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INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT AT

Satna (M.P.) FROM: 02-06-2012 TO: 06-07-2012

TRAINING IN-CHARGE: Mr. Prakash Singh Sub Divisional Engineer (SDE) Universal Cables Ltd.

SUBMITTED BY: Piyush Shukla (09502914) Electronics & Communication Department Jaypee Institute Of Information Technology, Noida

CONTENT

1.

Acknowledgement

2. Declaration 3. Introduction 4. Description Of The Organization 5. Description Of The Work Carried Out 6. Manufacturing processes 7. Optical cables 8. Conclusion

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I feel profound pleasure in bringing out this projects report for which we have to go from pillar to post to make it a reality. This project work reflects contributions of our colleagues with whom we had long discussions and without which it would not have been possible. We must first of all, express our heartiest gratitude to respected Mr. Prakash Singh for providing us all guidance to complete project. It would be unfair if we do not mention the invaluable contribution and timely co-operation extended to us by staff members. Last but not the least we express our sincere thanks to the UNIVERSAL CABLES LTD. for providing such a platform for implementing the ideas in our mind. I would also like to express my gratitude towards my alma mater Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida for providing an opportunity of summer industrial training.

-Piyush Shukla

DECLARATION

I, Piyush Shukla, here by declare that I have carried out Summer training project at
UNIVERSAL CABLES LTD. Satna (M.P.)

I further declare that the above furnished information is factual and correct to the best of my knowledge and belief.

Date: Place: Satna ( Piyush Shukla )

DESCRIPTION OF THE ORGANIZATION

Universal Cables Limited (UCL) was established in 1962 by late Shri M.P. Birla, the then Chairman, with modern plant for manufacture of Paper Insulated Cables. Since then, the Company has made rapid progress achieving a world class reputation.In the year 1977, collaborating with M/s. Asea Kabels AB, Sweden (now called ABB Cables), UCL brought XLPE technology to India. The Companys other collaborations are with internationally acclaimed leaders in their respective fields. UCL is a leader in the Indian Cable Industry with the widest product range. The cable division has a very wide range of product. It includes Low Voltage, Medium Voltage and Extra High Voltage XLPE Power Cables upto 500 kV grade, PVC and Rubber Insulated Power Cables upto 11 kV grade, Control and Instrumentation Cables upto 1.1 kV for any number of Cores/Pairs and speciality Rubber Cables for Trailing/Flexible standards to suit to customer requirements. Its Cables and Capacitors are known by the Brand Name UNISTAR.To meet the growing demand of Extra High Voltage Cables (220 kV and above), UCL has already ventured into this market segment. For this UCL has adopted VCV process at its Satna Plant in technical collaboration with the World Leader in Cable technology, Furukawa Electric Co. Ltd., Japan. The technical collaboration covers Cable designing, Manufacturing, Laying, Jointing, Testing and Installation. UCL has also tied-up with Viscas Corporation, Japan (Power Cable Alliance of Furukawa & Fujikura) for sourcing new generation cable jointing accessories for 220 kV and above.Apart from manufacturing Electrical Cables for multifarious applications, UCL is having full fledged EPC Division to execute Turnkey Contracts for various Utilities/Projects.With this, UCL has now positioned itself as a complete solution provider for EHV Underground Power Cables Transmission System upto 500 kV, involving designing, manufacturing, laying, jointing and installation.The 220 kV Cables prototype sample manufactured by UCL has been successfully

Type Tested as a complete cable system at CPRI, Bangalore creating a land mark in itself as this is the first successful 220 kV cables system Type Test in India. UCL has successfully executed orders for 220 kV Cables. The Capacitor Division of the Company, which commenced operation in the year 1967, manufactures world class All Poly Propylene (APP) Capacitors for AC applications. This ivision was set up in collaboration with Toshiba, Japan for manufacture of Paper and Power Capacitors. In 1977, this Division entered into another technical collaboration with General Electric Company of USA for manufacture of Mixed Dielectric Capacitors and in 1985 for manufacture of All PP Dielectric Capacitors. The product range includes Low & High Voltage Capacitors (415 VAC to 220 KVAC), APFC Panels, Medium Frequency Water Cooled Capacitors for Induction Furnace Application, Surge Protective Capacitors, Tuned and Detuned Filter Capacitors, DC Capacitors. This Division also provides services like Automatic PF Correction Systems, Harmonic Analysis and PF Studies.

