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Chapter 13 Study Guide for HIST 1301

These study guides are intended to do exactly what their name describes guide your studies as you prepare for tests. They are not a substitute for doing the required reading and they do not include everything that will be on your test. I hope they help you be successful in this class. People Worth Remembering John Tyler A pro-slavery Virginian, he became the 10th president when William Henry Harrison died just one month into his term. He broke ranks with his Whig Party and doomed hopes of being elected in 1844 over his intense pursuit of the annexation of Texas. James K. Polk An Andrew Jackson protg, this Tennessee Democrat was elected the 11th president in 1844 on an expansionist platform that pledged to annex Texas, which provoked the MexicanAmerican War, and to press U.S. claims in the Oregon Territory, which was settled by a compromise treaty in 1846. Sam Houston A Jacksonian Democrat and former Tennessee governor, he served as a general in the Texas Army and was commander in the decisive battle at San Jacinto. This catapulted him to two terms as president of the Texas Republic, 13 years in the U.S. Senate and a term as Texas governor, where he was removed for his opposition to secession. Joseph Smith The founder of Mormonism, his 1830 revelations became the Book of Mormon. He led his persecuted followers to Illinois, where they found a home until he was killed by a mob there in 1844. Brigham Young Joseph Smiths successor as leader of the Mormons, he established a religious colony near the Great Salt Lake, served as governor of the Utah Territory and led the Mormon church for 30 years. John L. OSullivan An influential editor and proponent of the expansionist Young America movement, he coined the term Manifest Destiny in an 1845 article in Democratic Review. Zachary Taylor A victorious general in the Mexican-American War, he rode that popularity to election as a Whig president in 1849 and his presidency was dominated by debate about slavery in the Mexican cession and other territories, but he died before there was any resolution. Winfield Scott During the MexicanAmerican War, he led the U.S. Army into Mexico City, was an unsuccessful Whig candidate for president in 1852 and served as Union general-in-chief during the Civil War, devising the Anaconda Plan for defeating the Confederacy. Nicholas P. Trist An American negotiator sent with the U.S. Army to

Mexico City, he was ordered home by President Polk, who was frustrated with the lack of progress, but ignored the order and stayed on to negotiate the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. He was fired for insubordination upon his return to Washington. Samuel F.B. Morse A talented painter and inventor, he perfected in 1844 the electric telegraph, which had a dramatic impact on long-distance communications during the 19th century. Terms Worth Remembering (definitions in glossary) Young America Webster-Ashburton Treaty Alamo Manifest Destiny Mexican-American War Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Dates Worth Remembering 1823 Earliest American settlers arrive in Texas 1830 Mexico tries to halt American migration to Texas; Joseph Smith founds Mormonism 1833 Stephen F. Austin arrested in Mexico 1834 Cyrus McCormick invents the mechanical reaper 1835 Texans rebel against Mexico 1836 Santa Anna surrenders at San Jacinto; Texans declare independence 1837 John Deere invents steel plow

1841 William Henry Harrison dies after one month as president; John Tyler succeeds him 1844 Samuel Morse demonstrates electric telegraph; James Polk elected president on expansionist platform 1845 Texas annexed; John L. OSullivan coins term manifest destiny; potato blight breaks out in Ireland, causing mass migration to U.S. 1846 War breaks out with Mexico; Oregon Country boundary set at 49th parallel 1847 Mormons settle Utah; U.S. Army victorious at Buena Vista, Veracruz, Mexico City 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo signed 1851 Herman Melville publishes Moby-Dick 1853 Elisha Otis invents passenger elevator 1855 Walt Whitman first publishes Leaves of Grass Points Worth Remembering The 1830s and 1840s were characterized by economic and territorial growth by the United States. The Young America movement and the doctrine of Manifest Destiny encouraged that growth, stating that it was necessary, ordained by God and meant the expansion of freedom. The Texas Revolution and the Mexican-American War reflected not just U.S. expansionism, but also Mexicos instability and failure to

govern effectively. Americas economic growth was aided by the dynamic growth of railroads and by a series of practical inventions that laid the groundwork for the Industrial Revolution.

