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The Age of Exploration, 1500-1800 Exploration and Expansion Africa in an Age of Transition Southeast
The Age of Exploration,
1500-1800
Exploration and
Expansion
Africa in an Age
of Transition
Southeast Asia in
the Era of the
Spice Trade
Exploration and Expansion
Exploration and Expansion
Objectives: 1. Discuss how in the fifteenth century, Europeans began to explore the world 2.
Objectives:
1. Discuss how in the
fifteenth century,
Europeans began to explore
the world
2. Summarize how
Portugal, Spain, the Dutch
Republic, and England
reached new economic
heights through worldwide
trade
Motives and Means First Portugal and Spain, then later the Dutch Republic, England, and France,
Motives and Means
First Portugal and Spain,
then later the Dutch
Republic, England, and
France, all rose to new
economic heights through
their worldwide trading
activity
Europeans had long been
attracted to Asia, Marco Polo
traveled to China—Kublai
Khan
Economic motives loom large in European expansion The spices, which were needed to preserve and
Economic motives loom
large in European
expansion
The spices, which were
needed to preserve and
flavor food, were very
expensive after being
shipped to Europe by Arab
middlemen
Others explored overseas to
introduce the holy Catholic
faith
Others sought grandeur, glory, and a spirit of adventure “God, gold, and glory” are the
Others sought grandeur,
glory, and a spirit of
adventure
“God, gold, and glory” are
the chief motives for
European expansion
Europeans had also reached
a level of technology that
enabled them to make a
regular series of voyages
beyond Europe
The Portuguese Trading Empire *Portugal took the lead in European exploration. Under the sponsorship of
The Portuguese
Trading Empire
*Portugal took the lead
in European exploration.
Under the sponsorship of
Prince Henry the
Navigator, Portuguese
fleets began probing
southward along the
western coast of Africa
Portuguese sea captains heard reports of a route to India around the southern tip of
Portuguese sea captains heard
reports of a route to India
around the southern tip of
Africa
*Vasco da Gama went around
the cape and cut across the
Indian Ocean to the coast of
India
cargo of spices
Portuguese fleets destroyed
Muslim shipping and to gain
control of the spice trade
The Portuguese then began to range more widely in search of the source of the
The Portuguese then began to
range more widely in search of
the source of the spice trade,
eventually discovering
*Melaka on the Malay
Peninsula
From Melaka, the Portuguese
expeditions to China and the
Spice Islands
Due to their seamanship,
guns, and ship technology, the
Portuguese dominated the
spice trade
Voyages to the Americas The Spanish sought to reach the Indian Ocean and the spice
Voyages to the
Americas
The Spanish
sought to reach
the Indian
Ocean and the
spice trade by
sailing
westward
across the
Atlantic Ocean
The Voyages of Columbus The Italian *Christopher Columbus sought to head westward to reach the
The Voyages of Columbus
The Italian *Christopher
Columbus sought to head
westward to reach the “far
east”
Educated Europeans knew
that the world was round
Columbus believed India was
only 2,000 miles across the
Atlantic—4,000 miles in
actuality
In 1492, Columbus (funded by Queen Isabella of Spain) reached the Americas, where he explored
In 1492, Columbus
(funded by Queen
Isabella of Spain)
reached the Americas,
where he explored the
coastline of Cuba and
the island of Hispaniola
He believed that he
reached the Indies—
islands in the far east
The people were
“Indians”
A Line of Demarcation Spain and Portugal resolved their concerns over exploration and competition with
A Line of Demarcation
Spain and Portugal
resolved their concerns
over exploration and
competition with an
imaginary line that divided
their spheres of influence
The Treaty of Tordesillas,
1494—gave portugal
control over its routes in
Africa and gave Spain
rights in almost all of the
Americas
1494—gave portugal control over its routes in Africa and gave Spain rights in almost all of
