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Table of Contents

PRELIMINARY SITE WORKS.....................................................................................................1 Factors Affecting the Choice of a Site.........................................................................................1 Reasons for Stripping and Clearing a site....................................................................................4 Purpose of Hoarding....................................................................................................................5 Laying Out of a Small Building...................................................................................................7 Purposes of Temporary Shelter..................................................................................................12 The Building Site...................................................................................................................12 Reasons for Temporary Services...............................................................................................14 THE MANUFACTURING OF PORTLAND CEMENT..............................................................16 Portland Cement.........................................................................................................................16 Characteristics of different Types of Cement............................................................................16 Notable Behaviour of Concrete.................................................................................................17 Characteristics of Aggregates....................................................................................................18 Requirements of Aggregates..................................................................................................18 Types of Aggregates..............................................................................................................18 Importance of Proportioning or Batching..................................................................................19 The total weight of water in the concrete...................................................................................21 PROPERTIES OF PLASTICS..................................................................................................21 TIMBER AND TIMBER PRODUCTS.........................................................................................23 Softwood and Hardwood Trees.................................................................................................25 Softwoods..................................................................................................................................25 Hardwoods.................................................................................................................................25 Conversion of Timber................................................................................................................26 Seasoning of Timber..................................................................................................................28 Moisture content........................................................................................................................29 Timber Defects...........................................................................................................................30 Wood Preservation.....................................................................................................................33 Production of Manufactured Boards..........................................................................................35 Lumber Classification................................................................................................................37 FOUNDATIONS...........................................................................................................................39 Types of Foundations.................................................................................................................40 Excavation and Timbering.........................................................................................................47 Types of excavations..............................................................................................................47 Reduced Level Excavation ..........................................................................................................48 Trench and Pit Excavations...........................................................................................................48 Types of Excavation Machines..............................................................................................49 ........................................................................................................................................................49 Timbering to Excavation................................................................................................................51 Precautions.....................................................................................................................................56 WALLS..........................................................................................................................................57 Definition ..................................................................................................................................57 Categories of Walls....................................................................................................................57 Types of Walls:......................................................................................................................57 Definition of a Scaffold.............................................................................................................65

Two Main Systems of Shoring..................................................................................................70 Functional Requirements...........................................................................................................71 Categories of Floors...................................................................................................................72 Floor members...........................................................................................................................75 Important Steps in Constructing a Timber Floor.......................................................................81 ROOFS...........................................................................................................................................82 Definition:..................................................................................................................................82 Functional Requirements...........................................................................................................82 Factors Determining Roof Shape & Design..............................................................................82 Roof Classifications...................................................................................................................82 Types of Roofs...........................................................................................................................82 Advantages of using Roof Trusses............................................................................................87 Parts of a Roof...........................................................................................................................88 Technical Words for Parts of a Roof.........................................................................................88 Truss Types....................................................................................................................................24 ........................................................................................................................................................24 DOORS..........................................................................................................................................25 Types of Doors...........................................................................................................................25 Door Ironmongery.....................................................................................................................28 Door Dimensions.......................................................................................................................29 WINDOWS....................................................................................................................................30 Functions of Windows...............................................................................................................30 Building Regulations for Windows...........................................................................................30 Technical Terms for parts of a window and frame:...................................................................30 Types of Windows.....................................................................................................................31 Some common terms associated with Stairs..............................................................................34 Building Regulations regarding Stairs.......................................................................................34 FINISHES......................................................................................................................................36 Rendering...................................................................................................................................36 Plastering....................................................................................................................................36 Types of paints...........................................................................................................................37 Properties of Paints and Varnishes............................................................................................38 Methods of Application.............................................................................................................38 The Purpose of Solvents............................................................................................................38 RELATED SERVICES.................................................................................................................41 The Principles of Plumbing Pipes..............................................................................................41 Methods of Jointing and Fittings...............................................................................................42 The Combine System of Drainage.............................................................................................44 The Separate System of Drainage..............................................................................................44 The Principles of Drain Runs.....................................................................................................44 THE BUILDING TEAM AND BUILDING TRADES.................................................................47 The Building Team....................................................................................................................47 Various Building Trades............................................................................................................48 HISTORY OF BUILDINGS..........................................................................................................49 Factors Influencing Building Designs.......................................................................................49 Influence of Other Culture on Local Building Styles................................................................49

PRELIMINARY SITE WORKS


Factors Affecting the Choice of a Site Zoning Zoning is the legal identification of land for a specific use. The general categories of zoning are: 1. Residential 2. Commercial 3. Industrial 4. Agricultural Zoning helps to assist land developers or owners in recognizing land for use as well as provide information about the character of the neighbourhood. Lands within a zone may carry different unit cost. Land use The owner or client must be sure that the land can be used for the intended purpose. Although an area might be appropriately zoned, specific plots of lands may have certain restrictions placed on them as a result of buried services or proposed development, e.g. roads, gas lines etc. Ownership This is certified by a deed (legal document) which must be established before any final decision is taken regarding any purchasing of land. Ownership transfer can only be made between the rightful owner and the purchaser. Boundaries Boundaries must be established and supported by a survey drawing before the actual size of the property can be ascertained. This task is usually carried out by a legal chartered surveyor. Boundaries are normally marked in such a way that they can be easily identified or reestablished. References for markers are called Datum- Points. Topography Topography is the shape of the surface of the land. This shape is sometimes referred to as contour and can be classified as follows: - flat - undulating - gently sloped - steeply sloped Access All lands not immediately adjoining a street or public pathway requires some means of access. This access influences movement on and off site during the construction stages as well

as during normal occupancy. Where the possibility of trespass exists, access should be legally established and be adequate. Shape When purchasing a piece of land, the shape of the land should reflect the proposed shape of the structure within the framework of the legal restrictions. Examples of problems commonly encountered with lands are: 1. Too narrow 2. Corners may be too acute or there may be too many corners. reinforcing steel street limiting position possible building

(a) Narrow Lot legal limits (b) High unusable Land Space owing to a number of and sharpness of corners Size Minimum sizes of building lots are usually specified in order that: Legal requirements of setback and off set distances are satisfied The building should occupy the maximum percentage of the total land area as specified by the authorities for the prescribed zone. A reasonable sized building is produced.

History History is the study of past events associated with the use of the site. Historical issues that should be of concern to the purchaser are: 1. Water- whether a natural water course, springs or flooding are associated with the site. 2. Dump- whether the site was ever used as a dump. 3. Original topography- whether the land was ever filled. 4. Other problems e.g. o Whether trees were recently removed to accommodate development or o Underground lines such as electric, gas or telephone. 5. Development- This is a measure of clearing and preparation activities associated with a site. It may also indicate the availability of services to the site. Unit Cost Unit cost is the price per metre or foot of the land. Unit cost is normally associated with: 1. Level of development 2

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Available amenities Available Services Location Zone Demand Topography

Amenities refer to the degree of comfort associated with the location, and are related to the available utilities, health and educational facilities as well as other features such as public transport, shopping centres and recreation facilities. Location may influence the unit cost by providing certain advantages such as prevailing winds, scenic views and general neighbourhood.

Sloping sites

Reasons for Stripping and Clearing a site Stripping This is the removal of the topsoil from the construction area. This area is usually stripped to a depth of 150 mm, using a bulldozer. Stripping helps to provide a sound level platform as well as the removal of vegetable matter as well as the removal of termites nests. Soils containing high levels of vegetable matter tend to: 1. Support plant life 2. Be very unstable 3. Affects some building materials Clearing Clearing is not necessarily part of stripping but for undeveloped sites, clearing is essential. Trees which sometimes obstruct the building process, those found to be in the way and at a time obstruct the flow of traffic and must also be removed. The roots that would pose a problem to the building process or even affect the foundation must be removed as well. Other obstacles like derelict buildings should be removed, because they too hinder the building process and can cause problems with the foundation.

Purpose of Hoarding Hoarding is a part of the temporary facility installed on a construction site. Its primary function is the enclosure of the construction area to serve as a form of protection to passers by. This enclosure has other purposes and is developed accordingly. Public Protection The local authority has the responsibility for the protection of the public against injury during any construction work. As such, there are laws requiring the installation of hoarding, particularly where pedestrian traffic is common. Hoarding should provide protection from the vertical side and overhead as well as permit or provide adequate lighting and ventilation if required. Security The construction site must be secured, especially during evenings, on weekends and public holidays. Material Protection Hoarding is an ideal way of ensuring some degree of protection against theft and vandalism of materials and installations. Control The control of the movement of workers and avoidance of unwanted interruptions and distractions assist in increasing productivity. All activities should be carried out with minimum inconvenience. The movement of supply vehicles and receipt of goods should be planned and controlled at all times. To keep out stray animals It is important that stray animals be kept off of the construction site since they can cause disruptions to the building works as well as harm to the workers.

Laying Out of a Small Building

Building Layout The Setting out of a building can be divided into two specific operations: Establishing a datum peg and transferring required levels to various positions Establishing the position of the building and setting up profiles (batter boards) Establishing the position of the building and setting up profiles The basic requirements for establishing the position of a building are linear measurement (length), the setting out of right angles and the setting out of curves. Linear Measurement A 30m steel tape is most often used for setting out; linen or plastic tape should be avoided as they are likely to stretch, and this could result in serious errors. If steel tapes are not fully stretched out they can give inaccurate readings. Wherever linear measurements are made the tape should be held horizontal. For sloping sites the possibility of error is far greater. For slightly sloping grounds pegs of different lengths may be used. For steeper slopes the tape is held horizontally and the measurement is plumbed down to the peg. Setting out Angles Right angles can be set out using any one of the following methods: 1. Using a builders Square 2. Using Pythagorass 3:4:5 rule 3. Using Site square Setting out Curves The methods used to set out a curve will depend on its size and whether its centre point is accessible or not. The four main methods are: 1. Timber template 2. The radius Rod 3. Triangular frame 4. Calculated ordinates

Layout Procedures for a Small Building It is essential to obtain a working drawing of the proposed building before any work is started. After careful study of this, the builder can then proceed with the layout of the building. The procedures for setting out a small building are as follows: 1. The building line is established with reference to the setback distance from the centre line of the road. The line is established by driving in 50mm x 50mm softwood pegs A and B on or near the side boundaries. Position a nail in the top of the pegs to represent the exact position of the building line. Strain a line between these two nails. 2. Drive two pegs C and D along the building line to indicate the front corners of the building and with reference to the side setbacks as indicated on the Working drawing. Drive nails into the top of the pegs to indicate the exact position of the corners on the building line. 3. Set out lines at right angles to pegs C and D and establish pegs E and F. Drive nails into the tops of pegs E and F to indicate the exact positions and strain lines between the four pegs. 4. Measure along lines CE and DF to establish pegs G and H, the remaining corners of the building. Check lines should be used at this point to determine the accuracy of the layout and adjustments made where required. Profile boards can now be set up just clear of the trench runs at all corners and wall intersections of the building. Ensure that there is adequate clearance space between the position of the trench and profiles to prevent obstruction to profiles due to excavation procedures. Transfer positions from the setting-out lines on the pegs to the profile boards. Step-off all trenches and block wall widths and drive nails in these positions. Saw cuts can be used as an alternative to nailing. Lines can be strained on the nails to indicate trench width and block wall width when excavation and blocks are to be layed.

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Purposes of Temporary Shelter The Building Site Site Preparations Before any preparation work can commence the Building regulation/code should be checked. This is necessary to ensure that the building (commercial or residential) to be erected complies with the standards laid out in the code. There are zoning laws to be adhered to as they relate to: 1. The building line 2. Distance Separation 3. Lot line 4. Premise 5. Property Line 6. Setback 7. Do a check on the Site Deed 8. Obtain a Building Permit The Building Line-This is a legally determined boundary that no part of the building can cross. Distance Separation- This describes the amount of open space between buildings. Open space helps to keep fire from spreading from one structure to another and enable good ventilation. Lot/Property Line- A surveyed and recorded boundary (or monument) that separates one piece of property from another. In essence, it is the legal boundary that marks a lot or parcel of property. Premise- A term used to describe collectively a piece of property as well as any buildings or structure on it. Setback-This is the open space required between a building line and the street centre line. It could also be used to describe the distance between the sides of a building the lot or rear boundary lines of a property. Site Investigation The purpose of a Site Investigation is to determine beforehand: Existing trees and buildings on the property or adjacent property Details such as full data of existing services or the lack of it Contour lines- natural grade elevations Details of above ground obstruction such as transmission lines Topography of the site and existing fording (water running underground) Sewer system availability or the lack of it The geographic location (with respect to the orientation) Required Security and Staffing

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Layout (General site conditions such as soil nature, height of water table, flooding risks, and neighbouring properties, among others). These factors will to a large extent help the builder in the design and construction processes of the proposed work. Soil Investigations Determines the suitability of the site for the proposed project Determine an adequate and economical foundation design. Determine the difficulties that may arise during the construction process and period. Determine the occurrence and /or causes of all changes in subsoil conditions Site Preparation Principles In Site Preparation the builder will require operatives, materials and plant, which must be carefully controlled so that the operatives have the right machines in the most advantageous positions, the materials stored in such a way that will allow for easy access and little or no interference with site circulation, and adequate storage space and site accommodation. When Planning the Site Layout the following must be taken into consideration: 1. Site activities; 2. Efficiency; 3. Movement; 4. Control ; 5. Facilities for health, safety and welfare provision, and 6. Accommodation for staff and storage of materials. Usually before the proposed site is planned and drawn the prevailing conditions should be considered these are; the condition and positions of existing roads and the setting out of any temporary roads considered necessary should be noted and planned. Information regarding the soil conditions, height of water table and local weather patterns should be obtained preferably from the meteorological office or from the local authority. Temporary Shelters These are required on a building site for the housing of personnel, services, processes and materials for the expediting and control of building works, and to cater for illness and accidents among workers. Consideration should be given to the following: Statutory Requirements The construction site is under the control of the factory inspectorate and as such should carry provisions for amenities to workers. Amenities usually include a change room, a lunch room and sanitary facilities. Activity Areas Offices: Normally for large projects site offices and briefing rooms are provided to assist in the daily administration of the project. 13

Workshops: Carpenters, steel benders and some other tradesmen require workshop facilities to assist in their work. Workshops should be so located as to ensure good control and effective handling of materials. Storage Warehousing: Warehouses are normally required for storage of delicate components and fittings. Items normally stored in a warehouse include doors, windows, ceramic receptacles, light fittings, electrical and plumbing appliances etc. Tools and Equipments Stores: Tradesmen are usually required to carry and secure their own tools. The main contractor, for special processes may find it necessary to carry a supply of special tools and equipment which would be available to workmen. The store may also carry other items that can only be had on special issue. Some of these items are paints, locks and small tools. Such stores are controlled by a storekeeper or a timekeeper. Material Stores: Material stores may be provided to protect materials from theft or damage. The material stores are usually close to the appropriate workshop or activity area. Such stores would carry materials such as reinforcing steel, rough lumber and cement. Special provisions must be made to ensure that materials are not spoiled or damaged during storage and handling. In addition, brittle materials such as tiles require provisions.

