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Assessment report and recommendations for the development of the GSI model

DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRACTICAL MODEL OF GRADUAL SOCIAL INTEGRATION Agreement No.: No. ESF-S(002-07) Project No.: VP1-1.3-SADM-02-K-01-002

Pcs, June - August 2009.

DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRACTICAL MODEL OF GRADUAL SOCIAL INTEGRATION Agreement No. ESF-S(002-07) Project No. VP1-1.3-SADM-02-K-01-002

Contents
I. II. Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 3 Situation in Lithuania ........................................................................................................ 4 II.1. II.2. II.3. II.4. Assistance to convicts and persons returning from imprisonment............................. 4 Law on Social Undertakings ...................................................................................... 8 Statistics regarding former prisoners........................................................................ 10 Changes in labour market......................................................................................... 13

The National Action Plan for Employment of Lithuania................................................. 13 Employment Promotion Programme................................................................................ 14 II.5. Local Employment Initiatives and Social Inclusion policy ..................................... 15 III. Situation in Hungary ....................................................................................................... 19 IV. Best Practices in the Reintegration of Former Prisoners in Hungary ............................. 24 IV.1. Project TOOLBOOK - Handbook for employers who are willing to accept exprisoners .............................................................................................................................. 27 IV.2. IV.3. Project Establishment of a Rehabilitation Centre in Koml............................. 29 Project Park gardener training in llampuszta Penal Institution...................... 32

IV.4. Project Give your future a chance! - a project supporting prisoners and exprisoners under Probation Service in the process of social reintegration ............................ 35 IV.5. CHANGING PROGRAME project - Increasing the chances of reintegration to the society and the labour market for released young former prisoners .............................. 38 IV.6. Projects I will learn to learn and Create with me! Prevention programmes for young boys and girls in prison........................................................................................ 43 IV.7. IV.8. IV.9. IV.10. IV.11. V. Project Employment of employees with special needs..................................... 46 Project RING Shop ........................................................................................... 49 Project Recycling domestic and industrial second-hand textiles...................... 50 Project Host Village Tarnabod - waste handling plant..................................... 51 Project Sheltered workplace ............................................................................. 58

Recommendations ........................................................................................................... 61 V.1. Issues that should be considered in the development of the GSI model ...................... 61 V.2. Recommendations for the aim and means of the GSI model ....................................... 62 V.3. Recommendations for measures and implementations of the GSI model.................... 63

VI. Conclusions ..................................................................................................................... 71 VII. Literature and references................................................................................................. 72 Appendix I.

DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRACTICAL MODEL OF GRADUAL SOCIAL INTEGRATION Agreement No. ESF-S(002-07) Project No. VP1-1.3-SADM-02-K-01-002

I.

Introduction

According to the Services Agreement concluded between Public Institution Socializacijos Ir Darbinio Mokymo Centras (Socialization and Vocational Training Centre (SVTC) Lithuania) and Nevelk Hza Egyeslet (Educators' Center Association (ECA) - Hungary), the latter has to provide the international consulting services to the former under the project Development and Implementation of the Practical Model of Gradual Social Integration No. VP1-1.3-SADM-02-K-01-002. The international services includes the preparation of recommendations for the development of the Practical Model of Gradual Social Integration (the GSI model) by adapting experiences of foreign countries to the situation in Lithuania. The GSI model must comprise a report on the situation in Lithuania and recommendations (according to experiences of foreign countries) on the basis of which descriptions of the GSI model activities and the programme for the integration of the projects target group into the labour market shall be prepared. Within the report and the recommendations, ECA must provide general conclusions, and two summaries: a short presentation of the key review results to the Lithuanian audience, and an exhaustive presentation of the review to an international audience. The supply of international consulting services has been co-financed by the European Social Fund.

In this report we shall present the situation in Lithuania - and in comparison the situation in Hungary - concerning the status, the employment chances and programmes, and the legal and social environment of the released prisoners. We dedicate a chapter to show a number of examples of best practice among Hungarian organisations and their projects, in relation to the training, vocation and employment of prisoners and former prisoners. The repost also includes issues that should be considered in the development of the GSI model, together with recommendations for the aim and means, and the measures and implementations of the GSI model.

DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRACTICAL MODEL OF GRADUAL SOCIAL INTEGRATION Agreement No. ESF-S(002-07) Project No. VP1-1.3-SADM-02-K-01-002

II.

Situation in Lithuania

The situation, employment issues and reintegration to the labour market and the society of former prisoners in Lithuania have been dealt with in the past. Two official issues can be mentioned in relation to the topic: 1. The programme Assistance to convicts and persons returning from imprisonment i , was an official programme of the Ministry of Social Security and Labour between 2004 and 2007; 2. The economic form of social undertakings ii , which provides a possibility of employment for former prisoners. The two issues will be shown briefly. Following that we will present 3. some statistical data concerning the convicts in Lithuanian penal institutions, 4. a brief look at the situation of the labour market in Lithuania, especially at the National Action Plan for Employment of Lithuania, and the Employment Promotion Programme, and 5. the form of local employment initiatives and social inclusion policy.

II.1. Assistance to convicts and persons returning from imprisonment


The Ministry of Social Security and Labour in Lithuania co-ordinated the Programme for Social Adaptation of Convicts and Persons Returning from Imprisonment between 2004 and 2007 iii and reported to the Government on its implementation iv . The purpose of the Programme was the improvement of the system of adaptation and rehabilitation of convicts and persons released from the places of imprisonment during their social integration and creation of opportunities for them to lead an independent life. The programme was jointly implemented by the Prisons Department under the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Education and Science. The Programme outlined various measures which were implemented by the Department of Prisons, the Ministry of Social Security and Labour, labour exchanges, labour market training services, counties and municipalities.

DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRACTICAL MODEL OF GRADUAL SOCIAL INTEGRATION Agreement No. ESF-S(002-07) Project No. VP1-1.3-SADM-02-K-01-002

In 2005, the following measures wre implemented: To improve qualification or re-qualify social workers of municipalities and nongovernmental organisations; To provide psychological and professional counselling and vocational training to convicts. The Training Service of the Lithuanian Labour Exchange provided psychological and professional counselling for convicts at the Panevys penitentiary and Pravieniks treatment and penitentiary facilities. To provide vocational training for persons returning from imprisonment and to find jobs for persons returning from imprisonment. The Lithuanian Labour Exchange provided vocational training and placement for persons returning from imprisonment in 4 territorial labour exchanges. To support projects of organisations aimed at social rehabilitation and integration into the society of convicts and persons returning from imprisonment. In 2005, the Ministry supported 29 projects and reimbursed LTL 200.000,- for their implementation. Services were provided to 1028 convicts and 877 persons returning from imprisonment. 7 more projects for the total value of LTL 6.8 million were financed from the EU Structural Funds. In 2006, partial funding was reimbursed for 30 projects for LTL 100.000,- in total. To collect information from municipalities about their social assistance provided to persons returning from imprisonment. In 2005, LTL 194.340,- were paid in lump-sum benefits, 2.322 applications were satisfied (the average lump-sum benefit was LTL 80), catering services were provided in 1.755 cases and jobs were found for 957 former prisoners. The Ministry of Social Security and Labour further pursued the Programme in the coming years. The ministry collected information from municipalities about support provided to people released from places of imprisonment in 2007. Applications for single allowances were satisfied in a majority of cases. These were among the most popular. During 2007, Lithuanian city and town municipalities were allocated over LTL 215,000 satisfying 1,993 applications; catering services were provided in 643 cases (issuing food coupons or offering food in charity canteens). 836 former convicts took part in various employment programmes, housing was provided to 153 persons, and 1,090 people were provided other social support services.

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During 2007, under the Programme measure, Upgrading of Qualification or Retraining of Social Workers of Municipalities and Non-Governmental Organisations, specialists from a number of fields were trained to work with convicts and persons released from the places of imprisonment. The total number of persons trained was 77. The lions share of them, 48,4 % consisted of volunteers, whereas in 2006, the majority of people trained (50.3 %) were social workers. Furthermore, convicts were provided psychological and vocational counselling as well as vocational training services. The Ministry launched a tender to select projects aimed at the social rehabilitation and integration of persons released from places of imprisonment. Co-funding of LTL 300,000 was provided to 21 projects. In 2005, co-funding of LTL 199,546 was provided to 29 projects and in 2006, LTL 99,475 was allocated to co-finance 30 projects. During the reporting period, projects involved 1,766 representatives of the target group, including 877 convicts (49.7 %) and 889 persons released from the places of imprisonment (50.3 %). While implementing the projects of 2007, the institutions in charge cooperated with 97 partners working in different agencies and organisations. All the 21 project implementing authorities had partners to work with. The majority of such partners in 2007 (as well as in 2006) were budgetary institutions (accounting for 64.9 %) and the minority of them were foreign organisations (3.1 %). To show a concrete example, one of the labour market training centres organised vocational training for convicts serving sentence at the Panevys corrective institution (women prison), where 162 imprisoned women acquired professions in 2004, and 61 more in 2005. Lithuanian Labour Exchange participated in this Programme as well. It organised vocational training of ex-prisoners and mediated in finding jobs in 6 local labour exchange offices (of Alytus, Kaunas, Klaipda, iauliai, Panevys and Vilnius). Ex-prisoners (81 in 2004, and 33 in 2005) were enrolled in vocational training courses. In 2004, 57 ex-prisoners acquired qualifications and 36 of them were employed afterwards and in 2005 accordingly 33 were involved in training, 25.got a qualification, 22 were employed. The analysis of experience in employing of ex-prisoners carried out by Labour Exchange was aimed to find the way to make the integration of ex-prisoners more effective. The conclusion of this analysis are following v : In assessing the implementation of the programme for the ex-prisoners on providing vocational training and assistance in finding employment, it should be noted, that specialists

DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRACTICAL MODEL OF GRADUAL SOCIAL INTEGRATION Agreement No. ESF-S(002-07) Project No. VP1-1.3-SADM-02-K-01-002

of local labour exchange offices could not fully avoid problems in dealing with the exprisoners and involving them in active labour market policy measures. Many of them had no previous vocational education and refused to participate in training courses organised and financed by the labour exchange and targeted to help them acquire a popular profession on the labour market. 21 of the ex-prisoners, who concluded training agreements, did not acquire vocational qualification due to delayed arrival to the training institution or were eliminated from the training institution because of violations or dropped out voluntarily. The majority of the ex-prisoners have no permanent residence, and therefore it is not easy to find them, if they choose not to attend training or if they do not show up for exams. The reason for nonemployment is not only the negative opinion of employers, but also the lack of individual initiative in job search activities leading to better employment possibilities, or simply inaptitude to communicate with employers. One of the most relevant problems of social integration of such persons is employment. The majority of them are in the most active age for employment, however, they have lost vocational skills and working capacities, as well as orientation on the labour market and encounter with psychological difficulties in adapting themselves in the society. Therefore, apart from complex social assistance, they need additional programmes on stimulating motivation and adaptation on the labour market, as well as individual psychological assistance and counselling. It would be reasonable to start adaptation of ex-prisoners into the labour market in the places of imprisonment already and continue until practical employment outside, applying vocational guidance, training and special employment programmes. In any case, it is advisable to regularly provide the information to the convicts in the places of imprisonment about the situation on the labour market, the supply and demand for certain professions, active labour market policy programmes, and etc., seeking to help those, who are getting ready to leave the place of imprisonment. In the coming years, having examined the measures implemented under the Programme and its extension opportunities, experts from the Ministry of Social Security and Labour, Ministry of Justice and the Prisons Department agreed that these measures could be further pursued in line with the other legislation and programmes and hence this Programme will not be continued. To conclude: this programme was a widely structured social tool aiming to improve the situation of the former prisoners as a special target group. However, the long-term results (not just 1-2 years) needed to provide for the sustainability of the programme elements are not

DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRACTICAL MODEL OF GRADUAL SOCIAL INTEGRATION Agreement No. ESF-S(002-07) Project No. VP1-1.3-SADM-02-K-01-002

available for utilisation. Also, the political decisions were that the issue should be dealt with integrated to other programmes. The legal framework in Lithuania is only partially suitable for the reintegration of former prisoners to the labour market and the society. An effective legal means can be that of the Law on Social Undertakings.