DESCRIPTION OF THE WORK

CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION OF POWER CABLES

The electrical current in a conductor causes a voltage drop and power losses. The temperature rise in the cable caused by the losses must be kept within certain limits in order not to shorten the service life of the cable. The temperature limit varies with the type of cable, or more precisely the type of insulation. The best way to keep the temperature within limits specified for the type of cable, is to choose the conductor cross-section so that the cable and its surroundings with the actual continuous load, achieve thermal balance at a temperature below or equal to the temperature limit recommended. Cable type and size should be selected keeping in view the following:-

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)

Application. Working voltage; earthed or unearthed neutral system. Load current, load factor, starting duty and frequency. Installation method. The environment in which the cable has to operate. Short circuit current and system protection. Acceptable voltage drop Economies.

How the above factors influence on the choice of cable? 1. Application:The application of the cable determines the basic factors for the choice of cable type and the rules according to which it must be manufactured. Following are the major factors for choice of cable type. - Conductor materials:

No doubt copper is better conductor material owing to its high electrical conductivity and other electrical/mechanical properties but due to its high cost and scarcity, researches are being carried out to find other cheaper and abundant metals which may be a close substitute to copper in electrical application. Aluminium conductors are being used in place of copper conductors for the past many years and have proved to be quite satisfactory. The lower conductivity of a Aluminium (61 % of the annealed copper) results in increased dimensions of the cable and ultimately of conduits and fittings for the same current carrying capacity as that of a copper conductor cable. Aluminium conductor cables although bigger and somewhat stiffer when lower number of wires is used for the conductor than the equivalent copper conductor cables, are still flexible enough to be installed where a copper conductor cable was formerly used. The advantages of the lighter weight offset the disadvantages of larger sizes for a given capacity. The use of Aluminium conductor cables should be preferred as far as possible. The use of flexible copper conductor is recommended where very high degree of flexibility is required as in the case of mines etc.

- Insulating materials: The right type of insulation material for a particular usage depends upon the voltage grade, operating temperature required, degree of flexibility, current capacity requirement and restrictions on size etc. and other climatic conditions.

- Metallic Sheathing:

Either pure lead or different lead alloys are used for Sheathing of

PILC cables and each has

its own advantages.The most common and popular alloy is lead Alloy 'E'.

-Bedding and Serving materials: In case of PVC cables the normal bedding and serving materials are PVC compound. The normal bedding and serving in case of PILC cables consist of a combination of an impregnated paper, cotton and Hessian tapes and bituminous compound. These materials provide protection against corrosion of armour and lead and are suitable in great majority of installations. However, in special cases where severe chemical corrosion is to be encountered, the use of PVC bedding and PVC serving is recommended.

-Armouring: The purpose of armour is to provide mechanical protection to the cable and to facilitate earthling for safety requirements. This also carries phase to ground fault currents of the system safely.Double steel tape provides good mechanical protection but when in addition longitudinal stresses are encountered during the installation or in service, steel wire/strip armouring is recommended for vertical armouring should be preferred. Double wire runs, river crossing, cables laid on bridges and mine shafts etc. where longitudinal stresses are expected.

2. The system voltage determines the voltage class of the cables.

3. The current rating is, in general, the decisive factors for fixing conductor cross-section. But in certain applications where intermittent load is required, it is more relevant to use the squared average r.m.s. current with a reduced cross section.

4. The power cables must be capable of carrying, the required normal full load current continuously under the site conditions throughout the year. Therefore, the current ratings specified must be corrected to site conditions by applying suitable derating/uprating factors depending upon (a) (b) (c) (d) Ground or ambient air temperature (max.). Thermal resistivity of soil during dry season. Depth of laying. Total number of cables/circuits in groups.