Reasons for Temporary Services

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Temporary services relate to the provision of utilities for the purpose of facilitating construction activities as well as providing conveniences for workers. The supplies normally include gas, water, compressed air, electricity and telephone. Conveniences These include conveniences for personnel and work process. Personnel: Provision under the factories act allows for provision of certain conveniences for workers. Temporary services assist in the provision of drinking water, adequate lighting and toilet facilities. Drinking water and toilet facilities should be positioned for quick access thus reducing idle time. Work processes: Utilities supplied to the site can be used to drive (power) plant and equipment or provide ingredients for preparing certain materials. Examples of supplies used for driving plant and equipment are: A. Air- Pneumatic tools and equipment B. Oil and Gas- Turbine and hydraulic tools and equipment C. Electricity- electric tools and equipment Heat, water and air are used in the following processes: 1. Heat- asphaltic processes 2. Water- making concrete 3. Air- Spray painting, excavating, compacting Communication Communication includes physical and verbal contact between the agencies and processes during the life of the project. Factors to be considered in communication are temporary roads for access to the site and storage areas, as well as possible telephone or two way radio contacts for placing orders and dealing with routing administration and contingencies which are important.

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THE MANUFACTURING OF PORTLAND CEMENT


Cement is a substance that binds aggregates together into a very dense material that possesses great compressive strength. Portland Cement Portland cement is used in the manufacturing of concrete and mortar. It may also be used as a bed for clay and cement tiles. Ordinary Portland Cement is made by mixing ground chalk or limestone and clay with water to form a semi-liquid mixture, or slurry. Local materials such as shale may be used instead of clay in the manufacturing of Portland Cement. The slurry is screened and is passed into a storage tank where it is kept agitated in preparation for passage into a kiln, which is a rotating cylinder, approx. 90 meters long, inclined at an angle and fired by pulverized coal or oil. The slurry is fed into the upper end of the kiln and flows down to the direction of the heat. As the kiln revolves, it dries the slurry. Water evaporates under this intense temperature heat (raised to about 1500 Celsius) fusing the materials into a clinker or cement noodles. The clinker is cooled and ground to a fine powder. A small amount of gypsum is added to retard the setting time of the cement. Characteristics of different Types of Cement Portland Cement is the most commonly used cement since it hardens rapidly. There are several other cements that can be used for special purposes. 16

The ratio of Portland Cement to aggregates varies with the strength requirements for the concrete. Additives may be put into the mixture or cement to enhance the strength or provides additional qualities such as quicker drying, waterproofing, resistance to sulphate corrosion etc. During the manufacturing of cement, various chemical components are produced. This compound which influences the properties and behaviour of the cement includes: (1) Strength Development: (2) Setting Time and Heat Production By varying the components, the properties can be modified. These properties can influence the ability of the cement to resist sulphate attack, which is the rate at which cements sets and heat is produced. Some types of cements are low heat (used for concreting large masses) and some high heat (for cold weather conditions). The five common types of cement used in construction are Types 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Type 1- Normal This type is ordinary Portland Cement. It has normal qualities, a reasonable setting time and is used for general concrete work, when conditions are normal. Such example include: masonry work, filling of pockets, and ordinary strip foundation. Type 2 Moderate This type of cement gives off less heat than type 1, and has a moderate resistance to sulphate. It is suitable for use in foundations where there are low levels of sulphate but offers good resistance to soils with high sulphate level such as those adjacent to chemical plants. Type 3 - Low Heat This type is ideal for use in mass concrete work, such as large foundations or dam retaining walls. It develops strength slowly and generates less heat, thus reducing cracking. Type 4 - High Early Strength/Rapid Hardening This type is used when the weather is bad (rainy season), or when formwork has to be removed early. It develops strength earlier than types 1 and 2. Type 5 Aluminium This type contains aluminium ore. It is darker in colour than Normal Portland Cement. It hardens very rapidly and has great strength. Notable Behaviour of Concrete Climatic conditions can influence the setting time of concrete and its used. For maximum strength development, concrete should be wetted down for 28 days.

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Characteristics of Aggregates Aggregates generally make up the bulk of the concrete. These are available in fine and coarse grades. For mortar the size of aggregates is very small ranging from 0-4mm, and for general concrete work the size varies from 5-20mm. Requirements of Aggregates All aggregates should be: clean free from sediments sound strong not easily crushed well graded well shaped Types of Aggregates Coarse Aggregate

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Gravel This consist of small pieces of stone which are somewhat rounded in shape. It makes good coarse aggregate because it is hard and closed textured. When using gravel as a coarse aggregate the pebbles should be graded in size. (Source= gravel banks, river beds). Crushed Stones Trap rock is the hardest and most durable stone that can be crushed and used for making concrete. This stone is dark, heavy and close-grained, and is of igneous origin. Granite makes good crushed stone and is less expensive than trap rock. The stone should be graded in sizes 6mm-20mm. Fine Aggregates For concrete work these are sand, crushed stones or gravel screening. The most important of these is sand. Sand is a fine divided material of rock which will pass through a standard 5mm sieve. Sand is not subjected to disintegration, decay or expansion.

Importance of Proportioning or Batching Proportioning aids in determining the strength, durability, permeability, workability and economy of the concrete. Proportioning is essential to ensure a good mix. Batching is the determination of the exact amount of each ingredient that is placed into a specific concrete mix. The following are some results of Batching. Strength In order to obtain maximum strength, the aggregates must produce little or no voids in the concrete. This increases the density of the concrete thus increase its strength. Economy Cost is a major factor in concrete work. Cost is influenced by careless use of ingredients. The most costly ingredient is cement. A poor mix often increases the cost of the job or reduces the strength of the concrete. Workability This is the ability of the wet concrete to be placed and worked with ease. This property is enhanced by the correct proportioning of the cement and aggregates and watercement ratio. Volume Batching 19

This is generally used but it is a less accurate method of mixing concrete. A measuring box is used to determine the amount of cement and aggregates. A change in the moisture content will impact upon the volume of the materials and affect the quality of the concrete.

Figure 2 showing a diagram of a Gauge or Measuring Box Batching by Weight In this method the materials are measured by weight. This is a more reliable system of batching than that of volume. Variation in volumes owing to compacting is eliminated when using this method.

Water

The water used in the making of concrete must be clean and free from impurities which could affect the quality of the concrete. A proportion of water will set up a chemical reaction that will harden the cement. The rest is required to give the mix workability and will evaporate from the mix while it is curing. An excess amount of water will give a porous concrete or reduced durability and strength. The water/cement ratio is the amount of water used in the mix and is expressed as:

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The total weight of water in the concrete Weight of cement For most mixes, the ratio is between 0.4 and 0.7. Concrete mixes can be expressed as volume ratios, thus: 1:2:4 = 1 part cement 2 parts fine aggregates and 4 parts coarse aggregates 1:5 = 1 part cement and 5 parts all in aggregates Some common mixes 1: 10 = not a strong mix but it is suitable for filling weak pockets in excavation and for binding layers 1:8 = slightly better suitable for paths and paving 1:6 = a strong mix suitable for mass concrete 1:3:6 = the weakest mix 1:2:4 = the strongest mix suitable for reinforced concrete Concrete is a mixture of fine aggregates, coarse aggregates, cement and water that possesses great compressive strength. Mortar is a mixture of cement, sand and water in definite proportion.

Slump test PROPERTIES OF PLASTICS Plastic is one of the new building Materials being widely used in the Building Industry and for Domestic Purposes. Such purposes include: - plumbing, electrical fittings and sanitary appliances. Plastics are usually by products of Petro-Chemicals. Plastics are usually: light weight easily handled durable strong for their weight readily adapted to various situations Properties of Plastics which make them suitable for usage in Construction Work are: 1. strong 2. light weight 21

3. durable 4. pliable/flexible 5. easily joined 6. glazable 7. elastic 8. water proof 9. rust proof 10. cheap/economical 11. soft Some disadvantages of plastics and precautions to be observed in their use are they:

Can be easily damaged if not properly protected Have a low melting point Are easy to crushed under weight Must be supported when suspended Have poor chemical resistance to thinners and solvents Becomes brittle under continuous exposure to variations of weather Types of Plastics Application Conduits, pressure and non-pressure pipes Tiles, mouldings Sheeting, bags Ropes, coverings, garments

1. Thermo-Plastics 2. Polyvinyl 3. Polythene 4. Nylon

5. Thermo-setting Resins Uses of Plastics in the Building Construction Industry are: 1. Electrical Installation; Conduits, fittings 2. Plumbing 3. Guttering 4. Tiles/Floor Finishes 5. Waterproofing; Damp Proof Membrane, drains 6. Roofing

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TIMBER AND TIMBER PRODUCTS

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Bark Every species of tree has its own bark which is a means of identification. The bark is the outer layer of a tree that protects it. Without it the tree cannot survive. Cambium layer - This is the growing part of the trunk. developing. Some becoming bark while others become wood. Here new cells are constantly

Medullar Rays - Food is distributed to all parts of the tree by means of these small cells. These wood cells grow in length radially and can be easily seen in oak, beech, and mahogany. Annual Rings - The age of the tree can be determined by the counting of these rings, as each ring represents one year of growth. Pith or Medulla - This is the core of the tree. It may be sound or solid, but in many cases it is filled with a cork like substance. It has a dark, brown colour. Sapwood - Light coloured outer concentric rings of woody tissue that is found next to the cambium. It contains only a few living cells and functions mainly in the storage of plant food. Its thickness varies from 13mm to as much 150mm in some species. Heart wood - The inner concentric rings of woody tissue which consists of inactive cells. These cells of heartwood may contain many minerals which contribute to its darker colour, great beauty and resistance. Bast - The channel that is found between the cambium layer and bark which transport food from the root to the leaf. The tree can be regarded as one of natures gift to man. It provides food, shelter and fuel. The tree is a living organism, the components parts performing specific life functions. Timber is the oldest building material. The growth process of certain species encourages the production of various by-products. To those studying botany a tree is just another plant. To the carpenter and the joiner it is the plant which produces the material with which he is mainly concerned namely wood or (timber). The growth of a tree is affected by the soil and by the climate in which it grows.

