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Engineering Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/engstruct

Generalized SDOF system for seismic analysis of concrete rectangular liquid

storage tanks

J.Z. Chen, M.R. Kianoush

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 4 December 2008

Received in revised form

25 May 2009

Accepted 26 May 2009

Available online 17 June 2009

Keywords:

Reinforced concrete

Liquid containing rectangular tank

Seismic

Dynamic analysis

Tank flexibility

Impulsive hydrodynamic pressure

a b s t r a c t

This paper presents a simplified method using the generalized single degree of freedom (SDOF) system

for seismic analysis and design of concrete rectangular liquid storage tanks. In most of the current design

codes and standards for concrete liquid storage tanks, the response of liquid and tank structures is

determined using rigid boundary conditions for the determination of hydrodynamic pressures. Also, the

lumped mass approach is used for dynamic analysis. However, it has been shown that the flexibility of a

tank wall increases the hydrodynamic pressures as compared to the rigid wall assumption. On the other

hand, the consistent mass approach reduces the response of liquid containing structures as compared

to the lumped mass approach. In the proposed method, the consistent mass approach and the effect

of flexibility of a tank wall on hydrodynamic pressures are considered. The prescribed vibration shape

functions representing the first five mode shapes for the cantilever wall boundary condition are studied.

The application of the proposed shape functions and their validity are examined using two different case

studies including a tall and a shallow tank. The results are then compared with those using the finite

element method from a previous investigation and ACI 350.3 commonly used in current practice. The

results indicate that the proposed method is fairly accurate which can be used in the structural design

of liquid containing structures. It is also concluded that the effect of the second mode should also be

considered in the dynamic analysis of liquid containing structures.

2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Liquid storage tanks as part of environmental engineering

facilities are primarily used for the treatment of water and sewage

as well as other industrial wastes. Normally, they are constructed

from reinforced concrete in the form of rectangular or circular

configurations. Early investigation of the dynamic response of

liquid storage tanks subjected to earthquakes was conducted by

Housner [1]. An approximate method was proposed to include

the effect of hydrodynamic pressure for a two-fold-symmetric-

fluid container subjected to horizontal acceleration as shown

in Fig. 1. The hydrodynamic pressures induced by earthquakes

were separated into two parts, impulsive pressure and convective

pressure, and approximated by the lumped added masses. The

added mass in terms of impulsive pressure is rigidly connected

with the tank wall and the added mass in terms of convective

pressure is connected to the tank wall using springs. The boundary

condition in the calculation of hydrodynamic pressures was

350 Victoria Street, M5B 2K3, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

E-mail addresses: j26chen@ryerson.ca (J.Z. Chen), kianoush@ryerson.ca

(M.R. Kianoush).

treated as rigid. Yang [2] and Veletsos [3] studied the effect of

wall flexibility on the magnitude and distribution of hydrodynamic

pressures and associated tank forces. They used Flggles shell

theory to analyze circular tanks and assumed that the tankfluid

system behaved like a single degree of freedom system. The base

shear and moment were evaluated for several prescribed modes of

vibration. It was found that for tanks with realistic flexibility, the

impulsive forces are considerably higher than those in rigid walls.

Most of the research conducted on liquid storage tanks, as

mentioned above has been on circular configurations made of

structural steel. For rectangular tanks, Haroun [4] presented a very

detailed method of analysis on the typical system of loadings. The

hydrodynamic pressures were calculated by a classical potential

flow approach. The formula of hydrodynamic pressures only

considered the rigid wall condition. Park et al. [5] studied the

dynamic behaviour of rectangular tanks using boundary element

modeling for the fluid motion and finite element modeling for

the solid walls. The time history analysis was used to obtain the

dynamic response of fluid storage tanks subjected to earthquakes.

Subsequently, they presented an analytical method for the

calculation of hydrodynamic pressures based on a 3D analysis

of tanks. They applied the RayleighRitz method using assumed

vibration modes of a rectangular plate with boundary conditions

as admissible functions [6].

0141-0296/$ see front matter 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2009.05.019

J.Z. Chen, M.R. Kianoush / Engineering Structures 31 (2009) 24262435 2427

List of symbols

A

a

pseudo-acceleration

c generalized damping of system

d displacement

E modulus of elasticity of material

E

c

modulus of elasticity of concrete

g acceleration due to gravity

h

i

height above the base of the wall to the center of the

gravity of the impulsive lateral force

h

c

height above the base of the wall to the center of the

gravity of the convective lateral force

h

w

height from the base of the wall to the center of

gravity of tank wall

H

L

height of fluid

H

w

height of tank wall

I moment of inertia

L

x

, L

z

half inside length of a rectangular tank in the

directions of x and z

m effective mass of system

m

L

effective added mass of hydrodynamic pressure

m

W

effective inertial mass of tank wall

m generalized mass of system

m

L

generalized added mass of hydrodynamic pressure

m

W

generalized inertial mass of tank wall

M

B

base moment

M

c

convective mass of contained liquid per unit width

of a rectangular tank wall

M

i

impulsive mass of contained liquid per unit width of

a rectangular tank wall

base moment due to impulsive hydrodynamic

pressure

M

L

total effective added mass of hydrodynamic pres-

sure per unit width of a rectangular tank wall

M

L

total generalized added mass of hydrodynamic

pressure per unit width of a rectangular tank wall

M

w

total effective inertial mass of tank wall per unit

width of a rectangular tank wall

M

W

total generalized inertial mass of tank wall per unit

width of a rectangular tank wall

p hydrodynamic pressure

p generalized force of system

p effective mass of liquidtank system

P hydrodynamic force

P

i

hydrodynamic force due to impulsive component

q the factor of external load applied

t time

t

w

thickness of tank wall

T

n

period of vibration in the nth mode.