5. (A) Chemical substances in the environment might cause special stringent requirements on the outer covering. (B) If it is necessary to reduce the propagation of fire along cable route combined with low corrosivity, toxicity and smoke generation characteristics for cables, "FRLS' cables (Flame Retardant low Smoke) with thermoplastic or thermosetting material or fire survival cables with elastomeric material should be used. These types of cables are designed with special composition of protective sheath materials, and by using beat barrier tapes etc. for use in such critical fire risk installations.

6. Short circuit current together with duration of short circuit determines the short circuit

energy the cable insulation has to with stand thermally.ln certain cases a larger size of cable then the cable required for normal full load current may be needed to match system short circuit current levels. Voltage drop is also a major factor in deciding the conductor size of the cable. The cross section of the cable should be chosen such that voltage drop of the cable for the given route length does not exceed the statutory requirement. 7. Naturally, the most economical construction and the size of the cable consistent with required current carrying capacity and laying condition has to be selected. Thus the selection of particular type of cable i.e. PVC, XLPE, PILC or rubber and the particular material for screening, sheathing, bedding, armouring or serving etc. out of many choices available depends upon the usages, laying and climatic conditions. The design of the cable for a particular application must be optimized taking into account all the above-mentioned factors. In case expert guidance in this respect is desired, please contact UCI Technical Service Division. UCL SATNA

Manufacturing Process The over all stages of manufacturing consists of the following different types of processes.

1) Wire Drawing -Annealing, Tinning, Bunching, Stranding 2) Insulation -Paper/PVC/Rubber/XLPE/Fluroplastic/Polythelene


3) Laying 4) Impregnation 5) Lead Sheathing

6) Bedding Extruded/wrapped/fibrous lapping 7) Armouring -Round wire/Flat strip/Steel tape


8) Sheathing

The details of above manufacturing processes are as given here under :-

Wire Drawing: Wires of different sizes are drawn from Aluminium/Copper rods on wire-drawing machines. The size(diameter) of wire depends upon the over all cross sectional area of the ultimate cable under manufacture as well as the flexibility requirement. Annealed copper Wires for flexible rubber cables are then tinned before they are released for next process. The tinning is done by passing the cleaned cu. wires seated with the flux through molten tin both. The excess of tin adhering to wire surface is wiped out by means of wipers

Stranding - The Al or Cu. wires or tinned copper wires as the case may be are bunched/stranded together. The direction of stranding of alternate layers is always kept in opposite direction in order to have tight and balanced configuration of wires. The standard Conductor may be compact circular or shaped as per the cable construction.

INSULATION

(1) PVC - Different type of PVC compounds are used for required Physical & electrical properties and continuous operating temperature of cables. PVC compound extruded over conductor by extrusion process on different sizes of extruders as per the size of conductor. In line to extrusion process H.V. testing (Spark testing) is being done to check the quality of extruded core. 2. Rubber - Natural or synthetic rubber based compounds are prepared to meet the physical & Elec. properties and continues operating temp. of cable. Various types of rubber compounds are then extruded over the conductor as per the requirement of the customer. 3. Paper insulation - In this case insulated paper tapes are lapped on conductor. The thickness of insulation is built up by required number of paper tapes according to voltage grade of cables. The top layer of paper tapes is suitably numbered for core identification.

4. XLPE XlPE cables have become very much popular now a day. These cables are replacing paper-insulated cables right from low voltage grade to extra high voltage grade. In these cables two types of constructions are used ie screened and unscreened. 11 KV and above grade cables are all screened. Conductor screen, insulation and insulation screen are generally

applied in one operation called dual-tandem process. M/s Universal Cables Ltd is one of the pioneer cable manufacturers of XLPE cable up to 132 KV grade cables in INDIA. Vulcanization/Cross-linking: Rubber and XLPE cables are vulcanized after extrusion. This process is done just after extrusion on CV/CCV/PLCV lines. This process is done to improve the electrical and physico-mechanical properties of rubber and polyethylene compounds. In some cases batch vulcanization is carried out for rubber cables and low voltage XLPE cables.