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Softwood and Hardwood Trees Commercial timbers are classified into soft woods and hard woods. The most common method of identifying them is by their leaf. Soft woods have narrow needle like leaves where as hard woods have a broad leaf. Softwoods Soft woods (gymnosperms) are not all soft; some soft woods are very hard e.g. Yew, pitch pine strong and durable. Soft woods are all for practical purposes, derived from a group of trees called conifers. Coniferous trees are mainly evergreen and grow chiefly in the northern cold to temperate zone. Soft woods comprise about 75% of the timber used in the U.K. Soft woods are non- flowering and have needle shaped leaves and naked seeds contained in cones, their branches normally arises in whorls with more than two at the same level. Even after the tree is converted, most lumber can be easily identified as hard wood or soft wood. Conifers are simpler and more uniformed in structure than broad leaved trees. They have mainly one type of cell, the tracheid. These cells appear as regular rows of holes, with the cells formed during spring and summer (wet seasons) having thin walls and those formed during autumn and winter (dry seasons) have thick walls. It is this difference in the formation of cells that indicates a years growth or annual rings. Soft woods main features include: 1. They have an open grain texture, which is easier to work on than hard wood. 2. They have a lighter colour than hard wood. 3. They do not shed their leaves seasonally. 4. Their leaves are usually needle or cone shaped. 5. They grow quite quickly. 6. The timber produced needs to be protected from the weather by applying paint, varnish or preservatives. 7. They need to be protected from insect attack. Examples of soft woods are: Douglas fir Western red cedar Pitch pine White pine Red wood Red pine Sugar pine Southern pine Yellow pine Caribbean Pine Alaska cedar Honduras cedar

Hardwoods Hard woods (angiosperms) are not all hard, some hard woods are very soft e.g. balsa. Most hardwoods are deciduous or broad-leaved trees. Hard woods include densest, strongest, and most durable timbers. Some hard woods contain resins and oil which interfere with the hardening of paint such as teak. The cheapest hard woods approximate in cost to the more costly soft woods. 25

Hard woods can be recognized by their broad leaves on their branches which usually grow out at different levels, at the most two at the same level. These trees produce flowers from which their seeds come enclosed in a fruit. These trees grow in cool to tropical climates and may be deciduous or evergreen. Hard woods unlike soft woods have a more complex structure with mainly two distinct cells. One type is fibrous and similar to the tracheid and the other type is known as vessel or pore cells. The latter appears as pores or holes in the end grain, and as vessel lines on longitudinal surfaces. Cell structure in both soft woods and hard woods affect the grain, texture, density and figure in these woods. The grain in soft wood is generally straight, the texture is fine and the figure is plain to pleasing. In hard woods, the grain may be straight, sloping or interlocked. The texture is fine to coarse because of the size and arrangement of the pores and the figure plain to highly figured. These are dense hard boards and more difficult to work with tools. Hard woods main features include: 1. They are harder to work with hand tools than soft wood trees. 2. They are darker in colour or have distinctive colours. 3. They shed their leaves seasonally. 4. They are slow growing and cannot be cultivated. 5. They are more expensive to use for timber. 6. They are selected for decorative appearance. Examples of hard woods are: Mahogany Tamarind Teak Mora Green heart Bullet wood Satin wood Mahoe Crab wood Wallaba Cedar Oak Birch Beech Balsa

Conversion of Timber Conversion is the process of cutting up timber in marketable sizes. It is a common feature that decorative cuts are made during conversion. The two general methods of selling lumber are plain sawing, (flat or slash sawing) and quarter sawing. 26

Plain Sawing The log is slabbed on either two or four sides to form a cant from which other plain sawed lumber is cut. Plain sawed lumber has several advantages over quarter sawed: 1. More lumber is produced when grain figures are not considered. 2. It dries more rapidly. 3. It is cheaper to cut. 4. It has lower unit cost.

Plain sawing (1,2,3,4) and quarter sawing (5,6)

Quarter Sawing 27

Quarter sawing can be done any of four methods: radial, tangential, combined radial tangential and quarter tangential. Quarter sawing has the following advantages: 1. Fewer tendencies to warp or twist. 2. Fewer tendencies to cut or twist. 3. Less shrinkage. 4. More durability strength. 5. More attractive grain pattern. 6. More rapid kiln drying. It is used in the manufacture of high class joinery, furniture and quality work. It wears more evenly when used as flooring. Disadvantage The method of conversion is time consuming and produces much waste. Seasoning of Timber Timber cannot be used for carpentry and joinery immediately after it is converted, since there is a lot of moisture present in the wood. A large portion of this sap must be removed, if distortion resulting from shrinkage is to be avoided. The process of moisture removal from the wood is called seasoning. This can be done in either one of two ways: natural or artificial terms known also as curing or conditioning. It is realized that, the lower the moisture content in the wood the greater its strength. Natural Seasoning After conversion, the wet timber is stacked with strips of wood, usually of the same kind, or stickers separating each layer. This allows proper circulation of air which removes the moisture. A suitable roof is needed to protect the timber from sun and rain. Air seasoning reduced the moisture content to about 17% under ideal conditions and even takes up to two years. The moisture content must be in equilibrium with that of the atmosphere. The weather and thickness of the material will vary the length of time required for seasoning. End splits may be controlled by tacking on straps or metal or wood, or by putting paint wax or oil on the ends of the boards.

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Advantages - High quality of lumber. Disadvantages - Length of time, limited availability of large quantities. - May be more costly - Needs more space for drying - No control over drying process. Artificial Seasoning Artificial seasoning has improved greatly and the kiln which is the storage house for it can now be completely computerized to control the drying process even without attendance or human inspection. Accurate moisture content readings are readily available at any time. The materials are stacked in a similar manner of that of the natural.

Advantages - Relatively short time - Early use of material - May result in greater availability and reduced cost. - Some wood worms are destroyed by the heat - Moisture content can be controlled to as low as 12% Disadvantages - Case Hardening - Rapid drying can cause it to check or become honey combed. Moisture content When a tree is felled it contains a great deal of moisture. The timber will need to have some moisture content, whatever its commercial use is to be. The purpose of drying the timber is to minimize the subsequent movement when it is used; which means, different uses demands 29

different moisture content levels. The timber for internal use should have lower moisture content than timber which is used externally. This is because internal timber would be reduced by the warmth of the atmosphere. This can cause excessive shrinkage and possibly other more serious defects. Moisture content is always expressed as a percentage of the dry weight of the timber. The formula used to calculate this formula is: Wet weight- Dry weight x 100 Dry weight = moisture content (%) A sample of timber is cut and weighed. This is the wet weight. It is placed in a kiln 100C and taken out at intervals until no further weight is loss. This is the dry weight. A piece of timber weighs 132.5g Its dry weight is 108.7g Moisture content weighs 23.8g % of moisture (23.8/108.7) x 100= 21.9% Example: 132.5- 108.7 23.8 x100 108.7 = 21.9%

Timber Defects A defect is a fault in the timber that will result in some reduction in strength, appearance which is usually cause by natural elements during growth or during conversion and seasoning which could and should be avoided. Natural defects Knots are caused by branches growing out of the tree in which case the grain in the tree trunk becomes twisted. Forest grown tree usually have less knot because of lack of sunlight. The branches always start at the centre of the tree at the pith. Sound Knots They will not fall out of the position they occupy but they tend to crack. This allows the inlet of fungus to attack the wood. Provided that they are not too large or close to the edge they dont posed a problem.

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Dead Knots These are a source of real weakness, whatever is the size. They are produced when a branch is broken off before the tree is finish growing. The tree starved this broken off part of the trunk causing it to die. It is identified by a very dark colour around the decayed knot, making it liable to fall out eventually leaving a knot hole. Such a timber is classified as low grade and is unsuitable for structural use.

Shakes- Take the form of splits in the wood and detracts from its strength quite considerably.

Heart Shake- These occur in the heart wood of a tree when it is left too long after it has matured before being felled for use. It is due to lack of food.

Checks- These are separation of the wood fibres along the grain. They usually occur along the ends of lumber. In artificial seasoning checks are caused by rapid drying.

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Ring Shake- These follow the contour of the growth ring. They usually result from excessive swaying of the tree in high winds bringing about separation of the fibres.

Cup Shake- These are brought about by similar conditions as ring shakes, but without results. They also position themselves in the growth rings.

Star Shake- These are fine cracks in the appearance of a star as a result of the sun drying up the cellular tissue, when the bark has been damaged or when the timber has been season too quickly.

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Dry Rot- This is caused by a fungus (merious lacrymans) a growth which lives in the wood and destroys it. It thrives on wood in dark, damp unventilated conditions causing it to dry up and disintegrate into dust. Wet Rot- Wet rot (cellar) fungus attacks only wet timber, and is found in damp, poorly ventilated cellars. The disintegration of timber is due to exposure to alternate wet and dry weather which is favourable conditions for growth of fungus. Up Sets- This is a form of shake, the cause of which is uncertain. The effect of it is in a zigzag crack across the grain, where the affected boards are likely to snap very easily under little pressure. Probable causes are: 1. The tree being struck by lightning during growth. 2. The tree falling awkwardly when felled causing a fracture to run through the log. Bowing- This often results when the sticks. the boards are stacked with too much distance between

Warp- This is any distortion from the true form and may include any one or a combination of the following: cup, bow, twist. This is caused by the exposure to the elements and poor stacking in the process of seasoning and usage.

Cupping Spring Wood Preservation Timber for construction work should be treated in order to increase its ability to resist fungal and insect attack. Insects break down the cellular structure of the wood and destroy its strength and appearance. Timber being exposed needs to be protected. Timber preservation is costly, extending to the life of the timber. Preservation is cheaper in long term. Twist

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Some preservatives, such as creosote are used exclusively underground or in roofs where the material will not be visible. Other types have pleasing effects, example: Cuprinol, Atlas A which change the colour of the wood to a light green. Application requires some care since preservatives are highly toxic and others may attack the skin. There are three groups of preservatives: 1. Tar- oil type 2. Water solution type 3. Organic solvent type Tar-oil These preservatives are distilled from coal tar. Creosote is probably the best know. They are very efficient but have a strong odour. This can be done by steeping or can be brushed on, where the lumber becomes saturated after a period of time. It becomes resistant to insect attack and moisture penetration. Water Solution Water is used as a vehicle to take the chemical into the timber and afterwards it evaporate leaving the chemical to fight off attack from sodium fluoride, zinc chloride and copper sulphate solutions which are commonly used as preservatives but are odourless and can be painted over quite easily. Organic Solvents This can be done as non-pressure and pressure impregnation. Pressure Treatment This is done by forcing liquid Wolman Salt under pressure into the timber- this ensures better penetration. Non-Pressure Brushing- A suitable material is brushed on the lumber. This is a simple process but slow to allow the liquid to soak in. Spraying- This is used in areas difficult to get into, such as roof spaces. It is much quicker and effective than brushing while using a spray gun. Dipping- The timbers are submerged in a bath of preserving liquid for 5-15 minutes. Excess preservatives are allowed to drain into the bath which can produce fairly good results. Steeping- Similar to dipping, however, the timbers are left submerged for at least (2) weeks especially with solution types of preservatives.

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Production of Manufactured Boards Ranges of sheet material are widely used in woodworking and building industries. Some are made from solid timber while others are made from low-grade timber. Standard size for building boards is 1220 x 2440 mm. Thickness varies according to use. 1 laminboard 2 core 3 blockboard 4 battenboard 5 cellular board, cellular plywood 6 composite board 7 hardwood plywood 8 mixed plywood 9 softwood plywood 10 multi-ply 11 crossbanding 12 star formation 13 parallel-grain plies 14 single layer chipboard, standard grade chipboard 15 multilayer chipboard 16 peg board, perforated hardboard 17 hardboard

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Plywood Plywood is one the most extensively used boards which is made up of an unequal number of sheets and veneers called plies. Three- ply plywood consists of three veneer of equal thickness glued together with the centre or core veneer, having its grain running at right angles to 36

the outer veneers. This gives it considerable strength. It has extensive uses which may include panelling and lining as well as other forms of covering. The grade is usually stamped on the board by the manufacturer and these must be recognized when deciding the usage of the board. Int - Denotes for internal use only and indicates that is has been glued together with glue having low moisture resistance. If such timber is exposed to moist conditions there would a separation of the veneers. MR - Fair resistance to moisture. BR- High resistance in exposed conditions because it is boil resistant. WBP- Indicates that it is weather and boil condition and also in the boat building industry. Laminated Panels These panels are constructed of thin layers of material glued together to form special effects. These panels will resist warping and shrinkage. Hard Boards This is yet another of the wood waste product. Hard board are made from wood chips and logs. The wood is pulped by machine, and bonded with adhesive and finally pressed to a thickness of 3mm- 6mm. With such a thickness they usually have a width of 1.2m. With lengths of 2.4 3 m. Their usage includes panelling, wall and floor covering. Bagasse Board Bagasse is the residue left after milling cane during the manufacture of sugar. The material is crushed to a pulp, mixed with adhesive and compressed with a heat treatment. This results in a hard durable board suitable for interior work. Chip Board This board makes use of machine chips of wood, glued and compressed into large sheets. The core section consists of larger chips than the surface. A disadvantage is that it is unable to take a screw. It is used for cheaper range of furniture as well as wall coverings. Lumber Classification Lumber is sold by standard cubic measurement, board measure. Any size over 30mm and 100mm is boards. (31mm thick and 100mm wide) 37mm thick is planks Measurement in length is called linear. Measurement in length and breadth is called square measure. Measurement in length, breadth and thickness is called cube measure. N- Number of pieces in stock. 37

T- Thickness in mm. L- Length in metre. Note: - 1 inch=25.44mm - 1 foot = 304.8mm - 1 metre = 3.281ft Formula to calculate board in m is: Foot board measure 10 pieces of 2 x 6 x 120 = 10 x 2 x 6 x 12 0 12 = 120 FBM L (M) x W mm x T mm = 1000 1000 m3

If L = 5m W = 175mm T= 5mm Then volume of board or lumber = 5 x 175 x 25 1000 1000 = 0.02m3

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FOUNDATIONS
The purpose of the foundations is to adequately transfer the load of a structure to suitable ground and to spread building loads over a sufficient area of soil to avoid undue settlement, particularly unequal settlement. Foundations should meet the following requirements; (1) Building loads must be supported and transmitted to the ground, (a) safely; transmit and sustain to the ground the total dead and imposed loads so as not to cause any settlement or (b) without causing deflection or deformation of the building; (c) without affecting adjacent buildings. (2) They must be of such depth or be so constructed as to avoid damage by shrinkage of the subsoil. (3) They must be capable of resisting chemicals in the sub-soil. The explanation of common terms associated with soils in foundation work is given below: Settlement: Ground movement, which may be caused by: (a) deformation of the soil due to imposed loads. (b) volume changes of the soil as a result of seasonal conditions. (c) mass movement of the ground unstable areas. Made Ground: Refuse, excavated rock or soil deposited for the purpose of filling in a depression or for raising the site above its natural level. Bearing Pressure: The pressure produced on the ground by the loads. Bearing Capacity: Safe load per unit area which the ground can carry. Back Fill: Lateral excavated from site and if suitable used to fill in around the walls and foundations. Sub-Soil: Sub-soil lies below the topsoil to a depth about 300 mm.

