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# Unit 2- Stresses in Beams

Topics Covered
Lecture -1 Review of shear force and bending

moment diagram
Lecture -2 Bending stresses in beams Lecture -3 Shear stresses in beams Lecture -4- Deflection in beams Lecture -5 Torsion in solid and hollow shafts.

Beam Deflection
Recall: THE ENGINEERING BEAM THEORY

M E = = y I R
Moment-Curvature Equation

y x

v (Deflection)

NA

R and B y A

1 d R dx
y x
(slope is flat)

y = f (x)
x

1 d2y 2 R dx

## Alternatively: from Newtons Curvature Equation

y R

1 = 3 R 2 2 dy 1+ dx

d 2 y 2 dx

dy 2 if <<<< 1 dx 1 d2y 2 R dx

## From the Engineering Beam Theory:

M E = I R

d2y 1 M = 2 = dx R EI

Flexural
Stiffness

d2y ( EI ) 2 = M dx
Curvature

Bending Moment

Relationship
A C B

Deflection = y dy Slope = dx d2y Bending moment = EI 2 dx d3y Shearing force = EI 3 dx d4 y Rate of loading = EI 4 dx

C y

## Methods to find slope and deflection

Double integration method Moment area method Macaulays method

## Double integration method

Since,

d 2 y 1 M 2 = EI dx dy 1 = M dx + C1 dx EI 1 y = EI

Curvature

Slope

M dx dx + C dx + C
1

Deflection

Curvature
R

Slope
dy dx

Deflection

## Double integration method

Simple supported W A L/2 C yc L Uniform distributed load x A C yc L w/Unit length B L/2 B

Slope
Slope = dy dx
2

Deflection
Deflection = y c WL3 = 48EI

WL = A = B = 16EI

Slope

Deflection
Deflection = y c
2

Slope =

dy dx

WL = A = B = 24 EI

5 WL3 = 384 EI

Macaulays method
The procedure of finding slope and deflection for

## simply supported beam with an eccentric load is very laborious.

Macaulays method helps to simplify the calculations

## to find the deflection of beams subjected to point loads.

Moment-Area Theorems
d d 2 y M = = dx dx 2 EI D xD M d = EI dx C xC
xD

D C =
dx

xC

M dx EI

CD = Rd = dx
area under BM diagram between C and D.

R d

## First Moment-Area Theorem:

9 - 11

Moment-Area Theorems
Tangents to the elastic curve at P and P intercept a segment of length dt on the vertical through C.
dt = xd = x
xD

M dx EI
x

tC D =

xC

M 1 D 1 x dx = xMdx = EI A x EI EI xC

## A= total area of BM diagram between C & D = Distance of CG of BM diagram from C

Second Moment-Area Theorem: The tangential deviation of C with respect to D is equal to the first moment with respect to a vertical axis through C of the area under the BM diagram between C and D.

9 - 12

## An Exercise- Moment of Inertia Comparison

1 Load Maximum distance of 4 inch to the centroid 2 x 8 beam Load I1 2 x 8 beam 2

I2

## I2 > I1 , orientation 2 deflects less

Ken Youssefi Engineering 10, SJSU 15