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Instruments used for Harmonic analysis. Limits for harmonics. Observations. Recommendations Works: Electronic Zone Sector-7, Plot no 31,PCNDTA Bhosari Pune-27, psbisale@sif y.com

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Claritas Power System Solution Pvt Ltd. Pune, places its sincere gratitude, for having entrusted on harmonic study conducted at Mahagenco, chandrapur. Our sincere thanks all staff members of various departments for excellent co-ord ination during field measurements and providing accurate data required during harmonic study Ou r special thanks to the all members of Electrical Maintenance team for their valuable time extended to the power quality audit team during the field measurement and providing other techni cal information required in preparing the harmonic study report.

INSTRUMENT USED : Harmonic analysis was conducted using KRYKARD make harmonic analyzer type ALM-30 Consisting of two phase voltage prode max 600volts ,Three phase tonge tes ter Max 1 to 3000A. analyzer is communicated to computer through RS232 port for Prin touts of captured data. The following electrical parameters can be measured and viewed in 3 simultaneously. Line to neutral voltage Line to line voltage Current on each phase Frequency Power factor KVA KW KVAR Voltage Harmonics-THD,L1,L2,L3,N, 1-49th Current Harmonics-THD,L1,L2,L3,N,1-49th Transients Inrush current Unbalance V, I, W

Power & Energy Swells All the snap shots of above reading are stored in non-volatile memory of ALM-30

ABBREVIATION Symbol Abbreviation A Ampere V Volts KV Kilo volts KVA Kilo volt ampere KVAR Kilo volt ampere reactive KW Kilo watts MD Maximum demand %THD Percentage Total harmonic distortion % THDv Percentage voltage Total harmonic distortion % THDi Percentage current Total harmonic distortion % TIHDv Percentage voltage Total inter harmonic distortion % TIHDi Percentage current Total inter harmonic distortion Voltage sag Reduction in RMS voltage from 90% to 10% for the time period from 10 msec. to 1 min. Voltage swell Increase in RMS voltage from 110% to 180% for the time period from 10 msec. to 1 min. Transient Sudden non power frequency change in the voltage or current from steady state. %Vunb Percentage voltage unbalance factor %Iunb Percentage current unbalance factor KF Crest factor .,U50 Percentage individual voltage harmonics from 2 %U2,U3, order to 50 order %I2,I3, .,I50 Percentage individual current harmonics from 2 order to 50 order Max.val. Maximum value of the parameter over the measurement period Avg. val. Average value of the parameter over the measurement period Min.val. Minimum value of the parameter over the measurement period

IMPACT OF HARMONICS ON THE OPERATIONS OF VARIOUS EQUIPMENTS: It is well known that a nonlinear load draws a highly distorted current from the source, which consists of harmonics, fundamental active and reactive current components. If the source or/ and the load is unbalanced, the source also contains negative sequence currents. The impact of h armonics on various equipments depends on the phase sequences of harmonics. Table 1.2 shows the impa ct of harmonic phase sequence. Table 1.1: Classification and Effect of Harmonic Harmonic Order 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Frequency(Hz) 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 Phase sequence + -0 + -0 + -0 + Effect on Equipment * # $ * # $ * # $ * # * Heating # heating plus motor problem $ heating plus add in a neutral of a thre e phase four wire Tripplen harmonics become an important issue for grounded wye system with curren t flowing in the neutral and cause overloading of neutrals and telephone interferences. Transform er winding connections have significant impact on the flow of tripplen harmonic currents from single ph ase non linear loads. In the Wye delta transformer the tripplen harmonic currents enter in the Wye side, since they are in phase and add in the neutral. The delta winding provides ampere turns balance so they can flow, but they remain trapped in delta and do not show up in the line currents on delta side. The dist orted supply voltage thus adversely affect the performance of other equipment connected to power system ne twork. The various effects of harmonics on the operation of various equipments are tabulated in Tab le 1.2 Table 1.2: Effect of Harmonics on Equipments Equipment Effects Capacitor banks Overheating , Insulation failure, Failure of internal fuses Motors Overheating, Increased noise level, Additional vibrations Transformers Overheating, Possible resonance between transformer winding and lin e capacitance, Insulation stress Protection equipment False tripping , No tripping when required Measuring devices Wrong measurement Electronic devices Wrong pulse on data transmission , Over/under voltage Flicker ing of screen Incandescent lamps Reduced life time, Flicker Cables, bus bar, neutrals Overheating Generators Harmonic pairs 5th and 7th have potential for creating mechanical osc illations in turbine generators

