Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 59

ASP.

NET INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

Dategrid filtering and sorting How can we sort all the fields at once?
first write one sql query and there include "order by (the column header of
the datagrid what you have used").
How many types of page. THREE TYPES OF PAGE
can we transfer data from one page to another page using viewstate if so
how?if not y? No.from my knowledge can not.Bcos viewstate life time is in
single page.So while going to another page first page viewstate end
already.[yes we can by sessions, server.transver]
How can we prevent an aspx page get refreshed when any information fetch
from the database ?
Using Update Pannel of Microsoft AJAX or using Simple Ajax
What is the best way to search any exact information on google? use AJAX.
How many view state can be hold by a aspx page ?
A page have only one viewstate object [on the page_load we can increment the
objecy and find it]
code for inserting images into gridview colomns from database
By using item template column in gridview control [It can be done in two
ways. *First we maintain a table in database which have a column which
would have image path on the server. *Second way to write byte in database
for that you have to make byte[] object write in it first through making a
class by using Input stream class.]
i want to develope a page for online test using asp.net with c#.net. so, how
to insert the questions in the database sqlserver2000 and how to pick the
questions randomly when user login for test? the query for random selection
is select * from tablename order by newid()
how to create bin folder in asp.net2.0? By default it will comes under in
solution explorer of the current project [In solution explorer by right
clicking the website name >>Add Asp.net Folders>>Bin will add the Bin folder]
What is the difference between User Controls and Master Pages
Master pages and user controils are two different concepts. Master pages are
used to provide the consistent layout and common behaviour for multiple
pages in your applications.then u can add the Contenetplaceholder to add
child pages custom contenet. User Controls:Sometimes u need the
functionality in ur web pages which is not possible using the Built-In
Web server controls then user can create his own controls called user
controls using asp.net builtin controls.User controlsn are those with .aspx
extensions and u can share it in the application.
What is difference b/w Data Grid in ASP.Net 1.1 and Gridview in 2.0
Gridview is the replacement in .net 2.0 for the datagrid.the differences
between them is >>sorting editing and paging are the additional capabilities
in gridview which requires no coding while Datgrid requires the user coding
.Gridview has improved databinding using smart tag.Additional column types
and design time column operations.Customised pager UI using pager
template.Customized paging support.[Datagrid has itemdatabound event but in
gridview it is replaced by rowdatabound.In datagrid u can show more than
one table with their relation while not possible in gridview.]
How to use one project files into another project?
Simply by copying that files in to current project directory.
What is meant by role based security? when we use this one
We can use role based security while we use forms authentication to
authenticte users and roles are used to authorize i.e grant or deny access
to particular pages in ur application depending upon the user role assigned
to them.
What are generics? why it is used? architecture of ASP.NET?

1
Generics are new in .NET 2.0.It is used to define a type while leaving some
details unspecified.Generics are the replacement of "Objects" in .NET1.1
Generics reduces the run-time error and increases the performance.
What is the DLL Hell Problem?
As higher version Dll overwrites lower version Dll.This problem is referred
to as dllhell .This is a drawback in Vb and eliminated in Dotnet by the
concept of assemblies.
with which controls you worked in Asp.net 2.0?
GridView (Datagrid in asp.net 1.1)
How many webforms are possible on a single webpage?
n number of webpages u can have in a single webform.for example in a
loginpage.aspx u can have 2 different iframes in that u can load 2 different
pages.[In a single page n number of pages u take.Using different Layer]
how can i insert array values and retreive in asp.net? Take Example
a[10]
For i=0 to 9
a[i]="value"
what is the difference between assemblyinfo and webconfig files?
An assemblyinfo contains all information about the manifest of the IL and it
also contains the information about the strongname,version number of the
assembly created.where the webconfig file contains all the information about
the settings of the application including the assemblies information.
Is string a value type or a reference type?
String in .NET id 'Reference Type'.The reason is quite simple.All classes in
the .NET Environment are 'Reference Type' & 'String' is a Class in .NET (not
DataType as in VB 6.0)
What is boxing?
Boxing means convert value type to reference type[converting value type to
reference type is called boxing.]
How would one do a deep copy in .NET? Two or more pointers have their own
Data.
class A
{
string c;
}
A a;
B b;
a=b;//deep copy
[class A
{
public A()
{
};
public int i;
}
class TestPerson
{
static void Main()
{
A a = new A();
A b;
a.i =5;
b=a; // not a deep copy
b.i = a.i+6;}}
here a.i=11 and b.i = 11 because a and b both refer same instance of
object Deep copy would be implemented in c# using copy construction
class A

2
{
public A()
{
};
public A(A previouscopy)
{
i = previouscopy.i;
};
public int i;
}
class TestPerson
{
static void Main()
{
A a = new A();
a.i =5;
// Create another new object, copying a.
A b = new A(a); // Deep copy using copy constructor
b.i = a.i+6;}}
here a.i=5 and b.i = 11 because a and b both refer it's own instance of
object]
In the context of a comparison, what is object identity versus object
equivalence?
Object identity: when two things are refers to an instance of object.
object Equivalence: when two things refer two instances with same vale
What is the difference between a.Equals(b) and a == b?
[no difference]
The Equals method is just a virtual one defined in System.Object,
and overridden by whichever classes choose to do so. The == operator is an
operator which can be overloaded by classes, but which usually has identity
behaviour.
For reference types where == has not been overloaded, it compares
whether two references refer to the same object - which is exactly what the
implementation of Equals does in System.Object.
Value types do not provide an overload for == by default. However,
most of the value types provided by the framework provide their own
overload. The default implementation of Equals for a value type is provided
by ValueType, and uses reflection to make the comparison, which makes it
significantly slower than a type-specific implementation normally would be.
This implementation also calls Equals on pairs of references within the two
values being compared.
However, the main difference between the two types of comparison in
normal use (where you're unlikely to be defining your own value types very
often) is polymorphism. Operators are overloaded, not overridden, which
means that unless the compiler knows to call the more specific
version, it'll just call the identity version. To illustrate that, here's an
example:
using System;
public class Test
{
static void Main()
{
// Create two equal but distinct strings
string a = new string(new char[]
{'h', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o'});
string b = new string(new char[]
{'h', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o'});

3
Console.WriteLine (a==b);
Console.WriteLine (a.Equals(b));
// Now let's see what happens with the same tests
but
// with variables of type object
object c = a;
object d = b;
Console.WriteLine (c==d);
Console.WriteLine (c.Equals(d));}}
The results are:
True True False True
The third line is False because the compiler can only call the non-
overloaded version of == as it doesn't know that the contents of c and d are
both string references. As they are references to different strings, the
identity operator returns false.
So, when should you use which operator? My rule of thumb is that for
almost all reference types, use Equals when you want to test equality rather
than reference identity. The exception is for strings - comparing strings
with == does make things an awful lot simpler and more readable but you need
to remember that both sides of the operator must be expressions of type
string in order to get the comparison to work properly.
For value types, I'd normally use == for easier-to-read code. Things
would get tricky if a value type provided an overload for == which acted
differently to Equals, but I'd consider such a type very badly designed to
start with.
Contrast the use of an abstract base class against an interface?
Abstract classes can provide implementations for methods and properties.
Interfaces only provide required declarations.[A class can inherit only one
absatract class, whereas the a class can inherit more than one interface.
An abstract class can have abstract as well as non abstract methods
whereas the interface can have only the abstract methods.]
What is the difference between a Debug and Release build? Is there a
significant speed difference? Why or why not?
[debug just do debugging the application while release do debugging as well
as release the application] - The biggest difference between these is that:
In a debug build the complete symbolic debug information is
emitted to help while debugging applications and also the code optimization
is not taken into account. While in release build the symbolic debug info is
not emitted and the code execution is optimized. Also, because the symbol
info is not emitted in a release build, the size of the final executable is
lesser than a debug executable.
- Usually they are configured to build differently. The debug build
includes building debug symbols (the .pdb files that live next to the .dll
assemblies) and doesn't perform code optimization which speeds up compiling
a bit.
What is the difference between Debug.Write and Trace.Write? When should each
be used? Debug.write would not be compiled when the debug symbol is defined
Trace.write would be compiled when the debug symbol is defined
How does the XmlSerializer work? What ACL permissions does a process using
it require? One of the most powerful XML Schema features is its hability
to validate documents based on element types, instead of element names. That
is no matter which element name is used in an instance document, say
Customer, customer and CRMCustomer, as far as our XSD Schema makes them all
inherit from say CustomerDef, the document will be valid. This is very
important in interoperability scenarios, of course.That said, one of the
most versatile and performat ways to handle XML in .NET (forget about

4
XmlDocument) is using the XmlSerializer class. Coupled with XSD.EXE or the
technique I exposed in a previous post, you can easily autogenerate the
classes from that schema. So far so good. + For the curious, here's such a
schema (a trivial one here of couse).
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<xs:schema id="Customers"
targetNamespace="http://www.lagash.com/schemas/customers"
elementFormDefault="qualified"
xmlns="http://www.lagash.com/schemas/customers"
xmlns:mstns="http://www.lagash.com/schemas/customers"
xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">
<xs:complexType name="CustomerDef">
<xs:sequence>
<xs:element name="Name" type="xs:string" />
<xs:element name="EMail" type="xs:string" />
</xs:sequence>
</xs:complexType>
<xs:element name="customer" type="CustomerDef"></xs:element>
<xs:element name="Customer" type="CustomerDef"></xs:element>
<xs:element name="CustomerCRM"
type="CustomerDef"></xs:element>
</xs:schema>
+ And here are the different instance documents.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<Customer xmlns="http://www.lagash.com/schemas/customers">
<Name>Daniel Cazzulino</Name>
<EMail>customer@example.com</EMail>
</Customer>
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<customer xmlns="http://www.lagash.com/schemas/customers">
<Name>Daniel Cazzulino</Name>
<EMail>customer@example.com</EMail>
</customer>
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<CustomerCRM xmlns="http://www.lagash.com/schemas/customers">
<Name>Daniel Cazzulino</Name>
<EMail>customer@example.com</EMail>
</CustomerCRM>
However, only one of the three versions will work, the one with the
element "customer". The other versions, which are equally valid according to
the schema, and which are of the desired type CustomerDef will fail with an
exception saying the element was not expected. As I explained while
discussing XmlSerializer speed, it creates a temporary assembly for reading
and writing the serialized version of a type. We're interested in the reader
now. When the XSD shown above is used to generate the XmlSerializable class,
we get a class definition like the following:
/// <remarks/>
[System.Xml.Serialization.XmlTypeAttribute(Namespace="http://www.lagash.com/
schemas/customers")]
[System.Xml.Serialization.XmlRootAttribute("customer",
Namespace="http://www.lagash.com/schemas/customers",
IsNullable=false)]
public class CustomerDef
{
/// <remarks/>
public string Name;
/// <remarks/>

5
public string EMail;}
From the definition above, the XmlSerializer will create the
temporary reader. The reader will contain a set of Read methods according to
those serialization attributes. Using the technique explained in the
aforemetioned post, I got the temporary generated class. The reader contains
a Read4_customer method which is the one that tries to load the XML. The
problem is that this method uses a stored string (taken from the
serialization attributes) and performs an element name/namespace string
comparison. Therefore, it will always fail with the other two valid root
elements. I found a very interesting thing though, while digging
inside the generated reader. It has a method with the signature CustomerDef
Read1_CustomerDef(bool isNullable, bool checkType) which is perfectly
capable of loading the object. However, getting this far was very difficult.
First, I had to add this temporary class to my project and make that method
public, as it's private by default, and second, there's no "public" way of
initializing this reader. You have to call an internal Init method on the
base XmlSerializationReader class. Thanks GOD we still have reflection to
test these things!
MethodInfo m = typeof(XmlSerializationReader).GetMethod(
"Init", BindingFlags.Instance | BindingFlags.NonPublic);
using (FileStream c = new FileStream(@"C:\CustomerCRM.xml",
FileMode.Open))
{
XmlValidatingReader vr = new XmlValidatingReader(new
XmlTextReader(c));
vr.Schemas.Add(xsd);
// Create the temp. reader manually
Microsoft.Xml.Serialization.GeneratedAssembly.CustomerDefReader
cr =
new
Microsoft.Xml.Serialization.GeneratedAssembly.CustomerDefReader();
// Call Init through reflection
m.Invoke(cr, new object[] { vr, null, null, null } );
// Read with the method that checks the type
object cust = cr.Read1_CustomerDef( false, false );
Console.WriteLine(cust);}
That method will sucessfully load any of the three versions for the
root element, either if they have the xsi:type attribute set, in which case
the Read1_CustomerDef could use a true for the second parameter (checkType),
or not. Another method that is generated and could work is Read2_Object, if
it receives checkType=true and the instance document uses xsi:type to
specify that it's a CustomerDef instance (which is not always possible if
you're receiving the document from a third party). Unfortunately, like I
said above, the code that calls Read1_CustomerDef, and which is the one
called by the serializer to load the XML, only checks for names: public
object Read4_customer() {
object o = null;
Reader.MoveToContent();
if (Reader.NodeType == System.Xml.XmlNodeType.Element) {
if (((object) Reader.LocalName ==
(object)id5_customer &&
(object) Reader.NamespaceURI ==
(object)id2_httpwwwlagashcomschemascustomers)) {
o = Read1_CustomerDef(false, true);}
else {
throw CreateUnknownNodeException();}}
else {

6
UnknownNode(null);}
return (object)o;}
Note the very efficient use of string reference comparison,
by casting them to Object.
One way to solve this would be if the XmlRootAttribute could
be specified multiple times, so that the generated code checks for multiple
names.
The other, more XSD-compliant and certainly more flexible as it
wouldn't require regeneration of the serializable class (CustomerDef in this
case) to reflect new element names, would be to check if the current Reader
is actually an XmlValidatingReader and read the customer if the type
matches. The previous code can be modified as follows to make this work:
public object Read4_customer() {
object o = null;
Reader.MoveToContent();
if (Reader.NodeType == System.Xml.XmlNodeType.Element) {
// Check for validating reader with schema type determined
if (Reader is System.Xml.XmlValidatingReader &&
((System.Xml.XmlValidatingReader) Reader).SchemaType
!= null) {
System.Xml.Schema.XmlSchemaType type =
(System.Xml.Schema.XmlSchemaType)
((System.Xml.XmlValidatingReader) Reader).SchemaType;
// We would have to check the inheritance chain too.
if (((object) type.Name == (object)id1_CustomerDef &&
(object) type.QualifiedName.Namespace ==
(object)id2_httpwwwlagashcomschemascustomers)) {
o = Read1_CustomerDef(false, true);}}
else if (((object) Reader.LocalName ==
(object)id5_customer &&
(object) Reader.NamespaceURI ==
(object)id2_httpwwwlagashcomschemascustomers)) {
o = Read1_CustomerDef(false, true);}
else {
throw CreateUnknownNodeException();}}
else {
UnknownNode(null);}
return (object)o;}
Of course this would require a validating reader with the
appropriate schema loaded, by why would you create an XSD otherwise? Would
you loose all those powerful validation capabilities and instead use it only
to save you some lines of class definition code and Xml serialization
attributes? If you do, I urge you to think twice, you're really missing
something that can greatly improve your code (no more validation of ranges,
patterns, etc.).
Another interesting thing I found is that the XmlSerializer can be
inherited, and it has a protected method that allows you to deserialize
directly from an XmlSerializationReader. That would have solve my previous
reflection problems, as I could simply inherit the serializer and make a
public method receiving my modified reader and pass it through to it. That
would even make for maybe more efficient custom deserialization, for example
one where the temporary assemblies are not generated each time the
application starts but rather stored in a permanent location for reuse
across AppDomains (maybe a DB?). Remember the initial generation and
compilation performance hit is significant. Unfortunately, that method
implementation throws a NotImplementedException :((((((. But that makes me
wonder if

