc., etc..) been rolled out throughout the organization? All of the strategic initiatives require effective communication which must be cascaded from management. Has the process for ensuring an effective communication process been considered and clearly defined?

The best known TQM Tools and Techniques, to name a few are:
The '5 Whys' - asking 'Why?' at least five times to uncover the root cause of a problem. Flowcharts - A boxes and arrows method of examining activities, potentially used in brainstorming, also found in business process modeling Fishbone/Ishikawa Diagrams - fishbone-structured diagram for identifying cause & effect patterns, in which primary categories are generally pre-determined according to context. Run Charts - a graph which plots data/change along a timeline. Pareto Charts - a line and bar graph displaying cause/effect ratios, especially biggest relative cause, based on Pareto theory.

Histograms - a bar graph displaying data in simple categories which together account for a total. Checklists/Check sheets - pre-formatted lists for noting incidence, frequency, etc., according to known useful criteria Control/Shewhart Charts - a standard pattern of performance/time for a given process, often in Run Chart format, which acts as a template to check conformance and deviation. Scatter Diagram/Scatter plot - a graph which plots points (typically very many individual instances) according to two variables, which produces a useful visual indication of the relationship between the two variables. Example process improvement tools : FMEA - Failure Mode Effects Analysis PDCA - Plan Do Check Act SIPOC Analysis Statistical Control Other commonly used techniques: Brainstorm analysis Fault Tree Analysis Hazop Analysis

Example of a TQM Tool/Technique - The Cause & Effect Diagram.


How to build a Cause and Effect Diagram. 1) Create a flow chart of the process or product flow, this will help prompt suggestions during the brainstorming that occurs in creating the Cause and Effect diagram. 2) Define exactly what is the problem that needs to be addressed. 3) Define the scope of the task to be addressed. 4) Start the cause and effect diagram, by drawing a box on the right hand side, into this box, describe the problem to be addressed. From this box draw a horizontal arrow going into this box. 5) Write the names of categories above and below the horizontal line, standard categories are the 6Ms - Human (Man), Method, Machine, Environmental (Mother Nature), Measurement and Material. 6) Brainstorm potential causes of the problem 7) As you receive suggestions, add into the Cause and Effect Diagram with the potential cause coming from the categories above. For each cause, start to ask why? For example: Why should the measurement cause the final failure? Because (say) of lack of calibration. Why is there a lack of calibration? Because equipment is not all on the calibration database, Why? Because staff use their own equipment? Why, why, why....and so on until you exhaust the potential causes. 8) As this process continues for each category, a tree with branches will form, at the end of the branches will be potential root causes. 9) A general rule is to ask "why" five times for each potential cause, however, this very much depends on the situation. 10) When this process is completed, there will be a large list of potential root causes. Not all can be solved at once, therefore, it will be necessary to categorize the range of potential causes, (many may repeat), assess the relevance of each, assign priority to address. 11) Based on the prioritized problem causes, create corrective action plans, implement the corrective actions, measure the results and implement permanent actions to address (e.g. update standard procedures, specification updates, test updates etc.) to ensure the problem remains permanently addressed.

Total quality management or TQM is an integrative philosophy of management for continuously improving the quality of products and processes. TQM functions on the premise that the quality of products and processes is the responsibility of everyone who is involved with the creation or consumption of the products or services offered by an organization. In other words, TQM capitalizes on the involvement of management, workforce, suppliers, and even customers, in order to meet or exceed customer expectations. Considering the practices of TQM as discussed in six empirical studies, Cua, McKone, and Schroeder (2001) identified the nine common TQM practices as cross-functional product design, process management, supplier quality management, customer involvement, information and feedback, committed leadership, strategic planning, cross-functional training, and employee involvement.

TQM and Six Sigma


The TQM concept was developed by a number of American management consultants, including W. Edwards Deming, Joeseph Juran, and A.V. Feigenbaum. Originally, these consultants won few converts in the United States. However, managers in Japan embraced their ideas enthusiastically and even named their premier annual prize for manufacturing excellence after Deming. The Six Sigma management strategy originated in 1986 from Motorolas drive towards reducing defects by minimizing variation in processes. The main difference between TQM and Six Sigma (a newer concept) is the approach. At its core, Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management approach to long-term success through customer satisfaction. In a TQM effort, all members of an organization participate in improving processes, products, services and the culture in which they work.

