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Next Generation Monoclonal Antibody (Antibody Engineering) 2012 Baharuddin Postgraduate Program, Biochemistry Department, Medical Faculty Airlangga

University Email: baharbiodna@yahoo.co.id

Antibody specificity by distinguished: monoclonal antibodies and polinoklonal antibodies. The latest generation of monoclonal antibodies, are progressing with a deep study of the epitopes of the antigen. Monoclonal antibodies have been widely used in the fields of health, both for diagnostics and for treatment, especially to cope with certain cancers. Some of the monoclonal antibody used for the treatment of cells derived from mice or rats, so often cause allergic reactions in patients who received the monoclonal antibody therapy. This is because protein mice are recognized as foreign antigens by the patient's body, causing the immune response reactions which include allergies, inflammation, and destruction (digest) or the destruction of the monoclonal antibody itself. To overcome these problems, some researchers have developed a new generation of monoclonal antibody manufacturing, is monoclonal antibodies that part or all of structure are composed of proteins derived from human. So as to reduce the effects of rejection by the patient's immune system. The latest generation of monoclonal antibodies is to minimize rejection by modifying the variable part (V) and the constan (C).

Figure. 1 Structure of antibody.

Some kind of new generation of monoclonal antibodies that have been developed include: 1. Chimaric Monoclonal Antibodies Antibodies are produced through genetic engineering techniques to create a mouse or a rat can produce mouse-human hybrid cells. Section variable (V) of the antibody molecule, including the antigen binding site derived from mice, while the other is part of the constant (C) of human origin. One example of a monoclonal antibody molecular structure consists of 67% of humans are rifuximab. 2. Humanized Monoclonal Antibodies These antibodies are made in such a way so that the proteins derived from mice confined to the antigen binding site alone. As for the other part, namely the variable and constant part of human origin. Monoclonal antibodies are molecular structures composed of 90% men such as alemtuzumab. 3. Fully Human Monoclonal Antibodies This antibody is an antibody of the most ideal to avoid the immune response due to protein antibodies are injected into the body are all derived from the human protein. One approach taken to design antibody formation is by genetic engineering techniques to create transgenic mice that carry genes derived from manusia. So that capable of producing the desired antibodies.