Chapter 14 Study Guide for HIST 1301

These study guides are intended to do exactly what their name describes guide your studies as you prepare for tests. They are not a substitute for doing the required reading and they do not include everything that will be on your test. I hope they help you be successful in this class. People Worth Remembering Millard Fillmore He became the 13th president upon the death of Zachary Taylor and signed into law the Compromise of 1850, but failed to garner the Whig nomination in 1852 and ran unsuccessfully as the Know Nothing Party candidate in 1856. Stephen A. Douglas A senator from Illinois, he helped assure passage of the Compromise of 1850 and the Kansas-Nebraska Act, but is most noted for a series of debates on slavery with Abraham Lincoln during his successful re-election campaign of 1858. He waged an unsuccessful presidential bid as a Northern Democrat in 1860. Franklin Pierce A New England Democrat, he became the 14th president in 1853 and his shaky tenure was dominated by furor surrounding the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which he supported and which cost him the nomination for re-election. James Buchanan A Pennsylvania Democrat, as the 15th president he proved incapable of steering the country through difficulties that included an economic panic, a growing sectional crisis and, during the final four months of his tenure, the secession of seven Southern states. Harriet Beecher Stowe A member of a prominent family of religious leaders, this authors 1852 novel of slave life, Uncle Toms Cabin, sold more than 300,000 copies within a year and swayed public opinion in the North to a more abolitionist position. Abraham Lincoln The 16th president and the first Republican to hold that office, his election prompted secession in the South and he led the nation through its Civil War in order to restore the Union, eliminating slavery in the process. He was assassinated five days after the surrender of the main Confederate army in 1865. John Brown A radical abolitionist, he and his followers murdered five proslavery settlers in Kansas in 1856 and three years later staged a futile raid on the armory at Harpers Ferry, Va., for the purpose of igniting a guerrilla war. He was captured and hanged, ensuring his status as a martyr to abolitionism. Hinton Rowan Helper Author of the 1857 book, The Impending Crisis of the South, which urged nonslaveholders in the South to resist planter domination and abolish

slavery. John Breckenridge Pro-slavery presidential candidate from Kentucky who was nominated by the Southern faction of the Democratic Party in 1860. Terms Worth Remembering (definitions in glossary) Wilmot Proviso popular sovereignty Free-Soil Party Compromise of 1850 Fugitive Slave Law Kansas-Nebraska Act Ostend Manifesto Know-Nothing party nativism Republican Party Lecompton constitution Dates Worth Remembering 1846 Wilmot Proviso to ban blacks from Mexican cession fails in Senate 1848 Whig Zachary Taylor elected president; Free-Soil Party formed 1849 California seeks admission as free state 1850 Taylor dies (July); Compromise of 1850 passed (Sept.) as sectional issues widely debated 1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes Uncle Toms Cabin; Franklin Pierce elected president 1854 Congress passes KansasNebraska Act (May); Republican Party founded; Anti-Nebraska vote splits Congress into four parties

1856 Violence reaches height in Bleeding Kansas; Rep. Brooks assaults Sen. Sumner; Democrat James Buchanan wins presidency 1857 Supreme Courts Dred Scott ruling legalizes slavery in all territories 1858 Congress refuses to admit Kansas; Lincoln and Douglas debate 1859 John Brown raids Harpers Ferry, Va., and is executed 1860 Democratic Party splits; Republican Abraham Lincoln elected in four-way race Points Worth Remembering Slavery was the overriding issue of the 1850s, fueled by divisive legislative efforts at compromise, a hardening of attitudes about the issue, accusations of conspiracies on both sides and mounting national disunity. The political atmosphere was toxic, characterized by the sudden rise and fall of parties, fragmentation of the vote, rising sectionalism and the demise of civil discourse. The South grew increasingly defensive about its plantation culture, censoring any discussion of reform and steadfastly determined to preserve its way of life.