u, u, u displacement, velocity andaccelerationrespectively

u

g

, u

g

, u

g

ground displacement, velocity and acceleration

respectively

v Poissons ratio

v

x

, v

y

velocity component in the directions of x, y

V

B

base shear of tank wall

x, y, z Cartesian coordinates

W

I

internal work

W

E

external work

velocity potential function for liquid

n

shape function for nth mode

i,n

wavelength for impulsive pressure for the nth mode

l

mass density of liquid

w

mass density of tank wall

n

natural frequency of the nth mode of vibration

damping ratio

Chen and Kianoush [7] used a procedure referred to as the

sequential method for computing hydrodynamic pressures based

ona 2Dmodel for rectangular tanks inwhichthe effect of flexibility

of a tank wall was taken into consideration. The sequential method

is a coupling technique in which the two fields of fluid and

structure are coupled by applying results from the first analysis as

loads or boundary conditions for the second analysis. Compared

to Housners model, it was shown that the lumped mass approach

overestimates the base shear and base moment significantly. Also,

Kianoush and Chen [8] investigated the response of concrete

rectangular liquid storage tanks subjected to vertical ground

acceleration in which the importance of the vertical component of

ground motion in the overall seismic behaviour of liquid storage

tanks was evaluated. It was concluded that the response of tanks

due to vertical ground acceleration can be significant and should

be considered in the design.

Kianoush et al. [9] and Ghaemian et al. [10] applied the stag-

gered method to solve the coupled liquid storage tank problems

in 3D space. The staggered method is a partitioned solution pro-

cedure that can be organized in terms of sequential execution of

a single-field analyser. The scheme of the staggered method is to

find the displacement and hydrodynamic pressure at the end of the

time increment i + 1, given the displacement and hydrodynamic

pressure at time i. The staggered method is general and applicable

on any shapes of storage tanks and takes into account both convec-

tive and impulsive components. Also, the seismic excitation can be

applied in any direction to the system. The results of these studies

also showed that the lumped mass approach is too conservative in

terms of tank response. It is worth noting that both the sequen-

tial method and the staggered method use the sequential analysis

algorithmwhich means that the two domains transfer the data be-

tween each other through a sequential procedure.

The previous methods developed by the authors as described

above are rather elaborate to be used for the design of liquid con-

taining structures. There is a need to develop a simple design

approach since the current lumped mass approach is too conser-

vative. As part of this ongoing research effort, in this paper a sim-

plified method using the generalized SDOF system is proposed to

study the dynamic response of liquid storage tanks. The predeter-

mined shape functions are used to approximate the vibration of

a liquid containing system in which only one degree of freedom

exists in dynamic analysis. The effect of impulsive hydrodynamic

pressure is incorporated into the liquid containing system using

the flexible wall boundary condition based on the consistent mass

approach. The dynamic responses of a tall and a shallow rectan-

gular tank are studied to illustrate the application of the proposed

method. The effect of higher modes on the dynamic response of

liquid containing structures is also considered in this study.

2. Theories

Fig. 2(a) shows a 3D rectangular tank. It is assumed that the

liquid storage tank is fixed to the rigid foundation. A Cartesian

coordinate system (x, y, z) is used with the origin located at the

center of the tank base. It is assumed that the direction of ground

motion is in the x direction. Furthermore, it is assumed that the

width of tank 2L

z

is sufficiently large so that a unit width of tank

can represent the tank wall, and the corresponding 2D model is

shown in Fig. 2(b).

2.1. Hydrodynamic pressure

The fluid filled in the rectangular tank as shown in Fig. 2 is

of height, H

L

above the base. The fluid is considered to be ideal,

which is incompressible, inviscid, and with a mass density

l

. The

hydrodynamic pressure is obtained using the velocity potential

2428 J.Z. Chen, M.R. Kianoush / Engineering Structures 31 (2009) 24262435

Undisturbed

Fluid Surface

Oscillating

Fluid Surface

Hw

Lx Lx

t

w

t

w

M

L

H

I

Lx Lx

hi

hc

t

w

t

w

M

c

M

i

Impulsive

Pressure

Convective

Pressure

y

x

(a) Fluid motion in tank. (b) Dynamic model for rigid wall tank.

Fig. 1. Housners model.

Lx Lx

Lz

Lz

Hw

HL

x

z

y

Lx

Lx

Hw

H

L

tw

tw

x

y

(a) 3D model of rectangular tank. (b) 2D model of rectangular tank.

Fig. 2. Schematic of rectangular tank.

method as presented in the previous study [7]. Only the impulsive

component is considered in this study. The hydrodynamic pressure

distributiononthe flexible wall relatedtothe velocity potential can

be expressed as:

p =

i=1

2

l

tanh(

i,n

L

x

)

i,n

H

L

cos(

i,n

y)

_

H

L

0

cos(

i,n

y) u(y, t)dy (1)

where

i,n

= (2i 1)/2H

L

. As the series in the above equation

converges very fast, only the first term of the series may be used

for practical applications.

For the rigid tank, Eq. (1) can be simplified further as:

p

rigid

=

i=1

2 (1)

i

l

2

i,n

H

L

tanh(

i,n

L

x

) cos(

i,n

y) u

g

(t). (2)

The total lateral force P due to hydrodynamic pressure at the

specific time t is calculated by integrating the pressure distribution

p along the height of the liquid as follows:

P =

_

H

L

0

i=1

2

l

i,n

H

L

tanh(

i,n

L

x

) cos(

i,n

y)

_

H

L

0

cos(

i,n

y) u(y, t)dy dy. (3)

The height at which the lateral force P is applied above the base is:

h

i

=

_

_

H

L

0

i=1

2

l

i,n

H

L

tanh(

i,n

L

x

) cos(

i,n

y)

_

H

L

0

cos(

i,n

y) u(y, t)dy ydy

__

P. (4)

2.2. Generalized SDOF system

For a systemwith distributed mass and stiffness characteristics,

the structure can exhibit an infinite number of degrees of freedom

for a flexural mode of deformations. If there are some predeter-

mined shapes to approximate the vibration of the system, and only

the amplitude of vibration varies with time, then the motion of the

system can be described by a single variable, or a generalized co-

ordinate in which only one DOF exists. The systemidealized in this

manner is referred to as generalized SDOF systems [11]. The the-

ories of generalized SDOF are well known and simple to be used

in practice. In this section, the generalized SDOF system is applied

to solve the dynamic response of liquid containing structures sub-

jected to earthquakes.

