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Entl'j

Cum ell . John O. & Keonelll W.


Johnson. 3fd Edition. New
YO<Ic Wil ey. 1995: 315.
Almosph .... . Enearra.
Re<lmond. WA;. Mi,coso/t 1994.
\;kc Haoobooi< of CtJemi Wjl &
61 sl e<I. f l orida: CRC
P,ess. I98D-1981 : f -l 0.
CRe Haoobook of CtJemi UFJI &
48ttl <HI. OOi o: Chemi cal
Rubber Co. 1 % 1-<>8: 11-10.
Horowiiz. Iflli nll l. ContemporaFJI
Eart/) Selene" . New YO<Ic Amsco:
1916. H -15.
SUbslan"". Ai, . lJass Oeosit\' 1.29. ' Unl ess oitl"""'; se nol"".
densiTi es ",. ljiveo al O' C and 1 atm pressure.'
"The density 01 dry ai, aI sea I","<>l i s at>ooll /8OO1!lllle <lensit\' 01 wal ...
"The density 01 moi sl ai, may be delennin"" by a simil ", ' elali on:
o = 1.2929 (213. 131T)(B - 0.3183<>)'160) V<ffi .. e T i s Ille absolul e
l empe<ature: B. Ille b",omemc pressure in mm. and e lIl e WIlOf pressu,e
oIlll e moi stu,e in Ille ai, in mm.
' Oeosity 01 Ory ai, aI O' C & 160 mm = 1.2929
"The <lensit\' 01 ai, aI sea I","<>l i s appro>imalel y I /8OO1!lllle density 01
wat ...


D. nsilv W) is th. mass of a gr, . n .. olum. of a substanc . D. nsilv C<l n b. obtained bv dMding th. mass {m) of an obj . ct bv tn
.. olum. of that obj . ct
D = m l V
A mass that is conc. ntrated in a small .. olum. has a greater densilv than a substanc. of equal mass that occupi.s a larger .. olum .
Thus. gases ha ... th. small est d. nsiti .s as compar. d to soli ds and li qui ds b.C<l us. gas mol. cules contain . mplv spac.
whil . :fr, ol. cules in li qui ds ar. more pack. d together.
Th. d. nsilv of a substanc. {maintv gases) d. p. nds on temp. ratur. and pr.ssur . Gases ar. usualtv compar. d at a standard
temp. ratur. and standard pr.ssur . Thes. are the freeri ng point {O ' C) and normal air pr.ssur. at sea 1 . ... 1 {160 tOrT). r.sp. cti .... tv.
Th. d. nsilv of drY air at sea 1 . .... 1 is 1. 2929 kglm' or about 11300th th. d. nsilv of water. But as altitud. increases. th. d. nsilv drops
dramati C<l ltv. This is b.C<l us. th. d. nsilv of air is proporti onal to th. pr.ssur. and in .... rselv proporti onal to temp. ratur . An d the
higher , ou go into th. atmosph. r . th. lowerth. pressure gets. Pressure is approxi matelv ha', . d for earn additi onal incr.ase of
56 km in altitud . To determin. th. d. nsilv of drY air at a gr, . n altitud. w. coul d us. th. r. lati on
D = D, ' n,IT) ' {PI P, )
Wh. r. D, is th. m own d. nsilv at absolute temp. ratur. T, and pressure P, and D. th. unm own d. nsilv at absolute temp. ratur. T
and pressure P.
Just as th. r. is a densilv of drY air. th. r. is also th. d. nsilv of moist air. or air that contains moisture {humidilv). To obtain this
d. nsilv , ou C<l n us. th. r. lati on
D' 1213.15 1T) ' (18-0.3133 . )17 60)
Wh. r.
D is th. densilv of drY air at sea 1 . .... 1.
T is th. absolute temp. ratur. in k. Mn.
B is th. baromemc pressure in tOrT. and
is th . .. apor pr.ssur. of th. moisture in th. air in tOrT.
Rarn. 1 Chu - 2000
Eubanks. Slew," W. St3nd3rd
Atmosphere Cpmput3ti pns.
NAS.A. l ewi s Rese",ch Ceol ...
Camlichael . Ralph. A S3mple
AtmPsphere T3ble (SI units!.
Public Oomain Aeronautical
SoI'rv;", .
8eaufil s. Jean-Loui s. Email 10 Ill .
e<IIl or. 5 July 2006.
Editor s Suppl. m. nt - 2001. 2006
R ... L.i t
' 1.2'2500
1.2'25E* 0
AAoitl .. way 10 estimate Ill . density 01 ai, i s Ill,ough rt s compositi on: i .e ..
,oughly 18% nitr09"" . 21% <:'Y9"" and 1% "'900. WM ,espect;'>re mol ",
masses for Ill os. lIases beinll 28. 32 and 40 Qlmol . Ille ",,,,agoo mol ", mass
01 ai, i s Ill .. efore:
0.13 ' 28 * 0.21 ' 32 * 0.01 ' 40 = 28.%
AI. O' C and normal sea level pressu,e a mole oIlIas occupies 2'2.4 Iii",". so
a cubic mel .. 01 ai, has a mass 01:
1()()() 122,4 , 0.028% = 1.293
Q: What is the density of mercury in grams?
In: S<ie roce , Cnemi<try
A:
Answer
The density 01 mercury (HO) is 13.534 orams per millilit er.
The density 01 ultra pure li quid mercury (at 20C and 760 mm c o ~ HO) is 13.534 o/ cm
3
Density
Density of rock