7
in Whidbey it's possible.... :)
In a future post, maybe here, maybe on MSDN online, I will explain
how to take advantage of IXmlSerializable interface to implement custom
serialization but also to gain automatic XSD validation right from your
assembly-embedded schema.
What does this do? sn -t foo.dll
Displays the public key token of foo.dll. foo.dll must be strong-named.
What is FullTrust? Do GACed assemblies have FullTrust?
The permissions to run any assembly is based on its trust level.Under Full
Trust level all assemblies can be run successfuly. All GAC asemblies have
Full Trust as ever strong named assembly is Full Trust assembly.
What are PDBs? Where must they be located for debugging to work?
A program database (PDB) file contains debug information for the project’s
EXE file. The project.PDB contains full debug information, including
function prototypes, not just the type information found in VCx0.PDB. Both
PDB files allow incremental updates. They should be located at bin\Debug
directory
What is the difference between an EXE and a DLL?
EXE file is a excutable file which runs in a seperate process which is
managed by OS,where as a DLL file is a dynamic link library which can be
used in exe files and other dll files.In .net frame work both are
assemblies.[EXE file has Entry point, but in dll no Entry point.]
What is a Windows Service and how does its life cycle differ from a standard
EXE? Windows services starts automatically whenever our system
starts.windows services runs on a particular port
Describe the difference between a Thread and a Process?
- A Process has its own memory space, runtime enivorment and process ID. A
Thread runs inside a Process and shares its resources with other threads.
- A thread is a path of execution that run on CPU, a proccess is a
collection of threads that share the same virtual memory. A process have at
least one thread of execution, and a thread always run in a process context.
- Process is unit of allocation while Thread is unit of execution.
Each process has one or more threads. Each thread belong to one process
In a webpage if i want to give access to only half page,then what should i
do? U can use Iframe to split the webpage and giving access to the
particular part.
We have 2 sites in which one site allows the user with out asking
credentials and second one ask for credentials through a log page. What
might be the configurations settings for both sites? We can use IIS and
web.config files together. First one using windows authentication as
follows.
Set Windows authentication in IIS.
And in web.config
<authorization>
<deny users=”?”/>
</authorization>
For the second one.
We set IIS authentication as none. And in web.config file
we mention as follow.
<authentication mode=”forms”>
<forms login=”login.aspx”/>
</authentication>
<authorization>
<deny user=”?”/>
<authorization>
** In ASP.NET 2.0 we have lot of new events occur while page
loads.

8
Page_PreInit()
Page_Init()
Page_InitComplete()
Page_PreLoad()
Page_Load()
Page_LoadComplete()
Page_PreRender()
Page_PreRenderComplete()
Page_Unload().
What is CSS? What is the advantage os using CSS in ASP.NET Web Applications?
CSS stands for cascading style sheet. where one can define the style which
will be helpful in acheiving uniform look up of the application.
Types of optimization and name a few ? For SQL --
Heuristic Optimization
Syntactical Optimization
Cost-Based Optimization
Semantic Optimization
What is view state and how this can be done and was this there in asp?
ViewState is a hidden component which is being stored at client side. It is
basically used to retain the data of the form during round trip to the
server.
Viewstate is introduced in asp.net, it was not in classic asp.
What is Http handler? The HTTP handler is used in web services handle the
information between web browser and web server.
Tell about WebService in Asp.Net?
Webservice is an application which resides on server and used to share data
and information. It provides Platform indpendent service, so any user with
any operating system cant use it. it uses SOAP to transfer and receive data.
It basically populates data in XML format which can be used by every one.
Types of values mode can hold session state in Web.Config?
there r three types of values mode can hold session state in we.config
<authentication mode="forms">
<authentication mode="windows">
<authentication mode="passport">
[Session mode in web config fiel
<session mode ='InProc'> or
<session mode ='stateserver'> or
<session mode ='sql server'> or]
Tell something about state management in asp.net?
Give brief Definition for the following
1. Application 2. Session 3. Cookies 4. Viewstate
5. SqlServer(DataBase) 6. HiddenFeild
What are Authentication mechanisms in .Net?
there are 3 types of authentication mechanisams in .net.there are
1)forms authentication 2)windows authentication 3)passport authentication
What is Stateless ASP or ASP.Net? In fact HTTP protocol is stateless. so asp
and asp.net both are stateless.
What are the difference between ASP and ASP.Net?
This article explains what is ASP.NET and how different it is from ASP.NET
ASP stands for Active Server Pages. ASP.NET is the next generation
of ASP. After the introduction of ASP.NET, old ASP is called 'Classic ASP'.
Classic ASP uses vb script for server side coding. Vb Script is not
supported any more in ASP.NET. Instead, ASP.NET supports more languages
including C#, VB.NET, J# etc. VB.NET is very similar to vb script, so it
should be easy for old Visual Basic or ASP programmers to switch to
VB.NET and ASP.NET

9
VB Script is a simple scripting language, where as VB.NET or C# are
modern, very powerfull, object oriented programming languages. Just for that
reason, you will be able to write much more robust and reliable programs in
ASP.NET compared to ASP.
In classic ASP, there was no server controls. You have to write all
html tags manually. ASP.NET offers a very rich set of controls called Server
Controls and Html Controls. It is very easy to drag and drop any controls to
a web form. The VS.NET will automatically write the required HTML tags
automatically for you.
ASP is interpreted, ASP.NET is compiled
How do you register the .Net Component or Assembly?
RegAsm is used to register .net assembly.
Where does Web.Config Info stored? Will this be stored in the registry?
Web Config is a file which contains settings for your application. You can
check Web.config file in your application main folder. This information is
not stored in registry.DOT NET framework is a way to have a registry free
Application
What is DTS package?
Data Transformation Services (DTS) provides a set of tools that lets you
extract, transform, and consolidate data from disparate sources into single
or multiple destinations.we can create a DTS solution as one or more
packages. Each package may contain an organized set of tasks that define
work to be performed, transformations on data and objects, workflow
constraints that define task execution, and connections to data sources and
destinations. DTS packages also provide services, such as logging package
execution details, controlling transactions, and handling global variables.
What is sequence of code in retrieving data from database?
using data.sqlclient;
sqlconnection cn;
cn=new sqlconnectin("user id=sa;database=pubs;data
source=server");
cn.open();
[system.data.oledb
dim oledb as new oledbconnection
oledbconnection1.open()
dim com as new oledbcommand("select empname from emp where
empid=100".oledbconnection)
dim dr as oledbdatareader=com.executereader()
if dr.read() then
textbox1.text=dr(0)
end if]
[SQLConnection conn = new
SQLConnection("DataSource=;InitialCatalog=;User Id=;Password=");
SQLCommand cmd=new SQLCommand("select * from tablename",conn);
DataAdapter da=new DataAdapter(cmd);
Dataset ds=new Dataset();
da.fill(ds,"tablename");]
How do you define authentication in Web.Config?
in the authentication tag we have to specify the mode of the authentication.
The mode can be Windows, Forms, Passport or None.
What are the differences between Dataset and DataReader?
Dataset is in memory representation of the Database. where you can create
tables, relations between tables, add primary key to tables and also
manipulate the data retrieved form the database. It allows us to work in
connection less environment.

10
Datareader is like forward only readonly cursor, which is used to
retrieve data. data manipulation is not possible while using datareader.
datareader continously keeps the connection open.
What are the types of authentications in ASP.NET?
There are main three types of authentications,
(1) Windows (2) Forms (3) Passport
What is Boxing and Unboxing?
Boxing is to implicitly converting value type to refrence type,
int x = 10;
double y = x;
Unboxing is to explicitly converting refrence type to value type
double y = 10.234;
int x = (int)y;
What is gacutil.exe? Where do we store assemblies, Should
sn.exe be used before gacutil.exe?
It is one of utility of .net. It is used to register a assemly in global
cache. Normally we store this assembly in "C:\WINDOWS\assembly"
Befor we register the assembly we should give strong name using
sn.exe utility
How to write unmanaged code and how to identify whether the code is managed
/unmanaged?
unmanaged code is not varify by clr,and clr is not varify third party
control and pointer.
What is shared and private assembly?
The assembly which is used only by a single application is called as private
assembly. Suppose you created a DLL which encapsulates your business logic.
This DLL will be used by your client application only and not by any other
application. In order to run the application properly your DLL must reside
in the same folder in which the client
application is installed. Thus the assembly is private to your application.
Suppose that you are creating a general purpose DLL which provides
functionality which will be used by variety of applications. Now, instead of
each client application having its own copy of DLL you can place the DLL in
'global assembly cache'. Such assemblies are called as shared assemblies.
What is difference between machine.config and Web.Config?
machine.config is for configuration settings of all the applications on a
machine. where as web.config is application specific.it contains
configuration settings for a application.
What is web.config. How many web.config files can be allowed to use in an
application?
The ASP.NET Web.config file is used to define the configuration settings for
an ASP.NET application. ASP.NET and the .NET Framework use .config files to
define all configuration options. The .config files, including the ASP.NET
Web.config file, are XML files.
Server-wide configuration settings for the .NET Framework are
defined in a file called Machine.config. The settings in the Machine.config
file can be changed and those settings affect all .NET applications on the
server.
Different ASP.NET applications might need different application
settings, that’s why defining those settings in the Machine.config file, is
usually not practical. The solution for this problem is the ASP.NET
Web.config file.
The ASP.NET application configuration settings can be changed by
creating a file called Web.config and saving it in the root folder of the
application. But what if the Machine.config file defines different settings
than the ones defined in your Web.config file? The good news is that the

11
settings in the Web.config file override the settings in the Machine.config
file. There can be more than one web.config file .
How do you relate an aspx page with its code behind Page?
Inherits page.aspx.cs.
Can we throw exception from catch Block?
Yes, we can.
Difference between asp and asp.net?
1.Scripting is seperated from html
2.The coede is compiled as dll
3.All controls supports events in asp,net
4.Better scalabilitry
5.Better security that is authentication and authorization
6.Better controls
7.Better language support
Difference between Htttppost and Httpget Methods?
As their names imply, both HTTP GET and HTTP POST use HTTP as their
underlying protocol. Both of these methods encode request parameters as
name/value pairs in the HTTP request.The GET method creates a query string
and appends it to the script’s URL on the server that handles the request.
The POST method creates a name/value pairs that are passed in the body of
the HTTP request message.
In try catch blocks one is normal catch block and another is
sqlcatchexception block
yes .but we should mantain the order .first sqlcatchblock then nomal block
what is managed and unmanaged code?
managed codes are which is supported by CLR, and unmanaged code are those
which is not supported.
What are clr?cts?cls?
All .NET applications are compiled into Intermediate Language code (MSIL).
When executed on the CLR, MSIL is converted into native machine code
specific to the operating platform. This process is done by a Just In Time
(JIT) compiler. The code executed by the CLR is called as Managed Code. This
code is type safe and thoroughly checked by the CLR before being deployed.
The .NET runtime also provides a facility to incorporate existing COM
components and DLL's into a .NET application. Code that is not controlled by
the CLR is called Unmanaged Code.
The .NET Framework is further comprised of Common Type System (CTS)
and Common Language Specification (CLS). The CTS defines the common data
types used by .NET programming languages. The CTS tells you how to represent
characters and numbers in a program. The CLS represents the guidelines
defined by for the .NET Framework. These specifications are normally used by
the compiler developers and are available for all languages, which target
the .NET Framework.
Can you store dataset in viewstate?
No, You cant directly store Dataset in ViewState. You can get XML from
dataset store that Xml in ViewState. While getting From ViewState convert to
xml and then from xml to dataset
[yes.We can store dataset in view state.Not a dataset any serialible object
type(datatable,dataset etc..) to be store in view state.]
what is Disco?what it will do?
DISCO is the discovery file which gives path to the Webservices It contains
WSDL(Web Service Description Language) When one searches for the Web
Services, it will go to the DISCO whcih gives actual info. about the
particular Webservices
what is soap? SOAP is Single Object Access Protocol SOAP is simply XML
output on HTTP protocol.
can we call webservice in Html form?

12
yes we can call a webservice from html form. Your web page directory should
include the 'webservice.htc' file. This file adds a behavior to html files
for calling web services.
How can you assign styles to webforms?
by using cascading style sheets.
what is manifest?
Manifest is an XML based, database driven Content Management System (CMS)
for satisfying corporate communications needs, including Internet and
Intranet. (or)
Assembly manifest is a data structure which stores information about
an assembly .The information includes version information, list of
constituent files etc.
public key?
A cryptographic system uses two keys.
1.public key -known to every one.
2.private or secret key-Known only to the recipient of the
message.if first person want to send message to second person .the
first person make use of public key to encrypt message and
the second person make use of private key to decrypt message.
what is strong name?
A strong name consists of the assembly's identity — its simple text name,
version number, and culture information (if provided) — plus a public key
and a digital signature. In particular, strong names satisfy the following
requirements: Strong names guarantee name uniqueness by relying on unique
key pairs. No one can generate the same assembly name that you can, because
an assembly generated with one private key has a different name than an
assembly generated with another private key. Strong names protect the
version lineage of an assembly. A strong name can ensure that no one can
produce a subsequent version of your assembly. Users can be sure that a
version of the assembly they are loading comes from the same publisher that
created the version the application was built with.
Strong names provide a strong integrity check. Passing the .NET
Framework security checks guarantees that the contents of the assembly have
not been changed since it was built.Note, however, that strong names in and
of themselves do not imply a level of trust like that provided, for example,
by a digital signature and supporting certificate.
what is shared assembly?
Suppose that you are creating a general purpose DLL which provides
functionality which will be used by variety of applications. Now, instead of
each client application having its own copy of DLL you can place the DLL in
'global assembly cache'. Such assemblies are called as shared assemblies.
what is assembly? assembly is a collection of dll,exe files required for
running entire application.
About Garbage Collector? garbage collection is a form of automatic memory
management. The garbage collector attempts to reclaim garbage or memory used
by objects that will never be accessed or mutated again by the application.
What is viewstate? It maintain the controls data under postback
implementation.It is implemented based on hidden field concept.Generally
viewstate is disabled for Password type textboxs.
What are runtime hosts? Runhosts is a special type where CLR is executed and
managed[IE ASP.NET Shell]
Types of caching. How to implement caching?
ASP.NET Caching Features & ASP.NET Web Applications
When clients access an ASP.NET page, there are basically two ways
to provide them with the information they need: the ASP.NET page can either
obtain information from server resources, such as from data that has been