2.2.1. Equation of motion

Fig. 3 shows a tank wall with the distributed mass m(y)

and stiffness EI(y) per unit height subjected to the earthquake

J.Z. Chen, M.R. Kianoush / Engineering Structures 31 (2009) 24262435 2429

Hw

H

L

t

w

y

p(y)

m(y)

EI(y)

u(y)

x

Fig. 3. Concrete rectangular tank in generalized SDF system.

ground motion u

g

(t). The distributed mass m(y) and stiffness

EI(y) can be either uniform or non-uniform. It is determined by

the configuration of the tank, such as the wall dimensions and

the material properties. As the tank wall possesses an infinite

number of natural frequencies and corresponding natural modes

in vibration, for an exact analysis, the wall must be treated as an

infinite degree freedom system.

For simplicity, the distributed mass and stiffness system can be

treated as a generalized SDOF system. The equation of motion for

a generalized SDOF system is that:

m u + c u +

k u = p(t) (5)

where m, c,

k, p are defined as the generalized system of mass,

damping, stiffness and force respectively. These generalized prop-

erties are associated with the selected generalized displacement

u(t) as discussed later.

2.2.2. Coupling analysis

For the coupling analysis between the structure and the

contained liquid, the direct coupling method is used inthe analysis.

This means that the responses of the liquid and structure can be

directly solved through the equation of motion.

The work or energy principle is applied to obtainthe equationof

dynamic equilibrium of the liquidstructure system. In this study,

the principle of virtual displacement is usedto deduce the equation

of motion of a generalized SDOF system. The external virtual work

due to hydrodynamic pressure can be expressed in terms of the

generalized coordinate and assumed shape function as:

W

E2

= u

__

H

L

0

p(y) (y) dy

_

(6)

where p(y) is the function of hydrodynamic pressure distribution

along the height of the wall as discussed in Section 2.1 and (y) is

the prescribed shape function discussed later in this paper. Since

the external virtual work due to hydrodynamic pressure is also a

function of the acceleration of ground motion in an earthquake,

after substituting Eq. (1) into Eq. (6), it results:

W

E2

= u [ u(t) f

1

(y, (y)) + u

g

(t) f

2

(y, (y))] (7)

where f

1

(y, (y)) and f

2

(y, (y)) are the two functions related to

the shape function and vertical coordinate along the height of the

wall as follows:

f

1

(y, (y))

=

i=1

2

l

i,n

H

L

tanh(

i,n

L

x

)

__

H

L

0

cos(

i,n

y) (y)dy

_

2

(8)

f

2

(y, (y))

=

i=1

2 (1)

i+1

2

i,n

H

L

tanh(

i,n

L

x

)

_

H

L

0

cos(

i,n

y) (y)dy.

The generalized system of mass, stiffness and force in terms of

the generalized coordinate and assumed shape function can be

obtained as follows:

m =

_

H

W

0

m(y) [(y)]

2

dy + f

1

(y, (y)) (9)

k =

_

H

W

0

EI(y) [

(y)]

2

dy (10)

p = u

g

(t)

__

H

W

0

m(y) (y) dy + f

2

(y, (y))

_

. (11)

The generalized mass in Eq. (9) can be written as two separate

parts, the generalized inertial mass of wall m

w

and the generalized

added mass of the liquid due to impulsive hydrodynamic pressure

m

L

as shown below:

m

W

=

_

H

W

0

m(y) [(y)]

2

dy (12)

m

L

= f

1

(y, (y)). (13)

Also, from Eq. (11), the effective inertial mass of wall m

w

and the

effective added mass of the liquid due to impulsive hydrodynamic

pressure m

L

can be defined based on the shape function as:

m

W

=

_

H

W

0

m(y) (y) dy (14)

m

L

= f

2

(y, (y)). (15)

Therefore the equation of motion for coupling the structure and

the contained liquid subjected to an earthquake is obtained by

substituting Eqs. (9)(11) into Eq. (5). Then by dividing both sides

of the equation by m, the following relationship is obtained:

u + 2

n

u +

2

n

u = q u

g

(t) (16)

where

2

n

=

k/ m represent the natural frequencies associated

with its liquid containing systemand q is the factor of external load

applied, that is:

q = p/ m =

m

W

+ m

L

m

W

+ m

L

(17)

where p is the total effective mass of the liquidtank system as

follows:

p = m

W

+ m

L

. (18)

If an estimated damping ratio is assumed, then all the unknown

parameters i.e. u, u, u can be determined by an assumed shape

function. Therefore the infinite degrees of freedom of a liquid

containing systemcan be simplified to a generalized SDOF system.

It is worth noting that the generalized SDOF systemused in this

study is not the same as the lumped SDOF system in Housners

model [1]. In Housners model, the entire inertial mass associated

with the impulsive component of the liquid and the tank wall is

lumped at an effective height above the base of the tank wall. In

this paper, a generalized coordinate system which is based on the

consistent mass approach is used to approximate the vibration

mode. As a result, the predefined shape function can reduce

the infinite degrees of freedom system into a SDOF system. The

efficiency of the generalized SDOF system used for the dynamic

response of liquid containing structures will be presented using

two different case studies.

2.2.3. Shape functions

In order to obtain the approximate response of the generalized

SDOF systemwith distributed mass and stiffness, the deflections of

the wall for liquid containing structures relative to the ground can

be assumed to be a single shape function (y) that approximates

2430 J.Z. Chen, M.R. Kianoush / Engineering Structures 31 (2009) 24262435

the fundamental vibration mode in the form of:

u

r

(y, t) = (y) u(t) (19)

where u(t) is the defined time function related to a single

generalizeddisplacement, and(y) is the assumedshape function.