II.2. Law on Social Undertakings


In 2004, the Seimas adopted the Law on Social Undertakings drafted by the Ministry of Social Security and Labour aimed at supporting employment, especially among people who have difficulties adapting to changes of the labour market. These include the disabled, longterm unemployed, pre-retirement age individuals, people returning from imprisonment and single parents raising minor children. One of the key goals of social undertakings is to support the return of these individuals to the labour market and their social integration and reduce their social exclusion. The Law on Social Undertakings defines a social undertaking as a legal entity of any legal form granted the status of social undertaking and meeting the following requirements: It shall be an independent small or medium company meeting the requirements set in the Law on Small and Medium Businesses a company with no less than 40 % of employees from target groups and no less than 4 employees. a company is involved in the development of working and social skills of employees as well as social integration. Income from non-supported activities of social enterprises is not higher than 20 %. disabled with the recognised 30-55 % working capacity, individuals with medium level handicap or individuals of the I, II or III disability group, long-term unemployed, persons in pre- retirement age (no more than 5 years before the retirement age), single mother or father bringing up a child under 8, ex-prisoners (who were imprisoned for no less than 6 months). The target groups of social enterprises are the following:

A social enterprise of the disabled has features of a social enterprise, however, its employees, where they are attributed to a target group of the disabled, must account for not less than 50 % of the annual average number of employees on the staff list, including the disabled with

DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRACTICAL MODEL OF GRADUAL SOCIAL INTEGRATION Agreement No. ESF-S(002-07) Project No. VP1-1.3-SADM-02-K-01-002

Group I or Group II disability or the disabled for whom severe or moderate disability has been established or whose capacity for work does not exceed 55 %, or the level of severe or moderate special needs not less than 40 % of the annual average number of employees on the staff list. All individuals from any target group, with the exception of the disabled, shall be registered with the labour exchange for a certain period of time before employment at a social enterprise. Local labour exchange offices are obliged under the Law on Social Enterprises to prepare information for enterprises willing to acquire or having the status of a social enterprise about the registered persons of target groups, if this information is required. Employment support for persons from target groups (with the exception for the disabled) lasts at social enterprises for one year. One year period is aimed at keeping a person with limited employment capacities on a job for a longer period of time, in order to enable him to acquire the essential working skills. Social undertakings of the disabled may have higher additional costs incurred as a result of employment of the disabled. Therefore, more types of state aid are available to these undertakings. The employment contract with the employee from the target group must be concluded for at least 12 months. This requirement is aimed at retaining the individual with limited capacity to work for as long as possible so that he could acquire the necessary labour skills. The following types of state aid are available to social undertakings: partial reimbursement of wages and state social insurance contributions; subsidy for job creation, adaptation of workplaces for the disabled and acquisition or adaptation of their work tools; subsidy for training the employees from target groups. In addition to these types of state aid, additional state aid available to social undertakings of the disabled includes the following: subsidy to adapt the working environment, production and leisure facilities for the disabled employees; subsidy to reimburse additional costs of administration and transport; subsidy to reimburse the costs for the assistant (sign language interpreter).

Severely disabled employees often need assistants to perform their duties. Therefore, social undertakings of the disabled may receive subsidies to cover the costs of such assistants.

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The Law on Social Undertakings stipulates that the total amount of financial support for one undertaking in three subsequent years may not exceed LTL 51,750,000 (EUR 15 million). This law can form the basis of employment of former prisoners as employees with special needs, in social undertakings. In 2005 the status of a social enterprise was awarded to 34 companies. 17 enterprises were for disabled people and 17 for other target groups. In 2005, 2155 disabled people were employed, while 390 people were from target groups. Many former prisoners are or become long term unemployed or have mental/psychological disabilities. Social enterprises can be considered as a start position to enter the labour market for them.

II.3. Statistics regarding former prisoners


Using the online Automated Statistical Information System (ASIS) of Centre for Crime Prevention in Lithuania vi , - among many other data -we can have an insight at the education level of the inmates, the proportion of the inmate who are studying, the proportion of the inmate who are working.

The number of prisoners in Lithuanian penal institutions show an interesting pattern in function of time (1999-2009), as described in Diagram 1.. In these ten years the number has changed dramatically from 12.000 to around 6.000. (The analysis of the causes and results of this change is not in the scope of this report.)
Inmates in prisons
14000

12000

10000

no. of inmates

8000

6000

4000

2000

1999 3

1999 9

2000 3

2000 9

2001 3

2001 9

2002 3

2002 9

2003 3

2003 9

2004 3

2004 9

2005 3

2005 9

2006 3

2006 9

2007 3

2007 9

2008 3

2008 9

yrs Number of persons in an institution

Diagram 1. The number of inmates in the penal institutions

2009 3

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The respective characteristics of the inmates is examined referenced to the total number of inmates in all institutions (i.e. in percentage of the total number). The education level of the inmates is shown in Diagram 2. The definitions of the data rows given by the ASIS is unknown, and it is slightly disturbing that there are 2 lines with the tag college education with different data. Nevertheless, it can be seen that the ratio of inmates who have basic and/or secondary education attribute to the vast majority of the whole group. The population holding secondary education certificates decreased from 45% in 2000 to 33% in 2009, while the proportion of inmates who have basic education increased from 33% to 39% over this period, reaching a maximum of 42% in 2004. The trends indicate that the education level of the majority of the inmates has slowly and slightly decreased over the past 9 years. The ratio of the minority holding higher education degrees has not changed significantly.

Education level of the inmates


50,0% 45,0% 40,0% 35,0% 30,0% 25,0% 20,0% 15,0% 10,0% 5,0% 0,0%
1999 3 1999 9 2000 3 2000 9 2001 3 2001 9 2002 3 2002 9 2003 3 2003 9 2004 3 2004 9 2005 3 2005 9 2006 3 2006 9 2007 3 2007 9 2008 3 2008 9 2009 3

% of all inmates

yrs
Persons in an institution / of w hich / w ith university education Persons in an institution / of w hich / w ith higher education Persons in an institution / of w hich / w ith secondary education Persons in an institution / of w hich / illiterate Persons in an institution / of w hich / w ith college education Persons in an institution / of w hich / w ith college education Persons in an institution / of w hich / w ith primary education Persons in an institution / of w hich / w ith basic education

Diagram 2. The education level of the inmates Diagram 3. depicting the yearly number of inmates who do educational and related activities shows a complex geometry. This can be attributed to the annual pattern of educational years: Septembers always mean the start of new courses and classes, and by next June the dropouts 11

DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRACTICAL MODEL OF GRADUAL SOCIAL INTEGRATION Agreement No. ESF-S(002-07) Project No. VP1-1.3-SADM-02-K-01-002

cause the ratio to change. The altogether trends in the numbers show a constant rise, from around 5-7% in case of secondary or vocational studies to 14-17% over the period of 19992009.
Education activities of the inmates
40,0%

35,0%

30,0%

% of all inmates

25,0%

20,0%

15,0%

10,0%

5,0%

0,0%
1999 3 1999 9 2000 3 2000 9 2001 3 2001 9 2002 3 2002 9 2003 3 2003 9 2004 3 2004 9 2005 3 2005 9 2006 3 2006 9 2007 3 2007 9 2008 3 2008 9 2009 3

Persons studying Persons studying / at a general secondary school or consulting centre Persons studying / at a vocational school Persons studying / at higher education establishments Graduated Graduated / of them / basic school Graduated / of them / technical school Graduated / of them / secondary school

yrs

Diagram 3. The education activities of the inmates during sentence We can query the database on the employment of inmates from March 2004, as shown in Diagram 4. Since then the proportion of prisoners who were employed during their sentence were in the range of 25-40%, with a range of 35-40% in 2004, dropping to 30% in 2005, with mild rising tendency till 34%, and a severe drop to 25% in 2009. Out of the various forms of employment, employment in state enterprises of houses of correction, show similar tendencies (figures range between 12-25%), whereas the proportion of those employed in household works stay around 12-15%, and the proportion of persons practising personal undertaking, creation or other activity rise steadily from 1% in 2004 to 7% in Dec. 2008, and drop to 4% again in 2009.

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Employment in prisons
45,0% 40,0% 35,0%

% of all inmates

30,0% 25,0% 20,0% 15,0% 10,0% 5,0% 0,0%

2004 3

2004 6

2004 9

2005 3

2005 6

2005 9

2006 3

2006 6

2006 9

2007 3

2007 6

2007 9

2008 3

2008 6

2008 9

2004 12

2005 12

2006 12

2007 12

yrs Persons employed Persons employed / in state enterprises of houses of correction Persons employed / in household works Persons practising personal undertaking, creation or other activity

Diagram 4. The employment of the inmates during sentence These data can be viewed in relation to the effect they have on the life of the prisoners after release. Educational phenomena show positive tendencies with slow growth, whereas employment stagnates or decreases. The growth in education figures contribute to better chances of getting qualifications and employment, so this is favourable.

II.4. Changes in labour market


According to studies, the recent developments in the labour market of Lithuania are quite positive vii . In five years period unemployment has decreased twice and in 2005 it reached the level of 7,1%, it is even less in the age group 25-54. Lithuanian Government aiming to maintain the economic growth in the future prepared, approved and started to implement the employment regulation documents, which formulates the main direction of employment policy. There are two main employment regulation documents currently under implementation: The National Action Plan for Employment of Lithuania, and the Employment Promotion Programme.

The National Action Plan for Employment of Lithuania The National Action Plan for Employment of Lithuania indicated the following targets in the employment and labour market policy:

2008 12

2009 3

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1. high employment rate of the population is one of the fundamental preconditions for social-economic development of the state, guarantee of subsistence and social security for the people, therefore enhancement of employment possibilities and reduction of unemployment are the strategic objectives 2. the problem of unemployment has to be addressed by economic measures leading to favourable conditions for creating new jobs 3. for the enhancement of employment it is reasonable to use investment, fiscal and monetary, foreign trade and customs, regional development and other measures more effectively; 4. professional and creative potential shall be increased and used in a better way. The development of human resources undertaking good vocational training answering the demand on the labour market shall ensure possibilities for all individuals to find ones place on the labour market and quickly adapt to the changes there. 5. in formulating and implementing strategic provisions concerning social policy on demographic, family and youth, social insurance, social assistance, labour market and other issues, it is reasonable to pursue for the closer employment and social policy cohesion. 6. aiming at better balancing of the labour market it is necessary to encourage and support employment of persons, who lost their jobs, refreshing and improving their professional skills and capacities, enhancing possibilities to re-establish themselves on the labour market; 7. it is expedient to develop the capacities of employers and employees for adapting themselves to the changes of the environment, to encourage bilateral and tripartite cooperation viii . The Plan is a new document and currently it is difficult to assess the outcomes of its realisation. Target 6 on the improvement of professional skills can be coherent to former prisoners. Employment Promotion Programme The first Employment promotion programme was implemented in 2001-04. In 2005 it was continued. The following implementation measures are included in it: 1. the local employment initiatives projects; 2. the support of social enterprises;

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3. the professional training of the unemployed using active labour market policy measures; 4. the participation of the Lithuanian Labour Exchange in the activities of the European employment service network; 5. the maintenance of the European Social Fund Agency; 6. the provision of psychological consulting and vocational guidance, training, social rehabilitation and integration of the convicts and persons released from the imprisonment institutions. The highlited measures have an effect on the employment of former prisoners. Direct results are not known.

