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Preface 1 Contractional theory, continental drift and plate tectonics


XII Sediments and ore deposits in graben structures Volcanism in graben structures 1 The Upper Rhine Graben in Germany The history of the Upper Rhine Graben The Upper Rhine Graben in the Middle European stress field Magmatism and heat flow in the Upper Rhine Graben The large East African rift system The Afar Depression The Red Sea from rift to drift The extensional area of the Basin and Range Province The development of metamorphic domes A brief history of the Basin and Range Province

29 30 31 32 33 34 34 37 37 39 40 41

Plate tectonics a change in the paradigm of the geosciences 1 Early history of geodynamic thought From continental drift to plate tectonics The plate tectonic concept The pattern of magnetic polarity stripes Plate motions and earthquake zones Two kinds of continental margins Magmatism and plate tectonics What drives the plates and what slows them down? Collision and mountain building 1 2 4 8 8 11 11 12 12

4 2 Plate movements and their geometric relationships


15 15 16 18 20 21 22 23 25 27 28 28

Passive continental margins and abyssal plains

43 43 44 45 46 48 48 49 51 52 54 55 56

Helpful transform faults Relative movements and triple junctions Two RTF triple junctions off North America Relative plate velocities past and present Direct measurement of plate movements Apparent contradictions in the plate motion pattern Fault-plane-solutions of earthquakes Seismic tomography

Continuous subsidence of the continental margins The sedimentary trap at a passive continental margin Tracts of sequence stratigraphy Processes on continental margins Petroleum deposits the economic significance of passive continental margins The Atlantic an ocean opens in an intricate manner Pangaea and Panthalassa The large abyssal plains Sediments of the abyssal plains Manganese nodules from the deep sea Facies changes on the large oceanic conveyor belt The Bengal deep sea fan

Continental graben structures

Active and passive graben structures Symmetric and asymmetric crustal extension

VI

Mid-ocean ridges

59 59 60 61 62 64 65 65 67 67 68 68 70 71 71 72 72 72 75 77 77 78 80 82 82 84 85 86 87 87 88

Topography of the ridges Generation of oceanic lithosphere Rocks of the oceanic crust Pillow lavas Seismic layers Basalts of mid-ocean ridges Fast and slow spreading ridges and rocks of the lithospheric mantle Segmentation of ridges by faults Graben formation in the Atlantic An oceanic crustal profile in the Atlantic Ocean Black and white smokers Ocean floor metamorphism Chromite deposits Ophiolites The ophiolite of the Semail Nappe in Oman Metamorphic sole Alpine-Mediterranean ophiolites

Subduction zones, island arcs and 91 active continental margins


91 93 94 96 97 99 100 101 103 103 104 107 109 111 112 113 114 116 117 118 119 119 120 120 122 122 122

Structure of plate margin systems with subduction zones Spontaneous and forced subduction: Mariana- and Chile-type subduction What is the reason for the arcuate shape of island arcs? Deep sea trenches as sediment traps Accretionary wedge and outer ridge The accretionary wedge of the Sunda Arc Subduction erosion instead of accretion Mud volcanoes The forearc basin Earthquakes and Benioff zones The Shigatse Flysch in Tibet The secret of deep earthquakes High-pressure or subduction metamorphism Ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks Rapid burial, rapid uplift Subduction-related magmatism a paradox? Rocks of the magmatic zone Zonation of magmas in space and time Explosive stratovolcanoes as indicators for subduction magmatism Isotopic signatures and the influence of continental crust Metamorphism in the magmatic belt Paired metamorphic belts Ore deposits in the magmatic belt The backarc basin Splitting of intra-oceanic island arcs Gravity and heat flow Subduction and collision

Hot spots

Hot spots and mid-ocean ridges The mysterious D'' layer and the dented Earth Hot spots of Pangaea Hot spot tracks in the ocean A guyot evolves Hot spot tracks on the continent Flood and trap basalts The Azores hot, cold or wet spot? Hawaii a typical oceanic hot spot Iceland Yellowstone The superplume event in the Cretaceous

VII

Transform faults

123 123 123 125 127 129

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Old orogens

159 159 160 160 160 161 162 163 165 165 167 169

Oceanic transform faults Fracture zones in the ocean floor Continental transform faults San Andreas the infamous transform fault of California The North Anatolian Fault in Asia Minor and the Alpine Fault in New Zealand

25002000 million years old ophiolites The Wopmay orogen in Canada The Grenville orogenic cycle and the formation of the supercontinent Rodinia The Panafrican orogeny and the formation of Gondwana The Caledonides a Wilson cycle around the Iapetus Ocean The significance of Scotland and the Greek mythology The Variscides a broad mountain belt in central Europe A Variscan suture in the southern Black Forest The Variscan orogen in the Alps Paleozoic mountain building in eastern and southern North America How many orogenies?

Terranes

131 132 134 138

Documenting terranes Terranes in the North American Cordillera Suspect terranes in Mexico and Middle America

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Early Precambrian plate tectonics


The oldest rocks and minerals

139 140 141 143 144 145 146 147 147

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Young orogens the Earths loftiest places

171 172 172 174 174 176 178 179 185 187 189 199 207

Greenstone-granite belts Granulite-gneiss belts Komatiites Towards an Archean plate tectonic model The growth of continents Possible younger equivalents of greenstonegranite belts The Great Dike of Zimbabwe

The Himalayas a mountain range with superlatives Tectonic history of the Himalayas Nanga Parbat and Namche Barwa syntaxis The Alps an untypical but classic orogen Brief history of Alpine evolution Lateral tectonic extrusion in the Alps The North American Cordillera a different style of orogen Laramide Rocky Mountains an orogenic mystery solved Epilog

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Plate tectonics and mountain building

149 149 152 154 158

Types of active continental margins within orogenic styles Continent-continent collision Uplift, erosion, and elevation of mountains Collapse and crustal escape

Glossary References Keyword Index

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