The Eight Elements of TQM


Eight elements are key in ensuring the success of TQM in an organization. Total Quality Management is a management approach that originated in the 1950s and has steadily become more popular since the early 1980s. Total Quality is a description of the culture, attitude and organization of a company that strives to provide customers with products and services that satisfy their needs. The culture requires quality in all aspects of the companys operations, with processes being done right the first time and defects and waste eradicated from operations. To be successful implementing TQM, an organization must concentrate on the eight key elements: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Ethics Integrity Trust Training Teamwork Leadership Recognition Communication

This paper is meant to describe the eight elements comprising TQM. Key Elements TQM has been coined to describe a philosophy that makes quality the driving force behind leadership, design, planning, and improvement initiatives. For this, TQM requires the help of those eight key elements. These elements can be divided into four groups according to their function. The groups are: I. Foundation It includes: Ethics, Integrity and Trust. II. Building Bricks It includes: Training, Teamwork and Leadership. III. Binding Mortar It includes: Communication. IV. Roof It includes: Recognition. I. Foundation TQM is built on a foundation of ethics, integrity and trust. It fosters openness, fairness and sincerity and allows involvement by everyone. This is the key to unlocking the ultimate potential of TQM. These three elements move together, however, each element offers something different to the TQM concept.
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1. Ethics Ethics is the discipline concerned with good and bad in any situation. It is a twofaceted subject represented by organizational and individual ethics. Organizational ethics establish a business code of ethics that outlines guidelines that all employees are to adhere to in the performance of their work. Individual ethics include personal rights or wrongs. 2. Integrity Integrity implies honesty, morals, values, fairness, and adherence to the facts and sincerity. The characteristic is what customers (internal or external) expect and deserve to receive. People see the opposite of integrity as duplicity. TQM will not work in an atmosphere of duplicity. 3. Trust Trust is a by-product of integrity and ethical conduct. Without trust, the framework of TQM cannot be built. Trust fosters full participation of all members. It allows empowerment that encourages pride ownership and it encourages commitment. It allows decision making at appropriate levels in the organization, fosters individual risk-taking for continuous improvement and helps to ensure that measurements focus on improvement of process and are not used to contend people. Trust is essential to ensure customer satisfaction. So, trust builds the cooperative environment essential for TQM. II. Bricks Basing on the strong foundation of trust, ethics and integrity, bricks are placed to reach the roof of recognition. It includes: 4. Training Training is very important for employees to be highly productive. Supervisors are solely responsible for implementing TQM within their departments, and teaching their employees the philosophies of TQM. Training that employees require are interpersonal skills, the ability to function within teams, problem solving, decision making, job management performance analysis and improvement, business economics and technical skills. During the creation and formation of TQM, employees are trained so that they can become effective employees for the company. 5. Teamwork To become successful in business, teamwork is also a key element of TQM. With the use of teams, the business will receive quicker and better solutions to problems. Teams also provide more permanent improvements in processes and operations. In teams, people feel more comfortable bringing up problems that may occur, and can get help from other workers to find a solution and put into place. There are mainly three types of teams that TQM organizations adopt: A. Quality Improvement Teams or Excellence Teams (QITS) These are temporary teams with the purpose of dealing with specific problems that often re-occur. These teams are set up for period of three to twelve months. B. Problem Solving Teams (PSTs) These are temporary teams to solve certain problems and also to identify and overcome causes of problems. They generally last from one week to three months. C. Natural Work Teams (NWTs) These teams consist of small groups of skilled workers who share tasks and responsibilities. These teams use concepts such as employee involvement teams,