II.5. Local Employment Initiatives and Social Inclusion policy


Another significant topic to mention, Local Employment Initiatives project ix was originated according to the Programme of Increasing Employment of the Republic of Lithuania for 2001 2004. However, during the preparation of the Joint Inclusion Memoranda it was decided to use the programme of Local Employment Initiatives for the excluded vulnerable groups. The programme has to become specifically aimed at marginalized groups, such as the unemployed (particularly the long-term unemployed), young people, women with family responsibilities and other groups identified by the local labour offices in co-operation with the social partners, e.g. former prisoners. High territorial disparities in the unemployment rate were taken into account when Local Employment Initiatives were designed (Table 1). Unemployment rate varies three-four times from region to region. Aim and target regions Conscious of the need to stimulate greater employment at local level, in 2001 Lithuanian Government introduced a range of legislative incentives to promote the creation of new jobs. The aim of these policies is to provide local communities with opportunities to participate in economic activities and, by doing so, address their socio-economic problems. Other objectives are to lessen the impact of structural change on vulnerable areas and to contribute to the development of more active, self-reliant and mature communities. Attempts have been made to ensure that the allocation of employment policy resources between different areas of the country reflects differences in the scale of labour market

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problems. Thus, for example, the allocation of Lithuanian Labour Exchange (LLE) budgets to the Local Labour Offices is based in part on the level of unemployment in each district. However, a large part of total expenditure is absorbed by passive measures such as unemployment benefit and by staff and administrative costs. The amount left for active programmes is relatively small and that limits the potential for regional differentiation in such programmes to have a significant impact on the areas with the greatest problems. Local labour exchanges Prienai Moletai Kretinga Trakai Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Lazdijai Pasvalys Akmene Mazeikiai Druskininkai Average in the country % 6,4 6,0 5,6 5,1 5,0 14,2 18,1 18,8 18,7 20,3 22,2 9,8

Table 1: Regional unemployment disparities (unemployment rate, 01.01.2004.) Ministerial (Ministry of Social Security and Labour) order of April 24 2002 No. 59 on the local employment initiatives implementation provided legal rules for Local employment initiatives. The target territories have been defined where the level of unemployment exceeds the countrys average level by 1,5 times. Administration Local Labour Offices are responsible for the organisation of local employment initiatives. It was provided, that directors of the Local Labour Offices have to invite representatives of employees and employers organizations and municipality to take part in Commission of Local employment initiatives. The Commission is responsible for requests selection in accordance

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with defined criteria: involvement of local community and addressing high unemployment; multiplication effect on employment; opportunity to up-date skills for newcomers; support from municipality; sustainability; transparency; management ability. Early outcomes Since 2001 the Ministry of Social Security and Labour have implemented, through the Lithuanian Labour Exchange, the pilot projects of the promotion of local employment initiatives in areas with the highest unemployment, which aim at providing state assistance to employers who create new jobs. 87 projects for the creation of 644 workplaces were prepared. 16 pilot projects of local employment initiatives were competitively selected and realised in areas with the highest unemployment. Almost 50 % of projects were designed for the provision of services, 40 % for the development of production, and 12 % for agriculture. Project implementation commissions were established for the selection of projects and their evaluation at the territorial labour exchanges according to given criteria, in areas where the projects were implemented. Using around 1,2 million LLT (0.35 million EUR) from the state budget, 151 new workplaces were created. Employers and sponsors covered 60 % of the value of all projects. Based on the accumulated experience, the conception of the further development of the local employment initiatives and suggestions regarding the improvement of the procedure for the implementation of projects were prepared. Since 2002, such projects have been implemented in all territories where the level of unemployment exceeds the countrys average level by 1,5 times. Merging the Local Employment Initiatives and Social Inclusion Policy In 2003, Joint Inclusion Memoranda for Lithuania was drafted. Two sets of measures related to the participation in employment were foreseen: 1. Measures to Increase Access of Vulnerable Groups; 2. Measures to tackle Regional and Geographic Concentrations of Unemployment. In order to create an open labour market that would meet the needs of vulnerable groups, the following future social policy priority areas were identified: to develop, together with municipalities, specific employment programmes for the youth, disabled, rural dwellers and other socially vulnerable groups;

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to assign responsible officials and to establish labour exchange branches and special job centres adjusted for these activities.

The legal provisions are prepared for these measures. In accordance with 2001 amendments to the Law on Support for the Unemployed, additional assistance is provided to the following categories of the unemployed: disabled persons; young persons between the age of 16 and 25 entering the labour market; graduates from vocational and tertiary educational establishments starting work by acquired profession; long-term (more than two years) unemployed persons; persons with not more than five years left until retirement age; a father or a mother raising a child under the age of 18; and ex-convicts whose imprisonment was more than six months.

Previously employment quotas had been established for the aforesaid groups, but these quotas have been revoked on the ground that they infringed upon employers rights to choose freely employees with necessary qualifications. Hence, as mentioned above, Local Employment Initiatives were intended to be used for integration of vulnerable persons. Local employment initiatives designed for creation of new workplaces. JIM proposed measures to strengthen socially vulnerable persons ability to work. Consequently, project became more complicated. It is important to formulate appropriate coordination of all actors actions. Labour Exchange offices are directly responsible for unemployment reduction programmes in Lithuania, meanwhile local authorities provide help for socially excluded people. Implementation of the Swedish Metropolitan Policy might be the good practice of the coordination of various institutions coping complex problems.

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III.

Situation in Hungary

The situation in Hungary can be analysed from various viewpoints of social policy and other helping professions, because most of the inmates/prisoners experience a certain level of social exclusion even before their imprisonment. Imprisonment, however, intensifies exclusion (because, for example, family roots loosen up), and often initiates a secondary social exclusion (by aggravating the situation of social outcasts with further exclusion factors). Experience shows that imprisonment does not contribute to the liquidation of exclusion processes and mechanisms; on the contrary, it intensifies them by reproducing social and individual conditions that lead to the rebirth of the conditions of a criminal lifestyle. The majority of ex-prisoners are unable to integrate socially and even if they manage to avoid re-imprisonment, most of them find themselves in an extremely marginal position. This, in turn, reproduces the underprivileged situation they experienced before their imprisonment, or creates even less favourable circumstances. Upon leaving prison, these people are again in a certain kind of sentenced status, since they may further lose their family roots and experience several other cracks in family life as a consequence of imprisonment. The situation of former prisoners (the client group) is rather complicated, because their status affects more than one benefit systems, i.e. legal, social, education, healthcare and employment benefit networks. The client group faces rather complex problems that would, in the long run, mean great challenges for the benefit systems and require significant financial efforts and solutions from them. It is therefore apparent that a complex, synergic intervention is needed. According to present initiatives, the task should ideally be divided between several professions and experts; solution should be based on a harmonic cooperation between the educators and the psychologists of the penal institutions, as well as other teachers, trainers, and workers of various secular and religious organisations, including social workers, mentors and employment consultants. This is similar to the psycho-social rehabilitation method which is already applied in healthcare in Hungary, in the treatment of patients suffering from psychic or mental disorders. Its use would also be justified for the target group, as in this method personality and social environment together become the focal points of help, and because this client group also needs a kind of healing to be able to reintegrate successfully into society (i.e. rehabilitation).

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The client group drops almost entirely out of the social benefit system, although it would be advisable to regulate their benefits on a legal level. A few of their problems are treated, but separately (e.g. homelessness, family support, addiction etc.) by the benefit system. However, the prevention of recidivism rests on four pillars: 1) secure accommodation; 2) lasting human relationships; 3) job opportunities; 4) education/training opportunities. Should either of the four become damaged, the danger of recidivism will automatically increase. At present, Hungary shows a very high rate of recidivism (60-70%). Apart from being a subjective and objective threat to the feeling of security of citizens, this fact is also far from being cost effective. The costs of imprisonment is approximately 6.000 HUF/day 1 , which amounts to 2.100.000 HUF in a year. These costs, however, do not include those additional costs that can hardly be translated into terms of money (e.g.: the inmates pay no social security, and instead of contributing to the financial sustenance of their families, they mean an extra financial burden for them etc.). Due to the loosening of family ties and other human/community bonds, a great number of exprisoners are not able to provide permanent and secure accommodation for themselves. If there is no family, there is no accommodation. Their only choice is to go to homeless shelters, or to ask for help from old friends or acquaintances. However, prisoners regard such shelters as the rock bottom of their life and are determined to do anything to avoid getting in there. There are some religious and civil organisations who have realised that it is necessary to create special shelters for ex-prisoners. The aim of setting up such a shelter (so-called midway house) is to support the social and labour market integration of the target group (i.e. people released from prison) by providing them with accommodation, job opportunities and other psycho-social services (secure accommodation as a chance for re-integration is vital). This would give ex-prisoners a chance to face and solve their life problems and avoid recidivism. Thus, the clients in the shelter would be empowered to shape their own lives according to the value and norm system of the society. Examining Hungarian legal system, the notion of shelters for ex-prisoners is not mentioned either in the 1993/III Law of Social management and social care (hereinafter SL) or in Law Decree 1/2000 (7th January) of the Ministry of Social and Family Affairs which regulates the professional tasks and operation of social institutions providing personal care. In the last ten years, the prison population in Hungary has grown steadily. This is related to the increase in average term of custody. In March 2002, 17,844 persons were being held in
1

in 2006. (1 LTL = approx. 79 HUF)

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accommodation with capacity of 10,800, a 165 % saturation. 43 % of convicts were first offenders, 24 % recidivists and 33 % multiple recidivists. 40 % of prisoners came from the north-eastern region of Hungary. Some convicts (263 on 1 January 2003) had been taken into prison through their sentence being changed into a custodial sentence for non-payment of fines. The most common reason for this was lack of money to pay. Crowding of penal institutions raises tensions within them and the harmful interaction of prisoners on each other. The social parameters, level of education and vocational qualifications of prisoners are very poor. The proportion of people with less than 8 years of school education is 13.8 % among adult prisoners and 50.6 % among juveniles. The prison population is made up of people of Roma origin to an extent considerably above their proportion of the general population. A great many are from disadvantaged social backgrounds. However, hardly any Roma officers work in penal institutions. Consequently, insufficient attention is paid the cultural and tradition-based needs of members of this ethnic group. International research shows that the prison population has to be increased by at least 25 % to reduce the crime rate by 1-2 %. Establishing a new prison place in Hungary costs 11.7 million forints. The daily cost of custody in 2002 was HUF 4000 per prisoner. There are also less easily quantifiable consequences of custody. Convicts selfsupporting capabilities are impaired, and they are unable to provide for their families. Withdrawal of liberty is by far the most expensive form of punishment. It must therefore be used for what it is suited: the punishment for the most serious crimes. In Hungary, it is used on a much wider scale and in many cases as a social care institution. Owing to organisational failings, the after-care system does not effectively serve the purpose of social integration. The reform of the probation service should deliver results much better than those achieved at present. The document of the National Strategy For Social Crime Preventionx covers the topic of recidivism, stating Every method employed in the penal service (work for convicts and released convicts, continuation of studies, treatment of addiction, vocational training, attempts to safeguard family contacts) to promote social integration of offenders reduces the chances of re-offending, and so serves a crime prevention goal. The tasks set up by the stategy touch q wide range of social actors, but remain quite vague by not defining measures and actaul implementations. Some excerpts from the document:

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Tasks to be implemented via sectoral cooperation Social policy and family policy Promote social integration of persons released from penal institutions. Provide integration programmes and training for offenders. Promote law-abiding behaviour via family policy programmes aimed at changing criminal behaviour. Strengthen family responsibility. Education policy Specify participation in school education as a rule of behaviour for convicted offenders under 30 years old who have not completed 8 years of education. Specify attendance of vocational training as a rule of behaviour. Develop decision-making, problem-solving, communications, selfevaluation, stress management and assertiveness skills among offenders during the period of sentence and aftercare. Promote law-abiding behaviour via programmes aimed at changing criminal behaviour, and confront convicted offenders with the consequences of their crimes. Employment policy Create employment opportunities in non-profit enterprises for offenders during the period of sentence and aftercare. Create employment opportunities for adult members of families of prisoners. Provide substantial subsidies and benefits for employers providing jobs to offenders during or after their sentences. Enhance the efficiency of signalling to prevent repeated victimisation. Support groups and institutions providing assistance to offenders under the influence of alcohol and drugs, and self-help groups. Involve offenders, during the period of sentence and aftercare, in local community programmes and organisations. Provide and strengthen church pastoral services among offenders during the period of sentence and aftercare. Inform the public to reduce unrealistic fears and prejudices concerning crime. (Ongoing cooperation with representatives of media undertaking this.)

Business sector

NGOs and churches

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Involve volunteers and NGOs into the resolution of offenders social and mental problems. Sponsor civil initiatives supporting offenders. Spread restorative justice service (such as mediation). Strengthen the conditions in the community for reintegration of offenders via a Take Them Back! campaign. Private individuals

Neighbourhood and residential community

Raise tolerance to minorities, migrants, convicted offenders and victims of crime. Media and publicity

Mass communications should be involved in publicising restorative justice. The media should assist social integration of offenders. The financial funds for the pursuing the goals and tasks of the national social crime prevention strategy are primarily allocated in the Minister of Justices chapter budget, and are set at the annual maximum of HUF 500 million. Some of the projects shown in the next chapter used support from this budget, as we shall see.