Therefore the total displacement can be expressed by:

u(y, t) = u

r

(y, t) + u

g

(t) = (y) u(t) + u

g

(t). (20)

Choosing a proper shape function is critical to accurately

estimating the natural frequencies of liquid containing structures

when using a generalized SDOF system. In principle, any shape

function may be selected if it satisfies the displacement boundary

conditions at the supports. However, a shape function that satisfies

only the geometric boundary conditions does not always ensure an

accurate result for the fundamental natural frequency.

It is worth noting that the configuration of concrete rectangular

tanks in terms of boundary conditions could be different for a

simple open top rectangular tank used in the study. The prescribed

shape functions used in this study are based on the cantilever

wall boundary condition. However, the generalized SDOF system

can be applied to any configuration of concrete rectangular tanks

provided that the proper mode shape functions are used for the

approximation of vibration modes.

In this study, the shape function SF1 representing the first mode

shape based onthe cantilever wall conditionis selected for analysis

as follows.

SF1(y) = 1(y) =

3

2

y

2

H

2

W

1

2

y

3

H

3

W

. (21)

It should be noted that for boundary conditions other than a

cantilever wall, different shape functions need to be defined.

2.2.4. Peak earthquake response

Once the fundamental natural frequency of the generalized

SDOF system is known, the response of a liquid containing struc-

ture can be easily calculated using the response spectrum method

for the specific earthquake record or the design response spectrum

which is specified in the design standards and codes.

It is worth noting that the response spectra specified in the de-

sign standards and codes are normally based on the lumped mass

SDOF system. Since the equation of motion for the generalized

SDOF systemfor the nthmode indicated inEq. (15) is similar to that

for the lumped mass SDOF system, the response spectrummethod

is still applicable for the generalized SDOF system [11].

The maximum displacement at the top of the tank wall can be

calculated using the formula:

u

max

=

q

2

n

A

a

(22)

where A

a

is the pseudo-acceleration which can be obtained from

the response spectrum at period T

n

= 2 /

n

for the damping

ratio .

The base shear and base moment can be calculated using the

following relationships:

V

B

= p q A

a

(23)

M

B

= p q A

a

(24)

where q and p are defined in Eqs. (17) and (18) respectively, and p

is defined as:

p =

_

H

W

0

m(y) (y) ydy +

_

H

L

0

f

2

(y, (y)) ydy

= m

W

h

W

+ m

L

h

i

(25)

where h

w

andh

i

are the effective heights of inertial mass of the tank

wall and added mass of the liquid due to impulsive hydrodynamic

pressure with respect to the tank base, respectively.

The hydrodynamic force P and the effective height at which

the hydrodynamic pressure is applied, h

i

, at the peak earthquake

response can be obtained by substituting the acceleration function

Eq. (26) into Eqs. (3) and (4) respectively.

u(t) = (y) q A

a

. (26)

As a result, the dynamic response of a liquid containing structure

can be evaluated by the generalized SDOF system.

2.3. Contribution of higher modes

The effect of higher vibration modes on the dynamic response

of liquid storage tanks has generally been ignored in the past

because only the rigid wall condition is considered. However,

when considering the flexibility of tank walls, the effect of higher

vibration modes must be included in dynamic analysis. In this

section, the contribution of higher modes to the dynamic response

of liquid storage tanks is studied.

Since the generalized SDOF system is defined as the motion

of the system described by a single variable, or a generalized

coordinate in which only one DOF exists, then, if the higher

mode vibration functions can be approximated by one generalized

coordinate, the effect of high modes on the generalized SDOF

system can be solved. It is worth noting that the generalized SDOF

is not the single degree of freedom system based on one lumped

mass. It is the generalized coordinate to approximate the vibration

system.

In a general condition, the beam vibrating function can be used

as an admissible function to approximate the vibration mode [12].

The general form can be expressed as:

n

(y) = a

n

sin(k

n

y) + b

n

cos(k

n

y)

+c

n

sinh(k

n

y) + d

n

cosh(k

n

y) (27)

where a

n

, b

n

, c

n

, d

n

are constants and k

n

is the eigenvalue for

the nth mode. All these parameters are determined based on the

boundary conditions.

For the cantilever wall condition, the vibration function for the

nth mode is:

n

(y) = (cosh(k

n

y) cos(k

n

y))

n

(sinh(k

n

y) sin(k

n

y)) (28)

where

n

=

cos(k

n

H

W

) + cosh(k

n

H

W

)

sin(k

n

H

W

) + sinh(k

n

H

W

)

. (29)

For the first mode, n = 1, k

n

= 1.875/H

W

and

n

= 0.734. This

shape function is defined as SF2 expressed as:

SF2 =

n

(y) =

_

cosh

_

1.875

y

H

W

_

cos

_

1.875

y

H

W

__

0.734

_

sinh

_

1.875

y

H

W

_

+ sin

_

1.875

y

H

W

__

. (30)

The natural frequencies and normalized modes of a cantilever

wall for the first five modes of SF2 are summarized in Table 1.

Although, the shape function SF1 is also for the first mode using

the general vibrationequationfor the cantilever wall condition, the

shape function SF2 for the first mode is more complex in terms of

mathematical expressions as compared to the shape function SF1.

For practical application of SF2, the design tables and charts can be

developed to simplify the calculation.

3. Dynamic response of tanks

To demonstrate the efficiency of the generalized SDOF system

for dynamic analyses of liquid containing structures, a tall and a

shallow tank that were studied previously [7,8] are used in this

J.Z. Chen, M.R. Kianoush / Engineering Structures 31 (2009) 24262435 2431

Table 1

Natural frequencies and normal modes for cantilever wall.

