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Unit 2- Stresses in Beams

Topics Covered
Lecture -1 Review of shear force and bending

moment diagram
Lecture -2 Bending stresses in beams Lecture -3 Shear stresses in beams Lecture -4- Deflection in beams Lecture -5 Torsion in solid and hollow shafts.

Beam Deflection
Recall: THE ENGINEERING BEAM THEORY

M E = = y I R
Moment-Curvature Equation

y x

v (Deflection)

NA

If deformation is small (i.e. slope is flat):

R and B y A

1 d R dx
y x
(slope is flat)


y = f (x)
x

1 d2y 2 R dx

Alternatively: from Newtons Curvature Equation


y R

1 = 3 R 2 2 dy 1+ dx

d 2 y 2 dx

dy 2 if <<<< 1 dx 1 d2y 2 R dx

From the Engineering Beam Theory:

M E = I R

d2y 1 M = 2 = dx R EI

Flexural
Stiffness

d2y ( EI ) 2 = M dx
Curvature

Bending Moment

Relationship
A C B

Deflection = y dy Slope = dx d2y Bending moment = EI 2 dx d3y Shearing force = EI 3 dx d4 y Rate of loading = EI 4 dx

C y

Methods to find slope and deflection


Double integration method Moment area method Macaulays method

Double integration method


Since,

d 2 y 1 M 2 = EI dx dy 1 = M dx + C1 dx EI 1 y = EI

Curvature

Slope

M dx dx + C dx + C
1

Deflection

Where C1 and C2 are found using the boundary conditions.

Curvature
R

Slope
dy dx

Deflection

Double integration method


Simple supported W A L/2 C yc L Uniform distributed load x A C yc L w/Unit length B L/2 B

Slope
Slope = dy dx
2

Deflection
Deflection = y c WL3 = 48EI

WL = A = B = 16EI

Slope

Deflection
Deflection = y c
2

Slope =

dy dx

WL = A = B = 24 EI

5 WL3 = 384 EI

Macaulays method
The procedure of finding slope and deflection for

simply supported beam with an eccentric load is very laborious.


Macaulays method helps to simplify the calculations

to find the deflection of beams subjected to point loads.

Moment-Area Theorems
Consider a beam subjected to arbitrary loading,
d d 2 y M = = dx dx 2 EI D xD M d = EI dx C xC
xD

D C =
dx

xC

M dx EI

CD = Rd = dx
area under BM diagram between C and D.

R d

First Moment-Area Theorem:

9 - 11

Moment-Area Theorems
Tangents to the elastic curve at P and P intercept a segment of length dt on the vertical through C.
dt = xd = x
xD

M dx EI
x

tC D =

xC

M 1 D 1 x dx = xMdx = EI A x EI EI xC

A= total area of BM diagram between C & D = Distance of CG of BM diagram from C

Second Moment-Area Theorem: The tangential deviation of C with respect to D is equal to the first moment with respect to a vertical axis through C of the area under the BM diagram between C and D.

9 - 12

Moment Area Method

Moment Area Method

An Exercise- Moment of Inertia Comparison


1 Load Maximum distance of 4 inch to the centroid 2 x 8 beam Load I1 2 x 8 beam 2

I2

Maximum distance of 1 inch to the centroid

I2 > I1 , orientation 2 deflects less


Ken Youssefi Engineering 10, SJSU 15