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IV.

Best Practices in the Reintegration of Former Prisoners in Hungary

According to Hungarian law xi , the penal institutions are meant to be serving reintegration of the prisoners into society, as their main aim. This very evidently doesnt (always) work in reality, or only partly, not with the required efficiency. This phenomenon calls for the need to help the process of reintegration and rehabilitation, by the means of introducing efficient, cost-effective, innovative and methods. Also, it should be kept in mind, that the released former prisoners form an underprivileged group, who are most of the time lack resources of all sort (such as a job, housing, financial means etc.) and are clueless concerning how to recuperate them. So, being our neighbours, because of humanitarian reasons, the needy citizens should be helped one way or the other by all structures of society: state institutions, organisations, NGOs, economical actors (companies) and individuals. Many actors of society can play an important role in this process. In this chapter we present some organisations and their projects that are involved or related to the reintegration of former prisoners (or other underprivileged group) to the society and especially to the labour market, or whose activities help this field in present-day Hungary. These presented projects can serve as a source to exploit techniques, ideas and measures to tackle the task of development of the Gradual Social Integration Model. Several organisations and projects in Hungary deal with reintegration of ex-prisoners: they differ in type, size, function, budget etc. The types of organisations can be: State administration: Ministry of Justice Department of Crime Prevention, authorities (labour centres), penal institutions (prisons) NGOs: foundations, associations Church organisations (missions) Educational institutions (vocational, adult training) Social welfare companies

Their function might be: Education 24

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Supportive care Provide info on job opportunities, counselling Providing sheltered workplaces

The funding of their projects and activities can come from: State/national/government subsidy EU Structural Funds (projects) Donations Own revenues (e.g. selling of products)

The projects presented are the following: I. Projects related to taking action in the society at large, by forming the attitude, Project TOOLBOOK - Handbook for employers who are willing to accept exprisoners II. Project Establishment of a Rehabilitation Centre in Koml Projects that focus on training and vocation, in order to prepare and empower the dispatching information, lobbying, protection of rights, union activities or similar:

prisoners to have better chances on the labour market when released: Project Park gardener training in llampuszta Penal Institution Project Give your future a chance! - a project supporting prisoners and ex-prisoners under Probation Service in the process of social reintegration CHANGING PROGRAME project - Increasing the chances of reintegration to the society and the labour market for released young former prisoners Projects I will learn to learn and Create with me! Prevention programmes for young boys and girls in prison III. Projects that offer employment for the ex-prisoners in innovative ways, e.g. in sheltered workplaces or special employment model projects: Project Employment of employees with special needs Project RING Shop Project Recycling domestic and industrial second-hand textiles

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Project Host Village Tarnabod - waste handling plant Project Sheltered workplace

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IV.1. Project TOOLBOOK - Handbook for employers who are willing to accept ex-prisoners
Organisation: Project team consisting of: Sopronkhidai Fegyhz s Brtn (penal institution) FKFSZ - Fvrosi Kzhaszn Foglalkoztatsi Szolglat Kht. (employment service of Budapest) MENEDK Migrnsokat Segt Egyeslet (NGO supporting migrants) Bkscsabai Regionlis Kpz Kzpont (regional training centre) Organisation type: Project team with different organisations (state institutions, NGO, training centre) Short description: Contact info: Project title: a project team Handbook - project product downloadable from the Internet xii . Project TOOLBOOK - Handbook for employers who are willing to accept ex-prisoners Project duration: Project summary: n.d. The project product is a 100-page handbook for employers, containing definitions, tips, examples of best practice, training outlines, case studies, legal and practical advice for the establishment and development of anti-discriminative workplaces for special employees (women, members of large families, older employees, immigrants and asylum seekers, employees starting their career, ex-prisoners, employees with different ethnicity, religious or sexual orientation, handicap). The chapter dealing with ex-prisoners lists some myths and stereotypes concerning the employment of ex-prisoners and on the other hand, the facts related to these issues, e.g. how the employer can receive state subsidies when employing ex-prisoners to cover their 27

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wages. Indicators: target group: employers and future employers of workers with changed abilities and special needs, e.g. ex-prisoners no. of clients: national level budget: n.d. (the project product is freely downloadable and available as a free print-out) financing body: EQUAL Hungary EU Structural Funds + Hungarian Government Detailed description: Toolbook for open employers details from the book: Human resources should be respected by members of organisations and companies, especially so because this respect evokes added values. The greater feeling of responsibility towards a colleague needing more attention can play an important role in the motivation of the colleagues. Not only the hardest working and best performing workers are important in a team imagine that you yourself can also get in a difficult situation. The reliable colleague also relies on the company. The human resource manager not only concentrates on the presently excellent work-force, but on past and future employment hidden values. In a company, the HR policy cares about the workers who need more attention and doesnt let them down. May they be colleagues with a large family or many children, elderly workers, handicapped or with a different sexual attitude. It is a part of corporate culture to empower these colleagues to be able to perform well at work. In the project product TOOLBOOK the project team has gathered arguments in favour of respecting a multi-coloured human resource environment. The usual prejudice and stereotypes are discussed and opposed with facts, and possible solutions are recommended. Tips are listed for the employers to introduce and apply practical measures aiming to support the vulnerable groups of workers who need more

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attention. Outlines are given to make this human resource policy part of the corporate culture and how to make equal opportunity plans for workplaces. See also Appendix I.!

IV.2. Project Establishment of a Rehabilitation Centre in Koml


Organisation: Magyar Rehabilitcis Kzpont Egyeslet Hungarian Rehabilitation Centre Association Organisation type: Short description: national association (NGO) The Hungarian Rehabilitation Centre Associations core aim is to improve the employment possibilities workers with changed working abilities and other groups who have worse chances in the labour market; the decrease of unemployment; the improvement of the personal economical, social and mentalhygienic state of the above mentioned target groups in Hungary. Contact info:

Magyar Rehabilitcis Kzpont Egyeslet representative: Mr. Endre VOJTEK president address: 7631 Pcs, Kemny Zs. u. 103., Hungary web: http://magyarrehab.com/ Project title: Project duration: Project summary: Establishment of a Rehabilitation Centre in Koml 18 months (in 2005-2006) During its 18 month of operation the Rehabilitation Centre in Koml

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has given counselling and support to more than 200 unemployed persons with changed working abilities (physical, mental or psychological handicap). 50 of them got employed during or after the project period, and 50 of them took part in vocational training, which forms the basis of their future employment. Parallel to this the Centre communicated with a significant number of potential employers and organisations, providing counselling and training for them too, enabling the fluent process of employing workers with changed working abilities in the future. The ratio of Roma population is high in the area (15%) and this has been taken into account in formulating the programme of the Centre. The operation of the Centre can be visible in not only working with the project participants, but also in trying to change the attitudes and viewpoints in the society concerning employment of colleagues with changed working abilities. Indicators: target group: workers with changed working abilities

no. of clients: 200 seeking advice, out of which 50 placed in employment 50 attending training budget: n.d. financing body: National Development Plan Humane Resource Operative Programme HEFOP 2.-3.-3.-3.-2004-08-0038/2.0 Detailed description: Aims: Hungarian Rehabilitation Centre Association provides a possibility for employers employing workers with changed abilities (in the following text: employers) to improve their connections and to act in a united manner to enhance the situation of the workers with changed abilities. Details from the Constitutional Letter of the association xiii :

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The goal of the organisation: 1. 2. To improve the feeling of civil responsibility in the citizens To improve the skills of the workers of the employers by

organizing trainings for them 3. Active participation in the planning and realisation of

community development programmes 4. 5. 6. Trade union activities for the benefit of the employers Improvement of social and personal situation of the employees Increasing of the number of employees in the labour market

In order to reach its goals, the organisation carries out the following activities: Scientific and research work Education and training, skill development, information

dissemination Cultural activities Coordination Lobbying Protection of human, civil and personal rights Despatching of labour force

The organisation explicitly refrains from political or religious activities of any sort.

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IV.3. Project Institution


Organisation:

Park

gardener

training

in

llampuszta

Penal

Kecskemti Regionlis Kpz Kzpont The Regional Training Centre of Kecskemt

Organisation type: Short description:

regional training and educational centre Kecskemti Regionlis Kpz Kzpont (Regional Training Centre of Kecskemt) is the adult training centre and the official examination centre of the Central Hungarian Region. It was founded in 1993 by the Ministry of Labour and the municipality government of Kecskemt city. Since then it has become one of the most modern centres for adult education and human resources development in Central Hungary. Its working area covers Bcs-Kiskun and Pest counties the two biggest counties of Hungary both in territory and in the number of inhabitants and it also implements training activities in the South Plain Region consisting of Bcs-Kiskun, Csongrd and Bks counties.

Contact info:

Kecskemti Regionlis Kpz Kzpont address: 6000 Kecskemt, Szolnoki t 20. Telephone: +36 76 502260 Fax: +36 76 502291 e-mail: krkk@krkk.hu web: http://www.krmkk.hu/?r=1208 Project title: Project duration: Project summary: Park gardener training in llampuszta Penal Institution 2005. 10. 03 - 2006. 04. 28. Park gardener training in llampuszta Penal Institution project is

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aimed to assist the reintegration of former prisoners to the community. The project comprises vocational training and the implementation of a nationally accepted qualification to help prisoners and those under Probation Service. The training is taking place in the penal institution and in the village where the prison is. Indicators: target group: prisoners and released prisoners under Probation Service, mostly Roma ethnic origin, with basic (8 classes) or less education no. of clients: 18 budget: 3.402.000,- HUF (43.000 LTL) financing body: Orszgos Bnmegelzsi Bizottsg - National Crime Prevention Board (NCPB), Ministry of Justice and Law Enforcement Detailed description: The facts that make the programme necessary The target group members (the prisoners in the llampuszta Penal Institution) are mostly of Roma ethnicity (62,8%) and/or coming from Eastern Hungary (counties Szabolcs-Szatmr-Bereg (18%), HajdBihar (15,5%), Borsod-Abaj-Zempln (1,8%) and Jsz-NagykunSzolnok (27,5%)). These counties are characterised by high rates of unemployment (national average: 7,2%, in Eastern Hungary: 15,4%). Because of the unfavourable social and economical circumstances, crime is also higher here. The Roma ethnicity is the highest ratio in this part of the country. The target group is underprivileged concerning social and employment chances (even before entering a penal institution), and they are faced by social exclusion. Their income consists of social benefits from the state and crime (theft, burglary). After the project their possibilities of inclusion and integration to the labour market will increase significantly, and they have a chance to stop with their criminal career.

Key elements of the programme Aim is the social and labour market integration of low educated Roma and non-Roma prisoners, when released. Acquiring a nationally

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recognised qualification increases their chances to have a job when released. Additional courses provided during the programme: personality development, job seeking techniques, employment counselling. Programme elements 1. Selection of participants (assessing health status) 2. Signing of contracts for the training 3. Personality development training (90 hours course) a. Group building b. Self-knowledge c. Personal SWOT analysis d. Labour market training e. Criteria of successful vocation and employment f. Personal long term activity plan 4. Park gardener training (500 hour course) a. Basics of gardening b. Economy c. Environment and safety at work d. Technical skills e. European studies f. Practical work g. Examination For some photos see Appendix I.! Results 15 prisoners completed the training and acquired the nationally accredited profession of Park Gardener.