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Types of Foundations The types of foundations normally used in construction include strip, raft, short bore pile and pad. Various types of foundations are used in domestic buildings. The type of foundations selected depends main~ on two factors: (1) The total load of the building ("live and "dead" loads). (2) The nature and bearing capacity of the subsoil. (3) The design of the building.

Strip Foundation: The majority of domestic structures have a strip foundation in which a continuous strip of concrete provides a continuous support under load-bearing walls. This type of foundation is composed of plain concrete usually to a mix 1: 3: 6 volumes (1 part cement, 3 parts sand 6 parts coarse aggregate). The thickness of the foundation must not be less than the projection (P) and in no case less than 150 mm. Reinforcement bars are sometimes used in small domestic building. These bars strengthen the structure, and make it less vulnerable to earth tremors.

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Strip Foundation Wide Strip Foundation Where the load bearing capacity of the ground is low, as for example marshy ground, soft clay and made-up ground, wide strip foundations may be used to spread the load over a large area of soil. It is usual to provide transverse reinforcement in the base of the footing to withstand tensions that will arise. This is usually placed near the bottom of the footing. The depth below ground level should be the same as for normal strip foundations. All reinforcements should be lapped at the corners and junctions.

Deep-strip Foundations These foundations are used in shrinkable clay soils (to reduce the cost of normal strip foundation) in depths of 900 mm or more, and to counteract the variable soil conditions in different seasons. In reducing the width of the foundation trench, the quantity of excavation, backfill and surplus, soil-.removal is also reduced. The deeper foundation also provides greater resistance to fracture from unequal settlement (by increasing the load bearing strength of the section).

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Deep Strip Foundation

Raft Foundation Raft foundations cover the entire area of the building and usually extend beyond it. They consist primarily of a reinforced concrete slab up to 330 mm thick, which is often thickened under load bearing walls. The level of the base of the raft is usually within 300 mm of the surface of the ground and the reinforcement is often in the form of two layers of fabric reinforcement, one being near the top and one near the bottom of the slab. The reinforcement helps to spread the loads and resist tensile stress, which could cause cracking of the raft. Raft foundations are best suited for use on soft natural ground or fill, or on ground that is liable to subsidence as in mining areas. The ground at the edge of the raft should be protected from weather, which can cause erosion or slippage. This can be overcome by: (1) Laying concrete paving around the building (2) Deepening the edge beam (3) Laying a field drain in a trench filled with suitable fill as shown

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Raft foundation

Stepped Foundation On a sloping site the most economic procedure is to use a stepped foundation thus reducing the amount of excavation, back fill, surplus soil removal and trench timbering. The foundation is stepped to follow the line of the ground and the depth of each step is usually 150 or 225 mm (multiple of brick courses). 43

The lap of concrete at the step should not be less than 300 mm. The damp proof course may also be stepped in a similar manner. Where the slope exceeds one in tenth it is desirab1e to use short bored pile to overcome the sliding tendency.

Stepped foundation

Short Bored Pile 44

Short bored piles were devised to provide economical and satisfactory foundations' for houses built on shrinkable clay. They consist of a series of short concrete pile cast in holes bored in the ground and joined or connected (for load bearing walls) by light beams usually of reinforced concrete. They have several, advantages over strip foundations: i. speed of construction ii. reduced quantity of surplus excavated soil iii. ability to proceed with construction in bad weather Problems do, however, arise on stony sites or where there are many tree roots. Holes are normally bored to a depth of 2.5 - 3.5 metres by hand or mechanically operated auger keeping the holes vertical and on the centre 1ine of the beams. The depth will be determined by the stability and bearing capacity of the clay. The piles, generally about 300-350 mm in diameter, should be cast immediately after the holes have been bored. A mixture of 1:2:4 concrete is generally used. Short lengths 20 mm diameter reinforcing bars should be set in the top of each corner pile and bent over to cast in with the beams. The reinforced concrete beams often 300 x 150 mm' in section, are usually cast in formwork, but in some cases are cast in trenches. The placement of piles is influenced by the shape of the building, the load to be carried and the load-bearing capacity of the piles. With load bearing walls, piles should be provided at corners and junctions of walls, with intervening piles placed to give uniform loading and, as far as possible, to keep ground floor door and window openings mid-way between piles.

Short bored pile foundation

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Pad Foundation Pad foundations are isolated foundations designed to support columns. The area of foundation is determined by dividing the column load plus the weight of the foundation by the allowable bearing capacity of the ground. The thickness of the foundation must not be less than the projection from the column (unless reinforced) and must, in any case I not be less than 150 mm. The size of foundation can be reduced by providing steel reinforcement towards the bottom of the foundation running in both directions.

Pad foundation The area of the pad for a foundation may be calculated by determining the ratio of the load to the bearing capacity of the soils under laying the structure.

Terminology Three terms used regularly with foundation construction are explained. Footing: offsets at the base of a wall to provide a greater bearing area. Damp proofing: making waterproof by special materials or processes. Hardcore: broken bricks block or stone consolidated as a foundation for concrete in solid floors.

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Excavation and Timbering Excavation Works The excavation for foundations follows after the setting or laying out the building and fixing of profiles. Excavations take various forms depending upon the type foundation to be laid. Excavation The term excavation means to hollow out. In building terms it means to remove earth to form a cavity in the ground. The method of excavation can either be manual or mechanical. Manual excavation is, used extensively on small domestic structures. The manual process requires hand tools such as pick axe, shovel, digging bars, forks and wheelbarrows. Types of excavations 1. Over-site Excavation that involves the removal of topsoil up to 300mm deep. 2. Reduced Level Excavation which is carried out below the over-site level to form a level surface on which to build and can consist of both cutting and filling operations. The level to which the ground is removed is called the formation level. 3. Trench Excavations are narrow excavations that are primarily used for strip foundations and buried services. Excavation can be carried out by either machine or hand. Types of Trench Excavations Battered faced Vertical or straight faced Battered Excavation Vertical/Straight Excavation Advantage: Advantage: No temporary support is required to the Minimum amount of soil is removed and sides of the excavation therefore minimum of backfill is required Disadvantage: Disadvantage:

It incurs extra cost for over excavating and The sides of the excavation may require extra backfilling some degree of temporary support

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Reduced Level Excavation This is necessary because very few sites are level in their natural state. On small sites the process is similar as for Site clearance. Bulldozers are used for cut and fill operation and a mechanical shovel plus Lorries are used for cut only operations. Trench and Pit Excavations On small sites the hand process can be used but if the depth of excavation exceeds 1.200m some method of removing spoil (soil) from the excavation will have to be employed. In this event a trenching machine such as a Back actor could be employed.

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Types of Excavation Machines

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Typical excavation machines include: 1. Bulldozers 2. Scrapers 3. Graders 4. Tractor Shovel 5. Skimmer 6. Face Shovel 7. Back actor 8. Dragline 9. Multi-Purpose Excavators 10. Trenchers Mechanical - The bulk of major building projects is now performed. The principal machines are: Dragline: A bucket dragged towards the machine, and it generally excavates below ground level. Face Shovel: This digs in deep faces above the level of its wheels or tracks. Skimmer: This is used for shallow excavation up to 1.5 m deep and is particularly useful for levelling and roadwork. Drag Shovel or Back Actor: This digs below its own level and towards itself and is primarily used for trench excavation. Drag and Clamshell: This is for moving loose materials. The Scraper: Operates like an earth plane and carries its scraping with it. Bulldozer: This is used for, bulk excavation and grading. Front End Loader and Back Hoe: This is for excavating and moving loose materials.

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Timbering to Excavation This is the term used to cover temporary supports to the sides of excavations and is sometimes called planking and strutting. The sides of some excavations will need support to: Protect the operatives while working in the excavation Keep the excavation open by acting as a retaining wall to the sides of the trench. The type and amount of timbering required will depend upon the depth and nature of the subsoil, weather conditions, type of soil, and the duration of the operations. Types 1. Timbering in firm soils 2. Timbering in dry loose soils 3. Timbering in loose wet soils 4. Timbering in hard soils Safety When excavating foundations and. drains in soil that is liable to fall away from the sides of the trench, timbering should be used to prevent this (the soil from falling into the trench). The builder must ensure all trenches are safely timbered or pile sheeted. Apart from the death or injury, it will result in additional cost to the builder to re-excavate and new damaged work in the trench should the sides collapse. Proper attention should be given to safety at all times. The construction industry has a very high accident rate and everyone in the industry must be more safety conscious. Timbering Timbering is the temporary support used at sides of trenches to prevent caving in. The support given to sides of the trench depends upon the depth of the trench and the soil conditions. Weak soils will require more elaborate temporary support. Terminology Poling Boards: are vertical members that usually measure 175 mm x 31 mm x 1 m. Walling Board: Horizontal members placed against the poling boards with cross section measurement 150 mm x 75 mm. The length varies. Struts: Horizontal supports placed across the trench to hold the other members in position. They are spaced at centres between 1.5 m and 2 m along the length of the trench and are usually 100 mm x 100 mm in cross-section.

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Wedges: Sometimes pairs of folding wedges are used between the walling boards and the struts to take up slackness. Types of Timbering 1. Open Boarding This is used for moderately firm ground such as sandy gravel, soft dry chalk, clayey, gravel. 2. Poles and struts These are used for moderately firm ground, such as stiff clay, firm gravel and hard chalk. The poling boards are spaced 1.829 m apart. 3. Close Boarding or Sheeting This is used for unstable ground such as loose sand, wet soils and made up grounds.

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Timbering in hard soils

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Timbering in loose dry soils

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Timbering in loose wet soils Safety Construction regulations state that: 1. Heavy loads or machinery likely to cause the collapse of the sides must not be moved close to the excavation. 2. Open excavations must be fenced off to prevent persons falling into them. 3. Approaches to excavations must have warn1ng lights prominently d1splayed at night. 4. No vibration likely to bring about collapse of the sides must be caused close to the excavation Curing When concrete is poured it begins to set/cure and as time passes it becomes solid, and at the same time increases in strength. The chemical reaction which accompanies the setting of cement and hardening of concrete is dependent on the retention of water is known as curing. Exposed concrete should therefore be sprayed and covered with bubble plastic sheets or quilts of plastic with fibres or straw or cement bags (sandbags), until it attains maximum strength (cures). To develop maximum strength concrete requires the correct conditions and a certain minimum time, depending on the temperature. Time ranges from 7 - 28 days for normal Portland cement. Placing All form work should be checked, cleaned and oiled before concrete is placed against it. Concrete should not be permitted to fall freely more than one metre. When transported by a 55

barrow over rough ground segregation of the materials may occur as larger particles settle to the bottom of the barrow. This will result in weakened concrete. To prevent or reduce this, use pneumatic wheels to help cushion the shock. Precautions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The area of concreting should be free from all debris. The area of concreting should be washed. The mixing bed should be as near as possible to concreting area. The approach of the concreting should be free from all obstruction. Oil the form work to allow ease of striking. Do not allow concrete to fall freely more than one metre. Use barrows with pneumatic wheels to reduce segregation of materials.

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WALLS
Definition This term refers to a unit that is used to sub-divide or partition space. It is also considered to be a unit that encloses a space thus giving it a degree of protection from the elements. Categories of Walls There are essentially two categories of walls namely: Load bearing walls and Non-load bearing walls. Load bearing Walls These are walls that are designed to transmit imposed and super-imposed loads in addition to their own weight to a suitable foundation. They can either be external or internal walls. Non-load bearing Walls These walls are designed to accommodate their own weight in addition to fixings placed on them. Most often these are used internally. Functional Requirements for Walls A wall should be: Fire Resistant; sound insulated; weather resistant; thermally insulated; design to accommodate fixings such as doors and windows or openings, and designed to safely transmit all loads encountered to a suitable foundation. Types of Walls: Rubble walls Brick walls Parapet walls Party walls Block walls Cavity walls Timber Framed walls Dwarf walls 57

Concrete walls (In-situ and Prefabricated)

Brick walls The materials used in the manufacture of bricks is clay or it may be from sand or lime and are available in a wide variety of strength, types, textures, colors, and special shaped bricks. In the manufacturing process, the raw material (usually clay) is dug and then prepared either by weathering or grinding before being mixed with water to the right plastic condition. It is then formed into the required brick shape using a mould / form before being dried and fired in a kiln. Bricks are generally manufactured to a length of 337.5mm, a width of 225mm and a height of 112.5 mm. However, the usual size of bricks for common use is 215 mm in length, width 102.5 mm and a height of 65 mm where 10 mm of mortar joint thickness is added to 3 faces. Bonding This is an arrangement of bricks in a wall, column or pier laid to a set pattern to maintain an adequate lap. The bond is set along the length of the wall working from each end to ensure that no vertical joint is above another in consecutive courses. Purpose of Bonding Bonding is required: To ensure that maximum strength is obtain whilst the load to be transmitted through the wall, column or pier is being distributed. To ensure that there is lateral stability and resistance to side thrusts. To create an aesthetic (acceptable) appearance. Types of Bonds English Bond This bond is formed by laying alternate courses of stretchers and headers. It is one of the strongest forms of bonding pattern used.