13
persisted to a database, or the ASP.NET page can obtain information from
within the application. Retrieving information from a resource outside the
application will require more processing steps, and will therefore require
more time and resources on the server than if the information can be
obtained from within the application space.
If the information that will be sent to the browser has already been
prepared by a previous request, the application will be able to retrieve
that information faster if it has been stored in memory, somewhere along the
request/response stream. Known as caching, this technique can be used to
temporarily store page output or application data either on the client or on
the server, which can then be re-used to satisfy subsequent requests and
thus avoid the overhead of re-creating the same information. Caching is
particularly suitable when you expect to return the same information in the
same format for many different requests.
ASP.NET provides the following types of caching that can be used to
build highly responsive Web applications:
Output caching, which caches the dynamic response generated by a
request.
Fragment caching, which caches portions of a response generated by a
request.
Data caching, which allows developers to programmatically retain arbitrary
data across requests.
how to update data using store procedure
create procedure <pro.name>
{
@variable declartion,,,,,AS
if exist(select the table with condition)
BEGIN
update query
END
else
BEGIN
//insert new data
END
WHT IS DIFFERENCES BETWEEN HTML CONTROLS AND SERVER CONTROLS.
In server controls processing would be done at server side but in html
controls would be made to client side only.
write a sample code make use of xmltext writer
using System;
using System.Data;
using System.Configuration;
using System.Web;
using System.Web.Security;
using System.Web.UI;
using System.Web.UI.WebControls;
using System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts;
using System.Web.UI.HtmlControls;
using System.Xml;
public partial class _Default : System.Web.UI.Page
{
protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)
{
try
{
//creating a apth for writing xml
string xml1 = Server.MapPath("test2.xml");
//initialising xmlwriter

14
XmlTextWriter xt = new XmlTextWriter(xml1,
System.Text.Encoding.UTF8);
xt.Formatting = System.Xml.Formatting.Indented;
//start writing it
xt.WriteStartDocument();
//element
xt.WriteStartElement("name");
// attribute
xt.WriteAttributeString("my_name", "name");
xt.WriteStartElement("phn");
xt.WriteAttributeString("my_phn", "266549560");
xt.WriteStartElement("id");
xt.WriteAttributeString("my_id", "100");
xt.WriteStartElement("city");
xt.WriteAttributeString("my_city", "city");
xt.WriteElementString ("title","gud girl");
//ending all elements
xt.WriteEndElement ();
xt.WriteEndElement();
xt.WriteEndElement();
xt.WriteEndElement();
xt.WriteEndDocument();
xt.Close ();
}
catch
{
}}}
what is the jit? what is the type of jit and purpose of it>
JIT IS JUST IN TIME COMPILER Pre-JIT (Compiles entire code into native code
at one stretch)
Ecno-JIT (Compiles code part by part freeing when required)
Normal JIT (Compiles only that part of code when called and places in cache)
what are the levels of securities need to be considered for the finincial
web application? What is customer control and user control?
Custom controls are controls that are developed by the developer or a third
party vendor. Custom controls are not provided along with .NET. Difference
between Custom Controls and User Controls.1.User Control is a page file with
extension .ascx which can only be used within a single application. But
custom controls are assemblies (dll files) that can be used in multiple
applications.
2.User Controls cannot be added to the ToolBox of VS.NET . To use a user
Control with in an aspx page u have to drag the user Control from the
solution Explorer to designer page. But Custom Controls can be added to
ToolBox of VS.NET. 3.User Controls can be viewed as a sort of generic
controls during the design time.The proper GUI of user controls can be
viewed only during the run time.But Custom Controls can be viewed during the
design time. 4. User controls are created from existing Webserver and html
server controls .But a developer who creates custom controls have to render
every thing from the scratch. 5.Since the dll assembly of a custom control
is being used,a custom control developed in C# can be used in a project
developed in VB.NET or any other managed code and vice versa.This is not
possible with user controls.They are language spefic
We cannot give any examples for custom controls since they are
developed either by a developer of a third party vendor.
I have a method written in WebForm (means .aspx page) & now I want to call
this method in WebUserControl (means .ascx page) what should I have to do?
Use the controls page property and typecast it to the page class name.

15
eg: Page Default.aspx has a control MyControl.ascx
Page Default.aspx.cs has a method MyMethod()
in MyControl.ascx.cs
((Default)(this.Page)).MyMethod();
How we can bind textbox,listbox and datagrid to sql server database in
asp.net using visualstudio.net language (vb.net)? use a textbox and a
dataset for fetching data from the database,and bind to the textbox
textbox1.text = dataset.Tables(0).Rows(0).Item(1) textbox1.databind
If we add a textbox and give the required field validator,and i add two
radio buttons 1 is yes another one is No.And i add another one server
control button ,if i click the button ,if the radio button Yes is checked
the validation control is fired ,if no the validation control is not
fired.So what you used to solve this problem. required field valodator is
used to check where a browser has entered a value in atextbox or not.
How do you install windows service?
First u have to create Windows Service..For install Windows Service , u have
to use one Command first Build Windows Service..then use this command..
installutil.exe <your service name.exe>
installutil.exe/u <your service name.exe> -->For uninstall
u have to use this command in visual studio 2005 -> visual
studio command Prompt -> write this above command..
Go in Particular path where u create Windows Service then
go to Bin -->Debug --> then implement this above Command..
what are the differences between windows services and web services?
a windows service is installed on a Windows box and is very windws platform
dependent. it keeps running in the back ground even if the user has logged
off. a service is typically use ful where on servers there are long running
processes.[An XML Web service is a component that implements program logic
and provides functionality for diseparate applications. These applications
use standard protocols, such as HTTP, XML, and SOAP, to access the
functionality. XML Web services use XML-based messaging to send and
receive data, which enables heterogeneous applications to interoperate with
each other. You can use XML Web services to integrate applications that are
written in different programming languages and deployed on different
platforms. In addition, you can deploy XML Web services within an intranet
as well as on the Internet. While the Internet brings users closer to
organizations, XML Web services allow organizations to integrate their
applications.
A Windows service starts much before any user logs in to the system
(if it has been setup to start at boot up process). A Windows service can
also be setup in such a way that it requires a user to start it manually ?
the ultimate customization! Windows services run as background processes.
These applications do not have a user interface, which makes them ideal for
tasks that do not require any user interaction. You can install a Windows
service on any server or computer that is running Windows 2000, Windows XP,
or Windows NT. You can also specify a Windows service to run in the
security context of a specific user account that is different from the
logged on user account or the default computer account. For example, you can
create a Windows service to monitor performance counter data and react to
threshold values in a database.]
One Listbox showing all cities. If you select one city in list box the
information related to that particular city should be displayed in Datagrid
. How do you do that?
protected void ddlcity_SelectedIndexChanged(object sender,
EventArgs e)
{if (ddlcity.SelectedValue == "Any of the city name")
{

16
DataSet ds = GetUserInfo();
GridviewCitycity.DataSource = ds;
GridviewCity.DataBind();}}
[protected void ddlcity_SelectedIndexChanged(object sender,
EventArgs e)
{
sqlConnection con= new sqlConnection(" ");
string str="select * from table where city ='" +
ddlcity.SelectItem.Text ="'";
sqlDataAdapter da= new slqDataAdapter(str,con)
dataset ds = new dataset;
da.fill(ds,"City");
dgview.datasource=ds.tables["City"];
dgview.dataBind();}]
accessing a textbox that was created dynamically?
for (int i = 0; i < t1; i++)
{
TextBox t2 = new TextBox();
t2.ID = "adf" + i;
PlaceHolder1.Controls.Add(t2);
}
accessing data entered in the above created controls.
for (int i = 0; i < t1; i++)
{
TextBox t2 =(TextBox) PlaceHolder1.FindControl("adf" + i);
string str=t2.Text;
}
How does Garbage collector(GC) works in .net
[Garbege collection are used to handle memory management.]
In .NET Garbage Collector maintained by CLR. The process of GC is reclaim
the memory of objets which is no longer referenced by our program.Next thing
is GC runs undeterministicly because of that we can't assure we the object
will be released from the Heap Location.But the CLR maintain a Logical
Pointer to every object which referenced by our program. In some amount of
time the GC look out the objects which is reachable from Logical Pointer.
whatever the object reachable from pointer it create a map those objects.
After that it will reclaim the memory of objects those are not reachable
from the pointer.This is the process of how the GC clear the memory of
Object.
what r the Templeats in ASP.net?
The repeater,Datalist,Datagrid are templated controls in asp.net
Generally speaking, a template is the description of how a certain element
will be rendered at runtime. In ASP.NET, a template is property of a server
control that describes the static HTML, controls, and script to render
within one region of the control. For example, a Repeater control has a
HeaderTemplate property that defines the contents of its header region. You
normally define a template within the body of an ASP.NET page using
declarative syntax. For example, the following code shows how to specify a
template to draw the header and each row of a Repeater control.
<asp:repeater runat="server">
<HeaderTemplate>
<h2>Employees</h2>
<table border="0">
</HeaderTemplate>
<ItemTemplate>
<tr>...</tr>
</ItemTemplate>

17
</asp:repeater>
When it comes to rendering the contents of the Repeater control, the
ASP.NET runtime uses the content defined in the templates and processes
it?often together with bound data?to create an HTML representation of the
region. All the server-side controls within the template individually
render themselves as HTML. The Microsoft? .NET Framework utilizes the
ITemplate interface at runtime to process the templates into a control
hierarchy that can be databound and rendered to populate a part of an
ASP.NET control. As long as you define templates in a declarative
manner?using inline tags in ASPX pages?you don't strictly need to know about
the ITemplate interface. That will become important only when you move one
step further and start investigating how to create and assign templates
programmatically and dynamically. But before we look at that, let's review
the use of templates with a DataGrid control.
can sn.exe can be used before gacutil.exe
yes sn.exe is an commandline tool which we asign a strong name sn -k and it
can be placed into GAC(Global Assembly Catch)
what is diff between responseexpires and expiresabsolute
response.expires is the lenght of time in minutes before cached response on
the browser expires.response.expiresabsolute sets the date/time when a
response page stored in browsers cache will expire.
what is diffrance between response.write & response.output.write
Respons.Write will display the value/expresion as it
is.Response.Output.Write will diaplay the formatted content.
what is the auto option in XML ?
AUTO mode returns query results as nested XML elements
How many column in table of sql server?
We can add 1024 columns in a table in sql server 2000
what is client back feauture ?
ClientSideCallback used to avoid form Postback for each and every time .I
have posted some sample code also try which is use for Dropdown
aspx.cs
private string _pricecallbackResult,
_pricecallbackResultCAT, _pricecallbackResultClass;
public string GetCallbackResult()
{
return _pricecallbackResult;
}
public void RaiseCallbackEvent(string eventArgument)
{
string[] val = eventArgument.Split(',');
string id = val[0].ToString();
string k = val[1].ToString();
if (val[1] == "1")
{
// _pricecallbackResult =
objCommonBL.GetProgramNameForRebate();
}
else if (val[1] == "2")
{
_pricecallbackResult =
objCommonBL.GetCategoryNameForRebate(Convert.ToInt32(id));
}
else if (val[1] == "3")
{
_pricecallbackResult =
objCommonBL.GetClassNameForRebate(Convert.ToInt32(id));}}

18
in Aspx Java Script
*********************
function PriceClientCallbackError(result, context)
{
alert(result);
}
function PriceClientCallback(result, context)
{
ClassClear();
if (!result)
{
return;
}
var resultValue = result.split(',');
for (var i = 0; i < resultValue.length; ++i)
{
var val = resultValue[i].split('~~');
for(var j=0;j<val.length; ++j)
{
var values = val[j].split('~');
var option = document.createElement
("OPTION");
option.value = values[0];
option.innerHTML = values[1];
document.forms[0].ctl00$ContentPlaceHolder1
$frmRebate$ddlCategory.appendChild(option);}}}
what is the MSIL assembler do?
MSIL is also called as Microsoftintermediatelanguage and it converts IL code
to cpu native code with the help of JIT compiler
diffrance between stored procedure & function in sql server?
Function can be used in an expression but we cann't use procedure in an
expression [Difference between function and stored proc:
========================================================
Stored Procedure :supports deffered name resoultion Example
while writing a stored procedure that uses table named tabl1 and tabl2
etc..but actually not exists in database is allowed only in during creation
but runtime throws errorFunction wont support deffered name resolution. 2.
Stored procedure returns always integer value by default
zero. where as function return type could be scalar or table or table
values(SQL Server).3. Stored Procedure is pre compiled exuction plan where
as functions are not.4. Stored Procedure retuns more than one value at a
time while funtion returns only one value at a time.5. We can call the
functions in sql statements (select max (sal) from emp). where as sp is not
so 6. Function do not return the images,text whereas sp returns all.7.
Function and sp both can return the values. But function returns 1 value
only.procedure can return multiple values(max. 1024) we can select the
fields from function. in the case of procdure we cannot select the fields.8.
Functions are used for computations where as procedures can be used for
performing business logic 9. Functions MUST return a value, procedures need
not be.10. You can have DML(insert, update, delete) statements in a
function. But, you cannot call such a function in a SQL query..eg: suppose,
if u have a function that is updating a table.. you can't call that function
in any sql query.- select myFunction(field) from sometable; will throw
error.11. Function parameters are always IN, no OUT is possible]
difference between caching objects in session objects?
session object creates for each user indivisually but 1 cach object for one
application.

19
what is diference between the .net1.0 & .net2.0 ?
In Asp2.0 have ultimate features like FormView,MasterPage,GridView,Web
parts, Login Control,ClientCallback(use for avoid post pack),
SiteMap. Asp2.0 will reduce 50% of code.
How Web Services help Us? What r the difference between Remoting and
webservices? In remoting objects communicates thru homogineous protocols
i.e.,TCP.Where as Webservices provides funtionality thru hetrogenious
protocals i.e., HTTP,SOAP.
In remoting data is passed as streams whereas webservices
communicates in XML Format
What namespaces are imported by default in ASMX files?
The following namespaces are imported by default. Other namespaces must be
imported manually.? System,
System.Collections,System.ComponentModel,System.Data,
System.Diagnostics,System.Web,System.Web.Services
Can two different programming languages be mixed in a single ASMX file?
No.
What does AspCompat="true" mean and when should I use it?
AspCompat is an aid in migrating ASP pages to ASPX pages. It defaults to
false but should be set to true in any ASPX file that creates apartment-
threaded COM objects--that is, COM objects registered
ThreadingModel=Apartment.That includes all COM objects written with Visual
Basic 6.0. AspCompat should also be set to true (regardless of threading
model) if the page creates COM objects that access intrinsic ASP objects
such as Request and Response. The following directive sets AspCompat to
true:
<%@ Page AspCompat="true" %>
Setting AspCompat to true does two things. First, it makes intrinsic ASP
objects available to the COM components by placing unmanaged wrappers
around the equivalent ASP.NET objects.
Second, it improves the performance of calls that the page places to
apartment- threaded COM objects by ensuring that the page (actually, the
thread that processes the request for the page) and the COM objects it
creates share an apartment.
AspCompat="true" forces ASP.NET request threads into single-
threaded apartments (STAs). If those threads create COM objects marked
ThreadingModel=Apartment, then the objects are created in the same STAs as
the threads that created them. Without AspCompat="true," request threads run
in a multithreaded apartment (MTA) and each call to an STA-based COM object
incurs a performance hit when it's marshaled across apartment boundaries.
Do not set AspCompat to true if your page uses no COM objects or if it uses
COM objects that don't access ASP intrinsic objects and that are registered
ThreadingModel=Free or ThreadingModel=Both.
Is it possible to prevent a browser from caching an ASPX page?
Just call SetNoStore on the HttpCachePolicy object exposed through the
Response object's Cache property, as demonstrated here:
<%@ Page Language="C#" %>
<%
Response.Cache.SetNoStore ();
Response.Write (DateTime.Now.ToLongTimeString
());
%>
SetNoStore works by returning a Cache-Control: private, no-store header in
the HTTP response. In this example, it prevents caching of a Web page that
shows the current time.[Write this code in the Page load event of the code
behind :-
Response.Cache.SetCacheability(HttpCacheability.NoCache);]