1494—gave portugal control over its routes in Africa and gave Spain rights in almost all of
Race to the Americas Government- sponsored explorers from many countries joined the race to the
Race to the Americas
Government-
sponsored explorers
from many
countries joined the
race to the Americas
*John Cabot, a
Venetian seaman,
explored the New
England coastline of
the Americas for
England
*Amerigo Vespucci, a Florentine, went along on several voyages and wrote letters describing the lands
*Amerigo Vespucci, a
Florentine, went
along on several
voyages and wrote
letters describing the
lands he saw
He discovered the
mainland of the “new
world” later named
after him, “America”
The Spanish Empire The Spanish conquerors of the Americas—known as *Conquistadors 1550, the Spanish gained
The Spanish Empire
The Spanish conquerors of
the Americas—known as
*Conquistadors
1550, the Spanish gained
control of northern Mexico
under Hernan Cortes
*Francisco Pizarro led the
expedition in South America
—taking the Incan Empire
The Portuguese took Brazil—located on the other side of the line of demarcation Queen Isabella
The Portuguese took
Brazil—located on the
other side of the line of
demarcation
Queen Isabella declared
the “Indians” her subjects
and granted the Spanish
the right to use these
people as laborers
Native Americans were
used on sugar plantations
and in gold and silver
mines
With little natural resistance to European diseases, the native peoples were ravaged by smallpox, measles,
With little natural
resistance to European
diseases, the native
peoples were ravaged
by smallpox, measles,
and typhus
Hispaniola, 250,000 to
500
Mexico (100 years), 25
mil to 1 mil
Native American social and political structures were torn apart and replaced by European systems of
Native American
social and
political
structures were
torn apart and
replaced by
European
systems of
religion,
language,
culture, and
government
Economic Impact and Competition Wherever they went, Europeans sought gold and silver The extensive exchange
Economic Impact
and Competition
Wherever they went,
Europeans sought gold
and silver
The extensive exchange of
plants and animals
between the Old and
New World—known as
the *Columbian Exchange
—transformed economic
activity in both worlds
New Rivals Enter the Scene By the end of the 16th century, several new European
New Rivals Enter the
Scene
By the end of the 16th
century, several new
European rivals had entered
the scene for the eastern
trade
*Ferdinand Magellan,
discoverer of the Philippines
New territory and base of
Spanish operations
At the beginning of the seventeenth century, an English fleet landed on the northwestern coast
At the beginning of
the seventeenth
century, an English
fleet landed on the
northwestern coast
of India and
established trade
relations
The Dutch founded
new colonies in
along the Hudson
River Valley
During the 1600s, the French also colonized parts of what is now Canada and Louisiana
During the 1600s, the
French also colonized
parts of what is now
Canada and Louisiana
English settlers were
founding Virginia and the
Massachusetts Bay Colony
The English seized the
Dutch land, “New
Netherlands” and
renamed it “New York”
Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism Many trading posts and colonies in the Americas and the East
Trade, Colonies, and
Mercantilism
Many trading posts and
colonies in the Americas
and the East
*Colony—a settlement of
people living in a new
territory, linked with the
patent country by trade and
direct government control
Increased international
trade
*Mercantilism—a set of principles that dominated economic thought in the 17th century The prosperity of
*Mercantilism—a set of
principles that dominated
economic thought in the 17th
century
The prosperity of a nation
depended on a large supply of
bullion, or gold and silver
*Balance of Trade—the
difference in value between
what a nation imports and what
it exports
Objectives: 1. Discuss how in the fifteenth century, Europeans began to explore the world 2.