Mode, n

n

(y) =

(cosh(k

n

y) cos(k

n

y))

n

(sinh(k

n

y) sin(k

n

y))

n

=

cos(knH

W

)+cosh(knH

W

)

sin(knH

W

)+sinh(knH

W

)

,

n

= C

n

_

EI

m(y)L

4

k

n

n

C

n

1 1.875/H

W

0.734 3.516

2 4.694/H

W

1.018 22.035

3 7.855/H

W

0.999 61.697

4 10.959/H

W

1.000 120.090

5 14.137/H

W

1.000 199.860

study. Both empty and full tanks are considered. It is worth noting

that since the current dynamic analysis is based on the 2D model,

the definition of tall and shallowtanks are the relative terms based

on the assumption of a sufficiently large width of tank 2L

z

as

discussed previously.

3.1. Tall tank

The dimensions and the properties of the tall tank studied in

this paper are as follows:

w

= 2300 kg/m

3

l

= 1000 kg/m

3

E

c

= 2.0776 10

4

MPa = 0.17 L

x

= 9.8 m

L

z

= 28 m H

w

= 12.3 m H

L

= 11.2 m t

w

= 1.2 m.

In this study, the dynamic response of a tall tank obtained fromthe

generalized SDOF system is compared with those using the finite

element method (FEM) and ACI 350.3 as described subsequently.

In the study by Chen and Kianoush [7], six models were presented

using the finite element method (FEM). The mode superposition

method was used in Model 4 in which the distributed added

mass of liquid due to hydrodynamic pressure was considered.

In Model 5, the time history analysis including the sequential

procedure was used. The effect of flexibility of the tank wall on

the dynamic response for both the tank wall and hydrodynamic

pressure was considered. As the distributed mass was considered

inbothmodels, they representedthe more accurate analysis inthat

study.

ACI 350.3 [13] outlines the calculation procedure for dynamic

analyses of concrete rectangular liquid containing structures.

Housners model is adopted and the lumped added mass approach

assuming a rigid wall boundary condition for the calculation of

hydrodynamic pressure is considered. It is worth noting that the

response modification factor R and the importance factor, I are

assumed as 1.0. Therefore, the comparison between the proposed

model and the ACI 350.3 procedure is on the basis of elastic

analysis.

Table 2 shows the generalized mass of tank wall m

W

for the

first mode based on the shape function SF1. Compared to the total

generalizedmass of tank wall

M

W

basedonthe rigidwall condition,

the mass percentage obtained fromthe shape function SF1 is 23.6%

of the total generalized mass of the tank wall.

For the effective mass of tank wall m

W

, the mass percentage

obtained from the shape function SF1 in terms of M

W

is 37.6%. M

W

is the total effective mass of the tank wall based on the rigid wall

condition and equals

M

W

for the shape function (y) = 1.

As expected, because there are infinite degrees of freedom for

the tank wall, the participation of generalized and effective masses

of the tank wall for the first mode using the consistent mass is less

than that using the lumped mass based on the rigid wall boundary

condition. It is worth noting that only the first mode is considered

in this section. The effect of higher modes on the dynamic response

of liquid containing structures is discussed later in this paper.

For the full tank, the values of m

L

and m

L

, which are the gener-

alized and effective added masses of the liquid due to impulsive

Table 2

Summary of dynamic response of tanks.

Parameters Tall tank Shallow tank

Empty tank m

W

(10

3

kg) 8.00 1.952

% of

M

W

23.6 23.6

m

W

(10

3

kg) 12.73 3.105

% of M

W

37.6 37.6

m

W

m

W

1.591 1.591

K

W

(10

3

kN/m) 4.823 6.610

T1 (s) 0.256 0.108

A

a

(m/s

2

) 0.840 g 0.616 g

Full tank m

L

(10

3

kg) 4.320 1.137

% of

M

L

7.2 7.0

m

L

(10

3

kg) 13.46 3.648

% of M

L

22.5 22.4

m

W

+m

L

m

W

+ m

L

2.126 2.187

T1 (s) 0.318 0.136

A

a

(m/s

2

) 0.674 g 0.806 g

P

i

(kN) 189.1 63.05

M

i

(kN m) 1086.2 172.8

h

i

(m) 5.744 2.74

h

i

/H

L

0.513 0.498

hydrodynamic pressure, respectively, based on the first mode

shape function are calculated as shown in Table 2. In addition, it is

assumed that the generalized and effective added masses based on

the rigid wall boundary condition,

M

L

and M

L

, represent the total

generalized and effective added masses of the liquid due to hydro-

dynamic pressure for the liquid containing system. Since the shape

function (y) = 1 is applied to evaluate the rigid wall bound-

ary condition, the total generalized and effective added masses of

the liquid due to impulsive hydrodynamic pressure,

M

L

and M

L

are

both equal.

It can be found that only part of generalized and effective added

masses of the liquid for the first mode, m

L

and m

L

, participate in

the dynamic analysis as compared to the total generalized and

effective added masses

M

L

and M

L

. The same trend can be found

in the generalized and effective inertial masses of the tank wall for

the first mode shape function, m

W

and m

W

, as discussed above.

For the shape function SF1, the mass participation factors for the

generalized and effective added masses of the liquid are 7.2% and

22.5% of the total generalized and effective added masses of the

liquid due to impulsive hydrodynamic pressure, respectively.

The generalized stiffness of the structure is calculated using

Eq. (10). Based on a unit load applied at the top of the wall, the

wall stiffness can also be determined using the following simple

relationship:

k =

E

c

4

_

t

W

H

W

_

3

. (31)

Based on the above equation, the stiffness of the tank wall is

4823 kN/m. This agrees well with the results obtained from the

shape functions SF1 and SF2 for the first mode.

The fundamental natural period of the empty tank based on the

shape function SF1 is 0.256 s. The fundamental natural period of

the first mode for the full tank is 0.318 s for shape function SF1.

These values are similar to those obtained using the finite element

method (FEM) in the previous study.