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English bond details

Flemish Bond This bond is formed by laying headers and stretchers consecutively in each course. It is not as strong as English bond but is considered to be aesthetically superior.

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Stretcher Bond This bond consists of alternate courses of stretchers and is used extensively for block wall construction.

Stretcher bond details

Parapet Walls This is a low wall projecting above the level of a roof, bridge or balcony forming a guard or barrier at the edge. Parapets may be exposed to the elements on three faces namely front, rear and top and will therefore need careful design and construction if they are to be durable and reliable.

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Party Walls Party wall is an interior lot line used or adapted for joint service between two buildings. Cavity Walls These consist of an outer brick or block leaf or skin separated from an inner brick or block leaf or skin by an air space called the cavity. These walls provide better thermal insulation and weather resistant than block or brick wall. The two leaves of a cavity are tied together with wall ties at not less than 900mm width and vertical heights of 450mm.

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Cavity wall details Timber Constructed Walls Types: Balloon Framed Platform Framed Members:Foundation Footing, sill plate, sole plate, studs, Noggins, Top plate, wall plate, trimmer stud, cripple stud, header, window sill.

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Block walls These are walling units exceeding in length, width or height the dimensions specified for bricks. They are made from a mixture of cement, sand and marl/crushed stone to specific proportions. The size of blocks varies depending on their use, but the standard length is given as length 400 mm, width from 75 mm up to 215 mm and a height of 200 mm. Blocks suitable for external solid walls are classified as load bearing and are required to have a minimum average crushing strength of 2.8N/mm2. Block walls Characteristics Adequate strength Good insulation Low cost Good load bearing capabilities Block walls The core of blocks assumes more than 25% of its total area/volume. According to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), blocks are graded based on compressive strength and range from: 600 psi to be used above grade 800 psi used for all exterior walls Definition of a Scaffold These are three definitions of a scaffold: 1. A temporary platform either supported from below or suspended from above, on which workers sit or stand when performing tasks at heights above the ground. 2. A raised wooden framework or platform. 3. A temporary structure of timber, boards, etc., for various purposes, as for supporting workmen and materials in building. Suspended Scaffolds Supporting outrigger beams must be able to support 4 times the intended load. To keep a scaffold from falling to the ground, it must be attached to the roof, tied to a secure anchorage, or secured with counterweights. The suspension ropes and rigging must support at least 6 times the intended load. 1. Counterweights must be attached to secure and strong places on a building so they wont move. 2. Do not use bags of sand or gravel, masonry blocks, or roofing materials that can flow or move. 65

3. Do not use gas-powered equipment or hoists. A hoist must have an automatic brake for emergencies. 4. A 1-point or 2-point suspended scaffold must be tied or secured to prevent swaying.

Independent Tied Scaffolds An independent scaffold consists of a platform resting on horizontal tubes, usually called transoms, which are fixed at 90 to the face of the building and which are secured at both ends to a row of uprights, or standards, and to horizontal tubes, often called ledgers, running parallel to the face of the building. An independent scaffold, although it must be tied to the building or structure, does not rely on it for its strength. Working platforms and gangways The scaffold boards which make up a working platform should rest squarely and evenly on transoms to prevent the risk of tripping. Where the ends of boards meet, transoms must be doubled and so spaced that no board overhangs by more than four times its thickness. Too much overhang will cause the board to tip if you step on it, while too little less than 50 mm will mean that it is easily dislodged. Normally, each board should have three supports to prevent it bending or sagging. The space between the edge of the working platform and the face of the building should be as small as possible. The width of a working platform should be sufficient for the work which is to be carried out from it, and recommended widths are: not less than 60 cm if used as footing only; not less than 80 cm if used also for the stacking of material; not less than 1.1 m if used for the support of a trestle platform. Gangways or runs should be of adequate width for their purpose and should preferably be horizontal. If the slope exceeds 20, or the surface is likely to become slippery with rain, laths should be fixed at 90 across the slope, allowing a small central gap to accommodate wheelbarrow wheels. Finally, precautions must be taken to prevent boards lifting in high winds. Single pole or putlog scaffolds A common type of scaffold for smaller jobs is a single pole or putlog scaffold which consists of a platform resting on horizontal putlogs (called transoms in independent scaffolds) fixed at 90 to the face of the building. The outer ends of the putlogs are supported on horizontal ledgers fixed parallel to the face of the building and secured to a single row of uprights or standards, also parallel to the wall. The flattened inner end of the putlogs rests flat on the wall, or in holes in the wall, rather than on ledgers. It follows that the scaffold cannot stand without the support of the structure. Tower scaffolds A tower scaffold consists of a platform resting on horizontal ledgers connected to four uprights, supported on base plates if static or on castor wheels if mobile. It is devised for painters and others who do lightweight work of limited duration mainly in one place. Protection

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There must be a 3" high toe boards to prevent things falling off a scaffold. If things on the scaffold are taller than 3" (above the toe board), other systems, like debris nets, can be used to catch falling tools or materials. If things can fall off a scaffold, people must be prevented from walking under or near the scaffold. Fall Protection On most scaffolds, guard rails must be on all open sides and ends. On supported scaffolds and some other scaffolds, guardrails or personal fall protection is enough. On most suspension scaffolds, both are needed. Use a harness, not a body belt for personal fall protection. You do not need a guard rail on the working side when the platform is less than 14" from the work (18" for plastering and lathing). The open side of an outrigger must never be more than 3" from the face of the building. On supported scaffolds most of the time, the top rail must be 38" to 45" above the platform. A top rail must be strong enough to hold 200 lb. (or 100 lb. on single-point and twopoint suspension scaffolds). A mid-rail must be about halfway between the platform and the top rail; most mid-rails must be able to hold 150 pounds. If mesh, screens, or panels are used, a top rail is needed (unless mesh was designed and installed to meet guardrail requirements). Scaffold walkways must have no more than a 9.5" gap between planks and a guardrail. Dont let junk collect on the scaffold. You can trip and fall. Guidelines for checking a scaffold If a scaffold is more than 2 feet above or below a level, there must be a way to get on or off such as a ladder, ramp, or personnel hoist. The way to get on or off must not be more than 14" away from the scaffold. Put a standing scaffold on a firm foundation (with base plates attached to feet)for instance, with one piece of wood under each pair of legs (across the shortest distance), extending at least 1 foot past each leg. Uprights must be vertical and braced to prevent swaying; platforms must be level A scaffold that is more than 4 times higher than its base is wide must be tied to supports. Scaffold setup and use Scaffolds must be capable of supporting at least four times the maximum intended load. Provide a ladder or equivalent safe access to all levels. The ladder-like rungs on some brands of commercial scaffolding are not to be used as a ladder. Note that a ladder leaned against scaffolding on unlocked casters could cause the scaffolding assembly to roll away from the ladder. 1. Ensure planks extend between 6 and 18 inches over their end supports unless they are secured from movement, such as being attached with wire to the metal supports. 2. Use a tag line when hoisting equipment onto a scaffold. 3. Do not allow tools, materials, and debris to accumulate and cause a falling hazard. 4. Wire or fibre rope used for scaffold suspension must be in good condition and capable of supporting at least six times the intended load. 5. Install guardrails and toe boards at all open sides more than 3 m (10 feet) above the ground or floor. Guardrails are not less than 5 x 10 cm (2 x 4 inches) cross section, or the equivalent, and 0.9 to 1.1 m (36 to 42 inches) high. Diagonal or X67

bracing can only be used as part of a guardrail system in some specific situations. The minimum height for a toe board is 4 inches (10 cm). 6. Working on scaffolds is not only potentially hazardous for workers on the platforms, but for people working below. Objects can fall on them despite the presence of toe boards and the best intentions of the workers on the scaffold. 7. Restrict access and/or require hard hats for those below. 8. Ensure all wheel brakes are engaged except when movement is required. Basic Safety Most scaffold platforms and walkways must be 18" wide or more. If a work area is less than 18" wide, guardrails and/or personal fall-arrest must be used. Ten-foot planks must extend at least 6" past the end supports, but not more than 12"; no more than 1" between planks or between planks and uprights. Wood planks must be unpainted, so any cracks will show. Types of Scaffold

a.

An independent tied scaffold which does not rely on the building for its strength. It has inner and outer rows of uprights or standards

b. A working platform showing guard-rail and toe board


with wire mesh filling between them and the closely boarded platform

c.

A single pole or putlog scaffold, with a single outer row of uprights or standards and which is partly supported by the building

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d.

Mobile tower scaffold-wheels should be locked when in use; ladder access should be inside the tower

What is Shoring Shoring is a form of prop or support usually temporary that is used during the repair of original construction of buildings and in excavations. Temporary support may be required, for example, to relieve the load on a masonry wall while it is repaired or reinforced. The support may be supplied by shoring the wall with the heavy timbers sloping upwards at about 65 to 75. The top of the timber is so arranged that part of the wall load is transferred onto it while the lower end of the timber is framed on to a base transfer the load to the ground with minimum deformation. Wedges may be used to bring the shore snugly into contact with the wall. If the wall is several stories high, vertical series of shores may be required. Shores are also used to support the forms of cast-in-place concrete slabs, beams and girders in reinforced concrete frames. Another explanation of shoring is described below: Shoring is often used to stabilize a building when it is to undergo structural modification or repair. Commonly made of timbers measuring 12 (30.5 cm) by 12 shores are placed in an inclined position bearing against the external wall of the building. The upper ends which are sometimes capped with steel fit into niches cut in brick work and the lower ends rest on bases or platforms. The application of wedges or steel jacks between the lower ends of the shores and the platforms shift part of the weight of a building from its foundation to the shoring. Shores are frequently used as supplemental support for buildings damaged by fire or by underpinning failure. When employed horizontally e.g. when a building is removed from between two others the shores consist of wood struts suitably braced and exerting pressure on wall plates in order to 69

distribute the thrust over a wide area. Shoring is also used widely in shipbuilding to support hulls that are under construction. Two Main Systems of Shoring Dead Shores This type is used to carry the dead load of the brick work etc. whenever an opening is to be formed or when an existing opening needs to be widened. Timbers of a square section are positioned above the line of a lintel or BRC. These are therefore called needles because they pass through the wall. They are supported by timbers or similar size called shores. The shores must be stood upon sole plates which in turn must stand on firm ground preferably concrete. Shores should not normally exceed 1200 mm centre to centre but the size of the opening and the amount of load to be supported above will dictate their size and spacing. Cleats are nailed each side of the shore at sole plate level to prevent it becoming dislodged while the other end metal dogs are used to secure the needle to the shore. Whatever number of shores or needles are used they should be linked together by the sole plates and bracing where necessary. The main consideration for the positioning of the shores is that they should in no way interfere with placing the lintel or the beam into position. They should also give the bricklayer room in which to work.

Raking Shores These are used for very different reasons from the dead shore. There may be occasions when the two are used in conjunction with each other. Raking shores are designed to give external support to a building which may have become in danger or collapse. They are rarely used when the building is adjacent to a site where construction work is about to be undertaken which could cause serious movement or vibration and the shoring is erected for precautionary reasons. The system may consist of one or more rakers depending upon how many floors the building possesses. A single raking shore consist of a wall piece of 225 x 75 mm secured flat against the wall with metal wall hooks against which the shore is positioned. At the head of a 150 x 150 mm raking shore, a needle of 100 x 100 mm passes through the wall plate about half way into the wall thickness. The angle of the shore should be about 60 and in no case should it exceed 70. Particular attention must be paid to the position of the raking shores in relation to the floors. The foot of the shore is seated on to a sole plate which should be placed on a very firm soil or weak concrete mix. An angle of 80 between the raking shore and the sole plate will assist in allowing the raker to be eased into position without undue hammering. 70

A notch is formed in the foot of the raker to enable a nail or crow bar to be used for easing the shore into position. All shoring systems should be eased in the same way as arch centres before being totally dismantled.

FLOORS
By definition, the function of any floor is to provide a level surface that is capable of supporting all the live and dead loads imposed. Functional Requirements The primary functions of floors are to: Provide a level surface with sufficient strength to support the imposed loads of people and furniture. Exclude the passage of water and water vapour to the interior of the building. provide resistance to unacceptable heat loss through the floor Provide the correct type of surface to receive the chosen finish. 71

Be reasonably durable.

Categories of Floors There are basically three types of floors widely used in the building industry, these are: Solid Ground Floors Suspended Timber Ground Floors Precast Concrete Floors Solid Ground Floors A domestic solid ground floor consists of three components:1. Hardcore 2. Damp Proof Membrane 3. Concrete Bed Hardcore This should be a suitable filling material to make up the topsoil removal and reduced level excavations. It should have a top surface, which can be rolled out to ensure that cement grout is not lost from the concrete. It may be necessary to blind the top surface with a layer of sand or fine ash especially if the damp proof membrane is to be placed under the concrete bed. Damp Proof Membrane This is an impervious layer such as heavy-duty polythene sheeting that is used to prevent moisture passing through the floor to the interior of the building. Other materials are, cold/hot poured bitumen, rubber solutions, and Asphalt or pitch mastic. Concrete Bed This is the component providing the solid level surface to which screeds and finishes can be applied. The thicknesses that are generally specified are: Plain in-situ concrete (no reinforcement) 100-150mm thick Reinforced concrete, 150 mm minimum.