Objectives:
1. Discuss how in the
fifteenth century,
Europeans began to explore
the world
2. Summarize how
Portugal, Spain, the Dutch
Republic, and England
reached new economic
heights through worldwide
trade
Africa in an Age of Transition
Africa in an Age of Transition
Objectives: 1. Explain how European expansion affected Africa with the dramatic increase of the slave
Objectives:
1. Explain how
European expansion
affected Africa with the
dramatic increase of the
slave trade
2. Characterize the
traditional political
systems and cultures
that continued to exist
in most of Africa
The Slave Trade Traffic in slaves was not new The Primary market for African slaves
The Slave Trade
Traffic in slaves was not
new
The Primary market for
African slaves was
Southwest Asia, where
most slaves were used as
domestic servants
15th century, 1000 slaves
brought to Portugal a
year
Cane sugar was introduced to Europe from South west Asia during the Middle Ages During
Cane sugar was
introduced to Europe
from South west Asia
during the Middle
Ages
During the 16th
century, *plantations
were set up along the
coast of Brazil and on
islands in the
Caribbean to grow
sugarcane
Growth of Slave Trade In 1518, a Spanish ship carried the first boatload of African
Growth of Slave Trade
In 1518, a Spanish ship carried
the first boatload of African
slaves from Africa to the
Americas
*Triangular trade
European merchant ships
carried guns and cloth to Africa;
Trade for slaves
Trade for tobacco, molasses,
sugar, a raw cotton
As many as 10 million African slaves were brought to the Americas between the early
As many as 10 million African slaves were brought to the Americas between the early
As many as 10 million
African slaves were
brought to the Americas
between the early 16th
and the late 19th
centuries
The journey of slaves
from Africa to the
Americas became known
as the *Middle Passage—
the middle portion of the
triangular trade route
Sources of Slaves Most slaves in Africa were prisoners of war Europeans bought them from
Sources of Slaves
Most slaves in Africa were
prisoners of war
Europeans bought them from
local African merchants at
slave markets for gold or
guns
Local merchants ignored the
depopulation occurring in
coastal regions and
continued to sell slaves
Effects of the Slave Trade The salve trade led to the depopulation of some areas,
Effects of the Slave Trade
The salve trade led to the
depopulation of some areas,
and it deprived many
African communities of their
youngest and strongest men
and women
The slave trade had a
devastating effect on some
African states
*Benin, in West Africa, was
an advanced civilization
wiped-out by gradual
depopulation from slavery
The race perception among many Europeans
The race perception
among many
Europeans
was an advanced civilization wiped-out by gradual depopulation from slavery The race perception among many Europeans
Objectives: 1. Explain how European expansion affected Africa with the dramatic increase of the slave
Objectives:
1. Explain how
European expansion
affected Africa with the
dramatic increase of the
slave trade
2. Characterize the
traditional political
systems and cultures
that continued to exist
in most of Africa
Southeast Asia in the Era of the Spice Trade
Southeast Asia in the Era of the
Spice Trade
Objectives: 1. Summarize the Portuguese occupation of the Moluccas in search of spices and how
Objectives:
1. Summarize the
Portuguese occupation of
the Moluccas in search of
spices and how the
Dutch pushed the
Portuguese out
2. Relate how the arrival
of the Europeans greatly
affected the Malay
Emerging Mainland States Conflicts did erupt among the emerging states on the Southeast Asian mainland
Emerging
Mainland States
Conflicts did erupt among the
emerging states on the
Southeast Asian mainland
New kingdoms arose in
Vietnam and the Malay
Peninsula
Muslim merchants attracted
to the growing spice trade
dominated most of the
Indonesian shipping
The Arrival of Europeans In 1511, the Portuguese seized Melaka and soon occupied the *Moluccas
The Arrival of
Europeans
In 1511, the
Portuguese seized
Melaka and soon
occupied the
*Moluccas and the
spice trade
They set up small
settlements and
trade posts along the
coast
A Shift in Power The situation changed with the arrival of the English and *Dutch
A Shift in Power
The situation changed with the
arrival of the English and *Dutch
traders, who were better
financed than were the
Portuguese
The Dutch gradually pushed the
Portuguese out
They also reduced the English
influence to a sing port on the
coast of Sumatra
The Dutch established a central
fort in 1619 on the island of *Java
Impact on the Mainland Portuguese and then Dutch influence was mostly limited to the Malay
Impact on the Mainland
Portuguese and then
Dutch influence was
mostly limited to the
Malay Peninsula and
the Indonesian
Archipelago
The Portuguese
established limited
trade relations with
several *mainland states
The Mainland states of Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam had begun to define themselves as distinct
The Mainland states
of Burma, Thailand,
and Vietnam had
begun to define
themselves as
distinct political
entities
They had strong
monarchies that
resisted foreign
intrusion
Religious and Political Systems Particularly in the non- mainland states and the Philippines, Islam and
Religious and
Political Systems
Particularly in the non-
mainland states and the
Philippines, Islam and
Christianity were beginning
to attract converts
Buddhism was advancing
from Burma to Vietnam
Traditional beliefs, however,
survived and influenced the
new religions
Objectives: 1. Summarize the Portuguese occupation of the Moluccas in search of spices and how
Objectives:
1. Summarize the
Portuguese occupation of
the Moluccas in search of
spices and how the
Dutch pushed the
Portuguese out
2. Relate how the arrival
of the Europeans greatly
affected the Malay