The maximum response of the structure can be obtained using

the pseudo-ground acceleration of the response spectrum. The El

Centro 1940 Earthquake used in the previous investigation is also

used in this study. The response spectrum for such a record is

based on a 5% damping ratio. The pseudo-ground accelerations A

a

corresponding to the periods are listed in Table 2. It should be

noted that the actual response spectrum rather than the design

response spectrum is used in this study. This is because the

previous study was based on a time history analysis using the El

Centro record which is used as the basis for comparison.

2432 J.Z. Chen, M.R. Kianoush / Engineering Structures 31 (2009) 24262435

Top Displacement

D

i

s

p

l

a

c

e

m

e

n

t

(

m

m

)

Base Shear

B

a

s

e

S

h

e

a

r

(

k

N

)

(a) Top displacement. (b) Base shear.

B

a

s

e

M

o

m

e

n

t

(

k

N

m

)

Base Moment

(c) Base moment.

Fig. 4. Dynamic response of tall tank.

It is worth noting that the pseudo-ground acceleration varies

in the range of periods between 0.1 and 0.7 s for this specific

site response spectrum. However, if a standard design spectrum is

used, this kind of deviation can be eliminated because the design

spectrum is not intended to match the response spectrum for

any particular ground motion but is constructed to represent the

average characteristics of many ground accelerations.

Fig. 4 shows the comparison of results obtained from the

generalized SDOF system with those using the FEM and the ACI

350.3 in terms of the maximum top displacement, base shear and

base moment. The comparison shows that the response for both

the empty and the full tank using the shape function SF1 agrees

with the FEM results. However, the ACI 350.3 overestimates the

base shear and the base moment. For the full tank, the maximum

displacement based on the previous study is 32.7 mm for Model

4, but it is 26.7 mm for Model 5. This difference in results may be

attributed to the response within the small range of periods in the

response spectrum curve.

The fundamental natural periods obtained using ACI 350.3

are 0.131 s and 0.225 s for the empty and full tank conditions

respectively. The fundamental natural periods are about 49% and

29% lower than those using the generalized SDOF system and

the FEM for the empty and full tanks respectively. Since the

fundamental natural period is critical to determining the response

of a structure, the estimated fundamental natural periods based

on ACI 350.3 result in higher dynamic response of tall tanks as

compared with those obtained using the generalized SDOF system

and the FEM as shown in Fig. 4.

The hydrodynamic pressure is calculated by using Eq. (1). The

total hydrodynamic pressure P

i

is calculated by integration of the

hydrodynamic pressure along the depth of the liquid as shown

in Table 2. The distribution of hydrodynamic pressure along the

height of the wall is demonstrated in Fig. 5. The overall response

from this study compares very well with that obtained using

Model 5 in which the effect of wall flexibility was considered in

the analysis. However, hydrodynamic pressure distribution in the

lower portion of the tank wall obtained from this study is less

than that of Model 5. This is due to the difference in magnitude

of acceleration along the height of the tank wall. The accelerations

for the lower part of tank calculated using generalized SDOF is less

than those from Model 5 in the previous study.

The effective height at whichhydrodynamic pressure is applied,

h

i

, and the ratio of the height at which hydrodynamic pressure is

applied to the depth of the stored liquid h

i

/H

L

are shown in Table 2.

The value of h

i

is 5.7 m and the h

i

/H

L

ratio is 0.51 for the shape

function SF1. As stated earlier, in current design standards and

codes, Housners model [1] is commonly used. The effective height

at which the hydrodynamic pressure is applied is calculated using

the following equations.

For tanks with

2L

x

H

L

< 1.333,

h

i

H

L

= 0.5 0.09375

_

2L

x

H

L

_

. (32)

For tanks with

2L

x

H

L

1.333,

J.Z. Chen, M.R. Kianoush / Engineering Structures 31 (2009) 24262435 2433

2

4

6

8

10

0

12

H

e

i

g

h

t

(

m

)

10 15 20 5

Pressure (kPa)

25 0

Flexible (Model 5)

Rigid

Generalized SDOF

Fig. 5. Hydrodynamic pressure distribution along the height of the walltall tank.

h

i

H

L

= 0.375. (33)

Based on the above equations, the value of h

i

is 4.2 m and the

h

i

/H

L

ratio is 0.375, by using the above equations in this case. It

can be seen that the height at which the hydrodynamic pressure is

applied is higher than the one obtained using Housners formula.

This difference is due to the effect of the flexibility of the tank wall

which is not considered in Housners model.

3.2. Shallow tank

Another example of a shallow tank studied previously [7,8] is

analyzed herein to further verify the efficiency of generalized SDOF

system on dynamic analysis of liquid containing structures. The

dimensions and properties of the shallow tank are as follows:

w

= 2300 kg/m

3

l

= 1000 kg/m

3

E

c

= 2.644 10

4

MPa

= 0.17 L

x

= 15 m L

z

= 30 m H

w

= 6.0 m

H

l

= 5.5 m t

w

= 0.6 m.

The results of the analysis are summarized in Table 2 in the

same forms that were presented for the case of the tall tank. The

hydrodynamic pressure distribution along the height of the wall

is shown in Fig. 6. A similar trend in the behaviour to that of the

tall tank is observed for the shallowtank. However, there are small

differences between the results of the prescribed shape function as

compared to the results of the previous study using the FEM. This

can be attributed to the difference in the periods of vibration for

the response spectrumanalysis. If similar periods were used for the

two cases, the difference of results would be very small as shown

in Table 3.

3.3. Effect of high modes

To study the effect of higher modes, both the tall and shallow

tanks studied previously are analyzed in this section. The design

response spectrum based on ASCE 7-05 [14] is used to obtain the

dynamic response of liquid storage tanks. The site is assumed to be

in the west coast of US in Washington State and the parameters for

the design response spectrum are:

(1) Short period maximum spectral response acceleration: S

s

=

1.25;

1

2

3

4

5

0

6

H

e

i

g

h

t

(

m

)

10 5 15 0

Pressure (kPa)

Flexible (Model 5)

Rigid

Generalized SDOF

Fig. 6. Hydrodynamic pressure distribution along the height of the wallshallow

tank.