Chapter 15 Study Guide for HIST 1301

These study guides are intended to do exactly what their name describes guide your studies as you prepare for tests. They are not a substitute for doing the required reading and they do not include everything that will be on your test. I hope they help you be successful in this class. People Worth Remembering Jefferson Davis He served two terms as senator from Mississippi and was secretary of war prior to his election as president of the Confederacy, a title he held until the end of the Civil War. John Crittenden As senator from Kentucky, in 1861 he proposed a compromise that would have extended the Missouri Compromise line between free and slave west to the Pacific. It died amid opposition from newly elected President Lincoln. Robert E. Lee A highly respected career officer with the U.S. Army, he was offered command of the Union Army at the outbreak of the Civil War, but declined to go against his native Virginia. He then accepted a similar position with the Confederate Army. Author of a series of readers beginning in 1836 that modernized instruction while teaching the Protestant ethic. George McClellan He succeeded Winfield Scott as general-in-chief of the Union Army, but was removed in 1862 by President Lincoln, who became frustrated with his failure to take the offensive. He ran against Lincoln as a Democrat in 1864 on a platform of ending the war. Ulysses S. Grant A failed businessman and borderline alcoholic, he became a Civil War hero and the 18th president. He led Union forces to success in the West, was promoted to general in chief in 1864 and forced Lee to sign surrender papers at Appomattox Courthouse the following year. Thomas J. Stonewall Jackson One of the Confederacys best commanders, he led his army to considerable success on the battlefield until he was fatally wounded by friendly fire at Chancellorsville, Va., in 1863. George Meade A Union general, his forces maintained the high ground against Confederate assaults at the decisive Battle of Gettysburg in July 1863. William T. Sherman Noted for his bold military strategy, this Union general led his troops on a scorched earth march from Atlanta to the sea in 1864 before heading north to more military victories in North Carolina. John Wilkes Booth A noted actor and Confederate supporter, he shot and killed President Lincoln at Fords Theater in

Washington, D.C., on April 14, 1865, then was surrounded and killed at a farm in northern Virginia 12 days later. Terms Worth Remembering (definitions in glossary) cooperationists Crittenden compromise anaconda policy Emancipation Proclamation Copperheads Dates Worth Remembering

1864 Grant, Lee battle in northern Virginia (May-June); Sherman takes Atlanta (Sept.), marches through Georgia (Nov.-Dec.); Lincoln re-elected over Peace Democrat McClellan (Nov.) 1865 Congress passes 13th Amendment abolishing slavery (Jan.); Grant captures Petersburg, Richmond; Lee surrenders at Appomattox (April 9); Lincoln assassinated (April 14); last of Confederate forces surrender after battle near Brownsville (May) Points Worth Remembering

Abraham Lincolns election to the 1860 South Carolina secedes (Dec.) presidency in November 1860 1861 Rest of Deep South secedes, provoked seven Southern states to forms Confederacy (Jan.-Feb.); secede amid last-ditch efforts to reach Confederates fire on Ft. Sumter a compromise and President (April); Upper South secedes (AprilBuchanans inaction while Lincoln May); South wins first battle of war at waited to take office in March 1861. Bull Run (July) Lincolns attempts to reinforce 1862 Grant captures Forts Henry, besieged Fort Sumter, S.C., led to the Donelson (Feb.); Union takes New first shots of the Civil War and the Orleans (April); McClellans subsequent secession of four more peninsula campaign fails to take states. Richmond (March-July); McClellan The belief on both sides of the stops Lee at Antietam but is fired conflict that the Civil War would be (Sept.); Lincoln issues Emancipation brief and relatively mild reflected an Proclamation (Sept.); Lee beats Union at underestimation of the willingness of Fredericksburg (Dec.) their opponents to fight for their cause. 1863 Lee a victor at Chancellorsville While the Union held a huge but Stonewall Jackson killed (May); advantage in industry and manpower, Anti-draft riots turn violent in NYC the Confederacy had significant (May); North has major wins at advantages as well, including a goal Vicksburg, Gettysburg (July); Grant to be left alone the was seemingly rescues Sherman at Chattanooga more attainable. (Nov.) Militarily, the war was characterized by Southern successes in the key

battlegrounds of Virginia, but Union success elsewhere, leading to a gradual encircling of the South, with momentum-changing Northern victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg in July 1863. Aside from the Revolution, the Civil War is the most significant event in American history, resulting in the deaths of 600,000 soldiers, the emancipation of 4 million slaves, the decimation of an entire region and a thorough reworking of the way the economy and government operate.