Observation: Sr. No Location Voltage V THD A THD 1. 11 kv incomer (Filter bank off) Filter rating : 1500 kvar,13 kv AHPFC panel Ref : annexure 1 11.39 KV 1.4 % Total = 7.5 % 3rd = 2.3% 5th = 6.1% 7th = 1.3 % 9th = 0.2% 11th = 0.6 % 13th = 0.3 % 2. 11 kv incomer (Filter bank on) Filter rating : 1500 kvar, 13 kv AHPFC panel Ref : annexure 2 11.54 KV 0.8 % Total = 5.2 % 3rd = 1 % 5th = 4.4% 7th = 1.2% 9th = 0.0% 11th = 0.4 % 13th = 0.3 % Abbreviations: KV: Kilo Volts V: Volts A: Ampere V THD: Total Harmonic Distortion Voltage A THD: Total Harmonic Distortion Current

Annexure 1 KRYKARD ALM 30 Location: 11 KV Incomer side (Filter bank off) Voltage

Voltage Harmonics

Annexure 2 KRYKARD ALM 30 Location: 11 KV Incomer side (Filter bank on) Voltage

Voltage Harmonics

Recommendations: CPSSPL, Pune had proposed to add 1500 kvar, 13 kv AHPFC panel to boost up existi ng Power Factor to compensate additional load, so as to have uniform Power Factor at 33KV bus along with Harmonic suppression. Comments: Implemented and working satisfactorily Conclusion: There is a improvement in following parameters as under; Power factor = 0.996 (lag) to unity THD (I) = 5% THD (V) = 1%

Harmonic Distortion Limit IEEE-519,1992 IEEE recommended practices and requirements for harmonic control in electrical power system represents a standard level of acceptable harmonic distortion in a power system A. Current Distortion Limits (120 V to 69 KV)-User s Responsibility ISC/IL <11 11<=h<17 17<=h<23 23<=h<35 35<=h THD <20* 4.0 2.0 1.5 0.6 0.3 5.0 20<50 7.0 3.5

2.5 1.0 0.5 8.0 50<100 10.0 4.5 4.0 1.5 0.7 12.0 100<1000 12.0 5.5 5.0 2.0 1.0 15.0 >1000 15.0 7.0 6.0 2.5 1.4 20.0 Note : * All power generation equipment are limited those values regardless their ISC/IL 1)Represents Odd harmonics as % of IL (Fundamental at PCC) 2) Even harmonics are limited to 25%

of Odd harmonics limits ISC Maximum Short circuit at the point of common coupling (PCC) corresponding to system MVA level IL-Maximum demand Load Current (Fundamental Frequency ) at common coupling h-Harmonic number In-nth Harmonic current *(like I5 is 5TH harmonic Current etc) 11<=h,17-Represents all harmonic currents between 11TH to 16 TH THD Total Harmonic Distrotion

B. Voltage Distortion Limits-Utility s & System s Responsibility Bus Voltage at Individual Voltage THD Remarks PCC Distortion <=69 KV 69>=161 KV 3.0 1.5 5.0 2.5 HV system can have upto 2.0% THD where the cause is an HVDC >161 KV 1.0 1.5 terminal that will attenuate by the time it is tapped for a user

Detect and eliminate harmonics: why? From Electrical Installation Guide Disturbances caused by harmonics Harmonics flowing in distribution networks downgrade the quality of electrical p ower. This can have a number of negative effects: Overloads on distribution networks due to the increase in rms current Overloads in neutral conductors due to the cumulative increase in third-order ha rmonics created by single-phase loads Overloads, vibration and premature ageing of generators, transformers and motors as well as increased transformer hum Overloads and premature ageing of power-factor correction capacitors Distortion of the supply voltage that can disturb sensitive loads Disturbances in communication networks and on telephone lines Economic impact of disturbances Harmonics have a major economic impact: Premature ageing of equipment means it must be replaced sooner unless oversized right from the start Overloads on the distribution network can require higher subscribed power levels and increase losses Distortion of current waveforms provokes nuisance tripping that can stop product ion Increasingly serious consequences Only ten years ago, harmonics were not yet considered a real problem because the ir effects on distribution networks were generally minor. However, the massive introduction of power electr onics in equipment has made the phenomenon far more serious in all sectors of economic activity. In addition, the equipment causing the harmonics is often vital to the company o r organisation. Which harmonics must be measured and eliminated? The most frequently encountered harmonics in three-phase distribution networks a re the odd orders. Harmonic amplitudes normally decrease as the frequency increases. Above order 50 , harmonics are negligible and measurements are no longer meaningful. Sufficiently accurate meas urements are obtained by measuring harmonics up to order 30.