Suspended Timber Ground Floor This type of floor consists of timber boards or other suitable sheet material fixed to joists spanning over sleeper walls. They are: Susceptible to dry rot (a fungus that attacks damp timber). Adequate ventilation under the floor coupled with damp proof courses at an appropriate position will control or alleviate this problem. The use of airbricks is employed to allow for ventilation and should be spaced at 2 m centre around the perimeter of the building. 72

Concrete Floors The over site should not be less than 100mm thick although it is often 150 mm thick. The mix of concrete should be at least 1:3:6 with a maximum size of coarse aggregates of 38 mm, but a mix of 1:2:4 is to be preferred incorporating coarse aggregates with a maximum size of 19 mm. the concrete mix of 50 kg of cement to not more than 0.11 m3 of fine aggregates and 0.16 m3 of coarse aggregates. It should be noted that the edges of the slab are not to be built into the surrounding walls to allow the two elements with their differing loads to move independently of one another.

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Concrete floors

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Timber Floors A timber floor finish laid directly on the bedded in a material which may also serve as a damp proof membrane. Timber fillets laid in the concrete as a fixing for a floor finish should be treated with an effective preservative unless they are above the DPM. The DPM must not be lower than the highest level of surface of the outside ground and it must be continuous with, or joined and sealed to, the DPM in any adjoining wall, floor pier, column or chimney. Floor members Joists-A steel or timber beam that supports a floor or roof Sill- A ledge below a window or door Sub floor- an underlying or rough unfinished material supporting a finished floor. Header-A brick laid in a wall so that the smallest surface is visible Bridging- are small metal pieces placed diagonally between floor joists. Skirting- narrow boards around the margin of a floor sometimes called the baseboard. Floor Members Sleeper wall (Honeycomb built) Hardcore Over site concrete Wall plate Floor framing members Joists: Common, trimmed, trimming, and trimmer types Floor boarding Skirting 75

Air bricks Joist supports Strutting The honeycomb built sleeper walls These are usually built two or three courses high to allow good through ventilation. They are spaced at 2,000 mm centres which give an economical joist size. Wall plate is secured to the sleeper wall along with a DPC material. The joists are then toe-nailed to it. Floor Joists The floor joists are pieces of timber that span between the wall plates and support the floor boards. The size of the joists depends on the spacing of the sleeper walls. The table is a guide to the appropriate lengths for joists that are spaced 400mm apart. Judging the length of the joists correctly will reduce waste and time spent cutting the timber. Span(mm) 1200 1800 2000 Joists size(mm) 38 x 75 38 x 100 50 x 100 Joists length( mm) 3800 3100 or 4800 4100

Trimmer, Trimming and Trimmed A stair case will go through the first floor. Since you must form an opening, you will need to cut into the joists. The joists around the opening are called (1) Trimmed Joist- they are shortened by the opening, (2) Trimmer Joist- they support the trimmed joists, and Trimming Joist- they support the end of the trimmer joists. This type of work is expensive and must be done very carefully to minimize damage to the joists. The main principal is to join the end of the trimmer joists firmly to the end of the trimming joists because the load is greatest at that point. You can use a metal hanger or a house joint in the upper half to avoid cutting into the trimming joist. Joist Supports The ends of the joists are supported or fixed to the load bearing walls by building them in or by using special metal fixings called joist hangers among other methods, which are rarely used. Strutting Timber is known to be hygroscopic, i.e. it is made up of cells, which will absorb moisture readily. Significant changes in temperature and humidity may cause timber to expand, contract, deform or twist. Shrinkage in timber joists will cause twisting to occur which can cause movements of the ceiling below and surface cracks to the finishes applied. This problem can be overcome by inserting strutting between the joists if the span exceeds 2,400 mm. The strutting is usually placed at mid-span.

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Typical arrangements of strutting are herringbone (metal or wood), inline solid and staggered solid strutting.

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Joist Sizing (depth) The sizing of joist can be determined by BC tables or by formulas: Formula 1 Rule of thumb: Span in mm + 50 mm = depth of joist in mm. 24 It is assumed that the breadth joist is 50mm and is spaced at 400 c/c Formula 2 Rule of thumb: BM = Wl/8 = fbd2/6 Where; W = span x spacing of joist x floor loading kN/m2 f = fibre stress of the material b = breadth (width) of joist (assumed to be 50mm) d2 = joist depth l = length of span In-situ RC Suspended Floors These are reinforced concrete slabs that incorporate beams spanning between columns. The beams may span in one or two directions. Slab variations are: One way spanning slab Two way spanning slab Two way spanning flat slab Other arrangements Precast Concrete Floors These floors are available in several basic formats and provide an alternative form of floor construction to suspended timber floors and In-situ reinforced concrete suspended floors. Advantages The main advantages of precast concrete floors are: They eliminate the need for formwork innermost cases. Curing time for concrete is eliminated therefore the floor is available at an earlier stage to be used as a working platform. Superior quality control of product is possible with factory-produced products. Disadvantages Higher degree of site accuracy is required to ensure that the precast concrete floor units can be accommodated without any alterations. 79

Less flexible in design terms Formation of large openings to accommodate ducts, shafts and stairwells usually have to be formed by casting an in-situ reinforced concrete floor strip around the opening position.

Types of Precast Floors PCC Beam and Pot Composite Floor PCC Channel Units PCC Plank and Pot Composite Floors Waffle Floors Floor Finishes These are finishes usually applied to a structural base but may form part of the floor structure as in the case of floor boards. Most finishes are chosen to fulfil a particular function based on several factors. Types of Floor Finishes Quarry tiles Tongue and Groove Boarding Timber strip Flooring Wood Blocks Ceramic Tiles Floor Screed PVC Tiles Carpets and Carpet tiles Factors of Floor Selection Appearance chosen mainly for their aesthetic appeal or effect but should however have reasonable wearing properties. Examples are carpets, carpet tiles and wood blocks. High resistance chosen mainly for their wearing and impact resistance properties and for high usage areas such as kitchens. Examples are quarry tiles and granolithic paving. Hygiene chosen to provide an impervious easy to clean surface with reasonable aesthetic appeal. Examples are quarry tiles and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheets and tiles.

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Important Steps in Constructing a Timber Floor Steps: 1. A timber joisted floor maybe covered with timber boards, or sheets or strips of clipboard pr plywood. The majority of timber floor are finished or furnished with salt wood board between 100mm and 150mm with a thickness of 25mm. 2. The boards are laid at right angles to the joists with two floor brads, of a width of the brads being 40mm in length than thickness of the boards and the heads of the brads well punched down below the top of the surface boards. 3. When constructing a timber floor the floor boards are normally joined together in tongued and grooved joints, although in other expensive work, plain or square boards can be used. 4. With a timber covered solid floor it is important to pressure impregnate the battens and to apply a brush coat of preservative as a safe guard to prevent decay. 5. Where it is considered desirable to avoid punch holes for brads, boards may be secret nailed and by using splay rebated, tongued and grooved joints, to help reduce the risk of splitting the tongue when nailing. This method of nailing and jointing is really suited for floor boarding. 6. Floor boards should preferably be rift sawn, when are cut as near radially from log as near radially from log as practicable on conversation. 7. The edges of floor boards should be kept 13mm away from the surrounding walls to allow movement and reduce the risk of damp penetration.

8. The gap is closed by skirting at the base of the wall or partition, which also masks the gap between the button edge of the wall plaster and the floor, provides adequate resistance to kicks.

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ROOFS
Definition: A roof is a unit which covers the top of a building. It serves to protect the structure from the weather and adds beauty to the design. Roofs are built with wood, concrete or steel frames that are covered with decking and then a weather resistant roofing material. Functional Requirements It should provide adequate weather exclusion It should be designed to provide the required degree of sound insulation It should be structurally sound so that maintenance can be done It should be providing light and ventilation It must be able to support its own weight, attached fixings, wind loads and imposed loads It should be thermally insulated Factors Determining Roof Shape & Design The shape chosen by architects and engineers depends upon factors such as: The size of the structure The design of the structure Climatic conditions Cost Appearance Roof Classifications Roofs can be classified as either a Flat roof or a Pitched roof. A flat roof is one whose angle of slope lies between 0.0. to 10.0. A Pitched roof has a sloping angle over 10.0.but less than 70.0. Types of Roofs Lean-to Roof This type is not often used on large spans, but more often found as a covering for a rear or side extension to a larger building. The lean-to varies to suit requirements and the upper end of the rafter is fixed to a wall piece which can be corbelled or bolted to the wall. The foot of the rafter is normally birds-mouthed (notched) over a wall plate. 82

Couple Roof This is a double pitched roof of the simplest kind, consisting of common rafters birdsmouthed over the wall plate and fixed to a ridge board at the apex. In general the birds-mouth notching should not cut into the rafter any more than one third of the depth of the rafter. The maximum span for this type of roof is 2.5 m.

Closed Couple Roof This type is suitable for spans up to 4 m. It is stronger than the couple roof, having a ceiling joist spanning the wall plates. This new Span member prevents the spread created by the forces distributed to the wall plates by the rafters, thus making it suitable for the larger span.

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Collar Roof This type of roof is suitable for spans greater than 4 m, but up to a maximum of 5.5 m. There is no specified position of the collar, but its effectiveness would be reduced considerably if it was placed any more than half-way between the wall plates and ridge The most common position used is one third of the height of the rise above the plates. If the collar is halved into the common rafter with a dovetailed halving, as shown, the full strength of the tie will be achieved.

Gable-end Roof This is a double-pitched roof having two sloping surfaces and which terminates at the end with a triangular section of block, wood, or brickwork. Hipped-end Roof This is a double-pitched roof where the roof slope is returned around the shorter sides of the building to form a sloping triangular end.

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Eaves The portion at the foot of the rafters which overhangs the wall face is called the eaves. It serves various purposes which include: 1. protection of roof members 2. protection of walls 3. it offers good ventilation 4. it shows attractiveness

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Types of Ceilings There are generally two types (suspended and close boarded) of ceilings, which serve the following purposes: 86

1. 2. 3. 4.

tying together opposite walls and roofs supporting upper floors it offers good insulation it offers aesthetics appearance

Advantages of using Roof Trusses 1. time 2. cost 3. strength 4. materials saving 5. weight reduction 6. quality control 7. ease of prefabrication

Types of roof coverings are: 1. Asphalt 2. Bituminous felt 3. Thatch 4. Plain tiles 5. Interlocking tiles 6. Corrugated sheet metal 7. Slates 8. Wood shingles

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Parts of a Roof

Technical Words for Parts of a Roof Covering- is the external material that is laid over the roof structure to protect the inside of the building. Coverings can be: asphalt; bituminous felt; thatch; plain tiles; interlocking tiles; corrugated sheet metal Eaves- the bottom end of the roof where it meets the wall Fall the slope required on flat roofs for water run-off Fascia a thin timber board that is fixed to the end of rafters or roof joists to support the gutters Hip the point where two inclined roof surfaces meet over an external angle Jack rafter a short rafter that spans the hip and eaves or valley and ridge Pitch the angle formed by the slope of the roof Purling A purling can be: 1. a horizontal timber that provides support to the rafters 2. a timber member spanning between roof trusses that supports roof sheets Rafter the timber member that spans from the eaves to the ridge in a pitched roof Ridge Tile a tile that caps the top of the roof Ridge a timber at the apex of the roof that takes the tops of the rafters Soffit the horizontal distance between the supports of structural members such as the rafters Valley the point where two inclined roof surfaces meet over an internal angle Verge the edge of a roof that meets a gable wall Wall plate is the timber member fixed to the top of a wall to secure a flat roof joist or rafter.

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Truss Types

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DOORS
A door is a movable barrier that separates internal and external spaces. It is usually attached to a frame on one side by hinges. As it is, it performs various functions which include: 1. Protection 2. Security 3. Privacy 4. light 5. access/exit 6. ventilation Types of Doors Panel Doors These can be described as one-panel, two-panel three panels etc. up to as many as twelve panels. Panel doors consist of panels, stiles, top, bottom and middle rails and sometimes muntins, which are vertical intermediate pieces tenoned to the top, bottom or middle rails. Panels to doors can be glass, plain plywood, and plain solid timber or raised solid timber. These doors are suitable for both internal and external use.

The Parts of a Panelled Door

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Flush Doors Flush doors are very popular, on the account of their plainness, low cost and ease of construction. A flush door consists of a core of either laminated solid timber or skeleton framework with a facing of plywood. The strongest type of flush door is the solid core, which is constructed using strips of timber that are laminated to form a solid board, with a facing of plywood on both sides.

Ledged, Braced and Batten Doors This is a very simple door for internal or external use; which is cheap to make.