Chapter 16 Study Guide for HIST 1301

These study guides are intended to do exactly what their name describes guide your studies as you prepare for tests. They are not a substitute for doing the required reading and they do not include everything that will be on your test. I hope they help you be successful in this class. People Worth Remembering Andrew Johnson A Jacksonian from Tennessee, his loyalty for remaining in the Senate after secession was rewarded with the vice presidency in 1864 and he became president after Lincolns death. His differences with Congress during the first two phases of Reconstruction led to his unsuccessful impeachment in 1868. Charles Sumner A fervent abolitionist and longtime senator from Massachusetts, he is remembered for being brutally caned on the floor of the Senate in 1856 and for leading the Radical Republicans during Reconstruction. Edwin Stanton The temperamental and somewhat erratic secretary of war was the focal point of controversy when President Andrew Johnson tried to purge his cabinet of its only Radical Republican by sacking him. Horace Greeley Famous newspaper editor who ran for president as a Liberal Republican against Ulysses Grant in 1872. Despite having the support of the Democrats, he lost in a landslide following a savage campaign during which both Greeley and his wife died. Rutherford B. Hayes This Ohio governor became the 19th president in the confusing and hotly contested election of 1876. Despite having fewer popular votes than his opponent, he was given the presidency in return for the removal of the last federal troops in the South, thus ending Reconstruction. Terms Worth Remembering (definitions in glossary) Ten Percent Plan Radical Republicans Wade-Davis Bill Thirteenth Amendment Black Codes Freedmans Bureau Fourteenth Amendment Radical Reconstruction sharecropping carpetbaggers greenbackers Fifteenth Amendment Ku Klux Klan Force Acts Compromise of 1877 Redeemers Jim Crow laws Dates Worth Remembering 1863 President Lincoln advocates

Ten Percent Plan for Reconstruction 1864 Wade-Davis bill passed by Congress, is vetoed by Lincoln 1865 President Johnson moves to reconstruct South (May); Congress refuses to seat new lawmakers from South (Dec.); 13th Amendment outlawing slavery is ratified (Dec.) 1866 Congress passes 14th Amendment making freed slaves Citizens 1867 Congress begins Radical Reconstruction 1868 Johnson impeached, avoid conviction by one vote; Grant elected president 1869 Congress passes 15th Amendment giving vote to blacks 1870-71 Congress passes Force Acts 1872 Grant re-elected 1873 Financial panic plunges nation into depression 1877 Compromise vote in House of Representatives makes Rutherford B. Hayes president, ends Reconstruction Points Worth Remembering Efforts for Reconstruction began as early as 1863 and initially were characterized by a struggle between President Lincoln, who wanted a lenient policy toward Confederates, and the Radical Republicans, who wanted a more severe policy. The assassination of Abraham Lincoln thrust the issue into the hands of Andrew Johnson, who lacked Lincolns political acumen,

intensifying the executive branchs conflict with Congress and leading to Johnsons unsuccessful impeachment. The Reconstruction period was one of considerable adjustment for freed slaves, most of whom ended up in semi-peonage as sharecroppers, their political rights bolstered by the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments but suppressed by Black Codes, terrorism and Jim Crow laws. Southern Republican governments under the Congress-imposed Radical Reconstruction were plagued by corruption and inefficiency, as well as rabid and often-violent opposition by white Southerners. Contested presidential election results led to the Compromise of 1877, which made Rutherford B. Hayes president in exchange for withdrawal of the military from the South, the end of Reconstruction and the return of segregationist state governments there.