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IV.4. Project Give your future a chance! - a project supporting prisoners and ex-prisoners under Probation Service in the process of social reintegration
Organisation: Tolna Megyei Munkagyi Kzpont Tolna County Labour Centre Organisation type: Short description: labour centre (state administration) Tolna Megyei Munkagyi Kzpont is a county labour centre; in Hungary there used to be 19 county level centres, now there are7 regional Labour Centres. They work under the Hungarian Public Employment Service, dealing with all issues of employment: Labour market analyses migration training guidance vocational orientation providing statistics etc. Contact info: Dl-dunntli Regionlis Munkagyi Kzpont Szekszrdi Kirendeltsg s Szolgltat Kzpont (former name at time of project: Tolna Megyei Munkagyi Kzpont) contact: Dr. Szab Zsoltn director 7100 Szekszrd, Szent Istvn tr 11-13. Telefon: 74/505-670 Fax: 74/311-773 Email: ddrmkszekszard@lab.hu Client office: 7100 Szekszrd, Tallka tr 4. Project title: "Esly a jv(d)rt" - Give your future a chance! - a project

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supporting prisoners and ex-prisoners under Probation Service in the process of social reintegration xiv Project duration: Project summary: 2005. 09. 05 - 2006. 05. 05. 10 prisoners and 10 ex-prisoners under probation service undertook a training to acquire a nationally accepted vocation (ECDL - the European Computer Driving Licence) xv , plus other courses and classes in self-knowledge groups. The programme was aligned with the goals of the Hungarian National Crime Prevention Strategy, namely to prevent repeated crime. Groups attended resocialisation and personality development courses conducted by psychologists besides the vocational training (ECDL). Indicators: target group: prisoners and ex-prisoners under supervision/probation service, especially of Roma ethnicity no. of clients: 20 budget: 4.981.200,- HUF (63.000 LTL) financing body: Orszgos Bnmegelzsi Bizottsg - National Crime Prevention Board (NCPB), Ministry of Justice and Law Enforcement Detailed description: 10 prisoners and 10 convicts under probation service undertook a training to acquire a nationally accepted vocation (ECDL - the European Computer Driving Licence). The groups attended resocialisation and personality development courses conducted by psychologists besides the vocational training (ECDL). The steps of the training were: 1. Determining suitability (based on California Personality Inventory Test) interviews with prisoners. 10 of them were selected (the best in attitude, affinity, skills etc.). 2. The training course curricula were developed taking into account the special needs of the target group. Most of the participants have had experience with drugs, alcohol and/or gambling, in many cases it was related to crime (getting the

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resources to pay for the costs of addiction). The psychologists have found that the most common symptoms of the target group were distress and anxiety, where drugs were involved again in their pre-prison life (drugs were used to get free from anxiety, and the lack of drugs caused severe symptoms of distress). 3. Psychologists made a list of the selected applicants and started work with them. 4. Important finding was that large classes are not efficient, they are too big for the purpose: the prisoners were not willing to work, they make fun of the training and the teacher, they are ashamed or arrogant etc. So the teachers made small groups of 4-5, which proved to be suitable: gradual development of mutual trust, honest atmosphere was observed, normal training could take place. 5. Training on How the labour market works by experts various forms of training (lectures for small groups, practice exercises) 6. ECDL vocational course for prisoners took place in the prison. For those under probation, it was held in a classroom of the Labour Centre. 7. Job seeking counselling and preparative advice (40-hour course), utilising behaviour development based on the methods developed for job clubs by Nathan H. Azrin (USA) xvi, xvii . 8. Practical training elements covered issues like: How to use the phone, How to write a CV, How to take a job interview (especialy: how to prepare for wicked questions concerning earlier life...) 9. The various forms of regular training and education were explained and shown to the participants, so they became familiar with them and more motivated to learn even after

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release. 10. A number of educative films were shown during the course. 11. The participants and also their unemployed family members were registered as unemployed job-seekers by the Labour Centre in its database. After the successful finishing of the course, the prisoners felt satisfied: they used their spare time during the penalty to do something useful to establish their future, a crimeless life.

IV.5. CHANGING PROGRAME project - Increasing the chances of reintegration to the society and the labour market for released young former prisoners
Organisation: Vlt-sv Alaptvny The Change Lanes Foundation Organisation type: Short description: private foundation (NGO) The Change Lanes Foundation is dedicated to the assistance of prisoners, released offenders and those with a criminal record in their reintegration to the society and the labour market, as well as increasing their chances of life. In their programme and projects, they primarily deal with young people between sixteen and thirty-five years of age. The core of their activity lies in continuous (after)care and the operation of a civil helping system. According to their belief and experiences, building of secure human/helping/civil relationships in the penal institution, gaining of confidence, the establishment of continuous emotional security and the assistance of an accepting community are vital issues in the reduction of the crisis of release and in the prevention of re-offence. Activities: Assisting in the preparation for the secondary school leaving

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exam, improving the chances of re-integration; Organizing, operating and maintaining a special, personalitybased learning -teaching programme for first-offenders and young people with a criminal lifestyle Recognizing, realizing and reinforcing individual abilities; Psycho-social treatment of personal problems; mental-hygienic care; Lifestyle assistance; Organizing, operating and maintaining special helping-problem solving groups supporting the re-integration in the society Crime prevention; organizing and managing informative discussions on prevention; Operating a civil support system; Providing continuous after-care Preventing the process of prison socialization; Involving ex-offenders in caring work - as far as possible - and supporting their training in helping work; Family care; Organizing professional meetings, coordinating methodology exchange; Methodological and research work concerning deviance and its possible treatments, with special respect to criminal lifestyle; Organizing spare time and community activities.

Currently, the organisation is dealing with 15 people in the educational/re-integration programme, while their other training/reintegration program involves about 80 young people. The staff of the Change Lanes Foundation consists of six people at the moment. Breakdown by qualification: secondary school teacher, social

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worker, social teacher, expert in social politics, public educator, qualified narcology assistant. In consequence of its national activity, the Foundation has a Coordination Agreement with the National Headquarters of the Prison Administration.

Projects of the Change Lanes Foundation: Within penal institutions and after release Changing Program - helping work and providing secondary education for detained and released youth Social work in prison administration and aftercare

Within penal institutions: Preparation for release for young people in penal institutions Peer/social support training for young people in penal institutions After release: Change Lanes Information Basis Project Family Group Crime prevention with the involvement of ex-offenders "Job coaching"employment of ex-criminal youth and support reintegration in the labour market.

In what ways can we help? According to the experiences, release from prison is a pleasant but also a difficult moment and process. Therefore, it should be pre-prepared carefully while in the penal institution and free life should be preplanned. It is vital to think about housing, possibilities of finding a job and workplace, plans referring to managing money, family issues and other human relationships, possibilities of training and education. The

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gathering of the necessary documents (identity card, address card, health insurance card, tax card etc.) takes a lot of administration. The Change Lanes Foundation provides help in: housing problems work and job issues gathering of documents money handling issues providing information concerning individual situations and questions

What we cannot provide Financial resources Contact info:

Vlt-sv Alaptvny professional manager: Ms. Mercedes MSZROS mobile: +36705013291 address: 1082 Budapest, lli t 42. IV/1., Hungary telephone/fax: +36 1 352 6755 e-mail: alapitvany@valtosav.hu web: http://www.valtosav.hu/English.htm 1. Project title: CHANGING PROGRAME project - Increasing the chances of reintegration to the society and the labour market for released young former prisoners 1. Project duration: 18 months (2006. 05. 01. 2007. 10. 31.)

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1. Project summary:

Aim: to create and increase the possibilities and chances of reintegration to the society and the labour market of ex-prisoners and/or deviant/criminal young people. Method: operating a continuous (after)care model with several elements, and a civil helping system. Based on the synergy of supportive and educative elements, such as psychosocial care and the aimed delivery of the target group to the training institutions and the labour market.

1. Indicators:

Target group: ex-prisoners and/or deviant/criminal young people no. of clients: Involved in consultation: 210 (60 in the project proposal) Entered vocational training: 28 (24 in the project proposal) Got employed: 12 (12 in the project proposal) budget: 39.225.000,- HUF (497.000 LTL) financing body: National Development Plan Humane Resource Operative Programme HEFOP 2.3.2. (co-financed by EU Structural Funds)

1. Detailed description:

The former prisoners are in a very disadvantaged situation after release, concerning finding their way back to society and the labour market. Several research papers xviii prove that they are excluded from virtually all social and employment benefits. They would need a complex, integrated and synergic programme of social and employment support. The answer to this problem was the establishment of the Changing Programme project. The basis of the project lies on the indispensable competences needed for reintegration to the society and the world of labour. The project elements were the following: During and after prison: supportive care,

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consultations, competence programmes, job seeking training, language courses, Family Group During prison: Focusing on Freedom special training preparing for life after release After release: Job Coaching The Job Coaching element uses the method of employing a coach who follows the career development of the ex-prisoner. During their regular meetings they talk the topic over the coach gives an analysis and evaluation of the situation of the participant. Supportive care is also given on an informal basis. Mediation between employee and employer is also done by the coach, to find solutions if any problems occur.

IV.6. Projects I will learn to learn and Create with me! Prevention programmes for young boys and girls in prison
Organisation: Vlt-sv Alaptvny The Change Lanes Foundation 2. Project title: I will learn to learn and Create with me! Prevention programmes for young boys and girls in prison 2. Project duration: 4 months (2008. 08. 01. 2008. 11. 30.) 1st month preparation 2nd-4th month realisation of the project

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2. Project summary:

Aim of the project: the preparation for release of young people (student-age) who are in penal institutions. To reach this, they took part in a group training once a week for 12-13 weeks, focusing on creative skills for girls, and learning to learn methodology for boys.

2. Indicators:

target group: young student-age prisoners (boys and girls) locations: 1. Fiatalkorak Regionlis Bntets-vgrehajtsi Intzete Kecskemt (Regional Penal Institute for Young Offenders) 6001 Kecskemt, Wber E. u. 2. 2. Bcs-Kiskun Megyei Bntets-vgrehajtsi Intzet

(County Penal Institute) 6001 Kecskemt, Mtysi u. 2.) no. of clients: 15 budget: 800.000,- HUF (10.400 LTL) financing body: KAB-PR-08-A xix - complex prevention programmes of organisations dealing with drug abuse prevention and drug users (national programme, co-financed by EU Structural Funds) 2a. Detailed description: The original idea of the project I will learn to learn came from the recognition that it is very hard to organise normal school education for student-age prisoners in the penal institution, especially because of the high specific costs. The young (student-age) prisoners typically dont know how to learn, they dont understand the books, and they cannot expect any help from anyone in this situation, eg. to prepare for their exams. The young offenders have most of the time bad marks in school, when they enter the penal institution to start their sentence, and the expectations towards them (to perform well, alone, in their studies) are too high. To put it simple: they are not capable of learning, because they havent learnt how to learn they lack the skills of learning methodology. They dont understand the study books (an elaborated

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code), which their normal (non-deviant) socialized peers study everyday in a school environment with professional help (teachers). The young prisoners are characterised by severe knowledge deficit, which shows e.g. in language deprivation. They feel bad because of their failures, they give up studying, which eventually leads to further exclusion, further backdrop and often leads to a career in crime as the only solution. The project programme focuses on the acquisition of learning methodology, realised in 3 phases: theory, practice, application. During the programme the 3 project groups of young boys met at 2 locations, once a week for 12-13 weeks, for 2 hours on each occasion. The key element of the programme was developing the following competences: 1. Improvement of thinking, problem solving, deductive and inductive reasoning, analytical and critical thinking etc. 2. Improvement of cognitive skills: information gathering and processing, applying new information in new situations, communication skills, phrasing and texting skills, finding their way in everyday situations etc. 3. Identifying and strengthening personal core values, strengthening emotional and motivation factors that enhance the learning process (faith in oneself, in oneselfs capabilities, the motivation to learn new things, cooperative, decision making and life-steering skills)

2b. Detailed description:

The basis of the Create with me! project was that when colleagues of the Change Lanes Foundation met young female offenders, they found that the only things that young girls are affine to and interested in is crafts and creative work, and the information gathering related to this (based on research papers xx ). When girls work together in a creative group (like women did in

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former Hungarian village communities), there is a possibility to make contact during work, to share problems and ideas, to talk. Creative work has a psychosocial effect and forms the grounding for future psychosocial work with the offender. Also, they have a need to perform creative activities (hobbies, pastime) which is the source of significant pleasure.