self-managing teams and quality circles. These teams generally work for one to two hours a week. 6. Leadership It is possibly the most important element in TQM. It appears everywhere in organization. Leadership in TQM requires the manager to provide an inspiring vision, make strategic directions that are understood by all and to instill values that guide subordinates. For TQM to be successful in the business, the supervisor must be committed in leading his employees. A supervisor must understand TQM, believe in it and then demonstrate their belief and commitment through their daily practices of TQM. The supervisor makes sure that strategies, philosophies, values and goals are transmitted down throughout the organization to provide focus, clarity and direction. A key point is that TQM has to be introduced and led by top management. Commitment and personal involvement is required from top management in creating and deploying clear quality values and goals consistent with the objectives of the company and in creating and deploying well defined systems, methods and performance measures for achieving those goals. III. Binding Mortar 7. Communication It binds everything together. Starting from foundation to roof of the TQM house, everything is bound by strong mortar of communication. It acts as a vital link between all elements of TQM. Communication means a common understanding of ideas between the sender and the receiver. The success of TQM demands communication with and among all the organization members, suppliers and customers. Supervisors must keep open airways where employees can send and receive information about the TQM process. Communication coupled with the sharing of correct information is vital. For communication to be credible the message must be clear and receiver must interpret in the way the sender intended. There are different ways of communication such as: A. Downward communication This is the dominant form of communication in an organization. Presentations and discussions basically do it. By this the supervisors are able to make the employees clear about TQM. B. Upward communication By this the lower level of employees are able to provide suggestions to upper management of the affects of TQM. As employees provide insight and constructive criticism, supervisors must listen effectively to correct the situation that comes about through the use of TQM. This forms a level of trust between supervisors and employees. This is also similar to empowering communication, where supervisors keep open ears and listen to others. C. Sideways communication This type of communication is important because it breaks down barriers between departments. It also allows dealing with customers and suppliers in a more professional manner. IV. Roof 8. Recognition Recognition is the last and final element in the entire system. It should be provided for both suggestions and achievements for teams as well as individuals. Employees strive to receive recognition for themselves and their teams. Detecting and recognizing contributors is the most important job of a supervisor. As people are recognized, there can be huge changes in self-esteem, productivity, quality and the amount of effort exhorted to the task at
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hand. Recognition comes in its best form when it is immediately following an action that an employee has performed. Recognition comes in different ways, places and time such as,

Ways It can be by way of personal letter from top management. Also by award banquets, plaques, trophies etc. Places Good performers can be recognized in front of departments, on performance boards and also in front of top management. Time Recognition can given at any time like in staff meeting, annual award banquets, etc.

Conclusion We can conclude that these eight elements are key in ensuring the success of TQM in an organization and that the supervisor is a huge part in developing these elements in the work place. Without these elements, the business entities cannot be successful TQM implementers. It is very clear from the above discussion that TQM without involving integrity, ethics and trust would be a great remiss, and in fact it would be incomplete. Training is the key by which the organization creates a TQM environment. Leadership and teamwork go hand in hand. Lack of communication between departments, supervisors and employees create a burden on the whole TQM process. Last but not the least; recognition should be given to people who contributed to the overall completed task. Hence, lead by example, train employees to provide a quality product, create an environment where there is no fear to share knowledge, and give credit where credit is due is the motto of a successful TQM organization. In its core, Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management approach to longterm success through customer satisfaction. In a TQM effort, all members of an organization participate in improving processes, products, services and the culture in which they work. The methods for implementing this approach come from the teachings of such quality leaders as Philip B. Crosby, W. Edwards Deming, Armand V. Feigenbaum, Kaoru Ishikawa and Joseph M. Juran. A core concept in implementing TQM is Demings 14 points, a set of management practices to help companies increase their quality and productivity: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Create constancy of purpose for improving products and services. Adopt the new philosophy. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. End the practice of awarding business on price alone; instead, minimize total cost by working with a single supplier. Improve constantly and forever every process for planning, production and service. Institute training on the job. Adopt and institute leadership. Drive out fear.
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9. Break down barriers between staff areas. 10. Eliminate slogans, exhortations and targets for the workforce. 11. Eliminate numerical quotas for the workforce and numerical goals for management. 12. Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship, and eliminate the annual rating or merit system. 13. Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement for everyone. 14. Put everybody in the company to work accomplishing the transformation. The term Total Quality Management has lost favor in the United States in recent years: Quality management is commonly substituted. Total Quality Management, however, is still used extensively in Europe.

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