20
About Windows/Forms Authentication
windowS AUTH: THGIS IS IMPLEMENTED VY USING WINDOWS(O/S) LOGIN PARAMETERS
WE CAN CONFIGURE IT IN WEB.CONFIG FILE.<CONFIGURATION>
<APPSETTINGS>
<AUTHENDICATION MODE="WINDOWS">
</AUTH>
<AUTHORIZATION>
<DENY USERS="8">
</AUTHRIZATION>
FORMSBASED AUTH:
IT IS IMPLENTED BASED ON USER LOGIN VALUES MEANS USER CAN GIVE THE USERNAME
& PASSWORD ,FIRST IT WILL CHECK,AFTER IT WILL GIVE THE PERMISSION TO NEXTY
PAGE
About session modes
Inproc(Session stored inside the asp.net worker processor)
StateServer(aspnet_state.exe) SqlServer(InstallSqlState.sql or
InstallPersistSqlState.sql)
Trigger syntax in sql2000
CREATE TRIGGER TriggerName ON TableName AFTER Insert, Update, Delete
AS Triger Code and CREATE TRIGGER TriggerName ON TableName INSTEAD OF Insert
AS Triger Code
How to merge 2 tables fields in DataTable in asp.net
select (databasename).(owner).(tablename1).
(datafield),select (databasename).(owner).(tablename2).
(datafield) from (databasename).(owner).(tablename1),
(databasename).(owner).(tablename2)
Example:select
LSKGROUP.dbo.addsites.state,LSKGROUP.dbo.employee.empname
from LSKGROUP.dbo.addsites,LSKGROUP.dbo.employee and then fill the values to
new dataset table.Remember:if database also differ put databse's name
accordingly [you can use the query to merge the fields.that query will
be executed through the sqlcommand.]
RequiredFieldValidator--write code in javascript
function validate()
{
if(document.getElementById("NameId").value == null)
alert("Please enter the name");
document.getElementById("NameId").focus();
return false;
}
or
function validate()
{
with(document.formname)
{
txtboxid.value == ""
alert("Please enter value");
txtboxid.focus();
return false;}}
or we can use document.form.txtboxid.value instead of
document.getElementById("NameId").value
[function validate()
{
if(document.getElementById("NameId").value == null)
alert("Please enter the name");
document.getElementById("NameId").focus();
return false;} in button OnClick() we hav to cal this function]

21
Write a code for "RequiredFieldValidator" in java script
suppose the id of the field required to be validated is NameId
Thus:-
function validate()
{
if(document.getElementById("NameId").value == null)
alert("Please enter the name");
}
[function validate()
{
if(document.getElementById("NameId").value == null)
alert("Please enter the name");
document.getElementById("NameId").focus();
return false;}
or
function validate()
{
with(document.formname)
{
txtboxid.value == ""
alert("Please enter value");
txtboxid.focus();
return false;}}
or we can use document.form.txtboxid.value instead of
document.getElementById("NameId").value ]
[function validate()
{
if(document.getElementById("NameId").value =="")
alert("Please enter the name");
document.getElementById("NameId").focus();
return false;}]
How to set/get parent page values in child page in asp.net
get=var uid=document.getElementById('txtUserId').value;
set=document.getElementById('txtUserId').innerText=uid;
what are the sitemap providers in Asp.net 2.0?
SiteMapPath,TreeView and Menu controls
why security trimming attribute?
It is used to hide links in site map
what are the attributes of sitemapnode?
Title,url,description
What is the use of Administration tool in Asp.net 2.0?
The ASP.NET version 2.0 membership feature provides secure credential
storage for application users. It also provides a membership API that
simplifies the task of validating user credentials when used with forms
authentication. Membership providers abstract the underlying store used to
maintain user credentials. ASP.NET 2.0 includes the following providers:
* ActiveDirectoryMembershipProvider. This uses either an Active
Directory or Active Directory Application Mode (ADAM) user store.
• SqlMembershipProvider. This uses a SQL Server user store.
what are the new server controls added in Asp.net 2.0?
Navigation Controls: Site MapPath TreeView Menu
DataBindingControls SqlDataSource oledbDatasource
ObjectDataSource DataCotrols: GridView DetailsView
FormsView
What are skins?

22
skin file is used to set the design settings of our html controls as well as
web server controls .css file is used for html server controls .skin files
are used for web server controls
How to remove themes from certain controls?
Override the property EnableTheming by setting it to "False" for those
controls
What is the use of The Page.Master Property?
For the <fo:simple-page-master> object this property identifies the name of
the master.
What are Master pages? How to define a Master page?
ASP.NET master pages allow you to create a consistent layout for the pages
in your application. A single master page defines the look and feel and
standard behavior that you want for all of the pages (or a group of pages)
in your application. You can then create individual content pages that
contain the content you want to display. When users request the content
pages, they merge with the master page to produce output that combines the
layout of the master page with the content from the content page.
What are the new page events added in Asp.net 2.0 ?
init load unload dispose prerender
[new events are init complete load complete prerender complete
prerender load comlete]
[pre-init() pre-load() pre-initcomplete() pre-loadcomplete()
pre-rendercomplete()]
What r new things introduced in ASP.NET 2.0 in comparision to ASP.NET 1.1
There is lot of new feature include in ASP.Net 2.0
1. Role and membership Management . It is create tricky mathod for create an
application with areas that are accesss by only select user . Example
if(Membership.validateUser (userid,password)){}
2.Personalization :- User can offer to setting there persnol setting .
3.Site Navigation :- We can create Site Map for application in XML file that
can easly inherite by specific co control 4. New Copilation System :-
Page by Page Compilation with recomplilation whole appliction.
5.Master Page: - This is proide easy way to same loke and fill whole site .
6.thems : - providing way to change Thims of application.
7.New Object For Accessing Data. Such as <SqlDataSource>
8. New Server Control : -Such As GridView,FormView etc.
What is Difference between Callbacks and Postback in ASP.NET?
This is " Cliet Site Call back to server site "which won't require page
refresh to execute a server call and its based on XMLHTTP protocol or so
PostBack is for Server Site [The difference between a callback and postback
is that, as with a postback, a callback does not refresh the currently
viewed page (i.e. does not redraw the page). You can think of it as a quick
trip back to get some data etc. For example if there were two drop down
boxes, the second dependant on the value of the first, when a user selects a
value of a the first, rather then posting the whole page, doing some server
side calculations and returning a new whole page to the client, a callback
can enable you to only go fetch the required data. Obviously from this, View
State is not updated with a callback (it's the same instance of the page
just updated!!!).]
What r Callbacks in ASP.NET?
Call Back Mathod Allow us to call Server Site Method though Client Site
java script With out using Posting the Page.
How many Directives r in ASP.NET?
assembly directive register directive page directive implements
directive import directive [@assembly : - Link assembly to
current Page or user control directory .

23
@control :- Define control Spacific attributes to used by ASP.Net page
parser and compiler included only in .ascx page. @ Impliment : - Indicates
that a page or user control implements a specified .NET Framework interface
declaratively @ import :- import a namespace in Page or user control
explicit. @ Master :- Identifies a page as a master page and defines
attributes used by the ASP.NET page parser and compiler and can be included
only in .master files @ Master Type:- Defining class or vartual Path used to
type master page property of page.@OutPut Cache.@Page.@Privious Page
Type.@Reference .@Register]
What data types do the RangeValidator control support?
String,Integer,Double,Date,Currency
WHAT IS BOXING? HOW WE CAN USE IT?
There is two type datatype available Value and reference type . value are
stored in stack and reference type used in heap . when we copy data from
stack memmory to heap it call Boxing .
Int32 x = 10; object o = x ; // Implicit
boxing
Int32 y = 10;
object obj = (object) y; // Explicit Boxing
WHAT ARE DEFFERENCE BETWEEN DATALIST AND DATAGRID
A Datagrid, Datalist are ASP.NET data Web controls.They have many things in
common like DataSource Property , DataBind Method ItemDataBound and
ItemCreated .When you assign the DataSource Property of a Datagrid to a
DataSet then each DataRow present in the DataRow Collection of DataTable is
assigned to a corresponding DataGridItem and this is same for the rest of
the two controls also.But The HTML code generated for a Datagrid has an HTML
TABLE <ROW> element created for the particular DataRow and its a Table form
representation with Columns and Rows.For a Datalist its an Array of Rows and
based on the Template Selected and the RepeatColumn Property value We can
specify how many DataSource records should appear per HTML <table> row.
In addition to these , Datagrid has a inbuild support for Sort,Filter and
paging the Data ,which is not possible when using a DataList and for a
Repeater Control we would require to write an explicit code to do paging.
What r the page life cycle in asp.net page?
Life Cycle of ASP.Net
Start-properties such as Request,Response,IsPostBack are set.
Page Intialization load Validation PostBack Event handling
Redering Unload
In a page u have Web user controls . So what is the order in which the Page
life Cycles takes place? order of events are init
page load control load page unload
What is boxing and unboxing ?
boxing is conversion from value type to object(reference) type.Actually the
copy of value type copied from stack to heap memory.unboxing is reverse of
it.from heap memory back to stack memory.[Boxing allows value types to be
implicitly treated like objects.
Dim i As Integer = 5
i.ToString() ' i --> object --->object.tostring
OR
Dim i As Integer = 5
Dim obj As Object = i ' implicit boxing
obj.ToString()
OR you can do it explicitly
Dim obj As Object = CType(i, Object) ' un-necessary
explicit boxing
On the other hand, un-boxing is an explicit conversion from
object type to value type.

24
Dim i As Integer = 5
Dim obj As Object = i ' implicit boxing
Dim j As Integer = CType(obj, Integer) ' explicit un-boxing
? Boxing and Un-boxing is the transformation between value type and
object type while casting just transforms the apparent (reference) type of
objects.
? Value types are stored at the stack and objects are stored at the
heap. Boxing takes a copy of value types from the stack to the heap while
un-boxing takes value types back to the stack. On the other hand, casting
does not physically move or operate on an object. Casting merely changes the
way objects are treated in a program by altering their reference type.]
How to write unmanaged code and how to identify whether the code is managed
/ unmanaged ?
you can only write unmanaged code in c# not in vb.net you can only call
unmanaged code in vb.net. calling and writing unmanaged code are different
things.
To identify whether the code is managed or not open the file in
ildasm in VS.Net Command prompt.Also you can use a .Net tool called dumpbin,
which can be used to check the headers.or open the dll in notepad and check
for "V e r s i o n". If you find that, it is managed assembly.
Should sn.exe be used before gacutil.exe ?
Yes. It is mandatory to assign the strong name to the assembly before
placing it into the GAC. The stron name contains the public key to recognize
by the GAC for whom the request comes.Note : GAC is a special area where
more than one same named assemblies may be placed having different versions.
[Yes. Before placing an assembly to GAC, we should sign the assembly with a
strong name using sn.exe]
Types of configuration files and their differences ?
app.config-> contains application specific settings
web.config
Web.config is a security in ASP.Net application and how to secure
applications. Web.config does most of the work for the application the who,
what, where, when and how to be authenticated.1.This is automatically
created when you create an ASP.Net web application project.2.This is also
called application level configuration file.3.This file inherits setting
from the machine.config
Machine.config contains settings that apply to an entire computer. This file
is located in the %runtime install path% \Config directory. Machine.config
contains configuration settings for machine-wide assembly binding, built-in
remoting channels. 1.This is automatically installed when you install Visual
Studio. Net.2.This is also called machine level configuration file.3.Only
one machine.config file exists on a server.4.This file is at the highest
level in the configuration hierarchy.
Types of values mode can hold session state in web.config ?
1) Inproc Mode : where the values are stored in ASPNET_WP.exe process
2) StateServer : session values are stored in ASPNET_state.exe Process
3) SQL Server : session values are stored in SQL server Databases
About DataAdapters ?
Data Adapters provide in teraction between DataBase and Dataset.It provite
the functionalities like reading the data from database,update the
data,filter the data and wite the data to Database[The data adapter we can
use with data set.we can use data adapter when the data is in disconnected
form & we have to apply some oprations on it.the data adapter is in the
tabular form & we can create any no of virtual tables to fetch data.]
Features of a dataset ?

25
i) Supports Disconnected Architecture ii) We can execute SQL Commands in
Dataset iii) Dataset supports Cache Memory to store Frequently accesed Data.
iv) It can be used with XML v) It can be used to bind the Data source with
List controls like Datagrid,datalist....
About Postback ?
is Page Refresh to communicate the server side code executed.[if action
attribute of the form tag is not declared then page goes to itself.]
Types of object in asp ? ASP Response ASP Request ASP Application
ASP Session ASP Server ASP Error
Difference between Response.Expires and Expires.Absolute ?
Response.Expires specifies the lenght of the time ie 20 seconds
Response.ExpiresAbsolute specifies the time ie 12:12:10
What is view state and how this can be done and was this there in asp ?
View state one of the state management process it is done by using hidden
fields
What are Http handler ?
An ASP.NET HTTP handler is the process (frequently referred to as the
"endpoint") that runs in response to a request made to an ASP.NET Web
application. The most common handler is an ASP.NET page handler that
processes .aspx files. When users request an .aspx file, the request is
processed by the page via the page handler.To create a custom HTTP handler,
you create a class that implements the IHttpHandler interface to create a
synchronous handler or the IHttpAsyncHandler to create an asynchronous
handler. Both handler interfaces require you to implement the IsReusable
property and the ProcessRequest method. The IsReusable property specifies
whether the IHttpHandlerFactory object (the object that actually calls
the appropriate handler) can place your handlers in a pool and reuse them to
increase performance, or whether it must create new instances every time the
handler is needed. The ProcessRequest method is responsible for actually
processing the individual HTTP requests.[Whenever we to work with user
defined File Extensions we go for HTTP handlers.]
State management in asp.net ?
in asp.net following ways to mintain server site and client site state.
client site: 1. View State 2.Query String 3.Hiddne Field 4. Cookies
Server Site is: 1.Session 2.Application [Ways to handle State
Management 1. View State 2.Query String 3.Hiddne Field 4. Cookies
Server Site is: 1.Session 2.Application 3:Cache Object]
What is stateless asp or asp.net ?
asp.net is stateless [Both ASP and ASP.NET are stateless. Because both ASP
and ASP.NET uses HTTP protocol which is stateless.]
What is custom tag in web.config ?
user defined setting
difference between Trace and Debug ?
According to Microsoft Documentation there is not much difference between
Trace and Debug Class.Debug only works in debug mode and trace works in
debug and release both mode.
Difference between Dataset and DataReader ?
The DataSet consists of a collection of DataTable objects that you can
relate to each other with DataRelation objects. A DataSet can read and write
data and schema as XML documents..The DataReader object is the ADO.NET
counterpart of the read-only, forward-only default ADO cursor
[DataSet Data set can be said as a temporary data base which works on
disconnected architecture which stores schema and data in application memory
area..It fetches all data at a time..DML is entertained here
DataReader Datareader is like a forward only recordset. It fetches onerow at
a time.DataReader is readonly so we cannot do any transaction on them.