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Framed, Braced and Batten Doors This door is stronger than the ledged, braced and battens because the battens are set inside a timber frame. The framed, braced and battened door consists of these pieces: - battens that form the surface of the door - a frame with a head rail, bottom rail and two stiles - a ledge - braces

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Door Ironmongery

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Door Dimensions

Doors for domestic buildings are usually about 2 metres high. Their width varies.
Type of Doors External Internal Fire-resistant Thickness (mm) 40-50 40 44 Width (mm) 760-900 680-760 760-900

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WINDOWS Functions of Windows Windows on a building provide natural light and ventilation to the interior while excluding rain and insects. Windows are usually made of steel or timber, but other materials such as plastics or aluminium are also popular. As such windows serve various functions which are: (1) Provides lighting and ventilation (2) Sound reduction (3) Appearance (4) External viewing (5) Emergency exit (6) Security Building Regulations for Windows Windows are usually put together in combinations of openings and fixed lights to comply with the regulations for health and hygiene in habitable rooms. The standard requirements in most buildings regulations are usually: (1) The minimum area of window in a habitable room should be 10 per cent of the floor area. (2) The minimum opening area of the window in a habitable room should be 5 per cent of the floor area Glazing The glazing is the glass part of the window. Glass is essential to let in daylight, but to exclude wind and rain. The thickness of the pane depends on its height, width and the amount of likely wind pressure. These types of glass are commonly used in small buildings: 1. Clear Glass, which is about 3 to 4 mm thick; 2. Obscure Glass, which is used in private areas such as toilets and bathrooms. It is usually 4mm thick and comes in a variety of patterns; 3. Special Glass, which is used in internal or external doors that require stronger safety glass There are two main types of special glass: 1. Wired Glass, which can be clear or obscure. It is about 6 mm thick and is reinforced with wire; 2. Toughened Glass, which is manufactured to a specific size and cannot be cut. When this glass breaks it shatters into harmless pieces. Car windshields are made from toughened glass. Technical Terms for parts of a window and frame: Bottom rail the bottom member of a sash or light Head the top piece of a window, which is fixed to the underside of the masonry Casement a side-hung opening window Sill the bottom piece of a window, which is fixed to the bottom of the opening Jamb the vertical sidepiece fixed to the surface of the window opening Mullin a fixed vertical piece in the window framework, which separates the fixed and moving parts 30

Opening light another word for sash Sash the whole moving part of a window including the glass Stile the side member of the sash Top rail the top member of the sash Transom the fixed horizontal piece that separates the fixed and moving parts of the window Ventilator a small sash, which is often top-hung to provide secure ventilation Types of Windows Awning An awning window unit has a frame with one or more sash which swings outward at the bottom. This window can keep rain out even if this is open. Awning windows usually come with weather stripping and storm sash and screens. Hopper This type of window has a sash that swings inward at the top. This window can keep the rain out even if they are open. Sash Sash windows are those in which the sashes slide up and down and they are normally consist of two sashes, placed one above. Where both sashes open they are termed as double-hung sash windows. Casement With wood casement windows, a solid frame is fixed to the edges of the opening and this receives the glazed casements which may be side hung, top hung or bottom hung. Small top or bottom hung casements are used for controlled ventilation, whereas the larger side hung casement can be opened for greater ventilation in warmer weather. Side hung casement can create a safety hazard with young children and where above ground level is very difficult to clean.

Figure Showing a Typical Wood Casement Window Assembly Pivot These are windows that are hung at the top and side by hinges, and the sashes are pivoted in their frames. Louvre - This is individual pieces of glass held in clips and opened by a lever arm, which locks the louver in position.

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1. side-hung casement window 2. side light 3. top light 4. sliding folding window 5. top-hung casement window, awning window 6. bottom-hung casement window, hopper window 7. horizontal pivot window 8. vertical pivot window 9. top-hung sliding window 10. vertical sliding sash window 11. horizontal sliding window 12. louvered window 13. centre hinge, centre pivot hinge WINDOW IRONMONGERY 32

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STAIRS
Buildings have stairs so that people can: (1) Gain access from one floor to another (2) A way to make emergency escape (3) Decorative purposes (4) Means of transportation of goods from one floor to another (5) Join two or more floors together Some common terms associated with Stairs Rise - The vertical distance between the top of adjacent treads Tread - The horizontal surface of a step where you place your feet Stringer/String - A structural member that supports the tread and riser Going/Run - The horizontal distance between the nosing of the adjacent treads Step - A combination of treads and risers Flight - A series of steps between floors Handrail - A rail fixed in a position to give assistance to the user of the stair, which is either fixed a wall or supported by a Balustrade Balustrade - The protection erected on the other edge of the staircase to prevent anything falling off the edge Baluster - Rails between the hand rail and the string Stair well/case - The opening in which stairs to be constructed Newel- The post at the end of a flight of stairs to which the stringers and handrail are fixed, usually 100 x 100m Building Regulations regarding Stairs (1) Maximum pitch must be 42 (2) Going of any step must not be less than 220mm (3) The rise of any step must not be more than 220mm (4) For any flier the sum of going plus twice the rise must not exceed 700mm or less than 500mm (2 riser + going = 500mm (5) Headroom must not be less than 2m above the pitch line vertically (6) Any stairway less than 1m wide should have one handrail or two handrails more than 1m wide (7) Handrails should not be less than 840mm vertical height on the pitch line and not less than 900mm above the landing Given a stair to construct, distance from the finished lower to the finished upper floor is the total rise. The ceiling height is 3m and floor thickness is 150mm. The total rise is the sum of ceiling height and floor thickness which is 3.0m + 150mm = 3.150m assuming that the total going is 3.60m.

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Calculate the tread and riser: Total rise Rise = Number of risers (an ideal height for a riser is 187mm) an formula used is (2 risers + going) = 550mm 700mm Divide the total rise 3.150m by 187mm = 16.3 risers or 17 risers Each rise = 3.150 = 185mm 17 Total going Going = Number of treads (number of treads is always one less than the number of Going =3.60m = 225mm 16 Therefore 2 risers + Going = 550mm 700mm (2 x 185mm) + 225mm = 595mm = 550mm 700mm risers)

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FINISHES Rendering External rendering is the process of applying a cement and sand plaster coat to the outside walls of a building. You render to: (1) to improve the appearance of concrete block walls; (2) provide a waterproof finish to porous blocks (3) Provide a base for a colour finish. Smooth render is a cement and lime mixed with sand and a 1:2:9 mixture. It is put on as a finishing coat and trowelled to a smooth finish. If an undercoat is needed, then the proportions should be reduced to 1:1:5. This is the least satisfactory finish because the trowelling can bring too much cement to the surface, which causes cracks. Roughcast render is a top coat of cement, lime and sand in a 1:2:9 mix over a 1:3 cement and sand backing coat. While the top coat is soft, you throw 6-13mm cement-coated aggregate into it. Scraped render is a 1:1:6 or 1:2:9 mix of cement, lime and sand. You scrape the top 2mm off with a saw blade just before it hardens to remove the smooth skin. Pebbledash render is a final coat in a 1:1:6 cement, lime and sand render with 6-12 mm pebbles lightly pressed into it so that the aggregate is exposed. Tyrolean (popcorn) render is produced by a machine that throws a 1:3 cement and mixture onto the wall for a deeply textured finish. The cement can be coloured to produce a permanent coloured finish. The background can be rendered or the Tyrolean render can be applied directly to a raw wall and built up in layers. Plastering The term plastering means the application of a smooth coat of material to walls and ceilings. The purpose of plastering is to provide a joint less, hygienic, and easily decorated smooth finish to walls. Plaster is mixed with water to make a plastic mixture, which can be spread directly on a surface in a thin 10mm layer. The surface absorbs the water in the mix by a process called suction. The suction process stiffens the plaster rapidly so that you can level it while it hardens and sets. When the plaster dries it leaves a hard, smooth finish for decoration. The type of concrete that you might plaster would be the soffit of a floor slab. The concrete may be quite smooth from the concrete was poured. To prepare concrete, you need to wash off all traces of oil and hack the surface to provide enough key for the plaster. You may apply one, two or three coats of plaster to achieve a smooth finish. Generally, you need to apply two coats unless you using plasterboards, which need only one. Three coats are only used if the surface is extremely uneven. The first coat in a three-coat finish, called a screed coat, is applied to level the surface and to ensure that the plaster is the correct thickness.

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How to plaster a wall (1) put mounds of cement and sand mortar across the wall in columns of three about 1200mm apart, smooth the mounds to a thickness of 10mm and leave them to hard. (2) Apply 75mm vertical strips of plaster over the mounds and leave them to set (3) Mix the plaster by hand or with a small mixer. (4) Apply a rough plaster coat to the wall between the screeds by putting it on with an upward sweeping movement. (5) Move the screed board from the bottom to the top of the wall in a sawing motion to smooth and level the plaster (6) Scratch the first coat before it sets to provide a key for the second coat and leave to dry. (7) Apply a finish coat of 2mm neat plaster with a steel float to produce a thick, smooth finish. Types of paints The main types of paint are: gloss, undercoats for gloss, primers and water-thinned. Gloss paints are based on resins produced in laboratories which have improved the quality of gloss paints the two main types of gloss paints are paints thinned with white spirit and paints thinned with water. White spirit is turpentine which is used to dilute gloss paint and to clean brushes and paints spills. The gloss paints that are thinned with water are easier to use and clean up after. Undercoats for gloss paints are modified gloss paints that dry with flat finishes. This makes it easier to rub them down and improves the adhesion of the gloss coat. Undercoat also fill in the colour over the primer and consolidate the final colour. Primers are applied to seal unpainted metal and wood surfaces, typical wood primers are: pink primer, aluminium wood primer, acrylic primers. Metal primers are calcium plumbate, zinc chromate. Water-based (acrylic) these are less durable than gloss paints, but they are also easier to apply. Because they dont seal surfaces, you can use these paints on new plaster. Water-thinned paints have the primer, undercoat and finish in the same container. Two types of water-thinned paints are: lime washes and emulsions. Varnish is a transparent solution that solidifies into a protective coating. Opaque and coloured varnishes are called lacquers.

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Properties of Paints and Varnishes Paint The properties of paint are: a pigment, a binder and a solvent or thinner to make the mixture suitable for application. Paint pigment is a fine powder that either strongly scatters light, to yield a white effect, or absorbs certain wavelengths of light, producing a coloured effect. After application, the paint undergoes changes which convert it from a fluid to a tough film which binds the pigment. The nature of these changes varies with different types of paint. Some such as size- bound distemper and chlorinated rubber paint lose the thinner by evaporation. With most paints containing drying oils, part of the change on drying results reaction of the oil with oxygen from the air. In emulsion paints and oil-bound distempers, the binding material is emulsified or dispersed as fine globules in an aqueous liquid. After application the water evaporates and the globules coalesce to form a tough, water resistant film. Varnishes Varnishes are transparent solutions produced by heating a drying oil, resin, drier, and solvent together. If applied as a thin film, varnish gives a hard transparent coating upon evaporation, oxidation, and polymerization of the solvent. The numerous variations in composition and preparation of varnish make its classification difficult. The so-called spirit varnish, for example, is a resin dissolved in a volatile solvent that contains no drying oil, and asphalt varnish is a solution of asphalt and a solvent that gives opaque, black coatings. Opaque and coloured varnishes are called lacquers. Stains A stain is a chemical dye or pigment used to color glass, paper, textiles, or wood. The staining substance, which uses alcohol, oil, or water as a vehicle, is transparent and thinner than paint or coating, and it penetrates into the grain of material being dyed. Methods of Application Paints Paints are applied to: - Masonry by roller, air brush, hand brush or spray. - Metal by roller, air brush, hand brush or spray. - Wood surfaces by air brush, hand brush, roller or spray. Varnishes Varnishes are applied to: - Wood surfaces by roller, air brush, spray or by hand brush. Stains Stains are applied to: - Wood surfaces by airbrush, hand brush, spray or roller. Brushes and rollers are used in many different sizes according to convenience.

The Purpose of Solvents Solvents

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The purpose of solvents is to dry paint when applied by causing it to evaporate, oxidize or polymerize. Laying tiles on concrete sub-floors Tiles are made from a variety of materials and laid on sub-floor in individual units to form a complete covering. They are laid on an adhesive or mortar bed, depending on the tile material. Some tiles are having wide joints, which are filled separately, while others are filled so tightly that no joint filling is needed. PVC Tiles PVC tiles have precise measurements (300 5 300 5 3 mm). They must be laid on a perfectly smooth screed because they are so thin and fixed with adhesive. However, they can be fitted so closely that they do not have a gap in the joints. PVC tiles are usually: Resistant to grease and oil; Waterproof; Durable. Although they come in a wide range of colours and texture, PVC tiles are one of the cheapest floor finishes you can buy and lay. They are maintained by applying a surface coating of wax and then washing with soapy water. Quarry and Ceramic Tiles Ceramic tiles are clay tiles with a hard semi-glazed finish. They are usually measure about 150 5 150 mm or 100 5 100 mm and are 15-20 mm thick. Since they are fired in a kiln they are not shaped as precisely as PVC tiles, so they have a 3-mm joint between the tiles. Quarry are made of natural stone and cut from the slabs in quarries. These tiles are bedded in mortar so a levelling screed is not necessary. The level of the finish floor is determined by battens, which are the thickness of the tile, fixed temporarily to the floor and levelled. The bedding should be a 1:10 mix of cement and sand mortar. You spread the mortar on the concrete and the bed the tiles level to the battens. The joints should be grouted with 1:1 sanded grout. Finishes on Timber Floor It is usually not practical to lay any cement-based finishes on timber floor. Because timber moves and flexes, it is liable to cause crack in the floor finish. The added weight of a cement-based finish would also mean that the floor construction would have a heavier and stronger. The finishes that can be laid on timber floors are: 1. PVC tiles, which can be laid on the flooring as long as the boards are flush at the joints. It is safer to lay a 3-mm hardboard cover over standard 100-mm strip flooring to avoid the joints showing through; 39

2. Carpet, which can be from a wide range of qualities and styles. And underlay will protect the carpet and extend its lifespan. You can lay carpet loosely as squares and rectangles, fit it from wall to wall in seamless areas or lay carpet tiles on adhesive back.