Utilities monitor harmonic orders 3, 5, 7, 11 and 13. Generally speaking, harmon ic conditioning of the lowest orders (up to 13) is sufficient. More comprehensive conditioning takes in to account harmonic orders up to 25.

Effects of harmonics -Resonance From Electrical Installation Guide The simultaneous use of capacitive and inductive devices in distribution network s results in parallel or series resonance manifested by very high or very low impedance values respective ly. The variations in impedance modify the current and voltage in the distribution network. Here, only parallel resonance phenomena, the most common, will be discussed. Consider the following simplified diagram (see Fig. M6) representing an installa tion made up of: A supply transformer Linear loads Non-linear loads drawing harmonic currents Power factor correction capacitors Fig. M6: Diagram of an installation For harmonic analysis, the equivalent diagram (see Fig. M7) is shown below. Impedance Z is calculated by: Neglecting R and where: Ls = Supply inductance (upstream network + transformer + line) C = Capacitance of the power factor correction capacitors R = Resistance of the linear loads Ih = Harmonic current Resonance occurs when the denominator 1-LsCw2 tends toward zero. The correspondi ng frequency is

called the resonance frequency of the circuit. At that frequency, impedance is a t its maximum and high amounts of harmonic voltages appear with the resulting major distortion in the v oltage. The voltage distortion is accompanied, in the Ls+C circuit, by the flow of harmonic currents greater than those drawn by the loads. The distribution network and the power factor correction capacitors are subjecte d to high harmonic currents and the resulting risk of overloads. To avoid resonance, anti-harmonic coils can be installed in series with the capacitors. Fig. M7: Equivalent diagram of the installation shown in Figure M6

Effects of harmonics -Increased losses From Electrical Installation Guide Contents 1 Losses in conductors 2 Losses in asynchronous machines 3 Losses in transformers Losses in conductors The active power transmitted to a load is a function of the fundamental componen t I1 of the current. When the current drawn by the load contains harmonics, the rms value of the curr ent, Irms, is greater than the fundamental I1. The definition of THD being:

Figure M8 shows, as a function of the harmonic distortion: The increase in the rms current Irms for a load drawing a given fundamental curr ent The increase in Joule losses, not taking into account the skin effect Fig. M8: Increase in rms current and Joule losses as a function of the THD (The reference point in the graph is 1 for Irms and Joules losses, the case when there are no harmonics) The harmonic currents provoke an increase in the Joule losses in all conductors in which they flow and additiona temperature rise in transformers, devices, cables, etc.

Losses in asynchronous machines The harmonic voltages (order h) supplied to asynchronous machines provoke in the rotor the flow of currents with frequencies higher than 50 Hz that are the cause of additional los ses. Orders of magnitude A virtually rectangular supply voltage provokes a 20% increase in losses A supply voltage with harmonics u5 = 8% (of U1, the fundamental voltage), u7 = 5%, u11 = 3%, u13 = 1%, i.e. total harmonic distortion THDu equal to 10%, r esults in additional losses of 6% Losses in transformers Harmonic currents flowing in transformers provoke an increase in the copper losses due to the Joule effect and increased iron losses due to eddy currents. The harmonic voltages are r esponsible for iron losses due to hysteresis. It is generally considered that losses in windings increase as the square of the THDi and that core losses increase linearly with the THDu. In utility-distribution transformers, where distortion levels are limited, losse s increase between 10 and 15%. Losses in capacitors The harmonic voltages applied to capacitors provoke the flow of currents proport ional to the frequency of the harmonics. These currents cause additional losses. Example A supply voltage has the following harmonics: Fundamental voltage U1, harmonic voltages u5 = 8% (of U1), u7 = 5%, u11 = 3%, u1 3 = 1%, i.e. total harmonic distortion THDu equal to 10%. The amperage of the current is multiplied by 1.19. Joule losses are multiplied by 1.192, i.e. 1.4.

Effects of harmonics -Overloads on equipment From Electrical Installation Guide Generators Generators supplying non-linear loads must be derated due to the additional loss es caused by harmonic currents. The level of derating is approximately 10% for a generator where the overall loa d is made up of 30% of non-linear loads. It is therefore necessary to oversize the generator. Uninterruptible power systems (UPS) The current drawn by computer systems has a very high crest factor. A UPS sized taking into account exclusively the RMS current may not be capable of supplying the necessary peak c urrent and may be overloaded. Transformers The curve presented below (see Fig. M9) shows the typical derating required for a transformer supplying electronic loads Fig. M9: Derating required for a transformer supplying electronic loads