26
DataReader will be the best choice where we need to show the data to the
user which requires no transaction ie reports. Due to DataReader is forward
only we cannot fetch the data randomly. .NET Dataproviders optimizes the
datareaders to handle the huge amount of data.]
Types of authentications in ASP.NET ?
Type of authentications are - Windows, Forms, Passport
[Default is none. Windows(basic,digest,windows integrated)
Forms, passport.]
How to authenticate users using web.config ?
if we are using form based authentication at that time in the web.config
we can set the autentication mode to "form"
then we can specify the user name and password which we are
going to access.
if any one can access that application then you can specify
<allow users="*">
inside the authentication tags
[Forms authentication can be done at web.config

<authentication mode="Forms">
<forms name="appNameAuth" path="/"
loginUrl="login.aspx" protection="All" timeout="30">
<credentials passwordFormat="Clear">
<user name="jeff" password="test" />
<user name="mike" password="test" />
</credentials>
</forms>
</authentication>
<authorization>
<deny users="?" />
</authorization>]
What are asynchronous callbacks ?
call multiple threads at a time
What is web.config. How many web.config files can be allowed
to use in an application ?
web.config is a file where we can configure the database connection
,authentication and authorization etc. for the entire application. we can
have any number of web.config files in an application ,but only one file at
each folder level.a web.config file at its least foleder level of a web page
replaces the parent level web.config file[There is one web config by default
but we can use any number of web config file but inheritance will apply from
root to inward folder]
How do you relate an aspx page with its code behind page ?
using Page directive
<%@ Page Language="C#" MasterPageFile="~/MasterPage.master"
AutoEventWireup="true" CodeFile="LoginInformation.aspx.cs"
Inherits="LoginInformation" Title="Untitled Page" %>
Can we throw exception from catch block ? Yes
Difference between asp and asp.net ?
asp.net has more controls, user friendly, here we use two different
page one for design other for logical coding so we can work
simultaniously both on designing and coding [Both are serverside
technologies which are used to develop a dynamic and interactive pages. But
the main differences between them are asp is an interpretted code where as
asp.net is a compiled code and asp is a object based language ie it doesnt
supports polymorphism and inheritance concept where as asp.net is a object
oriented language .. (it supports) In asp.net. There is of two pages ..one

27
for designing and other for coding so designer can do his work and
developer can do his work at same time on same application form.It results
in better performance.. reducing time in devlopment of a file which is not
possible for asp.]
All kind of access specifiers for a class and for methods ?
class -
new,public,protected,internal,private,abstract,sealed
Method :
new,public,protected,internal,private,static,virtual,sealed,override,abstrac
t,extern
About friend and Protected friend ?
Friend is same as internal in c#
if we used this keyword then that class is available to the
particular assenbly where the application contains [Friend: Only members in
current project access the variables.
Protected Friend: All members in current project and all members in
derived class access the variables.]
How do you retrieve information from web.config ?
generaly we store our connection string in web.config file under tag
<appsetting>
<add key=connection_string
value="data source=......"/>
</appsetting>
and
for accessing the value in aspx page we writes
string const=
configurationsetting.appsetting.connection_string
How many web.copnfig can exists in a web application & which will be used ?
Generally one but it may be more than one in some cases
Life cycle of ASP.NET page when a request is made ?
These are the steps in the asp.net life cycle init() load() prerender()
unload()
About delegates ?
Delegates are like function pointer in c++ with type-safe.They can be used
in 2 situations 1. callback methods 2. eventHandler
What is web.config and machine.config ?
web.Config: Web.Config file is maintained within a particular Web
application and the Configuration setting specified within web.config file
is applicable to that application only.
Machin.Config: Machin.Config file is maintained within .Net
framework derectories and configuration setting within Machin.Config file
affects all the managed application deployed on that machin
Does the following statement executes successfully: Response.Write(?value of
i = ? + i);
System.formatException Input string was not in a correct format.
How does dataset acts in a disconnected fashion ?
Once records poulated into DataSet, the DataSet is placed into server
memory. Then connectiion is disconncted.
Types of caching ?
There are 3 types of caching
1.Page caching
2.Fragment Caching
3.Output Caching
What are various authentication mechanisms in ASP.NET ?
there r thrr type of authentication mechanism in asp.net:
Form Authentication
Window Authentication

28
Passport Authentication
What is difference between ASP and ASP.NET ?
ASP:
1) this supports scripting languages,generally scripting
languages are interpreter based,so execution will be
slow,and no proper management
2)no server side controls
3)supports inpage technique
4) supports inprocess session
5)uses ADO for database connectivity
6)manual coding to perform validations
7)supports entire page caching towards client side
ASP.NET:
1) supports .net languages.these r compiler based,so execution will be fast
2)supports server side controls
3)supports inpage ,code behind techniques
4)supports in process,out process session
5) no manual coding to perform validation
6)supports 3 types of caching
a)out put caching
b) fragment caching
c) data caching
Uses of CLR ?
CLR common Language Runtime : It is a runtime excution engine for all the
applications developed using .Net Framework.Some of the Uses Of it are :
Automatic memory management,garbage collection,code execution,type safety,
versioning , and some other system services...
What is dataset and uses of dataset ?
DATASET: The dataset is a in-memory representation of data.DataSet is made
up of a collection of DataTable objects. It can be considered as a local
copy of the relevant portions of the database. The data is persisted in
memory and the data in it can be manipulated and updated independent of the
database. When the use of this dataset is finished, changes can made back to
the central database for updating. The data in dataset can be loaded from
any valid datasources like Microsoft SQL Server database, an Oracle
database or a Microsoft Access database.USES:
1. You normally use datasets to hold results of database queries, but you
can also create them on the fly and populate them programmatically.
2. The DataSet object has characteristics that make it suitable for
persisting application settings: It can hold hierarchical data in the Tables
collection, and you can use the WriteXml() method to save the entire dataset
into an XML file with a simple call:
ds.WriteXml(strFileName,
XmlWriteMode.WriteSchema);
3. We can seperate data layer from presentation layer by using class or
dataset in .net 2.0.
4. The DataSet in .Net rocks, it provides so much functionality for
free, that it makes it the prefered data transport mechanism between the
presentation layer and the buisiness layer, when dealing with a pure .Net
technology stack then DataSet's are the way to go.
5. DataSet has some powerful XML-related capabilities. For example, you can
serialize a DataSet into XML through its WriteXml() method; conversely, you
can populate a DataSet from a properly formatted XML stream using the
DataSet's ReadXml() method.
What is CTS, CLS and CLR ?

29
Common Type System CTS :A fundamental part of the .NET Framework's Common
Language Runtime (CLR), the CTS specifies no particular syntax or keywords,
but instead defines a common set of types that can be used with many
different language syntaxes.
Common Language Specification (CLS):The Common Language Specification
(CLS) describes a set of features that different languages have in common.
The CLS includes a subset of the Common Type System (CTS).
The CLR is a multi-language execution environment
What is JIT, what are types of JITS and their purpose ?
JIT is Just in Time compiler which compiles the MSIL into NAtive code. There
are three types of JIT copilers.Pre-JIT. Pre-JIT compiles complete source
code into native code in a single compilation cycle. This is done at the
time of deployment of the application.Econo-JIT. Econo-JIT compiles only
those methods that are called at runtime.However, these compiled methods are
removed when they are not required. Normal-JIT. Normal-JIT compiles only
those methods that are called at runtime.These methods are compiled the
first time they are called,and then they are stored in cache. When the same
methods are called again, the compiled code from cache is used for
execution.
What is SOAP, UDDI and WSDL ?
SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is a simple protocol for exchange of
information. It is based on XML and consists of three parts: a SOAP envelope
(describing what's in the message and how to process it); a set of encoding
rules, and a convention for representing RPCs (Remote Procedure Calls) and
responses.UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration) is
a specification designed to allow businesses of all sizes to benefit in the
new digital economy. There is a UDDI registry, which is open to everybody.
Membership is free and members can enter details about themselves and the
services they provide. Searches can be performed by company name, specific
service, or types of service. This allows companies providing or needing web
services to discover each other, define how they interact over the Internet
and share such information in a truly global and standardized fashion.
WSDL (Web Services Description Language) defines the XML grammar for
describing services as collections of communication endpoints capable of
exchanging messages. Companies can publish WSDLs for services they provide
and others can access those services using the information in the WSDL.
Links to WSDLs are usually offered in a company?s profile in the UDDI
registry.
What is caching and types of caching ?
caching is generally used to catch frequently accessed data.when u used
catching at that time u have to depend upon certain variables like
parameter,time etc..But one demerit of using catching is if ur using dynamic
page at that time u will unable to get the updated value.
types of catching:
1.data caching
2.output caching
3.fragment caching
How do you set language in web.cofig ?
? To set the UI culture and culture for all pages, add a globalization
section to the Web.config file, and then set the uiculture and culture
attributes, as shown in the following example:
<globalization uiculture="es" culture="es-MX" />
? To set the UI culture and culture for an individual page,set the Culture
and UICulture attributes of the @ Page directive, as shown in the following
example: <%@ Page UICulture="es" Culture="es-MX" %>
How many web.config a application can have ?
In an application you can create number of web.config file

30
,but they are not in same directory.but by default only one in an
application
Tell About Web.config ?
web.config is an XML file. A folder can have only one web.config file. It
helps to set configuration setting for an application.
What is application variable and when it is initialized ?
it is the process of clien side state management we can specify like
applicatio["str"]="Value for ref"; like the above in global.asax
this is for global purpose we can use this value in any where of our
application
Tell About Global.asax ?
Global.asax is a file that resides in the root directory of your
application. It is inaccessible over the web but is used by the ASP.NET
application if it is there. It is a collection of event handlers that you
can use to change and set settings in your site. The events can come from
one of two places - The HTTPApplication object and any HTTPModule
object that is specified in web.confg or machine.config [it allows to
execute application level events and set application level variables.]
Difference between server.Execute and response.redirect ?
Server.execute combines the results of 2 pages into 1 page. It is normally
used when the second page does not have controls which trigger postback
events. Response.redirect is used to redirect to another page from
the first page
What is early binding and Late binding. Difference which is better ?
Early binding:: Properties and method can be identified by compile time.
Example: dim rs as recordset
Late binnding: Properties and method can be identified by Run time.
Example: dim obj as classname
set obj=new classname
Difference between dynamic query and static query ?
Dynamic query will build at runtime where static query is already builded.
Types of state management techniques ?
There are two types of state management options available.
1)client side statemanagement.
2)server side statemanagement.
In Client side statemanagement
1)View state 2)query string 3)custom cookies
In server side statemanagement
1)Session state 2)application state [ASP.NET Supports various client side
and server side state management.
client side view state,hidden fields, cookies, query strings server side
Application state, session state, Database.]
What is runtime host ?
The runtime host loads the runtime into a process, creates the application
domains within the process, and loads user code into the application
domains.
How do you pass session values from one page to another ?
1.In first page set session variable. e.g.Session ["Name"] = "Pravesh";
Here "Name" is name of session variable and "Pravesh" is the value of
session variable "Name". 2. In next page get the sesion variable. e.g.:-
string myName=Session["Name"].ToString();
What is the difference between session state and session variables ?
Session state is used to store session specific information for a website.
session variable store infomation between http request for a particular
user.
What is machine.config and web.config ?
machine.config that are used only applciations

31
where as web.config are used web projects[Machine.config file is for all
ASP.NET's Application. it is only one.if u apply anything in machine.config
file then it is applied on all ASP.NET application.Machine.config file is
universal..while web.config file is only for particular ASP.NET application.
each ASP.NET application has different file.]
Is overloading possible in web services?
yes, We can overload webmethods in a webservice. There is the MessageName
property of a WebMethod attribute! The MessageName property enables the XML
Web Service to uniquely identify overloaded methods using an alias. The
default value of this property is the method name, but you can change it to
distinguish this overloaded method implementation from others. When
specifying the method name, the resulting SOAP messages will reflect this
name instead of an actual method name.
What are runtime hosts?
the runtime host loads the runtime into a process, creates the application
domains within the process, and loads user code into the application
domains.
What is an application domain ?
A process is sub-divided in multiple Application Domain. Each domain can
execute a thread. In other word, an application domin isloate between the
applications
Types of objects in ASP ?
Session,Application,Request,Response,server
What is viewstate?
ViewState is the process of maintaining control properties after postback
implemenation. This is done internal using Hidden fields.
How do you do validations. Whether client-side or server-side validations
are better ?
using javascript. Client side validation better.
How to implement caching?
Data caching:
DataView Source;
//Declare variable for caching
Source = (DataView)Cache["MyDataset"];
if (Source == null)
{
OleDbConnection objcon = new OleDbConnection
(ConfigurationManager.ConnectionStrings
["strcon"].ConnectionString);
OleDbDataAdapter objcmd = new OleDbDataAdapter
("select * from Customer", objcon);
DataSet objds = new DataSet();
objcmd.Fill(objds, "Customer");
Source = new DataView(objds.Tables["Customer"]);
Cache["MyDataset"] = Source;
Label1.Text = "Dataset created explicitly";
}
else
{
Label1.Text = "Dataset retrived from Cache";
}
GridView1.DataSource = Source;
GridView1.DataBind();
gridbind();
What is the difference between and ActiveX dll and control ?
Control is control exsample calander control

32
Dll is a library Control has an user iinterface but dll doesn't have Dll is
plain code only Control have exe but dll doesn't
How do you add a javascript function for a link button in a datagrid ?
onClintClick() add the java funtion name and call it...[you can add a
javascript function in the link button of the datagrid under the
itemdatabound event as below e.item.findcontrol("linkbtnname")
linkbtn.attribute.add("onclick",javascript:returnfuctionname()");]
How do you make your site SSL enabled ?
ssl-secure sockets layer If you want user certificate authentication
enabled, figure out who should have access to your site, and how to
distinguish this group from all other users. Some examples of groupings:
Fermi people (i.e., FNAL.GOV Kerberos domain users eligible for KCA
certificates) DOE-affiliated people (i.e., anyone who has DOEGrids
certificate) Specific individuals with certificates from a known set of
CAs Anyone with a certificate issued by a particular CA and connecting from
a particular domain (e.g., fnal.gov) Some combination of the above
If cookies is disabled in client browser will session work ?
No session will not work.if we set cookies session to true then it will
work.[Sessions are normally tracked with cookies. However, clients are not
required to accept cookies. Furthermore, you can turn off the use of cookies
for session tracking altogether in the Web Application Server Control Panel.
However when cookies are turned off or cookies are not enabled on a specific
client computer, the server must work harder to track the session state,
which has a performance impact. The recommendation is to leave cookies on
and let the server automatically fall back to the cookieless operation only
when required by a specific client connection.When a session is created by
the server, some information is automatically stored in it - the session ID
and a timestamp. as an application developer, you can also store other
information in the session in order to make it available to subsequent
requests without explicitly passing it to that request.]
About Global .asax ?
Global.asax is a file that resides in the root directory of your
application. It is inaccessible over the web but is used by the ASP.NET
application if it is there. It is a collection of event handlers that you
can use to change and set settings in your site. The events can come from
one of two places - The HTTPApplication object and any HTTPModule object
that is specified in web.confg or machine.config. We will be covering both
here.[it contains 7 events....1.Application start 2.Application End
3.Session on start 4.Session on end 5.Session on Request 6.Application on
Begining request 7.Application on Error]
About writting a query and SP which is better ?
sp is the better one... Its compile and inside that we can write any number
of Query Statement , finally for the whole thing it will create only one
object as a reference .But in Query Statement Each query be an Objects ...
Difference between Active Exe and Dll ?
1. EXE can run independaly ,while dll can not.2. An exe can contain manu
dll, dll are supprting files containing all information.
What is web application virtual directory ?
Web applications and vitual directories to share the inforamation over an
internet , an intranet or an extranet.web sites , web applications and
virtual directories are work together in a hirarichacal relationship as the
basic building blocks for hosting online content.web sites containes one or
more web applications, web application containes on or more virtual
directories.and virtual directory map to physical directory of web server.
Difference between application and session ?
Session & Appl r parts of State Management ... if v session one object in
one form v can use it in all forms untill the project stop's..but,