Laying up of cables. The insulated cores are laid up along with filling material and twisted to get approximate circular Cable. A binding tape is also provided to hold the fillers and maintain the circularity of laid up cables.In case of paper-insulated cables if the cables are belted type, belt insulation is done along with laying up process by providing required no. of paper tapes and in screened type cables copper woven fabric tape is provided over laid up cores. Impregnation process. Paper insulated cables need a special process known as impregnation. The function of this process is to extract moisture out of paper insulation and impregnate the insulation with moisture resistant insulating compound.Heating the Cable under vacuum for some period and then filling the insulating compound over cable within the impregnating vessel do this process. The cycle of drying flooding and cooling etc. depends on size and voltage grade of cables. By impregnation the electrical properties of paper insulation are enhanced. Procedure adopted for drying and impregnation of paper-insulated cables comprises the following stages.

1. Rewinding the cables in impregnation trays 2. Loading the trays in the impregnation tanks 3. Heating the cables under vacuum 4. Impregnating of cables with impregnation compound for required period 5. Unloading the cable-trays from the tanks after impregnation.

The compound used for impregnation is a petroleum product and has excellent electrical and mechanical properties. Lead sheathing

After impregnation, lead sheath is applied over the paper-insulated cables. This process is done by sleeve extrusion (pipe extrusion). The object of Lead sheathing is to prevent the entry of moisture in the impregnated cable while maintaining the flexibility of cable. Inner Sheathing/Bedding

PVC and Rubber insulated cables are provided with inner sheathing over laid up cores as bedding for armouring. In case on PVC cables inner sheathing may be done by lapping PVC/PE tapes or by PVC extrusion but in case of rubber insulated cables rubber extrusion is done for this purpose.

Armouring

The armouring is provided to provide mechanical protection of cables during handling and installation.Thi is done by providing galv. round steel wires or galvanised steel strips or

double steel tapes over the bedded cables.Though the main function of armouring is to protect the cable from outside mechanical damages to the cable but it also serves the purpose of carrying the short circuit current produced during system failure or any type of short circuit in the system.

Sheathing/Serving:-

After armouring or in case of un-armoured cables, the laid and bedded cables are provided with a protective sheathing of extruded PVC or PE sheath. Paper insulated cables are generally provided with a fibrous lapped serving but PVC or any other type of extruded sheath can also be given if required. Telecomunication Cables: Apart from power and control cables, telephone cables are also manufactured. These cables are generally called PIJF cables meaning Polyehylene Insulated Jelly Filled cables. In these cables copper wire of suitable size is insulated with Polyethylene. Two insulated wires are twisted together to form a pair. Required numbers of such pairs are grouped together and filled with special moisture resistant jelly. The filled cable is than screened with polythene laminated aluminium foil and sheathed with LDPE compound. The cable is finally armoured with galvanized double steel tapes and jacketed with LDPE compound.

Final testing:All cables are rewound in proper size wooden/steel reels and sent to testing section where all the cables are subjected to rigorous electrical and physical tests. Both the ends of cables after testing are sealed and given a unique identification number. These are then handed over to marketing department for onward dispatch to relevant customer Quality control

In universal cables quality is maintained by following a in built quality system which is based on international specification IS/ISO 9001. A property organized system of control of quality of product and process is followed for the efficient production of product acceptable in all respects to the customer. Products are tested and processes are controlled at all stages of manufactures from raw material to the finished stage. In addition certain standards procedures are adopted in order to ensure that product successfully fulfils the customer requirement.

Electrical and Mechanical maintenance: Electrical and mechanical departments are responsible for the periodic maintenance of all machines and equipments. A comprehensive schedule of PPM is followed to avoid breakdowns and thereby loss of machine and men hours. Both these departments are also looking after break down maintenance and installation &commissioning of new machines and instruments. These departments also carry out calibration of various electrical and mechanical instruments.

CONCLUSION

Hence in the last I can say that taking training in such an organization proved to be very beneficial for me. I learnt quite a lot about processes of cable making, selecting of cable material, and how different processes like bedding, armring, serving are done. In short, i got first hand knowledge of how cables are made. The first phase of training has proved to be quite fruitful. It provides an opportunity to encounter with such huge machines. The architecture of company has various units. They are linked and working of whole plant is controlled make the student realized that engineering is not just learning the structure description and working of various machines. But the greater part is planning proper and management.

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