IV.7. Project Employment of employees with special needs


Organisation: UWYTA Rehabilitcis s Foglalkoztatsi Kzhaszn Trsasg UWYTA Rehabilitation and Employment Non Profit Company Organisation type: public benefit company (NGO) Rehabilitation and employment non profit company (social economy) Short description: The main goal of UWYTA is to reduce the social effects of handicap of citizens, by finding suitable employment for them. The organisation is pioneering in the employment of workers with special needs in Hungary. They provide the place of work with special features, protected/sheltered workplaces, and run numerous social and employment projects. Their humanistic approach means: be equal to all workers. They employed more than 1300 workers in 2008., in 34 branch locations throughout Hungary in various fields. They combine rehabilitation treatment with economy-based

employment of employees with special needs in an integrated way. Contact info:

UWYTA Rehabilitcis s Foglalkoztatsi Kzhaszn Trsasg headquarters: 7629 Pcs, Nvtelen u. 1., Hungary post address: 7607 Pcs, Pf.: 30., Hungary telephone: +36 72 517370

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fax: +36 72 517371 e-mail: uwyta@uwyta.hu web: http://www.uwyta.hu/index_x.html (not updated) 1. Project title: Employment of workers with special needs

1. Project duration: 1995-2008. 1. Project summary: UWYTA has been engaged in providing employment for workers with changed abilities (i.e. a handicap of some sort) with continuous development and finding long-term solutions. Their activities cover a diverse range of services and products (e.g. supplying parts, services, outsourcing, campaign work), and they also have their own commercial network (including market research, sales representatives, and logistics). Innovative ideas, quality control, high quality products and involvement in numerous projects is distinctive of this company. Their product range consists of items that can be made by their employees, under supervision, i.e. the production technology can be broken up to easy, smaller steps, most of it manual work or using simple tools and machinery, that can be learnt and carried out by the workers with changed abilities. The activities cover the following: o lease-work for warehouses, retail chains o production of wooden items and furniture o manufacturing painted glass decorative items o making of hand woven rugs and carpets o making of unique hand made decoration items, handicraft items o production of decorative candles o production of sewn garments and domestic textiles

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Following successful years of marketing, their business partners include PRAKTIKER, a large hypermarket chain of 17 shops, offering home improvement and do-it-yourself goods; and Dr. Padl, a shop chain specialising in floor covers (carpets, wooden floors, tiles etc.). The products being sold to these are of the best quality. They are also exporting products to Slovakia, Italy, Germany. Employing workers with changed abilities is subsidised by the Hungarian state, in the form of a fixed sum per annum after the number of workers, covering 100-150% of the salaries incl. taxes. The excess 50% subsidy can be used to introduce special measures at the work place to make it suitable for the capabilities and needs of the workers. 1. Indicators: target group: workers with changed abilities and special needs no. of clients: 1000 workers budget: fixed sum subsidy from the state per annum after number of workers financing body: labour centre / state subsidy 1. Detailed description: 1. Additional information: Unfortunately UWYTA company went bankrupt in 2008., and is presently under liquidation xxi . This has happened due to Hungarian legal issues. UWYTA had to pay a penalty to National Work and Labour Inspectorate in 2007. for the violation of the regulations concerning overtime, and according to law, any organisation with unsettled labour issues in Hungary is exempt from state subsidies in the future (like a black-list), including employment compensation. This meant the income of UWYTA was cut by 50% instantly xxii , and the salaries of the workers of UWYTA could not be paid. The company simply had to close, the workers with changed abilities were fired or some of them employed by other sheltered workplaces (with See product examples in Appendix I.!

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moderate effectiveness). The info contained in this chapter is in present tense for convenience.

IV.8. Project RING Shop


Organisation: UWYTA Rehabilitcis s Foglalkoztatsi Kzhaszn Trsasg UWYTA Rehabilitation and Employment Non Profit Company Contact info: RING shop: address: 7632 Pcs, Eszterglyos Jnos u. 23., Hungary post address: 7607 Pcs, Pf.: 30., Hungary telephone +36 72 547495 fax: +36 72 547494 e-mail: ringaruhaz@uwyta.hu 2. Project title: RING shop selling the products of UWYTA

2. Project duration: 2000-2008. 2. Project summary: UWYTA opened its first shop in 2000 in Pcs, the second in 2005 in the town of Szerencs. These shops offer for sale the own products of UWYTA manufactured by their workers, along with second-hand items (mostly from donations from abroad). The shop in Pcs is 350 sq. m on 2 floors (see Appendix I.), with 10 employees working there. The prices are moderate this suits well the fact that the shop is in the largest housing estate of Pcs, where in the blocks of flats not the richest people live. 2. Indicators: target group: workers with changed abilities and special needs no. of clients: 10 workers budget: fixed sum subsidy from the state per annum after number of workers + revenues from sold items financing body: labour centre / state subsidy

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IV.9. Project Recycling domestic and industrial second-hand textiles


Organisation: Retextil Alaptvny Retextil Foundation Organisation type: Short description: Private foundation NGO Retextil Foundations aim is to promote an original know-how of recycling domestic and industrial second-hand textiles. Using a traditional, manual textile technique, the common human ability of creativeness can be developed and at same time textile waste be reduced. To create Retextil products bags, puffs, swings there is no need for any other sources except human energy and it also enhances the cooperation of groups and individuals. Contact info:

Retextil Alaptvny headquarters: 7634 Pcs, Nagydeindoli t 36., Hungary address of workshop: 7621 Pcs, Jnos u. 1., Hungary Telephone: +36 72 233459 E-mail: retextil@gmail.com http://retextil.shp.hu/hpc/web.php?a=retextil Project title: Retextil is a language where we can learn about the organic order in the world around us. Project duration: Project summary: continuous: company / workshop / workplace Retextil is a method to manufacture domestic items (bags, clothes, rags, lampshades, sculptures, swings etc.) from textile waste. In the

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work process, workers with changed abilities take part (handicapped, having psychological problems, long-term unemployed, lacking education, former prisoners seeking a job), especially women. Indicators: target group: handicapped, underprivileged, workers with special needs no. of clients: 24 workers (at present) budget: n.d. financing body: Detailed description: 100% manual work community rehabilitation. 100% recycled environmentally friendly. Unique ecodesign + artistic value (see samples of the items in Appendix I.). The products are sold in a shop + webshop: the revenues go for the costs of the foundation. The products are well-known and represent an iconic and easily recognisable image: whoever sees it knows instantly that with the purchase of these (not very cheap) items a good aim is served and underprivileged people are being supported. So ther products represent a high esteem: hotels, prosperous companies buy murals, larger installations, furniture, whereas if you see a retextil handbag or necklace among the public, you recognise it right away.

IV.10.

Project Host Village Tarnabod - waste handling plant


consortium of Magyar Mltai Szeretetszolglat Egyeslet / Hungarian Maltese Charity Service, and Tutor Alaptvny /Tutor Foundation

Organisation:

Organisation type:

Association NGO, and private foundation NGO

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Short description:

The Hungarian Maltese Charity Service (MMSz) The Hungarian relief organization of the 900 years old Sovereign Order of Malta with a Christian spirituality was founded on 4th February 1989; the date of its legal registration was 10th February 1989. Since 1st January 1998, it has been a prominently public benefit organization. Its motto is: Tuitio fidei et obsequium pauperum Defence of faith, and service to the poor. Its symbol is an eight-pointed Maltese cross symbolising the Eight Beatitudes. Since its 20 years of operation a national network of the organisation has been established gradually, with which the Hungarian Maltese Charity Service provides safety and refuge to many people. By organizing the gratuitous work of its members and other volunteers and by collecting and distributing donations, the Hungarian Maltese Charity Service helps the poor and needy to satisfy their needs according to their basic human rights which are also recognized by Hungarian law. The Hungarian Maltese Charity Service provides support through the reasonable use of the resources available regardless to race, sex, nationality, religious, political or any other convictions - exclusively on the basis and to the extent of indigence. The charity work also comprises: The establishment of a homeless-care network, The establishment of institutions for the ill, and the tired, leftalone elderly The initiation of programs that help improve the living conditions of people living with physical and mental disabilities, The institutional care of families, family fragments living in constantly hopeless situations, The establishment of homes and services for the raising, care

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and education of the abandoned, orphan, and severely endangered children, and the youth. The many-sided activities of the Hungarian Maltese Charity Service are most effectively symbolized by the expression of donation - that is a gift we receive to pass it on. Because a donation can be food, clothing, medical equipment, given to the needy, but a donation also is bathing, legal advice, a word in time of spiritual crisis. Donation is a safe shelter, loving care, nursing, consolation of incurable patients living their last days, the attentive and understanding care for the disabled. Behind the donations there is a serving, organizing and collecting work of thousands and thousands of good-willed people. The nearly 8000 volunteers of the Hungarian Maltese Charity Service, - actively working in 7 regional organizations and 150 local groups represent solidarity rooted in brotherly love. It regards faith as a driving force for activity in favour of life.

Tutor Foundation The foundation is active on the field of helping homeless people and families. It has participated in model programmes (Mobile Pneumonia Screening Station, Legal Advice Service, Host Village Programme) which helped to open the way to innovative methods in social care in Hungary. Contact info:

Magyar Mltai Szeretetszolglat Egyeslet Address: H-1125 Budapest, Szarvas Gbor t 5860., Hungary Telephone: + 36 1 3914700, +36 1 3914704

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Fax: +36 1 3914728 E-mail: mmszok@maltai.hu Web: http://www.maltai.hu/

Tutor Alaptvny Address: H-1033 Budapest, Bza u. 12., Hungary Telephone: +36 1 240 3012 Fax: +36 1 430 0817 E/mail: tutoralapitvany@t-online.hu Web: www.tutoralapitvany.hu/index.php?modul=befogado.htm

Magyar Mltai Szeretetszolglat Befogads Nonprofit Kft. Manufacturing Plant - waste handling plant Address: 3369 Tarnabod, Gazdakr u. 20/A., Hungary Telephone: +36 1 240 3012 Mobile: +36 30 546 9300 E-mail: e-bonto@maltai.hu Project title: Project duration: Project summary: Host Village Tarnabod - waste handling plant 2006 present The Host Village Tarnabod - waste handling plant (Host Village Host Workplace) Programme is realised by the consortium members, with financing from Public Foundation for the Homeless in two villages (Tarnabod and Erk) in Heves County, Northern Hungary. Within the scope of the project they provide long-term housing possibilities for homeless persons and families, in order to help their

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reintegration into the society. An important element of the programme is to develop the local community, to strengthen the existing social services, social networks and to establish new employment possibilities. The project started in 2006 with the training of 15 women (residents of Tarnabod) who obtained the nationally recognised qualification of Child Carer. 6 of them were able to find employment soon in the new local Day Care Kindergarten for Children, which started operation in the building of the former pub. In the article The Host Village Host Workplace Program: Societal Reintegration of Homeless Families in Rural Environments (Initial Experience in the Village of Tarnabod, 20042006) xxiii alternative methods of social care are presented, which started as a model experiment. The method is effective both for homeless families or those threatened by housing problems (former prisoners, long-term unemployed citizens etc.), and for the reviving of deprived rural settlements. This model experiment was twofold in nature: it may alleviate the homelessness problem on the one hand, and contribute to community social work on the other. The background and the evolvement of the model experiment is embedded in the history of the homelessness problem in Hungary in the period after the collapse of communism (since 1990). The Host Village, Tarnabod in Heves County, and its inhabitants are representing a typical social diagnosis of Hungary, so the applied solutions may prove to be usable elsewhere. The main milestones of the practical work were the acquiring of a village bus, the (re-)launch of household farming (that has been always an important way of making a living, but in the communist times in some places it was forgotten), and the opening of a waste handling plant in the village providing employment for 30 people, accompanied by such social elements as starting a cinema club and a new football team.