33
In Appl state if v store value it may use throughout applacation even stop
and restart it so it is very useful for permanent data...EX:In Some website
they ll display the visitors no by incrementing Application State data by
One each time a application Restarts..[session object is used to store
information between http request for a particular user. Application are
globally across users.]
what are the types of ASP objects ?
Request Response Application Session Server
How to find the client browser type ?
Request.UserAgent[we can identify the browser name using javascript
var brw = new navigator();
alert(brw.appname);
alert(brw.appversion);]
About the Usage of htmlencode and urlencode ?
Use the Htmlencode method to encode input parameters when generating
display.Use the urlencode method to encode the url's recieved as input
parameters
About SOAP ? Simple Object Access Protocol It is preferred way to encode
information such as data values before sending it to or from a webservice...
About dataset and data mining ?
data set is an in memory cache of data retrived from datasource.it is major
component of Ado.net. data set is a collection of data tables.that you can
relate to each other with data relations. data set can read and write in a
XML schema. Data minig some times called as data or knowledge discovery it
is a process of analyzing data from different procepectives and summerizing
into useful information. information that can be used to increase revenue,
cuts costs, or both.
Descrie about response.buffer and repsonse.flush ? Respence.Buffer method
can be used to specify the current output should be buffered or not. when
the buffering is set true, the page will not send output to the client until
the scripts on the page has been processing or flush method is call.
Response.flush method is used to send buffered output immediatly. when the
response.buffer is set true.
what are the main advantage in .net?
It is a Language independent,It supports all most all 40
LAngauges includeing thrd party languages
How many types of session in asp.net2.0
three types of session states in asp.net InProc OutProc SqlServer
what is the differance between native code & managed code?
native code is cpu dependent and managed code target to clr [The code,
which targets clr is called as managed code.managed code that does not have
any providers .it is very fast than unmanaged code.If you want to prevent
your program from being cracked by hackers, you can use native code. You can
cipher/decipher this code, or it may be self-modifying code for more
safety.][When the complier translates, it translates the .net source code
into MSIL (Microsoft Intermediate Language) which is known as managed code.
These managed code is the CPU - independent set of instructions which is
later converted into native code (i.e CPU dependent) by the JIT ( Just In-
time) compiler before execution.]
what is the assembly?
Assembly is a small unit for development. Assemblies are provides
Reusability,Versioning,and Security..Assemblies will maintain collection of
userdefined types and resources information.[Assemblies are small unit of
deployment.There are somany types of assemblies they are:
1.public 2.private 3.shared. 4.satellite
there will exceutable(.exe) assembly and Library code(.dll). Assembly
contain version infornmation,metadata,actual code.]

34
Windows Authentication (via Active Directory) and SQL Server authentication
(via Microsoft SQL Server username and passwords). Which one is trusted and
which one is untrusted?
we can log in to sql using both modes .but trusted one is sqlserver username
and password is trusted because when ever we connect to the datebase we
compulsory have to specify the username and password while establishing the
connection ie sqlconnection con(user id
='sqlusername'password='password'intialcatalog='database') but we cant
specify in windows authentication is untrusted.
Define Query Interface,Adref,Release?
every COM object supports atleast one interfaceie IUNKNOWN interface.each
interface supports method acess data and perform operations transperantely
to the programmer,example iunknown supports 3 methods addref(),release
(),queryinterface().if p is apointer to any iunknow.p->addref()increments
the reference count
2)release().p->deleting the obkects when the reference count reaches zero.,
3)queryinterface(idesired,pdesired).p->checks to see if the current
interface supports another interface
How do we make a poperty read only?
Suppose we have a property BarColor the to make it read only use
private string color;
public string BarColor
{
get
{
return(color);
}
} // No need to set it
Why do we use Option Explicit?
Need to declare all variables explicitly.
What are the major differences between asp.net1.1 and asp.net 2.0?
Benefits of ASP.NET 2.0 include:
1) A wide array of new controls, such as GridView control, MultiView, Wizard
and FileUpload.2) Superior separation of design and content, enabling
developers and Web designers to work together.3) A new model for compiling
and distributing applications. 4) Customization with Web Parts.
Bug in ASP.NET 2.0:-
If you have a control on a page that is marked Read-Only and EnableViewState
is set to false on the Page, the ReadOnly value will no longer post back in
ASP.NET 2.0 - the value gets lost. This even though the value is actually
returned in the POST buffer.
This behavior is also different than 1.1 which (correctly I say)
posted back the READONLY value.[Master Pages]
Which template must you provide, in order to display data in a Repeater
control? item template
In what order do the events of an ASPX page execute, As a developer is it
important to understand these events? page_init,(this event ocuurs when ever
the page is satrted first tine)
page_load(i occurs in subsequent requests)
controlevents, page_unloadevents
[Init Loading Pre Rendering Saving Rendering Unloading
Disposing]
How is a property designated as read-only?
By ommitting set part of property e.g
class A
{
private int n=5;

35
public int Number
{
get
{
return n;
}}}
[if the property has only get accessor that property is called read only
property.]
How do you create a permanent cookie?
by setting the expiry property greater than datetime.minvalue.....
Explain the differences between Server-side and Client-side code?
server side code is executed on server side only,client side code is
executed on browers machine.
What is the role of global.asax?
The Global.asax file is in the root application directory. While Visual
Studio .NET automatically inserts it in all new ASP.NET projects, it's
actually an optional file. It's okay to delete it?if you aren't using it.
The .asax file extension signals that it's an application file rather than
an ASP.NET file that uses aspx.
The Global.asax file is configured so that any direct HTTP request
(via URL) is rejected automatically, so users cannot download or view its
contents. The ASP.NET page framework recognizes automatically any changes
that are made to the Global.asax file. The framework reboots the
application, which includes closing all browser sessions, flushes all state
information, and restarts the application domain.[It is used to storing the
global information about the application]
What is the Difference between user and server controls?
There are two main categories of creatable Web controls. User controls are
more simple to create, but custom controls are more simple to use. The extra
effort that goes into creating custom controls pays off for the developer
using the control at design time.User controls are saved with an ASCX file
extension. Although they can be easily reused on any of the pages within the
project in which they were created, there is no good way to reuse them in a
different project. Another downside to user controls is that they only
appear on the page at run time; at design time they appear on the page as
an ugly gray box, making it difficult to envision how they'll appear to your
users.
Custom controls can do everything that user controls can do - and much more.
The biggest drawback is that they are more challenging and complex to
create. Drag and drop is not supported for the creation of these controls.
Therefore, all the HTML they output must be generated via code. Pretty much
all the articles & controls on this web site are examples of custom
controls. In addition to run-time functionality without limits, custom
controls support rich design-time functionality. They can appear on a page
at design time the same way they'll appear at run time, or differently if
preferred. They can be adjusted to change how they'll appear in the toolbox,
and how the properties will appear in the properties window. If the
properties window doesn't support the desired functionality, it can be
extended with custom popup dialog boxes and other UI
tricks. Custom controls are easily distributed and can be enhanced with help
documentation and licensing functionality, allowing them to be sold to other
developers.[1.server controls are dll's and placed in toolbox,
1.user controls are pages and it have an extexsion .ascx.
It does not placed in toolbox.
2.User controls are more simple to create
2. but custom controls are more simple to use.]

36
What does the "EnableViewState" property do?
if we set "enableviewSatate" property of a control to "True"
The control will retain its state after post back to server
for eg The textbox will retain its content after post back.
What is the lifespan for items stored in ViewState?
untill page expires
What are the different types of Session state management
options available with ASP.NET?
There are 3 types of session modes available in asp.net
1)Inproc
2)State Server
3)SQL Server
How many classes can a single .NET DLL contain?
unlimited
Which control would you use if you needed to make sure the
values in two different controls matched?
compare Validator
Which property on a Combo Box do you set with a column
name, prior to setting the DataSource, to display data in
the combo box?
in visual studion 2005 DataTextField is used to add column
in combo box/..
Name two properties common in every validation control?
Control To Validate
Error Message
What base class do all Web Forms inherit from?
All the Web forms inherits from Base class known as
System.Web.UI.
How can you provide an alternating color scheme in a
Repeater control?
AlternateItemTemplate
Which template must you provide, in order to display data
in a Repeater control?
ItemTemplate
Can you edit data in the Repeater control?
NO we can't edit data in Repeater whereas it is possible
with datagrid.
Which method do you invoke on the DataAdapter control to
load your generated dataset with data?
Fill Method
What is MSIL?
converts the specified language in to the intermediate
language which in turn is sent to jit compiler which
convert the specified language in to the host language
Explain what a diffgram is, and a good use for one?
diffgram is an XML format it maintanes the old and original
version.
Describe the difference between inline and code behind?
inline:
is written along side the html in a page.
code behind:
is a concept where the content of page in one file and the
server side code is another file...
What are the Application_Start and Session_Start
subroutines used for?
This is where you can set specific variables to the
apllication and session objects.

37
What is the Global.asax used for?
Global.asax file is resides in the root directory of the
application. it is also known an asp.net application file.
it is responding for the application and session levels
events raised by Asp.net. At run time it is compiled
dynamically.
Can you explain the difference between an ADO.NET Dataset
and an ADO Recordset?
1. In ADO recordset(in memory representation of data) looks
like single table
where as
in ADO.NET dataset(in-memory representation of data) is a
collection of one or more tables(use JOIN Query).
2. In ADO you communicate with the database by making the
calls to an OLEDB Provider
where as
in ADO.NET you communicate with the database through a Data
Adapter(an OledbDataAdapter,SQLDataAdapter,OdbcDataAdapter
or OracleDataAdapter object) which make calls to an OLEDB
Provider or the API's provided by the underlying datasource.
3. In ADO recordset objects operate in a fully connected
state
where as
in ADO.NET dataset operate in disconnected state.
4. ADO requires COM marshalling to transmit records sets
among components, does require that ADO data types be
converted to COM data types.
where as
ADO.NET does not require data-type conversions.
5. In ADO it is sometime sproblematic firewalls( firewalls
are typically configured to allow HTML text to pass, but to
prevent system-level requests (such as COM marshalling)
from passing) prevent many types of requets
where as
in ADO.NET datasets using XML, firewalls can allow datasets
to pass.
What is the difference between Server.Transfer and
Response.Redirect?
Server.Transfer transfers the currnet context of the page to
the next page and also avoids double roundtrips. Whereas
Response.Redirect could only pass querystring and also
requires roundtrip.
[Server.Transfer:
In Server.Transfer Page their is no round trim between
client and server.if u requested a page to server it will
directly taken from the server itself

Response.Redirect:
-Round Trim between client and server:
- if u request a page
Example:
client-->server-->client]
Should user input data validation occur server-side or
client-side? Why?
User input data validation should occur on client side.
Then for each transaction there is no need to contact with
server thereby transactions decreases and efficiency

38
increases.
What type of code (server or client) is found in a Code-
Behind class?
Serverside code c# is found in a code behind class.
What data types do the RangeValidator control support?
string , int, Date
If you want a certain ASP.NET function executed on
MouseOver for a certain button. Where do you add an event
handler?
Code behind
button.Attributes.add("onMouseOver",
"return functionName();")'
What is a bubbled event?
When you have a complex control, likeDataGrid, writing an
event processing routine for each object (cell, button,row,
etc.) is quite tediousdifficult.
The controls can bubble up their eventhandlers, allowing
the main DataGrid event handler to take care of its
constituents.
Suppose you want a certain ASP.NET function executed on
MouseOver over a certain button.
What is the difference between Codebehind="MyCode.aspx.cs"
andSrc="MyCode.aspx.cs"?
Src="MyCode.aspx.cs"? stands for code-behind class to
compile
Codebehind="MyCode.aspx.cs? stands for code-behind class to
Design
Where do you store the information about the user?s locale?
System.Web.UI.Page.Culture
What namespace does the Web page belong in the .NET
Framework class hierarchy?
System.Web.UI.Page
When during the page processing cycle is ViewState
available?
after intializing and before loading...
What methods are fired during the page load?
BeginTranaction - only if the request is transacted
Init - every time a page is processed
LoadViewState - Only on postback
ProcessPostData1 - Only on postback
Load - every time
ProcessData2 - Only on Postback
RaiseChangedEvent - Only on Postback
RaisePostBackEvent - Only on Postback
PreRender - everytime
BuildTraceTree - only if tracing is enabled
SaveViewState - every time
Render - Everytime
End Transaction - only if the request is transacted
Trace.EndRequest - only when tracing is enabled
UnloadRecursive - Every request
What?s the difference between Response.Write()
andResponse.Output.Write()?
Response.Output.Write() give formatted output
Describe the role of inetinfo.exe, aspnet_isapi.dll
andaspnet_wp.exe in the page loading process?
inetinfo.exe is the microsoft server runing , handling

39
ASP.NET request and other things.when the asp.net request
is recieved (usually the it gets .aspx extention) the ISAPI
filter aspnet_isapi.dll takes care of it by passing the
request to the actual worker process aspnet_wp.exe.
how can u display multi language (i.e english,spanish...)
web site?
Create resource files for each language.. u want to dispaly
on the website.(add+new item+resource file)
now create instance for resourcemanager class and set its path.set the
string(u want to convert) to the resource manager.
now panel1.innerhtml=resourcemanager1.string;
and so on...
[For this you have to use the resource files in which the
different language words are associated withthe key so u
call the key and select the language then the key will
automatically select its value.]
main difference between asp.net2.0,asp.net1.1,asp.net1.0
Feaures in 2.0:
Special folders to make integration easier.
navigation controls,
login controls,
new conrols,
Master page,
Website without IIS,
Pesonalization,
[1.Masterpage
2.DataGridview
3.Member ship control
4.ASP.NET Administrator to manage web configfile]
Explain what a diffgram is, and a good use for one?
A DiffGram is an XML format that is used to identify current
and original versions of data elements . The DataSet uses
the DiffGram format to load and persist its contents, and to
serialize its contents for transport across a network
connection. Whena DataSet is written as a DiffGram, it
populates the DiffGram with all the necessary information to
accurately recreate the contents, though not the schema, of
the DataSet, including column values from both the Original
and Current row versions, row error information, and row order.
Where would you use an iHTTPModule, and what are the
limitations of any approach you might take in implementing one?
One of ASP.NET?s most useful features is the extensibility
of the HTTP pipeline, the path that data takes between
client and server. You can use them to extend your ASP.NET
applications by adding pre- and post-processing to each HTTP
request coming into your application. For example, if you
wanted custom authentication facilities for your
application, the best technique would be to intercept the
request when it comes in and process the requesting a custom
HTTP module
What data type does the Range Validator control support?
Integer,Date,String,Double,Currency
Suppose you want a certain ASP.NET function executed on
MouseOver over a certain button. Where do you add an event
handler?
It?s the Attributesproperty,the Add function inside that
property. So

40
btnSubmit.Attributes.Add("onMouseOver","someClientCode();")A
simple"Javascript:ClientCode();? in the button control of
the .aspxpage will attach the handler (javascript
function)to the onmouseover event
What?s a bubbled event?
When you have a complex control, likeDataGrid, writing an
event processing routine for each object (cell, button, row,
etc.)is quite tedious. The controls can bubble up their
event handlers, allowing the main DataGrid event handler to
take care of its constituents.
What?s the difference between Codebehind="MyCode.aspx.cs"
andSrc="MyCode.aspx.cs"?
CodeBehind is relevant to Visual Studio.NET only
[Code All build Assembly is placed inside the bin folder
Src the source cs file/vb fiel is placed in the source
folder and the source file is complied and assembly is
placed inside bin folder during runtime of the aspx page]
Where do you store the information about the user?s locale?
System.Web.UI.Page.Culture
Where does the Web page belong in the .NET Framework class
hierarchy?
System.Web.UI.Page
What?s the difference between Response.Write()
andResponse.Output.Write()?
The latter one allows you to write formatted output.
[Response.write - it writes the text stream
Response.output.write - it writes the HTTP Output Stream.

