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COLLEGE OFDFENCEMANGEMENT LEADERSHIP WORK SHOP THE MELT DOWN Answer 1a Motivational profile of Cdr banerjee By needs theory

of Mc Clelland. Cdr banerjees motivationalprofile showed high need for achievement. The description of his behaviour brings his out amply. Some instances are givenbelow:Cdr Banerjee created milestones during all training courses and was the Sword of honour in his course. Working had to win the taunt ship trophy. He kept thinking of ways to do accomplish something unusual and important. Dislike for theroutine tasks which fail tpprovidehim opportunity to prove his ability. He needed or got plenty of rcognition for his work He sought out complex problems and solved them (capture of merchant ship, carrying out high risk activities, on INS Abhay, apprehending fishing trawlers etc) By Herzbergs theory Cdr banerjee motibated by factors such as achievement, responsibility, advancement and possibility of growth. The job content was thus more important than the job context. Answwer-1b The various approaches to leadership are described below:TRAITS APPROACH This approach started during the second world War.The theory was that leaders are born and notmade. Leadrers have some innate traits that help them to be good leaders. Alertness ,bearing, courage, decisiveness, dependability,endurance, enthusiasm, initiative and integrity arefew such traits. However he number of traits found in leaders was too many (4,500). Also no two leaders were the same. BEHAVIOUR APPROACH This approach says that not not just traits but behaviour was also important. The two factors in behviour were Consideration(concern for needs of subordinates) and Initiating structure.(concern for task).The various leadership styles that emerged is shown below.
HIGH C O N S I D E R A T I O N LOW LOW STRUCTURE HIGH CONSIDERATION HIGH CONSIDERATION HIGH STRUCTURE

LOW CONSIDERATION LOW STRUCTURE

HIGH STRUCTURE LOW CONSIDERATION

HIGH INITIATING STRUCTURE ( CONCERN FOR TASK)

SITUATIONAL APPROACH. This approach was propounded by Robert Terrago and Smith. It stated that leader adopts style based on the situation, the group who is under the leader and the values and mental makeup of the leader. Thus the leadership style could vary from authoritarian to democratic. FUNCTIONAL APPROACH This approach sees various leadership styles depending upon the group (job interest & motivation, sense of responsibility, knowledge & expertise, understanding goals, need for autonomy and homogeneity), the leader (social orientation, mental ability, motivation, courage, energy and maturity) and the situation (levelofdanger, job demands, presuureand time constraints). TRANSACTIONAL APPROACH His states that leadership depends on external reinforcements to motivate subordinates. There is a contract of rewards for effort. Good performances are rewarded. Works through exploitation of physiological and security needs. He prefers to intervene only when things go wrong. He is unsure about the efficacy of his method of motivating subordinates. He gives general feedback. TRANSFORMATIONAL APPROACH This approach is based on a balanced mix of rational and emotional factors. He encourages others through personal influence and building relationships. He serves as a role model to his subordinates. This type of leader is guided by a strong moral code and certain ethical values. He thus wins over trust and confidence of subordinates by providing encouragement and support. He makes subordinates realize the importance & value of results. Subordinates work beyond their own self interest. Leadership style of Cdr Banerjee Managerial grid Cdr Banerjee had a very high concern for task and a lack of concern for his subordinates. (Habitability conditions were poor, men were not getting leave, training was suffering etc). Reddins Three D Model According to this model Cdr Banerjee was a dedicated autocrat. He was a successful but ineffective leader. He was not liked by his subordinates did not care for them and ho was mostly concerned with the task at hand. Sharyu Ranganekar Model

Communication skills of Cdr Banerjee As per the Johari Window, Cdr Banerjee had a large blind region and also a large faade. He perceived himself to be a great leader of men. The men did not feel so. Also he worked and pushed his men hard apparently for organizational goals knowing fully well that he was doing primarily for his own ends.

Differences between an Effective and ineffective leader 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. INEFFECTIVE Influence due to positional power Behavioral change Close supervision Functions when leader present Effect short lived Takes less time You want them to do it 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. EFFECTIVE Influence due to personal power Attitudinal change Gen supervision Functions even in absence Long term effect More time They themselves want to do it

A1e Relevance of traits theory in todays environment in the armed forces. The traits theory believes that leaders are borne and not made. It has identified certain qualities that are inherent in a leader. In the armed forces selection of leaders at the recruitment stage is based on assessing basic qualities /personality prior to accepting a person for training. The activities during selection are designed to see a display of leader like qualities by candidates.This implies that the services do believe in the trait theory to some extent. My view is that certain traits are inherited and some can be acquired through training and emulation. However there are some qualities in human beings that surface only when a trigger situation presents. Till then these qualities are hidden from the individual as well as from the world. No psychological tests can divine these qualities. Leaderlike qualities are exhibited by many persons in the services. Many of these are acquired as stated earlier. Again it is my view that this learned behavior occurs in certain preset scenarios that have been learned by the individual. Loyalty for example canbe displayed in day to day scenarios. It . it remains to be seen whether this loyalty intheleader to his men will sustain in extremely adverse situations.it ispossible that this learnt behavoiur gets unlearned. In summary, if traits canbe identified by sound testing then the traits thery is relevant. Some qualities can be ingrained with training. A true leader however will emerge only when a situation requiring leadership unfolds.