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The main pillars of the Host Village Model Experiment are social work, settlement development, employment policy, and, to some extent, rural development and agriculture as a result of the cooperation of several civil organisations and a local village government. The model is being adapted in another village with 900 inhabitants, Erk, but the process is slowed down by the economical crisis (20082009). Indicators: target group: homeless and unemployed citizens and families, Roma (Gipsies) no. of clients: 690 inhabitants in Tarnabod, 36 new employees (30 in the plant, 6 in the Kindergarten) budget: n.d. financing body: Public Foundation for the Homeless, state subsidies, own revenues (waste handling plant), Labour Centres, St. Stephen Foundation (Holland), HEFOP 1.3.1 Detailed description: The waste handling plant is. situated in the village. Its motto is: What means waste to you - means employment to someone else! The Hungarian Maltese Charity Service Host Nonprofit Ltd. company provides the treatment and handling of electrical and electronic (hazardous) waste, within the scope of its employment and social programme, fulfilling important national and EU environmental goals. With the support of the National Employment Public Foundation, the waste handling plant was opened in the village of Tarnabod, dealing with electrical and electronic waste. Its present capacity is 600 tonnes per annum. In the treatment technology the waste is gathered and stored in the premises of the plant, then dismantled by manual work (physical processing) into smaller parts, and selected into fractions according to material: copper, iron, various plastics, glass etc. The fractions are stored in a temporary storeplace, then sold and transported to retail partners (secondary raw material market). All

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movement of waste and materials is documented (amount, type, date etc.) to and from the plant. The plant possesses the required permits for waste treatment from the authorities xxiv . They can accept the following waste for treatment are: office appliances (printers, computers, photocopiers), entertainment electronics (radios, CD-players, VCRs, DVD-players etc.), household appliances (electronic kitchen utensils, electric tools, vacuum cleaners, refrigerators), industrial electric waste and by-products etc. They also accept used and operating electrical appliances, both in their Budapest site and at Tarnabod, and are also collecting the waste upon request with their own vehicles. The situation of employees with difficulties (e.g. long-term unemployed, ex-prisoners) in adapting to normal working conditions is made easier by the applying of a special employee attendance-data collecting system. This means that the working hours of each worker are recorded and their salary is based on this - if someone wants to work for 2 or 4 hours a day instead of normal 8-hour shifts, he can do that, with the only consequence of earning less. An argument: the procesing of 20 tonnes of electrical waste yearly helps to maintain one workplace. Further elements in the programme are: From December 2008. a Retextil project has also been started for the inhabitants (see description at Retextil). They introduced card-operated electricity meters, which operates by inserting a card in the meter, representing a certain ammount of money paid for the card, that is used up in proportion to the used electricity. debt handling and management for the families done by experts renovation of the school and the kindergarten

For some photos on the project, see Appendix I.!

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IV.11.

Project Sheltered workplace


Koml-HABILITAS Nonprofit Kzhaszn Kft. Koml-HABILITAS Nonprofit Public Benefit Company Ltd.

Organisation:

Organisation type: Short description:

private nonprofit public benefit company Koml-Habilitas Kft. was founded in 1989 to provide employment for people with mental disabilities. Founder Lszl Wgner, a remedial teacher, is the managing director of the company. 85% of the 90 employees are people with disabilities. Koml-Habilitas is primarily a sheltered workshop. The emphasis of the professional work is on vocational rehabilitation: the company is a production facility with vocational and social functions as well.

Contact info:

Koml-HABILITAS Nonprofit Kzhaszn Kft. address: 7300 Koml, Juhsz Gyula street 2., Hungary Telephone: +36 72 581492 Fax: +36 72 487605 Mobilephone: +36 30 6007295 E-mail: habilitas@vnet.hu Web: http://www.komlohabilitas.vnet.hu/index_eng.htm Project title: Project duration: Project summary: Sheltered workplace - carpenters workshop for the handicapped 1989 - present The main profile of the company is the manufacturing of wooden garden furniture and wooden toys, accompanied by manufacture of household textile products and of other wooden items. The 85% of the 90 employees of the company are people with

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disabilities. The workers are taking part in employment and vocational rehabilitation, i.e. improving their status through working there, or before entering the employment market, acquiring the neccessary skills and proficiency. The company is situated in Koml, a town with former heavy industry (coal mining, iron works all closed down in the last decade), where many unemployed and psychologically or otherwise handicapped people are living. This kind of employment rehabilitation is very useful in this environment. The products are meant for customers who like natural look and style, from families with small children to elderly citizens. The products are also treated with environmentally friendly technologies. 40% of the revenues come from orders from Germany. Main products:

folding garden-, kitchen-, director- and reading chairs, deck chairs, rocking deck chairs, functional wooden toys, brooms, handles for tools and utensils, carpets (cotton, rag, knitted). small wooden items: gifts, stationery, .

For te product range see Appendix I.! Main business partners:

PRAKTIKER department stores with 15 Hungarian branch stores


o

Budapest (Budars, Fti street, Mester street, Bcsi street,), Debrecen, Gyr, Kecskemt, Miskolc, Pcs, Nyregyhza, Szolnok, Szeged, Szkesfehrvr, Szombathely, Zalaegerszeg.

Waschbr Umweltversand Triaz GmbH -Germany


o o o

contact: Ingrid Engelhardt Deutschland, 79108 Freiburg, Whlerstrae 4. tel.: 0761/1306-0

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fax: 0761/1306-239 contact: Ralph Wojtynek Deutschland, 72768 Reutlingen, Germanenstrae 9. tel.: 07121/560-115 fax: 07121/560-151 e-mail: einkauf@glueckskaefer.de contact: Mandy Meier Deutschland, 72770 Reutlingen-Betzingen, Rntgenstrae 17. tel.: 07121/514-897/6 fax: 07121/514-897/8 e-mail: bbbfb2.rt@bruderhausdiakonie.de web: www.bruderhausdiakonie.de Contact: Gbor Szab, e-mail: arvag@freemail.hu complete woodwork interior and benches

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Indicators:

target group: workers with changed working abilities (handicap, disabilities). no. of clients: 90 workers budget: n.d. financing body: state subsidy for employing workers with disabilities

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V.
model

Recommendations

V.1. Issues that should be considered in the development of the GSI


The following issues should be considered in the development of the GSI model: Parameters and characteristics of the client/client group, namely former prisoners, such as: 1. time of punishment (long/short) 2. type of crime 3. age of client 4. gender of client 5. ethnic / religious issues 6. medical / psychological status The social and physical environment of the client/client group: 7. homelessness 8. finances 9. use of drugs and addictions 10. social relations / family bonds 11. education Employment culture and environment 12. employment possibilities /access to employers / employment scene / size of city of residence 13. acceptance of ex-prisoners by employers, companies and colleagues These issues, especially those concerning the clients (ex-prisoners) should be taken into account with care, avoiding the development of stigmatisation and making boxes. However, this dilemma cannot be avoided; on the one hand: the more precise the clients situation is assessed, the better the needs can be answered, on the other hand: solutions should be such that no hindrance or exclusion the client has to face due to stigmatisation is structured in the mechanism of the model. The methodology of the development of the GSI model can utilise these elements: 1. Definition of actors /parties 2. Effective communication and cooperation between actors 3. Division of responsibilities between actors 4. Multidisciplinary approach

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5. Flexibility in the model, effective utilisation of feedback from pilot projects, possibility to change 6. Practical approach focusing on results: measures leading to right-away results are the most valuable The scale of measures based on the model can be classified according to the actors as follows: 1. Policy legal framework authorities scientific institutions 2. Community at large 3. Labour market /employers / social welfare 4. Education / vocational training 5. NGOs: model programmes, experiments 6. Penal institutions: model programmes, experiments 7. Individuals prisoners under probation service In the Chapter V.3. we will identify the actor(s) that are effected by the recommendation in question based on the above list.

V.2. Recommendations for the aim and means of the GSI model
According to a Hungarian study xxv , when prisoners were asked the following question: In what ways do you need help (now, and after release)?, the answers given could be grouped into these categories: Improvement of the social system: Employment possibilities i.e. to make a living, have sufficient financial resources Living/housing possibilities Provision of training and education Developing an accepting atmosphere: Trust and honesty, no prejudice, inspiration to change, shift in public opinion These notions can be paired with the hypothesis of professionals xxvi : sucessful reintegration and the prevention of recidivism rests on four pillars: 1) secure accommodation; 2) lasting human relationships; 3) job opportunities; 4) education/training opportunities.

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Making these observations the starting point for the development of the model, the overall aim of the GSI model should be the reduction of the crisis of release and the prevention of recidivism by the following means: building of secure human/helping/civil relationships in the penal institutions, to gain confidence, the establishment of continuous emotional security of the inmates; preparation to reintegrate by means of training, improvement of competences, vocation and coaching for better chances of stable employment; the assistance of an accepting community should be enhanced, where citizens with a criminal record are not excluded or suffer from prejudice; the possibility to enter the labour market as soon as possible to enable financial independence of the clients, by means of sheltered workplaces and social economy projects, also where the participating employers are gaining benefits guaranteed by law (e.g. lower taxes, state compensated/subsidised wages of workers with special needs, exempt form social security contributions etc.)

V.3. Recommendations for measures and implementations of the GSI model


The concrete recommendations, based on Hungarian best practice examples shown in Chapter IV. and the aims and means outlined in Chapter V.2. are listed in this chapter. The actors who are involved in the concrete measures is identified in the title, as: 1. Policy legal framework authorities scientific institutions 2. Community at large 3. Labour market /employers / social welfare 4. Education / vocational training 5. NGOs: model programmes, experiments 6. Penal institutions: model programmes, experiments 7. Individuals prisoners under probation service

The social care system has to recognise the target group 1.


The social welfare legislation and providing system should recogise and name the target group, similarly to the homeless, handicapped etc., since former prisoners are also underprivileged, who need help and support. The first step of this is that the client group shall appear in the future in the social legislation as a socially disadvantaged group that requires 63

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rehabilitation/ reintegration/re-socialization. We recommend that criminals, inmates and inmates who has been restored to liberty appear in the social regulation, since their problems are well-definable and well-separable from the other disadvantaged groups.

Identifying different groups 1.


Demographical characteristics of the long-term prisoners are more striking than the characteristics of the whole population of a prison: low qualification, low average age, disadvantageous social situation, bad status in the labour market, bad state of health. Because of the privation of liberty and the prison harms, these disadvantages are on the increase, which often corresponds to the length of the sentence. For this reason attention should be paid intensively to the long-term prisoners. The welfare work in the prisons, the establishment of a help contact and the employment of welfare workers in the law-enforcement are more indicated in the case of this special group. Similarly, other groups should be identified based on their characteristics: young prisoners, women, prisoners with special needs (migrants, former political prisoners, drug addicts). It is neccessary to work out a flexible and adaptive methodology for working with them, e.g. young age prisoners should be noted for the need of preventive social care and continuous follow-up after release .

Social workers in the penal institutions - 5.6.


Since the law-enforcement and penal system cannot reconcile its goals, or these goals cannot be reconciled with the goals of the social (re)integration, social/welfare workers should be employed in the penal institutions. The tasks of the social workers are: concurring socialization and adaptation in the prison, initiating a helping contact with the target group, shaping the social environment (low qualification, workplace, human relations), developing the social competence of the target group, and also to train the staff of the penal institution. On the whole, their task is to create and support the subjective and objective conditions of the social (re)integration. The educators (prison staff) task should be connected to lawenforcement, while the welfare workers task should be connected to the social (re)integration/resocialization and to the (re)integration/resocialization on the labour market.

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State institutions should rely more on non-governmental institutions 1.5.6.


NGOs provide useful help in realising many social tasks of the state even now: in caring for the disabled, homeless, orphans etc. The help of NGOs in prison work (e.g. in providing welfare workers, job coaches or labour market experts) can take significant burden off the state, which makes this cooperation a cost-effective tool based on the basic human rights notions of solidarity and subsidiarity.

Education, work socialisation, training and vocation in the penal institutions 1.4.5.6.
Due to the fact that those who are sent to prison are most of the time low educated and of low social/economical standing, often unemployed: education increases their reintegration to the labour market and to the society. The law-enforcement system, the penal institutions have the task to ensure and support education and training in the penal institutions, with help from other organisations. Finishing the primary school is a basic task, since the primary school education is a precondition of further education and vocation. It is important to say that the primary school qualification in itself is not enough to find entrance into the labour market, whether we are talking about women or men. Secondary school and higher education studies appear in the regulation only as possibilities, so they can rarely be realized in the penal institutions. It is evident that possessing higher education increases the chances for life, employment and mobility. Therefore it is necessary to lay extra emphasis on ensuring secondary school and higher education studies for the prisoners, e.g. by legal regulation. Vocational education should also be ensured in the prisons not only in the case of prisoners before discharge, but also in the case of long term prisoners and prisoners who are in the middle of their term of confinement. As to the vocational education, it is important to teach professions that are needed, looked for, the vocation has to be sellable on the market and must not have only a time structuring role or spending free time usefully in the life of the prisoners. To the realization of this, it is necessary to analyze the labour market continuously which should be made by experts, such as labour-market advisers. Survey of labour force needs has to be conducted, monitored and coordinated by a professional team; the released citizens are helpless like leaves in the wind.