(2) At a period of 1 s, the maximum spectral response; accelera-

tion: S

1

= 0.60

(3) Site class B.

The results of the analysis are summarizedinTables 4 and5. For the

first mode, the results obtained fromshape function SF2 are similar

to those obtained fromthe shape function SF1. For the empty tank,

the fundamental periods obtained fromSF2 are 0.260 s and 0.110 s

for the tall and shallow tanks, respectively. This is consistent with

the values of 0.256 s for the tall tank and 0.108 s for the shallow

tank based on the shape function SF1.

For the full tank, the fundamental periods obtained fromSF2 are

0.326 s and 0.139 s for the tall and shallowtanks, respectively. This

is also consistent with the values of 0.318 s for the tall tank and

0.136 s for the shallow tank based on the shape function SF1. The

dynamic response of liquid storage tanks is also calculated based

on the design response spectrum as shown in Tables 4 and 5. It

should be noted that these results are different form those shown

in Fig. 4 since the El Centro earthquake response spectrum was

used in producing the results in that figure. The results obtained

fromshape functionSF1agree well withthose obtainedfromshape

function SF2 for the first mode.

The results obtained from the second to the fifth mode shapes

are also presentedinTables 4 and5. For the higher modes, a param-

eter referred to as the modal participation factor is calculated us-

ing Eq. (17). This factor is used to evaluate the degree to which the

nth mode participates in the response. Compared to other build-

ing structures, the participation factor in the dynamic analysis of

liquid storage tanks includes not only the structure but also the

added mass of the liquid due to hydrodynamic pressure. Table 4

shows that the modal participation factor decreases significantly

for the empty tank from 1.566 to 0.868 compared to the full tank

from 2.074 to 1.649 corresponding to the first mode and the sec-

ond mode, respectively. This indicates that the added mass of the

liquid due to impulsive hydrodynamic pressure affects the modal

participation factor significantly and the second mode shape must

be considered in the dynamic response of liquid storage tanks.

Tables 6 and 7 show the combination of dynamic responses

of liquid storage tanks for the first two modes for the tall and

shallow tanks, respectively. The Square Root of Sum of Square

(SRSS) method is used for the combination. It can be seen that

for the empty tank the contribution from the second mode is not

2434 J.Z. Chen, M.R. Kianoush / Engineering Structures 31 (2009) 24262435

Table 3

Comparisons of results of analysisshallow tank.

Cases SF1 Model 4

a

Model 5

a

ACI 350.3

Empty tank T1 (s) 0.109 0.109 0.055

A

a

(m/s

2

) 0.604 g 0.473 g

d

max

(mm) 2.84 3.03 2.87

V

B

(kN) 29.3 33.0 33.4 38.4

M

B

(kN m) 128.7 143.5 138.5 115.2

Full tank T1 (s) 0.148 0.148 0.097

A

a

(m/s

2

) 0.657 0.665 g

d

max

(mm) 7.82 5.91 4.50

V

B

(kN) 95.1 78.9 78.7 167.9

M

B

(kN m) 333.2 300.0 240.2 396.9

P

i

(kN) 51.4

M

i

(kN m) 140.8

a

[7].

Table 4

Summary of dynamic response of tall tank for higher modes.

Mode n = 1 (SF1) n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 n = 5

Empty tank m

W

/ m

W

1.591 1.566 0.868 0.509 0.382 0.283

K

W

(10

3

kN/m) 4.823 4.969 195.144 1530 5815 16 050

T

n

(s) 0.256 0.260 0.041 0.015 7.553 10

3

4.56810

3

A

a

(m/s

2

) 0.833 g 0.833 g 0.547 g 0.411 g 0.373 g 0.357 g

d

max

(mm) 21.56 21.85 0.202 0.011 2.021 10

3

5.23710

4

V

B

(kN) 165.45 170.02 34.29 8.857 4.492 2.379

M

B

(kN m) 1492 1519 88.22 13.88 6.83 2.07

Full tank m

L

(10

3

kg) 4.32 4.876 10.02 6.375 2.523 1.629

% of

M

L

7.2 8.1 16.7 10.6 4.2 2.7

m

L

(10

3

kg) 13.46 14.43 23.16 10.13 7.594 7.103

% of M

L

22.5 24.1 38.7 16.9 12.7 11.9

m

W

+m

L

m

W

+ m

L

2.126 2.074 1.649 0.972 0.989 0.939

T

n

(s) 0.318 0.326 0.061 0.020 8.613 10

3

4.98810

3

A

a

(m/s

2

) 0.833 g 0.833 g 0.651 g 0.438 g 0.378 g 0.359 g

d

max

(mm) 44.362 45.574 0.999 0.041 6.888 10

3

2.08410

3

V

B

(kN) 454.832 469.739 321.389 60.34 39.614 31.434

M

B

(kN m) 3337 3409 1352 102.23 93.283 88.67

P

i

(kN) 233.767 244.523 243.842 42.306 27.838 23.491

M

i

(kN m) 1343 1396 1152 73.967 75.373 81.759

h

i

(m) 5.744 5.710 4.726 1.748 2.708 3.480

h

i

/H

L

0.513 0.510 0.422 0.156 0.242 0.311

Table 5

Summary of dynamic response of shallow tank for higher modes.