Types of Tiles Square tiles are the most popular. They come in three varieties to suit the expose ends of the tile runs. The basic tile, which is glazed on the surface only, has unglazed edges. The surface of the basic tile can be: 1. Slightly rounded near the edges. This is a cushion-edges tile; 2. rounded on one edge; 3. Rounded on the two edges. Tiling Techniques To produce good tiling you need to know how to: 1. level; 2. cut tiles; 3. set out and measure; 4. Grout joints. Glass Blocks Glass blocks are very thick blocks of glass made with metal reinforces between them. Glass blocks have been in use since the early 1900- they timeless projects that can be used in any type of architecture. Glass blocks are usually used as walls, windows, or floors. Imaginative new design elements make for new more exciting looks for building projects. They also require very little maintenance. Glass blocks are one of the sound insulating materials. Compare with windows made from other materials, glass block windows have a much better heat insulation making it somewhat fire proof. The heat insulation plays a role in avoiding frosting in the winter

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RELATED SERVICES
The Principles of Plumbing Pipes The principles of plumbing pipes are: Types Drainpipes can be made from a variety of materials. Your choice of drain pipe will depend on availability, price and suitability for the purpose. This list describes some of the most common materials for drainpipes: 1. Vitrified Clay, which is clay that was fired at a very high temperature to make it waterproof; 2. Cast Iron, which is a very hard metal alloy. This material is quite expensive and is normally only used for commercial buildings. 3. Concrete, which is cast using the methods of production used for concrete. 4. Pitch Fibre, which is made from pitch fibres or waste fibres and bitumen or pitch; 5. Plastic, commonly known as polyvinyl chloride (PVC). This is a popular material because it comes in long lengths, is light and makes joints easily. Size Common sizes are 50 mm for wash basins and WC flushing, cisterns and 50 mm for multiple sinks and baths. A minimum 100 mm drain is usually adequate for a domestic plot. About 20 small houses can be connected to a 100 mm drain because only one or two will discharge water at the same time. If required, then a larger pipe one with a 150mm diameter is available. Materials UPVC is the most popular material because it does not need decoration, it is light weight and easy to fix. It does not rot or corrode. However this material is easily damaged and is not suitable for areas where it could be hit by moving vehicles. Fibre cement is a durable and heavier material than the plastic and requires more joints and supports. 41 Types Size Materials Methods of Joining Fittings

A variety of materials is available for water supply pipes, of which probably the most popular is light gauge copper tube, largely on account of its durability, flexibility, smooth bore, neat appearance and ease of jointing. Polythene pipes are rather soft, not completely resistant to ground gases, need ample support and cannot be used for grounding electrical instillations. Polythene pipes are flexible and their smooth bore speed water flow and prevents the formation of scale. Lead pipes are now little used on the account of their high cost, weight and suitability with soft or acid water and their use in new dwellings is not permitted. Mild steel pipes are relatively strong and inexpensive, and are made in three categories- light, medium and heavy. Methods of Jointing and Fittings Methods of joining chosen depend on whether you are using: Rigid Pipes with Rigid Joints Rigid pipes made from clay, concrete or cast iron need rigid joints with sockets that are wide enough to insert pipes with straight ends, called spigots. There should be enough space around the jointing material. Rigid pipes with Flexible Joints Recent developments in pipe technology have made it possible to use rigid pipes with joints that allow some flexibility. This is useful because rigid joints may crack with slight movement. Two types of flexible joints are: 1. Spigot and socket combinations 2. Polypropylene sleeves. These combinations can be used to make to make flexible joints for concrete pipes. Flexible pipes with Flexible Joints Flexible pipes distort under loads. This distortion should be limited to 5 per cent of the pipes diameter to maintain the flow of water. Similarly, the flexibility of the joint should only take up slight movement so that the pipe maintains the correct falls. You can join pitch fibre pipes with polypropylene sleeves with gaskets or by tapering the ends of the pipe and driving them into collars. PVC pipes are made with socket and spigot ends. They can be joined by using a solvent weld the pipes together so that one pipe sits slightly inside the other or by inserting rubber rings into the grooves of the sockets and spigots. - The most common form of joining mild steel pipes is screwed and socket. - In plastics compression is probably the best method of jointing. - Soldered joints are normally used in lead pipes. In the house the main sanitary fittings are: - WC; - Bath; - Sink; - Basin: - Shower. They should be made of materials that are easy to clean, durable and water proof. The Principles of Roof Drainage and Disposal are: Pitch/Slope 42

Gutters Down pipes Soak away

Pitch/Slope The pitch or slope is the angle of the slope of the roof measured from the horizontal. A steeper pitch needs more roof-covering material, which increases the weight to be supported. The surface is affected by wind so therefore the roof needs to be strong enough to allow for the factors. Gutters A gutter is a channel fixed to the long edge of a roof. The bracket on fixings on the fascia should be at 900mm intervals. A gutter will have an outlet which is a spout that points down to connect with a rain water pipe. In most domestic buildings, one outlet is usually enough to take the rainwater during normal wet weather. The distribution of water along the length of the gutter pushes it naturally towards the outlet. Any residue of water usually evaporates. Gutters are available in various lengths and are made from various materials such as: - Cast Iron - Asbestos and cement - PVC-U - Pressed steel galvanize - Aluminium - Wrought copper and wrought zinc Down pipes Down pipes convey rain water from roof gutters to underground drains, often through a back entry water gully at ground level. When used with projecting eaves they generally require a swan-neck consisting of a fitting with two bends to negotiate the soffit. Flat roofs parapet gutters may discharge into may discharge into rain water heads at the top of down pipes. There are various materials which down pipes are made form such as: - Cast iron spigot and socket down pipes - Asbestos cement spigot and socket down pipes - PVC-U down pipes - Pressed steel galvanized light gauge down pipes - Aluminium down pipes - Wrought copper and wrought zinc down pipes. Wire balloons of galvanized steel, aluminium or copper should be inserted in gutter outlets to prevent blockages occurring down pipes.

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The Combine System of Drainage This is a system whereby foul water from sanitary appliances and surface water from roofs and paved areas discharge through a single drain to the same combined sewer. This simplifies and cheapens the house drainage system, ensuring that the drains are well flushed in time of storm so that the house drain cannot be connected to the wrong sewer. On the other hand silting may occur in large pipes and it may entail storm overflows on sewers and high cost of pumping and sewage treatment. Building regulations describe foul water as waste water which comprises or includes; The Separate System of Drainage A separate drainage system is one in which foul wastes pass through one set of drains to a foul sewer, whereas surface water is conveyed to a separate surface sewer or soak- away. This arrangement reduces pumping and sewage treatment costs to the main drainage authority but result in additional expense in the house drainage system, eliminates the flushing action of the surface water in foul drains and permits the possibility of an incorrect connection. The Principles of Drain Runs Methods of sewage disposal Building regulations requires any cesspool, septic tank or settlement tank to be: a) of adequate capacity and so constructed that it is impermeable to liquids; b) adequately ventilated; and c) so sited and constructed that it is not prejudicial to the health of any person, it will not contaminate any underground water or water supply, and There are adequate means of access for emptying. Cesspool A cesspool is an underground chamber constructed for the reception and storage of foul water from the building until it is emptied. It is a requirement that cesspools should be constructed so as to prevent leakage of its contents and ingress of subsoil water. Adequate ventilation, is sited so as not to prejudicial to health nor to contaminate water supplies, as well as permit satisfactory access from emptying and have a minimum capacity below the level of invert of 1800 litres (18m3). Cesspools if they are to be emptied using a tanker, should be sited within a 30m of a vehicle access and at such levels that they can be emptied and cleaned without hazard to the building occupants or the contents being taken through a dwelling or place of work. When sitting a cesspool attention should be paid to the slope of the ground, direction of the prevailing wind, access for emptying and possibility of future connection to a sewer. It should be sited a minimum of 15m away from any inhabited building. Cesspools should only be used when no alternatives are available.

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Septic Tank A septic tank is a brick- lined tank set into the ground, which receives the discharges from a building. After treatment from natural processes, the discharge leaves the septic tank and filters into the soil. If a house does not have a pipe system for removing waste, a septic tank can be installed. Depending on the size, septic tanks can serve one plot or a small community. The smallest septic tank should have a capacity of at least 3000 litres or 3m3. A two metre deep tank which is 2 x 2 x 1m has an internal volume of 4m3or 4000 litres. A septic tank works by using anaerobic bacteria, which do not need oxygen, to break down solid sewage into liquid and sludge. Raw sewage enters one end and emerges as liquid effluent at the other end. A drain takes the liquid to a soak-away where it filters into the soil. Inside the tank, gases cause the solids to liquefy and break up. After the solid settles as sludge, then anaerobic bacteria breaks it down until it forms scum on the surface, which at six month intervals should be pumped out. The residue in the tank starts the bacterial action again. The location of a septic tank depends on these principles: Access for pumping it out; it must be convenient. It should be at least 3 m from a building. It should be down wind The effluent should not discharge into water supplies or streams.

Soak away (soak pit) A soak-away is a rubble filled pit in the ground which absorbs water quickly and if rainwater flowed off the roof of a building in an uncontrolled way, then it could flood the building and inconvenience the occupants. Water can also flow off of shallow eaves and find its way into a building through walls and windows. For these reasons, it is better to collect water at eaves in a gutter and direct it down to the ground in a rain water pipe. The rainwater can then drain away underground and discharge into the soak away.

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SOAK AWAY

Absorption Pits- An absorption pit is a critical component of the system and refers to the area in which the water from the septic tank flows through. A chemical Chamber- This chamber function is to detoxify the sludge sediment and make it environmentally safe. This sludge may be neutralized for safe land application, and the metals can be recovered from the water using existing conventional dewatering techniques separating the detoxified, acidic sludge and the acidic, heavy metal containing water. Disposal Fields- It is from here that the sewage after been collected to the septic tank the liquid portion of it is then dispersed naturally into the surrounding area via underground.

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THE BUILDING TEAM AND BUILDING TRADES


The Building Team Building is essentially a team effort in which member has an important role to play.

Building Owner/the Client; is the person who commissions the work and directly or indirectly employs everybody. Architect; is someone who is employed by the owner to draw and design the building. Clerks of works; Employed on large contracts as the architect onsite representative. He can only offer advice. He makes sure that the contractor builds the building correctly and safely. Quantity Surveyor; prepares a bill of quantity for building projects so the contractor can accurately price the work. Engineers; make sure that the buildings are structurally stable. The engineer calculates the weight of the construction materials, the weight of the people and equipment who will occupy the house and the maximum pressure on the building. Site Agent; is the contractors representative on large contracts. He also manages the site on a day to day basis. Contractor; employed by the building owner to build the building according to the design drawings, specifications and quantities.

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Surveyor; lays out the shape of the building on the ground before construction starts. The surveyor also checks the ground level. Estimator- works out the cost of construction, the proposed buildings shown on the drawing. Buyer; order materials, obtains quotations for the supply pf materials and services. Accountant; prepares and submits account to clients and make payments to supplies and subcontractors. Administrator - organises the general clerical duties of the contractors office for the payments of wages, insurances and all necessary correspondence. Contracts manager - has overall responsibility for the site operations. General foreman; employed on small contracts. This individual should have extensive knowledge of all aspects of building construction. He should know how to organise the materials, workers and schedules. Trades foreman; is experienced at specific trades such as brick work, carpentry or plumbing. They organize and control their workers in their own trade. Operatives: the main work force onsite, including tradesmen, apprentices and labourers. Various Building Trades Carpentry (Carpenter) installs doors, construct roofs, and construct formwork. Electrical Wiring (Electrician) installs electrical fixtures, carries out wiring work. Masonry/Tiling (Mason/Tradesman) works with concrete and mortar. Lays tiles, builds stone walls. Painting (Painter) responsible for finishing the building by applying paint - Finish Joinery Fitments with various types of finishes. eg. Varnish, stains etc. Plumbing (Plumber) lays pipes, installs taps, installs toilet bowls etc.

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HISTORY OF BUILDINGS
Factors Influencing Building Designs History History of site: flood prone, landslide, built up and previous use. Material choice and availability of material Culture would have an influence on the shape and style of the structure Climate wet, cold, windy would determine where windows or balcony are placed in a building Cost would determine affordability Influence of Other Culture on Local Building Styles British - Bricks - Arches - MDF - Steep Roof - Dormers - Casement Windows - Architraves American - High rise building - Dry wall - Steel frame building - Split-level building with separate roofs for each - Panel construction

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