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Special programmes in the institution that aim to develop competences to improve employment chances - 5.6.7.
Programmes and useful activities outside the prison cell should be disposable for the longterm prisoners. These programs and activities shall develop abilities that are useful in the first job after leaving the penal institute, and also in other fields of work. The support of the programs by experts is essential, and they should be acknowledged by the staff of the lawenforcement.

Work in the prison 1.3.5.6.7.


Many offenders getting to prison are unemployed or illegal workers before the imprisoning, so their labour-market (re)integration is especially important. On the one hand, this requires competence development, work socialization and attaining experience, on the other hand, they need to search and find possibilities of work. The chance and possibility of signing on for a job after discharge and the occupation during the confinement are closely interlinked. Many of the long-term prisoners have a vast ammount of spare time, and this time is wasted, so successful re-socialization is more difficult. It should be a goal that long-term prisoners shall work in the prison in such spheres of activity that correspond to their profession or regarding the posterior integration develop their abilities. Work socialisation training is possible through practice: another cause why work in the penal institutions has to be made possible.

Programmes tackling drug problems 5.6.


It is necessary to elaborate special drug programmes that conform to the special environment of the law-enforcement system. To the implementation of this, experts should be involved.

Protection and enhancement of existing social and community ties 2.5.6.7.


Regarding the successful reintegration, social/human relations are indispensable, so the existing family, friend and social relations shall be supported. To maintain these relations, the number of meetings outside the prison and the possibilities prescribed by law (short-term leave, authorized absence) shall be increased. The welfare work also should aim at supporting the social relations.

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Preparation for release - 5.6.7.


The preparation for discharge should appear in the individual supportive care as well as in the group work. This shall be realized not only theoretically but according to an elaborated programme and schedule, and by a professional team with the cooperation of educators, patrons and civil experts (social worker), following the life cycle: within the penal institution, during release, after release.

Economical support of the freshly released 1.


Regarding resocialization and reintegration, it is a crucial point that the income shall relieve the difficulties of the first few months after the discharge. Even in the optimal case, when the ex-prisoner finds a job right after the discharge, he/she has to work 1 month and get the salary only the next month. To overcome this, those released prisoners who require it shall get temporary income support from the state. The time registered by the social security system should include the work accomplished in the prison.

To neglect criminal records 1.2.3.


Filtering the job-seekers according to their past life (e.g. imprisonment) is discriminative. In many cases, asking for a good-conduct certificate (certificate that the person doesnt have a criminal record) as the present practice is in Lithuania, hinders ex-prisoners in signing on for a job. It should be considered, that this certificate would be asked for obligatorily only in certain positions (kindergarten teacher, lawyer, accountant, policeman etc.).

Attitude of the employers and the general public 2.3.5.


The attitude of the employers and the general public can be shaped to be more accepting towards the target group by positive communication and special marketing (information dissemination (websites, forums, events, handouts, TV-spots etc.). Employers can also be helped by providing practical advice and open information using such elements as Toolbook described in Chapter IV.1.

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Network for employment solutions 1.3.5.


Labour authorities and organisations have to be involved officially and on a systematic basis in the employment issues of prisoners and former prisoners. The social worker working in the prison can act as a connection between the individual and the local labour exchange office offering job possibilities. Possible authorities to be involved: Lithuanian Labour Exchange Lithuanian Labour Market Training Authority Institute of Labour and Social Research State Labour Inspection of the Republic of Lithuania http://www.ldb.lt http://www.ldrmt.lt/ http://www.dsti.lt/ http://www.vdi.lt/

Employment of discharged prisoners 3.5.7.


Employers are not interested enough in the employment of former prisoners. They are reluctant to accept them due to prejudice, mistrust, fixed ideas etc. The principle of the need of the employment of discharged prisoners should also appear in the legal regulation level. There are several possible solutions that can influence the employers regarding such employment positively. E.g. in Hungarian law xxvii The employer who undertakes the employment of a person who is under patron control and has not been discharged farther than 6 months before submitting the request for support, can get a definite grant for a year. This grant covers the social security and income tax costs of the salary of the person, not at social enterprises, but at any workplace. The economical potential in work-force of the released prisoners should be analysed and feasibility studies should be made to set up pilot employment projects based on their specific needs and features (e.g. relatively low education level, high motivation to work, most of them seek positions in physical work). The state/government has to realise, that by supporting such initiatives, the employed former prisoners get a chance to become independent and self-sufficient (both economically and socially), whereas otherwise they would end up very soon in the social providing network (legal, social, education, healthcare and employment benefit networks), the costs of which are born by the state. Welfare workers/employment advisers of the prisons can effectively establish cooperation between the prisons and the employment centres to find matches between demand and supply.

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Generally speaking, the concept of social undertakings should be opened and broadened to make it possible for non-social enterprises to employ members of the target group with the same benefits as social undertakings have. Employers, employers organisations, authorities and NGOs have to cooperate in the elaboration of the social subsidising system (e.g. tax refund, reduced social security contribution etc.) to make employment of ex-prisoners attractive for employers. The labour funds have to provide and guarantee a state subsidy to promote this process.

Establishing protected workplaces for ex-prisoners 1.3.5.


Establishing protected workplaces for ex-prisoners is a useful element to tackle the complex problem of re-integration. Protected/sheltered workplaces should not serve segregation, but should provide the neccessary flexibility and tolerance that ex-prisoners normally lack in the open labour market and at employers. Sheltered workplaces and social welfare companies can join the tasks of employment, training, and therapy, and provide sustainable structures of social economy. These workplaces are special: flexible, focusing on the employee, but making profit at the same time (see examples from Hungary in Chapter IV.7-11.). The concrete activity these workplaces could realise should be analysed and decided, i.e. continuous market analysis has to be made to determine, which products/services are marketable (e.g. in agriculture, horticulture, light industry (textile, furniture) etc.), what are local/regional strengths, resources and benefits (local materials, natural resources, know-how, tradition etc.). Pilot projects and experiments could provide sufficient experinece to develop the system on larger scale. The legal basis for social undertakings for non-disabled workers with special needs (i.e. former prisoners) have to be improved, opened and broadened, to make it possible for nonsocial enterprises to employ members of the target group with the same benefits as social undertakings have.

Establishment of midway houses 1.3.4.5.


To mitigate the housing problems of the just discharged prisoners, we suggest the establishment of so called midway houses. A midway house has the duty to ensure a short-term complex service, in which the 4 pillars of the prevention of relapse (housing, human/relational services, labour-market services, education/learning) appear synergically together, and in which psychosocial aid and care have an important role. The ex-prisoners live

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in a protected environment in which they feel independent and have the autonomy of decision, real rights and are free, and at the same time supportive care and psychosocial work can be done until necessary (2-3 months). The notion of the midway house that will be established for the ex-prisoners should also appear in the legislation and the regulations. Feasibility studies and legislation have to be made on this topic.

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VI.

Conclusions

In this report we have shown a brief overview of the situation in Lithuania - and in comparison the situation in Hungary - concerning the employment policy, programmes, and the legal and social environment of released prisoners. We have presented examples of best practice among Hungarian organisations and projects, in relation to the training, vocation and employment of prisoners and former prisoners. Finally, we included issues that should be considered in the development of the GSI model, some recommendations for the aim and means, and the measures and implementations of the GSI model. In Lithuania there have been programmes aiming to improve the social and employment reintegration of former prisoners (e.g. the Programme for Social Adaptation of Convicts and Persons Returning from Imprisonment), but a sustainable and comprehensive system has not yet been constructed. The best practice examples can serve as a source to exploit techniques, ideas and measures to tackle the task of development of the Gradual Social Integration Model. Some of these are projects related to taking action in the society at large, by forming the attitude, dispatching information, lobbying, protection of rights, union activities or similar. Some are projects that focus on training and vocation, in order to prepare and empower the prisoners to have better chances on the labour market when released, while some are projects that offer employment for the ex-prisoners in innovative ways. In the recommendations we drafted some concrete measures that can help the development of the GSI model, while the overall aim of the GSI model should be the reduction of the crisis of release and the prevention of recidivism by the following means: building of secure human/helping/civil relationships in the penal institutions; preparation to reintegrate by means of training, improvement of competences, vocation and coaching for better chances of stable employment; the assistance of an accepting community should be enhanced; the possibility to enter the labour market as soon as possible to enable financial independence of the clients, by means of sheltered workplaces and social economy projects

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VII. Literature and references


The data and information used in the preparation of this report are from publicly accessible resources (public websites, libraries, books etc.). The copyright belongs to respective copyright owners. The following on-line and literature resources were used:

i ii

Ministry of Social Security and Labour - http://www.socmin.lt/index.php?-1656322203 see: Ministry of Social Security and Labour - http://www.socmin.lt/index.php?2012619961

according to Resolution No. 143 of the Government of the Republic of Lithuania of 9 February 2004, Concerning Resolution No. 1179 of the Government of the Republic of Lithuania of 25 October 1999, Concerning Amendment of Approval of the Programme for Social Adaptation of Convicts and Persons Released from Places of Imprisonment, Penitentiary, Social and Psychological Rehabilitation Institutions of 20012004 (Official Gazette, 2004, No. 23-709)
iv

iii

Ministry of Social Security and Labour: SOCIAL REPORT 20072008. http://www.socmin.lt/index.php?93931350


v vi vii

Ministry of Social Security and Labour: SOCIAL REPORT 2004. - http://www.socmin.lt/index.php?93931350 http://www.nplc.lt/en/statistika/statistika_asis.aspx

Vita Karpuskiene (Vilnius University, Lithuania): National Report 2006 - Review of Policies on Homelessness in Lithuania. European Observatory on Homelessness: Policy Update 2006. July 2006
viii ix

see also: Social report 2005, page 24 - http://www.socmin.lt/index.php?93931350

Romas Lazutka (National Expert): Local development agreements as a tool to stop segregation in vulnerable metropolitan areas. Peer Review in the Field of Social Exclusion Policies; Comment Paper, Lithuania. Sweden, 2004.
x

The national strategy for social crime prevention - Annex to Parliamentary resolution no. 115/2003. (X.28.), Oct. 2003. - http://bunmegelozes.easyhosting.hu/dok/national_strat_crime_prevention.pdf

xi

according to 37. of Law IV. of Year 1978. of Hungary, link: http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=97800004.TV


xii xiii xiv xv xvi xvii xviii xix xx xxi xxii

to download Toolbook, follow this link: http://equal.nfu.hu/download.php?docID=104 http://magyarrehab.com/content/blogsection/4/29/ http://www.bunmegelozes.hu/index.html?pid=264&lang=hu http://www.ecdl.com/publisher/index.jsp http://www.amazon.com/Job-Club-Counselors-Manual-Behavioral/dp/0839115350 in relation to the topic see: http://www.quintcareers.com/job_club.html http://www.valtosav.hu/Szakmaianyagok.htm http://eper.esza.hu/eperportal/pages/template2.aspx?id=1655963 http://www.valtosav.hu/res/PDF/pedagogiai_munka.pdf see: http://www.szmm.gov.hu/main.php?folderID=13894&articleID=40144&ctag=articlelist&iid=1 source: http://www.uwyta.hu/downloads/2007khj.pdf

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Pter Bki, Mikls Vecsei & Mikls Kohnyi: Programm Aufnahmedorf: Soziale Reintegration Von Obdachlosen Familien In Drflicher Umgebung (Anfangserfahrungen In Tarnabod 20042006). European Journal of Mental Health, Volume 1 (2006) 12, p125150.
xxiv

xxiii

see http://www.maltai.hu/data/nodes/401/file/begyujtesieng.PDF, and http://www.maltai.hu/data/nodes/401/file/kezelesieng.PDF


xxv

Cski Anik Mszros Mercedes: Szocilis munka a bntets-vgrehajtsban s az utgondozsban. Esly, 2005/2. link: http://www.valtosav.hu/res/PDF/szocialis_munka.pdf in: Cski Anik Mszros Mercedes, 2005. 6/1996. /VII.16./ MM rendelet a foglalkoztatst elsegt tmogatsokrl, valamint a Munkaer-piaci Alapbl foglalkoztatsi vlsghelyzetek kezelsre nyjthat tmogatsrl, 59. (3)

xxvi xxvii

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