Mode n = 1 (SF1) n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 n = 5

Empty tank m

W

/ m

W

1.591 1.566 0.868 0.509 0.382 0.283

K

W

(10

3

kN/m) 6.610 6.810 267.44 2097 7970 22 000

T

n

(s) 0.108 0.110 0.017 6.234 10

3

3.187 10

3

1.92710

3

A

a

(m/s

2

) 0.833 g 0.833 g 0.422 g 0.366 g 0.350 g 0.343 g

d

max

(mm) 3.84 3.89 0.028 1.803 10

3

3.374 10

4

8.95410

5

V

B

(kN) 40.35 41.47 6.45 1.92 1.03 0.56

M

B

(kN m) 177.55 180.75 8.10 1.47 0.76 0.24

Full tank m

L

(10

3

kg) 1.137 1.284 2.667 1.609 0.650 0.410

% of

M

L

7.0 7.9 16.4 9.9 4.0 2.5

m

L

(10

3

kg) 3.648 3.91 6.266 2.826 2.124 1.922

% of M

L

22.4 24.0 38.4 17.3 13.0 11.8

m

W

+m

L

m

W

+ m

L

2.187 2.132 1.702 1.055 1.077 1.011

T

n

(s) 0.136 0.139 0.026 8.323 10

3

3.658 10

3

2.11010

3

A

a

(m/s

2

) 0.833 g 0.833 g 0.469 g 0.377 g 0.352 g 0.344 g

d

max

(mm) 8.35 8.58 0.139 6.840 10

3

1.259 10

3

3.84510

4

V

B

(kN) 120.6 124.6 63.1 15.125 10.806 8.533

M

B

(kN m) 422.5 431.6 129.2 14.232 13.605 12.160

P

i

(kN) 65.2 68.1 49.0 11.02 7.894 6.555

M

i

(kN m) 178.5 185.5 111.6 11.09 11.445 11.312

h

i

(m) 2.74 2.723 2.275 1.007 1.450 1.726

h

i

/H

L

0.498 0.495 0.414 0.183 0.264 0.314

significant. The base shear by including the second mode only

increases by 2% and 1.2% compared to those obtained fromthe first

mode shape for the tall and shallow tanks, respectively. However,

it increases by 21.2% and 12.1% for the tall and shallow tanks,

respectively in the full tank condition. Also, the contribution of

the second mode shape for the tall tank is more than that for

the shallow tank. To investigate the effects of higher modes, the

results of analysis including the combination of the first three

modes using the SRSS method are presented in Tables 6 and 7. It

can be observed that there is no significant increase in response

J.Z. Chen, M.R. Kianoush / Engineering Structures 31 (2009) 24262435 2435

Table 6

Combination of response of higher modestall tank.

Items Response n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 2 modes 3 modes

Combination Increase % Combination Increase %

Empty tank d

max

(mm) 21.850 0.202 0.011 21.851 0.00 21.851 0.00

V

B

(kN) 170.02 34.29 8.86 173.44 2.01 173.67 2.15

M

B

(kN m) 1519 88.22 13.88 1521.56 0.17 1521.62 0.17

Full tank d

max

(mm) 45.574 0.999 0.041 45.585 0.02 45.585 0.02

V

B

(kN) 469.74 321.39 60.34 569.16 21.17 572.35 21.84

M

B

(kN m) 3409 1352 102.2 3667.3 7.58 3668.7 7.62

Table 7

Combination of response of higher modesshallow tank.

Items Response n = 1 n = 2 n = 3 2 modes 3 modes

Combination Increase % Combination Increase %

Empty tank d

max

(mm) 3.89 0.028 0.002 3.89 0.00 3.89 0.00

V

B

(kN) 41.47 6.45 1.92 41.97 1.20 42.01 1.31

M

B

(kN m) 180.75 8.10 1.47 180.93 0.10 180.94 0.10

Full tank d

max

(mm) 8.58 0.139 6.840 10

3

8.58 0.01 8.58 0.01

V

B

(kN) 124.6 63.1 15.1 139.7 12.09 140.5 12.75

M

B

(kN m) 431.6 129.2 14.2 450.5 4.38 450.7 4.44

of the tall and shallow tanks as compared to those including the

combination of the first two modes. Therefore, it can be concluded

that the secondmode shouldbe consideredinthe dynamic analysis

of liquid storage tanks, especially for tall tanks and the effect of

third and higher modes can be ignored.

4. Conclusions

A simplified method using the generalized SDOF system

is presented to determine the dynamic response of concrete

rectangular liquid storage tanks. Only impulsive hydrodynamic

dynamic pressure is considered in this study. The theories

are based on the well-known principles of dynamic analysis

in engineering practice. The consistent mass and the effect

of flexibility of a tank wall on hydrodynamic pressures are

considered. The advantage of the proposed method over other

methods such as the finite element method is its simplicity which

can be used in the design practice. The proposed method is

comparable to the lumped mass approach currently being used in

terms of its simplicity.

The prescribed shape functions representing the first five mode

shapes for the cantilever boundary condition are used for analysis.

They represent the typical open top rectangular tanks commonly

used in water and waste water treatment plants. The proposed

method can be easily extended to cover other types of rectangular

tanks having different boundary conditions.

A tall and a shallow liquid storage tank studied previously

are analyzed to demonstrate the efficiency of the generalized

SDOF system applied for the dynamic analysis of liquid storage

tanks. Comparing the results obtained using the generalized

SDOF system as proposed in this study with those obtained

using the finite element method from the previous investigation

shows that the proposed method can provide sufficiently accurate

results. However, the results obtained using ACI 350.3 are not

consistent with the results of this study. The differences are

in the fundamental natural frequencies for both empty and

full tank conditions. Also, the current practice overestimates

the base shear and base moment, which is mainly due to the

assumptionof lumpedmass approximation. It is concludedthat the

proposed shape functions SF1 and SF2 are appropriate functions to

approximate the response of liquid storage tanks for the cantilever

wall boundary condition.

The effect of higher modes on the dynamic response of liquid

containing structures is studied. It is concluded that the inclusion

of the first two modes can provide sufficiently accurate results.

This study also recommends that the effect of the flexibility of a

tank wall should be considered in the calculation of hydrodynamic

pressures for concrete rectangular tanks. It is also recommended

to use the design response spectrum method when using the

generalized SDOF system for a dynamic analysis of liquid storage

tanks.

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