Example If the transformer supplies an overall load comprising 40% of electronic loads, it must be derated by 40%. Standard UTE C15-112 provides a derating factor for transformers as a function o f the harmonic currents. Typical values: Current with a rectangular waveform (1/h spectrum (1)): k = 0.86 Frequency-converter current (THD 50%): k = 0.80 (1) In fact, the current waveform is similar to a rectangular waveform. This is the case for all current rectifiers (th rectifiers, induction furnaces). Asynchronous machines Standard IEC 60892 defines a weighted harmonic factor (Harmonic voltage factor) for which the equation and maximum value are provided below. Example A supply voltage has a fundamental voltage U1 and harmonic voltages u3 = 2% of U 1, u5 = 3%, u7 = 1%. The THDu is 3.7% and the MVF is 0.018. The MVF value is very close to the maximu m value above which the machine must be derated. Practically speaking, for supply to the machi ne, a THDu of 10% must not be exceeded. Capacitors According to IEC 60831-1 standard, the rms current flowing in the capacitors mus t not exceed 1.3 times the rated current. Using the example mentioned above, the fundamental voltage U1, harmonic voltages u5 = 8% (of U1), u7 = 5%, u11 = 3%, u13 = 1%, i.e. total harmonic distortion THDu equal to 10%, the result is , at the rated voltage. For a voltage equal to 1.1 times the rated voltage, the current limit is reached and it is necessary to resize the capacitors.

Neutral conductors Consider a system made up of a balanced three-phase source and three identical s ingle-phase loads connected between the phases and the neutral (see Fig. M10). Fig. M10: Flow of currents in the various conductors connected to a three-phase source Figure M11 shows an example of the currents flowing in the three phases and the resulting current in the neutral conductor. In this example, the current in the neutral conductor has an rms value that is h igher than the rms value of the current in a phase by a factor equal to the square root of 3. The neutral co nductor must therefore be sized accordingly. Fig. M11: Example of the currents flowing in the various conductors connected to a three-phase load (In = Ir + Is + It)

Effects of harmonics -Disturbances affecting sensitive loads From Electrical Installation Guide Contents 1 Effects of distortion in the supply voltage 2 Distortion of telephone signals Effects of distortion in the supply voltage Distortion of the supply voltage can disturb the operation of sensitive devices:

Regulation devices (temperature) Computer hardware Control and monitoring devices (protection relays) Distortion of telephone signals Harmonics cause disturbances in control circuits (low current levels). The level of distortion depends on the distance that the power and control cables run in parallel, the distance bet ween the cables and the frequency of the harmonics

Effects of harmonics -Economic impact From Electrical Installation Guide Contents 1 Energy losses 2 Higher subscription costs 3 Oversizing of equipment 4 Reduced service life of equipment 5 Nuisance tripping and installation shutdown 6 Examples Energy losses Harmonics cause additional losses (Joule effect) in conductors and equipment. Higher subscription costs The presence of harmonic currents can require a higher subscribed power level an d consequently higher costs. What is more, utilities will be increasingly inclined to charge customers for ma jor sources of harmonics. Oversizing of equipment Derating of power sources (generators, transformers and UPSs) means they must be oversized Conductors must be sized taking into account the flow of harmonic currents. In a ddition, due the the skin effect, the resistance of these conductors increases with frequency. To avo id excessive losses due to the Joule effect, it is necessary to oversize conductors Flow of harmonics in the neutral conductor means that it must be oversized as we ll Reduced service life of equipment When the level of distortion in the supply voltage approaches 10%, the duration of the service life of equipment is significantly reduced. The reduction has been estimated at: 32.5% for single-phase machines 18% for three-phase machines 5% for transformers To maintain the service lives corresponding to the rated load, equipment must be

oversized.

Nuisance tripping and installation shutdown Circuit-breakers in the installation are subjected to current peaks caused by ha rmonics. These current peaks cause nuisance tripping with the resulting production losses , as well as the costs corresponding to the time required to start the installation up again. Examples Given the economic consequences for the installations mentioned below, it was ne cessary to install harmonic filters. Computer centre for an insurance company In this centre, nuisance tripping of a circuit-breaker was calculated to have co st 100 k per hour of down time. Pharmaceutical laboratory Harmonics caused the failure of a generator set and the interruption of a long-d uration test on a new medication. The consequences were a loss estimated at 17 M . Metallurgy factory A set of induction rmers ranging from to 2500 kVA over a estimated at 20 k hour. furnaces caused the overload and destruction of three transfo 1500 single year. The cost of the interruptions in production were per

Factory producing garden furniture The failure of variable-speed drives resulted in production shutdowns estimated at 10 k per hour.

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