If a rock weighs 3 pounds. what would be its volume?
This "'; l1 depe nd upon the dens ity of the rock. whic h can vary a 101. Rock is typicall y about three times
dens er than water. s o a volume of rock "'; l1 we igh about three times more than the same volume of water
The dens ity of water is approximately 1 gra m per c uhic centimeter {gfc m'). whic h is 62 pounds mas s per
c ubic foot {Ibm/ft '). Th ree pounds {I 36 kg) of water would occupy 84 c uhic inches {1360 c ubic centimeters ).
Typical dens ities for s ome types of rock are
- Basalt 3 gfc m
O
{187 Ibm/ft c)
_ Gra nite 2.7 gfc mo {169 Ibm/ft c)
_ Sandstone 2.3 gfc mo {144 Ibm/ft c)
Some rocks are he",ie r and others muc h li ghter than thos e li ste<l For example. Pumice is a rock
forme<l from s oli difi e<l foamy volcanic I",'a. It is fu ll of s paces fu ll of gas . rather li ke a s ponge Some
examples of Pumice are dens ity of water. at 0 5 gfc mo {31 Ibm/ft ').
Density Variations of Earth Materials
Thus far it ",uncis iiI.:. a fainy simpk proposition to m. , 'ariation in density of m. du. to local chang .. in gwlogy. TI=.
signific1lllt complication, . TI;" first has to do with m. density contrasts m. asur. d for ",lrious matmal>.
Dens ity hl:mlcm
A
3)
Air - 0
Water I
Sediments l.7-2.3
Sandstone 2.(1-2.6
Sbale 2.0-2.7
Limestone 2.5-2.8
Gr:l ni te 2.5-2.8
Basalts 2.7-3.1
:\ l etamorpbic Rnc ks 2.6-3.0
vera e S cific Gravi of Various Rock T s
2 8 - 3 0 2 36 - 253
,;
"" 11 - 1 .1 092 - 1 18
,
'"' 2 6 - 3 0 2 19 - 253
2 8 - 3 0 2 36 - 253
2 8 - 2 9 2 36 - 2 .1.1
1 6 - 1 8 1 35 - 1 52
,
1 6875
2 6 - 2 9 2 19 - 2 .1.1
2 6 - 2 7 2 19 - 228
2 3 - 2 8 1 9.1 - 2 36
.J5 - 5 3 379 - .1.17
"
'" 2 3 - 2 7 1 9.1 - 228
2 .1 - 2 7 2 02 - 228
2 5 - 2 9 2 09 - 2 .1 3
2 6 - 2 8 2 19 - 2 36
2 .1 - 26 2 02 - 2 19
2 5 - 2 6 2 11 - 2 19
2 2 - 2 8 1 85 - 2 36
2 .1 - 2 8 2 02 - 2 36
2 7 - 2 8 228 - 2 36
2 6 - 2 8 2 19 - 2 36
[}ensity lin Iblcu f1.l - SG X 62.4
[}ensity lSI units) - SG X [}ensity of water
p. o glcc or 1000 kglcubic metre)
1,000 kg/m^3
Gol d Bars - Federal Reserve
MeasulO,e ,ls : 7x 3.525.1.75 rrnes
Do the movies depict the weight
of gold bars accurately?
How is a gold bar?
In the ="", how easily do they show someone
h"ndling a b", of gokP Should you be able 10 pick it
up easily? How nJ.JIly gold b",s do you think you
can c"ITY? In this exercise, you will calculate the
weight in pounds of" gold b",.
1 'or kg/cuM
2,7r kg/cuM
7,apo kg/cuM
19,3j kg/cuM
Deasiti es of Common
[lemenls 3nd
Coml'ouods
Density
Subst""ce grJlllS per
mL 0.- CC
100
I Iron, Fe I i.80
I Gold, Au I 19.30
F
13,SF kg/cuM
r-----------------------------
c
IEUml' le: How
hea', ' in pounds is
a gold b", pictured
on the right. The
ldimensions of gold
b",s held in
)' b lhem3fic31 Defin ifioa of
The f<>rm.J! ddinition of is m3SS per unil , 'olume.
Csu"lIy the density is exp.-essffl in grJlllS p..- mL 0.- cc.
)'-hth="tic:illy a "per" slJt=enl is Ir""slmed as a cJi,ision.
cubic centimeter and is equol to a mL Therd"o.-e,
Density = mass = g mL
yolume
cc " a
F ederol Reser,..
IBJIlks is
i x 3.625 x Li 5
linch ..
Find the "olume
of the gold b",s in
cubic centimeters
Colculate the
weight of the gold
b", using the
density of gold,
which is: 19.3 gcc
t.is e the density as
a con"er"""
f"clo.-:
19.3g = lcc
Con,'..-r from
grJlllS to pound,.

Solutioa:
Firsl, connl1 the me,sur=enls
in centimeter,.
1 inch = em
' 5 ' _ li.iS
_. cm
1 inch
Simi! Iy - 9 '1 . '" _ _ Ul - . _ cm,
Li 5 in = em
Volume =
17.i6 cm x 9.2 1 cm x cm
= i2i.9 cc
- ) - 9
I _ I . ec
,
19.3g - H,W8g
\ "
g
Ilb = lb
,
g
So nexl time you see gold b",s in the =,ie.,
look to see how easily they appe", to pick th= up.
TIUrt}. pounds is a good ",nounl of W';ghl th"l is not
casuJ!l}' picked up.