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Proceedings of

the Third International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics, Shanghai, 26-29 August 2004


Department of Instrument Science, Yanshan University, Qmhuangdao, Hebei P.R.Chinq 066004 2School of Electronic Information and Automation, Tianjin University of Science & Technology, Tianjin P.R.China,300222 E-MAIL: na-wsh@sohu.com ,xiaomihuxiao@yahoo,com.cn

Aiming at the complicated system of calcining the

workpieces in the resistance furnace,this paper presents the method of using fuzzy self-adaptive PID conholler to improve controlling accuracy of the ms a c furnace. It improves it n e system response, makes function more steady and lowers the using of energy and original material. It also lowers waster rate, and calcinned workpieces are gwd in function. The trial rpsults indicate that the control system has the good application value. Keywords: Fuzzy control; PID control; mistance furnace; d a n e thorough



Resistance fumace is the most widely applied to heating equipment in the heat treatment production. It translates electric energy by means of well-known laws of convection and eradiation heat-transfer into the thermal energy through electric heating elements that are emplaced in the furnace. It is pictured conventionally as the undermentioned form:

wrieie k ia .mnylifivatory coefficient; z is t" coefficient, td is classic hysteresis time. In the actual heat production, resistance furnace itself has prodigious indetermination because of the parameters changes of k , 7 and t, relaying on the various of thermal conductivities, the amount of load and heating temperature of heated metal [1,2]. The heating, castings, ingots, coil, rolled metals, heated treatment pieces and other various heated objects, especially large-scale objects, need to be given the time of even temperature or calcining through. In the existing controlling temperature instrument in the furnace, however, either conventional Altemating
. I . ,

Current (AC) contact position controlling temperahre instrument and phaseshift or over-zero-trigger . SCR modulating voltage style controlling temperature system or microcomputer controlling temperature system c a i only measure and contml resistance fumace hearth temperature or heated objects extemal surface temperature. They CM measure and control neither big objects central temperature , nor stow central objects temperature. When the objects are calcined through or how long the even temperature time is depend on inside and outside factors such as theoretical account, test parameters, security coefficient or operator experience. At setting temperature, objects &e fetched out then gone along next working procedure as scan as they reach even temperature time in disregard of the change of the type, the amount of load, placement and heat power .No one knows if the objects are calcined through or overshoot .So, the method is unscientific and has many disadvantage such as longer even temperature time, low production ratio, abundant using power, interior structure crassitude, low performance, product quality depravation and high wasters efficient. With the progress and development of science and technology, even temperature process measurement and' controlling become pivotal technology because of higher and higher desire for quality and performance of heated objects. These urge people study more energetically controlling heat process methods. Resistance furnace temperature controller adopts usually conventional position control and PID control. PID control is one of the earliest controlling tactics.' The conventional PID controllers are widely used in actual industry systems due to their. simplicity in arithmetic, ease ' of using, good robustness, high reliability, stabilization and zero-steady-state error. But resistance furnace is a nonlinear controlled object that has big inertial, classic hysteresis and time-varying parameters. It is difficult to achieve desired tracking control performance since tuning and self-adapting adjusting parameters on line are a scabrous problem of PID controller. Over the past 50 years, several methcds for