They are used to display output text in formatted manner as


below
Response.Write() output fotmat :
Response.Write"<h1>" & iTimer & "</h1>"
Response.Output.Write() output format :
Response.Output.Write("<h2>Process running as {0}</h2>",
WindowsIdentity.GetCurrent().Name);]
Describe the role of inetinfo.exe, aspnet_isapi.dll
andaspnet_wp.exe
in the page loading process. inetinfo.exe is the Microsoft
IIS server running, handling ASP.NET requests among other
things.When an ASP.NET request is received(usually a file
with .aspx extension),the ISAPI filter aspnet_isapi.dll
takes care of it by passing the request to the actual worker
process aspnet_wp.exe
Difference between DataView and DataTable
data view is used to filter and give sorting options that u
have u added to form or component at design time.
Alternatively u can use defaultview that is automatically
available for every data table .when u use defaultview , u
can specify filter and sorting options in code
what is postback implementation?when pre-render event n
init event is fired?
post back event happens when the sender page sends Http
request to the same page. checking for ispostback() and
then writing the code within the if block would be the
implementation for postback.

The following is the order of events that occur when a page

41
is loaded.
init-> load -> prerender and finally unload.
What is a DLL Hell Problem in .Net?
WINDOWS REGISTRY CANNOT SUPPORT THE MULTIPLE VERSIONS OF
SAME COM COMPONENT.THIS IS CALLED AS THE DLL HELL.
[DLL HELL is the problem that occures when an installation
of a newer application might break or hinder other
application as newer DLLs are copied into the system and
the older application do not support or not compatible with
them. .net overcomes this problem by supporting multiple
versions of an assembly at any given time.this is called
side-by-side component versioning.]
How to convert a string into an Integer in ASP.net?
by two ways u can do that
1.int a = Int.Parse("String");
2.int a = Convert.Int32("String");
How to manage pagination in a page?
Using pagination option in DataGrid control. We have to set
the number of records for a page, then it takes care of
pagination by itself.
[set allowpaging to true and you have to write some coding
in pageindexchanging event
GridView1.PageIndex = e.NewPageIndex; binddata();]
Can the validation be done in the server side? Or this can
be done only in the Client side?
Validation can be done both Server & Client Side..
among all the validatiors only Customer Validation is done
at Server Side.. rest of them r done at Client side..
How do you validate the controls in an ASP .NET page?
by setting the control to validate property in validator to
that controler
Explain the life cycle of an ASP .NET page
1)Page_Init
2)Page_load
3)page_prerender
4)page_unload
[pre-init
init
init-complete
pre-load
load
load-complate
prerender
unload]
Why Web Services?
To Exchange Data Between Hetrogenious Platforms and
Hetrogenious Applications.
Ex:-
Exchange Data between Windows and .NET Application and Linux
and J2EE application.
What is a WebService and what is the underlying protocol
used in it? Namespace?
Web Services enable the exchange of data and the remote
invocation of application logic using XML messaging to move
data through firewalls and between heterogeneous systems.
The key to understanding Web Services is knowledge of the
underlying protocols. Importantly, by default, all

42
communications between Web Services servers and clients is
through XML messages transmitted over the HTTP protocol.
SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is the protocol that
allows us to encapsulate object calls as XML.
Disco and UDDI
You need to know where and how to locate a Web Service in
order to be able to use it - a process known as discovery.
The aim of these two protocols is to facilitate the
discovery process.
WSDL
WSDL (WebServices Description Language) does what it says -
allows description of the Web Service - it specifies the
SOAP messages that it can send and receive.
System.Web.Services.WebService.
What base class do all Web Forms inherit from?
System.Web.UI.Page
What tags do you need to add within the asp:datagrid tags to
bind columns manually
Set AutoGenerateColumns Property to false on the datagrid tag
[Column tag and an ASP:databound tag.]
How would you get ASP.NET running in Apache web servers -
why would you even do this?
You need to create a CLRHost, which hosts the CLR (ASP.NET)
on top of Apache.
Since Apache is #1 webserver used by many companies, this
would allow more number of web site owners
to take advantage of ASP.NET and its richness.
What is smart navigation?
When a page is requested by an Internet Explorer 5 browser,
or later, smart navigation enhances the user's experience
of the page by performing the following:
* eliminating the flash caused by navigation.
* persisting the scroll position when moving from page to page.
* persisting element focus between navigations.
* retaining only the last page state in the browser's history.
Smart navigation is best used with ASP.NET pages that
require frequent postbacks but with visual content that
does not change dramatically on return. Consider this
carefully when deciding whether to set this property to
true. Set the SmartNavigation attribute to true in the @ Page
directive in the .aspx file. When the page is requested,
the dynamically generated class sets this property.
What are the different modes for the sessionstates in the web.config file?
Off:Indicates that session state is not enabled.
Inproc:Indicates that session state is stored locally.
StateServer:Indicates that session state is stored on a
remote server.
SQLServer:Indicates that session state is stored on the SQL
Server.
What is the use of sessionstate tag in the web.config file?
Configuring session state: Session state features can be
configured via the <sessionState> section in a web.config
file. To double the default timeout of 20 minutes, you can
add the following to the web.config file of an application:
<sessionState
timeout="40"
/>

43
You ve defined one page_load event in aspx page and same
page_load event in code behind how will prog run?
The Page_load method in the aspx page will only run.It takes
precedence over the one in the code behind.
What is the difference between control and component?
One diffence is,
control , such as a DataGrid or simple TextBox ,is a basic
element of the user interface.
component, which has no visible interface and adds specific
functionality to project.
What is the namespace for encryption?
System.Security.Cryptography
What are different transaction options?
trasaction commit.
trasaction rolback.
Which is the namespace used to write error message in event
Log File?
system.Daignostics
Any alternative to avoid name collisions other then Namespaces?
A scenario that two namespaces named N1 and N2 are there both having the
same class say A. now in another class i ve written using N1;using N2;
and i am instantiating class A in this class. Then how will u avoid name
collisions? Ans: using alias
Eg: using MyAlias = MyCompany.Proj.Nested;
What is the Global ASA(X) File?
Global asax file is used to handle application, session
level events and to initialise application and session
level variables.
How to do Caching in ASP?
<%@ OutputCache Duration="60" VaryByParam="None" %>
VaryByParam value
Description
none :One version of page cached (only raw GET)
*: n versions of page cached based on query string and/or
POST body
v1: n versions of page cached based on value of v1 variable
in query string or POST body
v1;v2: n versions of page cached based on value of v1 and
v2 variables in query string or POST body
<%@ OutputCache Duration="60" VaryByParam="none" %>
<%@ OutputCache Duration="60" VaryByParam="*" %>
<%@ OutputCache Duration="60" VaryByParam="name;age" %>
The OutputCache directive supports several other cache
varying options
* VaryByHeader - maintain separate cache entry for
header string changes (UserAgent, UserLanguage, etc.)
* VaryByControl - for user controls, maintain separate
cache entry for properties of a user control
* VaryByCustom - can specify separate cache entries for
browser types and version or provide a custom
GetVaryByCustomString method in HttpApplicationderived classAsp.net - How to
find last error which occurred?
Exception LastError;
String ErrMessage;
LastError = Server.GetLastError();
if (LastError != null)
ErrMessage = LastError.Message;

44
else
ErrMessage = "No Errors";
Response.Write("Last Error = " + ErrMessage);
How can u handle Exceptions in Asp.Net?
using system.exceptions namespace
Try
Piece of code ..
Catch objError as Exceptions
display objError.message
Finally
[try
{
//set of code
}
catch(Exception1 e)
{
//error display
}
catch(Exception2 e)
{
//error display
}
finally
{
//compulsory execution will be done here
}]
What is SQL injection?
An SQL injection attack "injects" or manipulates SQL code
by adding unexpected SQL to a query.
Many web pages take parameters from web user, and make SQL
query to the database. Take for instance when a user login,
web page that user name and password and make SQL query to
the database to check if a user has valid name and password.
Username: ' or 1=1 ---
Password: [Empty]
This would execute the following query against the users
table:
select count(*) from users where userName='' or 1=1 --' and
userPass=''
How can you debug an ASP page, without touching the code?
Microsoft script Debugger or Visual InterDev
Which two properties are there on every validation control?
ControlToValidate and Text or ErrorMessage properties
[Validator Control Basics

All of the validation controls inherit from the base class


BaseValidator so they all have a series of properties and
methods that are common to all validation controls. They
are:
? ControlToValidate - This value is which control the
validator is applied to.

? ErrorMessage - This is the error message that will


be displayed in the validation summary.

? IsValid - Boolean value for whether or not the


control is valid.

45
? Validate - Method to validate the input control and
update the IsValid property.

? Display - This controls how the error message is


shown.]
What are validator? Name the Validation controls in asp.net?
How do u disable them?
Validator means checking inputed data in any field like
textBox or dropdownbox any other which we want to validate
at client side using sever tag.

Following are type of validator control in asp.net.


1. Ranage validator control
2. RequireFieldvalidator control
3. CompareValidator control
4. RegularExpressionValidator control
5. CustomValidator control
6. ValidationSummary control

if we mention in our page but want to disable just use the


property of validator control causevalidation=false.
How do you specify whether your data should be passed as
Query string and Forms (Mainly about POST and GET)
when form is submitted via POST method, FORms collection is
created. values are stoed in forms collection.

When form submitted via GET method, values are stored in


Querystring collection
What are the different authentication modes in the .NET
environment?
none
windows
forms
passport
What is role-based security?
Role Based Security lets you identify groups of users to
allow or deny based on their role in the organization.In
Windows NT and Windows XP, roles map to names used to
identify user groups.

Windows defines several built-in groups, including


Administrators, Users, and Guests.To allow or deny access
to certain groups of users, add the <ROLES>element to the
authorization list in your Web application's Web.config
file.e.g.

<AUTHORIZATION>< authorization >


< allow roles="Domain Name\Administrators" / > < !--
Allow Administrators in domain. -- >
< deny users="*" / > < !--
Deny anyone else. -- >
< /authorization >
Explain authentication levels in .net ?
Basic
Digest
Windows

46
Forms
Passport
[There are 3 authentication levels in .net
1.Windows
2.Forms
3.Passport

Basic and Digest Come under IIS Authentication Levels.]


How to do Forms authentication in asp.net?
in webconfig file

<authentication mode="Forms">
<forms cookieless="UseCookies"
loginUrl="~/LoginInformation.aspx" timeout="10">
<credentials passwordFormat="Clear">
<user name="Siva" password="siva"/>
<user name="joseph" password="jos"/>
</credentials>
</forms>
</authentication>

After In a aspx.cs page you have write a below coding

if (FormsAuthentication.Authenticate(TextBox1.Text,
TextBox2.Text))
{
Response.Write("Hi Joseph");
}
else
{
Response.Write("Please Create account");
}
How .Net has implemented security for web applications?
1) Authentication/Authorization
2) Encryption/Decryption
3) Maintaining web servers outside the corporate firewall.
etc.,
Security types in ASP/ASP.NET? Different Authentication modes?
There r 3 types of security in .Net
1.Windows Authentication
(i)Anoymous
(ii)Basic
(iii)Digest
(iv)Windows integated
2.Micsoft Authentication
3.Form Authentication
How do you create a permanent cookie?
Cookie is like a temporary file which contains a name and a
value pair and resides in the client.

cookie prepared or modified by the server side script will


be appended to the response and will be sent to the client.

dim cook as httpcookie


cook=new httpcookie("items")
cook.value=textbox1.text
response.appendcookie(cook).

47
[You can set the permanent cookied by setting the expiry
date to the MaxDate

<%
Response.Cookies("username") = "you"
Response.Cookies("username").Expires = Date.MaxValue
%>]
What is State Management in .Net and how many ways are there
to maintain a state in .Net?
In .net state management means request send by the client
can remember state of the previous request means
maintaining the state of the request.

The ways to maintain the state in asp.net are


server side state management like
1)session management
2)application
client side state management like
1)cookies
2)Hidden fields
[state management is the art of retaining information between
requests.

There are two types of statemanagement options in .net?


1)client side state management.
2)Server side state management.

In client side state management.


1)view state
2)query string
3)custom cookies

In server side state management.


1)Session state.
2)application state.]
What method do you use to explicitly kill a users session?
Session.Abandon()
How you will handle session when deploying application in
more than a server? Describe session handling in a webfarm,
how does it work and what are the limits?
State Server aspnet_state.exe
Sql Servet
How many classes can a single .NET DLL contain?
It can contain many classes.
True or False: To test a Web service you must create a
windows application or Web application to consume this service?
False, the webservice comes with a test page and it
provides HTTP-GET method to test.
Which control would you use if you needed to make sure the
values in two different controls matched?
CompareValidator Control
Which property on a Combo Box do you set with a column name,
prior to setting the DataSource, to display data in the
combo box?
DataTextField property
Where on the Internet would you look for Web services?
www.uddi.org

48
What does WSDL stand for?
Web Services Description Language
True or False: A Web service can only be written in .NET?
False
What is the transport protocol you use to call a Web service?
SOAP is the preferred protocol
SMTP,HTTP,SOAP
What tag do you use to add a hyperlink column to the DataGrid?
<asp:HyperLinkColumn>
What tags do you need to add within the asp:datagrid tags to
bind columns manually?
<asp:DataGrid ID="gridename" runat="server">
<Columns>
<asp:BoundColumn ataField="fieldname"></asp:BoundColumn>
</Columns>
</asp:DataGrid>
What base class do all Web Forms inherit from?
The Page class.
What property must you set, and what method must you call in
your code, in order to bind the data from some data source
to the Repeater control?
You must set the DataSource property and call the DataBind
Method
Can you edit data in the Repeater control?
No, it just reads the information from its data source
Which method do you invoke on the DataAdapter control to
load your generated dataset with data?
The .Fill() method
If I?m developing an application that must accommodate
multiple security levels though secure login and my ASP.NET
web application is spanned across three web-servers (using
round-robin load balancing) what would be the best approach
to maintain login-in state for the users?
Maintain the login state security through a database.
Can you give an example of what might be best suited to
place in the Application_Start and Session_Start subroutines?
This is where you can set the specific variables for the
Application and Session objects.
Can you explain the difference between an ADO.NET Dataset
and an ADO Recordset?
? A DataSet can represent an entire relational database in
memory, complete with tables, relations, and views.
? A DataSet is designed to work without any continuing
connection to the original data source.
? Data in a DataSet is bulk-loaded, rather than being loaded
on demand.
? There's no concept of cursor types in a DataSet.
? DataSets have no current record pointer You can use For
Each loops to move through the data.
? You can store many edits in a DataSet, and write them to
the original data source in a single operation.
? Though the DataSet is universal, other objects in ADO.NET
come in different versions for different data sources.
Should validation (did the user enter a real date) occur
server-side or client-side? Why?
Client-side. This reduces an additional request to the
server to validate the users input.