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Proceedings o f the Third International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics, Shanghai, 26-29 August 2004 determine-ing PID controller parameters -have been developed. Some employ information about open-loop step response, 'for example,' the Coon- Cohen- reaction curve method [ ] other methods use knowledge of the Nyquist 3; curve, e.g., the Ziegler-Nichols frequency-responsemethod. However, these tuning methods use only a small amount of information ahout the dynamic behavior of the system, and often do not provide good tyning. Since 20 years, it has been reported that a fuzzy logic controller is very suitable for a controlled object with nonlinearity and even with unknown structure [ , ] 45. Figurel. Fuzzy self-tuning PIU Recently fuzzy, logic and conventional techniques are conholler combined to design fuzzy logic controller. In .[6,7,8], . . various fuzzy PID hybrid control schemes are discussed to improve .PID control performance. The FUZZY.. Since the proposed fuzzy self-tuning PID controller proportional term plays an impohant role in imbroving overshoot, robusmess,' good dynamic response and rise aims to improve the control performance yielded by a PID controller, it keeps the simple structure of the PID time response. The conventional integral term reduces a steady-state error, and the conventional derivative is controller and it is not necessary,to modify any hardware parts of the original control system for implementation. responsible for the Namess of the.step response. Fuzzy self-taning of PJD parameters is finding out the Easily seen through above-mentioned analysis, up-standing control purpose can be achieved with fuzzy fuzzy relation between PID three parameters and e , ec . It examines incessantly e and ec..in work then tunes self-tuning PID control for these obvious classic hysterisis, three parameters with fuzzy control rules on line so that nonlinear, and time-viirying .controlled object similar- to steady resistance furnace. It is Nrned out to be a good solution controlled objects achieve good dynamic method that using fuzzy. self-tuning PID controller control performance. Aiming at temperature control of resistance fumace, in resistance fumace temperature by mass 'theoretical' studies fuzzy rules, the terins of linguistic variables of the ermr E, a work practices [1,21. It remains the characteristics such d as not, only"fuzzy control robusmess, good dynamic the rate of change of error EC and modificatory coefficient response, rise-time fast and less overshoot but also PID K p I K,. KO are INB,NM,NS,ZO;PS,PM,PB } ,we denote as control dynamic tracking function and 'steady,-state. the' linguistic values 'of ' E ' and EC I -6,-5,4,-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,4,5,6 the linguistic values },while precision. of K p , K,. KD as ~-5,-4,-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,4,5) . Their l 2. The basic structure of the fuzzy self-tuning PID membership functions a l are triangular type .We can obtain of fuzzy control rule base of greatest method of fuzzy controller synthetical methods and artificial modifying, as shown in ... The fuzzy self-tuning PID controller is an table 123 Fuzzy controller translates the sampled the error and auto-adaptive controller which is constructed by using an incremental fuzzy logic controller in place of the the rate of change of error into-discrete values in fuzzy proportional term in the conventional PID controller to tune fields through scaling factors. Seeing about the fuzzy the parameters of PID controller on line by fuzzy control control rules base of fuzzy linguistic values decided by rules. The controller whose strucNre is illustrated in fig.1 discrete values, we !ranslate the three.controlled fuzzy use the error and the rate of change of error as its inputs and variable into precise variable then. calculate the nether c a i meet desire of self-tuning p k e t e r s based on formula base of the checked out modificatory parameters. Control system manages the outcome of fuzzy logic time-varying e and ec. d e result in auto-tune PID parameters through checking u(k) = K , e ( k ) + K,$ e i i j + K , [ e ( i ) - e(k -I)] (2) the watch and calculation to obtain the greatest Where k, is cou&o .er gam; K , = K pT j T , : performance. $ K , T . / T : T is sample-time; T, . i s integd time , , parameter; T, is derivative time parameter [9].

. ,





Table 1

Proceedqs of the Third International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybemetics, Shanghai, 26-29 August 2004


fuzzy control rules



identify organization tune initial PID parameters utilizing distinguished model parameters. Then control switch is switched, and the control system enters the fuzzy self-tuning PID control [9].

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20 20

3. The design of resistance furnace temperature

control system
Controller above is used in controlling small resistance furnace temperature examined by thermocouples. Whole system frame is shown in F i g 2
Temperature measurement and compensation and magnify
Input Power
Controlled silicon power-regulating controlling temperature organizatian






Table 2 K , fuzzy control rules

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- -

Powe supply
outage of
electxicity pmteet

Memorizer Keyboard



m zo zo - Table 3

Contml (micmcomputer)

2over examine

K, fuzzy control rules


LED display

Figure 2.Resistance furnace control temperature system


= KP, +lE,.EC,J,

K , = K , , +lE,.EC,l,

= KDO + ( E t , E C a ) D

In the early temperature-rising state, this system applies bang-bang control [lo] as lead control, which speeds system output rising and dropping, i. e making system runtime shortest. Identify organization distinguish objects base of achieved information in the identifying process. When actual temperature error arrives at some a set value,

In this system, atier the voltage of thermocouples experiences cold-end compensation and magnifying, it is banslated into digital signal corresponding to furnace temperature by AID circuit. The signal experiences digital filtering, linear-handing and scale transformation. Then the handled signal, i. e furnace temperature, is shown by LED. When reaching sample period, the sampled signal is compared with set temperature, the control manner is decided by compared error, then operation is run. Basing of the operation result, computer changes control pulse breadth by IIO, i.e changing SCR conduction time in avaring with average input power of furnace. In this way, setting control period Tc, so furnace temperature is process of controlling temperature of resistance furnace is attained. In experience, set temperature is 8O0*Cc, when e < 50 %, Fuzzy self-tuning of PID control is adopted; otherwise, bang-bang control is adopted. The program flow chart is shown in Fig.3.


Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics, Shanghai, 26-29 August 2004

Sample set r(k)and measured y(k)


identifv calmlatine base

Count K,K,,KD
Calculate object onginal model

Figure4. Measure Heating objects temperature method in experiment


Count under ISE


Figure3. fuzzy PID control flowchart


ZeNbheat-preseNatiOn experimentation and analysis



f2 A



FigureS. resistance furnace typical heating curve Workpieces used in experimentation and heating method of workpieces in resistance furnace (DGK-1O1G electronic- heating technics parameters controller) is shown in Fig.4. We make 45 steel of 6 1OOX200 heat under 830%. it only takes 50 minutes to calcine thorough. Compared with usualcalculational methods and formula that need heatpreservation 80-90 minutes, the method of zero-heatpreservationdecreases 30-40 minutes in heating time: It shortens the heating t, improves production efficiency and debases costs. FigS. shows the relation curves of furnace temperature TI, workpieces external surface temperature Tz and work- pieces center temperature T3 with heating time t under cool resistance temperature. Or fast heating furnace so making it reach set temperature, then casedmg workpieces, the relation curves of measured temperatures T I ,T,, T3 in heating with t are shown in Fig.5, also. The austenitic structures of calcined workpieces in experimentation is shown in pictures Through pictures and examining grain size, 0 and 0 a r e structures pictures of calcined workpieces and of 1 hour heat-preservation after calcined. @ and @ are grain size of calcined workpieces and of 1 hour heat-preservation after calcined.we can see that The austenitic structures of calcined workpieces are uneven austenitic structures in fuzzy self-tuning PID control. Their grain sizes are 9 grade over, very fine, and similar to austenitic original grain sizes. They have more excellent function to even austenitic grain sizes of calcined workpieces under PIU control, and are requisite needed structures in heat production and heat machine. Through multiform steels stnictures and grain size (pictures delineation), we reason that zero-heat-preservation used in not only heat process but also heat handling meets entirely technic request as low carbon steel and low alloy. When come to high carbon steel and high alloy, technic request can be meeted by heat-preservation 10-20 minutes after calcined thorough.


Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics,Shanghai, 26-29 August 2004


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Seeing resistance furnace temperature controlling actual result, the Fuzzy self-tuning PID controller has thecharacteri-stics as shown beneath: (1) Its response to a setpoint change is the quickest, a chieving smaller rises and response times due to an underdamped response with a very small overshoot. (2) It makes system more desired steady-trait, the smo-other responses, nonsurge in steady process and temperature precision range from -5C to +5C. (3) System has more strong interference-resistant, better inhibiting ability for multiform noises and disturbance on work line. (4) When contcolled process parameters vary, it can still hold better adaptive ability and robusmess. The fuzzy self-tuning PID control technic has not required of precise mathematic model and realized control goal by direct fuzzy illation decision-making. The controller is more easily used in microcomputer control system, and in the near future it will have wider application foreground in industry control system.

111 Z.R. Rad&ovjc, v, M. Mjlosevic, s, B, Radakovjc. Application of temperature fuzzy controller in an indirect resistance furnace. Applied Energy.

73(2002)167-182. [2] St. Boschert, P. Dold, K. W. Benz. Modelling of the temperature dismbution in a three-zone resistance fumace: influence o furnace configuration and f ampoule position. Joumal of Crysral Growth. 187(1998)140-149. [3] G. H. Cohen, G . A. Coon. Theoretical consideration of retarded control, Trans. ASME 75 (1953) 827-834. 141 H.R. Berenji, Fuzzy Logic Controllers, in: R.R Yager, L.A. Zadeh (Eds.), An Introduction to Fuzzy Logic Appication in Intelligent Systems, Kluwer, Boston, MA, 1992. [5] HJ Zimmermann, Fuzzy Sets Thoery and its :. Applications, Kluwer, NijhoA, Boston, Dordrecht, Lancaster, 1984. [61 Kim J-H, Kim K-C, Chong EKP. Fuzzy precompensated PID controllers. LEEE Transactions on Control System T~chnology1994;2(4). [7] Cho Hyun-Joon, Cho Kwang-Bo, Wang Bo-Hyeun. Fuzzy-PID hybrid control: automatic rule generation using genetic algorithms. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 1997;92(3):305-316. [SI Wu Zhi Qiao, Masaham Mizumoto. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 78(1996)23-35 [91 Tao Yong Hua, Yin YI Xin, Ge Lu Shena. New-stvle PID Con& and Apelization. B e i l h : Engine Indus& Publishing Company, 2001.5 [IOILiu Bao. Modemistric Control Theory. Beijing: Engine Industry Publishing Company, 200.5