49
What type of code (server or client) is found in a
Code-Behind class?
Server-side code.
What data type does the RangeValidator control support?
Integer, String and Date.
Suppose you want a certain ASP.NET function executed on
MouseOver overa certain button. Where do you add an event
handler?
It?s the Attributesproperty, the Add function inside that
property. So
btnSubmit.Attributes.Add("onMouseOver","someClientCode();")
Describe the role of inetinfo.exe, aspnet_isapi.dll and
aspnet_wp.exe in the page loading process
inetinfo.exe is the Microsoft IIS server running, handling
ASP.NET requests among other things. When an ASP.NET request
is received (usually a file with .aspx extension), the ISAPI
filter aspnet_isapi.dll takes care of it by passing the
request to the actual worker process aspnet_wp.exe.
You create an assembly to access data in a relational
database. This assembly will be used by several ASP.NET
applications on your Web server.
You need to ensure that all your applications can access the
assembly.
Which two actions should you take (Each Answer: presents
part of the solution.)? (Choose two)
A . Run the Assembly Registration tool (Regasm.exe).
B . Run the String Name tool (Sn.exe).
C . Run the Installer tool (Intallutil.exe).
D . Run the Global Assembly Cache tool (Gacutil.exe).
options C and D
You are planning the deployment of an ASP.NET application.
The application uses a Visual Studio .NET component named
DataAccess that will be shared with other applications on
your Web server.
You are using Visual Studio .NET to create a Windows
Installer package. You need to deploy DataAccess and the
ASP.NET application so that they can be uninstalled later of
necessary.
What should you do?
A . Create a setup project for DataAccess. Add the ASP.NET
application in a custom action.
B . Create a setup project for the ASP.NET application.
Create another setup project for DataAccess.
C . Create a Web setup project for the ASP.NET application.
Add a project output for DataAccess.
D . Create a Web setup project for the ASP.NET application.
Add a merge module for DataAccess.
d
You create an ASP.NET application for a hotel. The
application contains a page that displays current weather
conditions for the city in which the hotel is located. The
application calls an XML Web service every 10 minutes to
update the current weather conditions. A new page is then
displayed for subsequent requests.
You want the same page to be cached and retrieved from the
cache during the time between calls to the XML Web service.
You decide to use a Page directive to accomplish this goal.

50
Which Page directive should you use?
A . <%@ Cache Seconds="600 '' VaryByParam="Page" %>
B . <%@ OutputCache Time="600" %>
C . <%@ OutputCache Duration="600" VaryByParam="None" %>
D . <%@ OutputCache Duration="600" %>
C . <%@ OutputCache Duration="600" VaryByParam="None" %>
Your ASP.NET application displays sales data on a page. You
want to improve performance by holding the page in memory on
the server for one hour. You want to ensure that the page is
flushed from memory after one hour, and that the page is
re-created when the next request for the page is received.
What should you do?
A . Initialize a new instance of the Cache class in the
Application.Start event handler.
B . Initialize a new instance of the Timer class in the
Page.Load event handler.
C . Set the Duration attribute of the OutputCache directive
in the page.
D . In the Web.config file, set the timeout attribute of the
sessionState element.
C[or D]
You are creating a Web site for Your company. You receive
product lists in the form of XML documents. You are creating
a procedure to extract information from these XML documents
according to criteria that your users will select.
When a user makes a request, you want the results of these
requests to be returned as quickly as possible.
What should you do?

A . Create an XmlDataDocument object and load it with the


XML dat Use the DataSet property of the object to create a
DataSet object. Use a SQL SELECT statement to extract the
requested dat
B . Create an XmlDataDocument object and load it with the
XML data. Use the SelectNodes method of the object to
extract the requested data.
C . Create an XPathDocument object and load it with the XML
data. Call the CreateNavigator method to create an
XPathNavigator object. Call the Select method of the
XPathNavigator object to run an XPath query that extracts
the requested data.
D . Create an XmlReader object. Use the Read method of the
object to stream through the XML data and to apply an XPath
expression to extract the requested data.
C
Your manager has asked you to describe what you would use
application variables for. What statement best describes the
use of application variables?

a) Application Variables are used to keep state for each


connected user.
b) Application Variables are used to keep state for the web site
c) Application Variables are used to keep state for the
application on the server
d) Application Variables are used to keep state for all
applications objects in the web site.
C

51
You have been given the task of designing a web services to
expose the data that is stored in a database on the server.
In order to successfully build the web services, you need to
import some namespaces. What is the minimum namespace you
need to import?

a) System.Web
b) System.WebServices
c) System.Web.Services
d) System.Web.ServiceModel
C

What line in the following XML document will generate an error?


<?xml version=?1.0?>
<employees>
<employee>
<name>Bob Andcarrol</name>
</employee>
<employee>
<name>Robert Burns</name>
</employee>
</employees>

a) 6
b) 4
c) 1
d) There is no error

How many rules are there regarding a well formed XML document?
a) Nine
b) Three
c) Six
d) Two

a
You are using the try? catch block seen in the following
code segment, but no exceptions are ever caught by the catch
block. What is the problem?

SqlConnection cn =new sqlConnection(strSQL);


SqlDataSet ds;
try
{
cn.open(); //perform the data
processing steps
??..
} catch (OleDbException e) {
?..
}

a) The exception class is wrong; it should be sqlErrors.


b) The exception class is wrong; it should be

52
sqlSyntaxExceptios.
c) The exception class is wrong; it should be sqlExceptions.
d) The exception class is wrong; it should be sqlExcptions.

C
You need to retrieve data from a Microsoft SQL Server 2000.
Currently you are using an oleDbConnection object to connect
to the database server. You need to be able to retrieve the
data from the database server in XML format. Which approach
would be the most efficient? Select all that apply. Each
answer constitutes part of the whole answer.

a) Change to the SQL .NET provider.


b) Use the ExecuteXmlReader() method of the xxxCommand object
c) Use the DOM to create the XML document.
d) Use the XmlDocument.Load() method to create the XML Document.

C
On what object is the transaction in ADO.NET focused on?
a) The command object
b) The DataSet object
c) The Connection object
d) The DataAdapter object

When would you not use the oleDbConnection object?


a) To connect to an SQL 7.0 database.
b) To connect to a DB/2 database.
c) To connect to an Access database.
d) To connect to an SQL 6.5 database.

A
What property is used on the datatable to indicate a
conflict after an update?
a) HasConflict
b) HasError
c) HasCollision
d) HasDataError
b
What object is used to encapsulate a rowset?
a) DataSet
b) DataAdapter
c) DataRowSet
d) DataTable
a
What is a transaction?
a) A banking term.
b) A concept used to describe a step in the business process.
c) A combination of DML steps that must succeed or the data
is retuned to its initial state.
d) A combination of DDL steps that must succeed or the data
is retuned to its initial state.
C
What does the following SQL statement return, assuming that
all tables and column names are correct?
SELECT FirstName, StreetAddress

53
FROM Employees
JOIN AddressBook
ON Employees.EmpID = AddressBook.EmpID

a) Nothing, the JOIN syntax is wrong.


b) All the records form the Employees table, and only the
matching ones form the StreetAddress table.
c) All the records from the StreetAddress table and only the
matching records form the Employees table.
d) Only the matching records from the two tables.
D
[I think the state ment above should return the records from
matching records from two talbes since the JOIN state ment
specifies the middle element..i.e employee...let us see how
it works..
lets say we hav two elemt rows( here i am taking the only
one column from each table since it would provide us with
the required understanding....)

employees addressbook
---------- ------------
EMP_NAME EMP_NAME
-------- -----------
ram raju
raj harish
ravi hani
rohit jitender
raju fina
manish kittu

now when these two statements are joined ,first of all the
first state ment is scanned and its first element i.e 'ram'
is matched againest the all the element of thhe other list
i.e addressbook...if it finds the name 'ram' in addressbook
it will select it as a part of the result otherwise it just
looks move on to another one thats 'raj'...n one important
thing ... in case 'ram' finds the match in the addressbook
twice...it will not take bothe of them .....it will skip
all the others and move on to the next row....]
How do you enable tracing?
a) Set the Trace property of the Web Form to True
b) Set the Trace property of the server object to True
c) Set the Session variables Trace to True
d) Set the Applications Variable Trace to True.
A
What method must be overridden in a custom control?
a) The Paint() method
b) The Control_Build() method
c) The Render() method
d) The default constructor
c
After building the custom control, you test it by adding an
ASP.Net web application to the solution. You add a correct
<%@ Register %> directive and a proper declaration of the
control in the <asp:Form> tag to the Web Form, but when you
execute the application you get an error. What is the most
likely reason for the problem?

54
a) The custom control must be compiled first.
b) The web application must have a reference to the control
c) The custom control must be registered with windows first.
d) The assembly from the custom control is not in the
application?s bin directory.
D
What is the result when the Web Form containing the
following line is complied and executed?
<asp:Button id=?thebutton? onClick=?theEvent? />

a) The button control is created; theEvent is the click


event handler.
b) Compiler error; the control must be set to runat=?server?.
c) Compiler error; onClick is not a valid attribute.
d) Runtime Exception; the control must be set to runat=?server?.
D
After capturing the SelectIndexChanged event for a ListBox
Control, you find that the event handler doesn?t execute.
What could be the problem be?

a) The AutoEventWireup attribute is set to False


b) The AutomaticPostBack attribute is set to False
c) The codebehind module is not properly compiled
d) The ListBox must be defined WithEvents.
Set AutomaticpostBack attribute is true..
What is the Web.config file used for?
a) To store the global information and variable definition
for the application.
b) Configures the time that the server-side codebehind
module is called
c) To Configure the Web Server.
d) To Configure the Web browser.
A
What layout mode is the default when a new Web Form is created?

a) GridBagLayout
b) GridLayout
c) FlowLayout
d) FormLayout
b
Given an ASP.NET Web Form called WebFrom1, what class does
the WebForm1 class inherit from by default?

a) System.Web.Form
b) System.Web.GUI.Page
c) System.Web.UI.Page
d) System.Web.UI.Form
c
When an ASP.NET server control is added to a web form,
Visual Studio .NET adds one item to the class for the form.
What item is added?

a) The event registration.


b) A protected class member for the control.
c) A default event handler for the click event.
d) A default class that inherits from the control?s base class.

55
B
When working with ASP.Net server controls, it is important
to use the right event handlers to capture the event for the
application to function properly. What event would you use
to capture the selection of a new item in a DropDownList
control?
a) The Click event.
b) The SelectionChanged event.
c) The SelectionIndexChanged event.
d) The ChangedSelection event.
C
What is the purpose of the following segment?
If ( !IsPostBack)
{
sqldataAdapter1.Fill (dsusers1);
DataGrid1.DataBind ();
}
a) To populate the DataAdapter the first time the web page
id displayed.
b) To populate the DataSet every time the web page is displayed.
c) To populate the DataAdapter every time the web page is
displayed.
d)To populate the DataSet the first time the web page is
displayed.
To populate the DataSet the first time the web page is
displayed. i.e Instance is created first time with this.
What ASP.NET object encapsulates the state of the client and
the browser?
a) The Session object
b) The Application object
c) The Response object
d) The Request object
e) The Server object
d
What is the name of the process the browser uses to find the
address of a web server?
a) DMZ
b) DNS
c) Active Directory
d) Database lookup
b
What definition correctly defines a label server control
with the name set to lblHoop?
a) <asp:Label name=?lblHoop? runat=?server? />
b) <Label id=?lblHoop? runat=?server? />
c) <asp:Label id=?lblHoop? runat=?server? />
d) <server label name=?lblHoop? runat=?asp? />
c
What are the main components of the ADO object model? How
are they used?
Connection,Command,Recordset are the main components of ADO
object. And others are Error, Field, Parameter, Property,
Record, and Streams.
Describe and In Process Vs Out of Process component. Which
is faster?
An inprocess is one which runs in the same process area as
that of the client giving tha advantage of speed but the

56
disadvantage of stability becoz if it crashes it takes the
client application also with it.

Outprocess is one which works outside the clients memory


thus giving stability to the client, but we have to
compromise a bit on speed.

Inprocess is faster than outprocess.


What is versioning in .NET?
Versoning enables to solve the DLL hell problem in .net
which is found in ASP and VB. DLL hell is nothing but a
higher verson of DLL overwrites the older version.
Briefly describe different techniques for ASP.NET State
Management?
There are different techniques for ASP.NET State Management
1. View State
2. Cookies
3. Session
4. Cache
5. Application, Etc.,
Explain how server control validation controls works?
To perform server side validation we have an event
called ?ServerValidate?.
Syntax:
ValidationControlName_ServerValidate(s, args)
{
?..//Logic
}
For Web services where you can browse on the Internet?
For consuming Web services first we have to go to the UDDI
directory .In the UDDI directory we can find a link to
discovery file.
Then we can make a request for WSDL document.

This WSDL contains description of the services.


Then we have to integrate the webserice into our
application.
To call a Web service SOAP which transport protocol you
use?
HTTP Protocol
Which color scheme in a Repeater control can you provide
alternatively?
using Alternatingitemtemplate in repeater .
web user and custom conrols
Custom controls:

A control authored by a user or a third-party software


vendor that does not belong to the .NET Framework class
library. This is a generic term that includes user
controls. A custom server control is used in Web Forms
(ASP.NET pages). A custom client control is used in
Windows Forms applications.

User Controls:

In ASP.NET: A user-authored server control that enables an


ASP.NET page to be re-used as a server control. An

57
ASP.NET user control is authored declaratively and
persisted as a text file with an .ascx extension. The
ASP.NET page framework compiles a user control on the fly
to a class that derives from the
System.Web.UI.UserControl class.
is it possible to persiste customize object in view state?
how it is?
Yes it is possible to persiste customize object in view
state, Supposed your are having one variable named x for
which you want to persist the view state.

dim x as integer
ViewState(Value) = x

Which can then be accessed as follows:

x = ViewState(Value)

User contro having 4 text boxes given validation controls.


i want to execute validations after the button click event
how it is?
Write the code for validations in the button control.
when the user control event occur in ASp page life cycle?
When ever a page is called the control event is generated.
What is the method used to load generated dataset with data
on the DataAdapter control ?
The method used to load generated dataset with data on the
DataAdapter control is the Fill() method.
When is the ViewState available during the page processing
cycle ?
ViewState is available After the Init() and before the
Page_Load(), or OnLoad() for a control.
Is it necessary to create a Windows application or Web
application to test a Web service ?
Is it must to consume this service?
No, not necessary, to test a web service it provides HTTP-
GET method to test.
That too the web service comes with a test page.
Explain how inline and code behind is used differently ?
writting a code along side the html in a page is inline
code.
Writing a code in a separate file and referenced by
the .aspx page is code Behind.
Where can we set the specific variables for a application
and Session objects ?
Application variable value is static value and not expired
the value.
ex:

application("vari name")=10

session vari., value have been expired 2 their duration of


session timing...

ex:

session("vari-name")=12

58
In a Code-Behind class generally which type of code is
found ?
In a code-Behind class server-side code is found. Because
code-behind is executed on the server. Eventhough it can
render client-side code such as JavaScript to be processed
in the clients browser. But just to be clear, code-behind
executes on the server, thus making it server-side code.
What is the main use of Response.Output.Write()?
To write formatted output Response.Output.Write() function
is used.
What is the difference between a Stored procedure and function?
Function allways returns value but stored procedure may or
may not return value.
Is data can be edited in the Repeater control?
No data can not be edited in the repeater control.
Repeater control just reads the information from its data
source.
What is the base class of .NET?
System.object
What is an Interface and What is an Abstract Class?
An abstract class is a parent class that allows inheritance
but can never be instantiated

Abstract classes are the classes with no implementation of


methods or concerete implementation of methods

An Interface can inherit several interfaces.

59