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LS-DYNA

KEYWORD USER'S MANUAL


VOLUME II
March 2001
Version 960
Copyright 1992-2001
LIVERMORE SOFTWARE
TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION
All Rights Reserved

LS-DYNA

2

Mailing Address:
Livermore Software Technology Corporation
2876 Waverley Way
Livermore, California 94550-1740
Support Address;
Livermore Software Technology Corporation
7374 Las Positas Road
Livermore, California 94550
TEL: 925-449-2500
FAX: 925-449-2507
EMAIL: sales@lstc.com
Copyright 1992-2001 by Livermore Software Technology Corporation
All Rights Reserved

...
:
. . , . . , . . , . C.
:
. .
-
456770, . , . , 13
e-mail: lsdyna@strela.snz.ru
.: (351-72) 5-24-12, (351-72) 5-21-11
: (351-72) 5-25-52

*MAT .............................................................................................................................................................................. 1
*MAT_ADD_EROSION ................................................................................................................................... 14
*MAT_NONLOCAL ......................................................................................................................................... 16
*MAT_ELASTIC_{OPTION}........................................................................................................................... 20
*MAT_OPTION TROPIC_ELASTIC ............................................................................................................... 23
*MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC....................................................................................................................... 30
*MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_THERMAL........................................................................................................ 33
*MAT_SOIL_AND_FOAM .............................................................................................................................. 36
*MAT_VISCOELASTIC................................................................................................................................... 40
*MAT_BLATZ-KO_RUBBER ......................................................................................................................... 41
*MAT_HIGH_EXPLOSIVE_BURN................................................................................................................. 42
*MAT_NULL..................................................................................................................................................... 45
*MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_HYDRO_{OPTION} ........................................................................................ 47
*MAT_STEINBERG ......................................................................................................................................... 52
*MAT_STEINBERG_LUND ............................................................................................................................ 57
*MAT_ISOTROPIC_ELASTIC_PLASTIC ...................................................................................................... 60
*MAT_ISOTROPIC_ELASTIC_FAILURE...................................................................................................... 61
*MAT_SOIL_AND_FOAM_FAILURE............................................................................................................ 63
*MAT_JOHNSON_COOK................................................................................................................................ 64
*MAT_PSEUDO_TENSOR .............................................................................................................................. 69
*MAT_ORIENTED_CRACK............................................................................................................................ 78
*MAT_POWER_LAW_PLASTICITY.............................................................................................................. 80
*MAT_STRAIN_RATE_DEPENDENT_PLASTICITY .................................................................................. 82
*MAT_RIGID .................................................................................................................................................... 85
*MAT_ORTHOTROPIC_THERMAL .............................................................................................................. 90
*MAT_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE ..................................................................................................................... 94
*MAT_TEMPERATURE_DEPENDENT-ORTHOTROPIC............................................................................ 99
*MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY ............................................................................................... 104
*MAT_GEOLOGIC_CAP_MODEL ............................................................................................................... 109
*MAT_HONEYCOMB.................................................................................................................................... 116
*MAT_MOONEY-RIVLIN_RUBBER ........................................................................................................... 123
*MAT_RESULTANT_PLASTICITY ............................................................................................................. 126
*MAT_FORCE_LIMITED .............................................................................................................................. 127
*MAT_SHAPE_MEMORY............................................................................................................................. 136
*MAT_FRAZER_NASH_RUBBER_MODEL ............................................................................................... 138
*MAT_LAMINATED_GLASS ....................................................................................................................... 141

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT_BARLAT_ANISOTROPIC_PLASTICITY ........................................................................................ 143


*MAT_BARLAT_YLD96 ............................................................................................................................... 147
*MAT_FABRIC............................................................................................................................................... 151
*MAT_PLASTIC_GREEN-NAGHDI_RATE ................................................................................................ 157
*MAT_3-PARAMETER_BARLAT ................................................................................................................ 158
*MAT_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC_ELASTIC_PLASTIC.............................................................. 163
*MAT_BLATZ-KO_FOAM............................................................................................................................ 166
*MAT_FLD_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC......................................................................................... 168
*MAT_NONLINEAR_ORTHOTROPIC ........................................................................................................ 170
*MAT_USER_DEFINED_MATERIAL_MODELS ....................................................................................... 174
*MAT_BAMMAN........................................................................................................................................... 177
*MAT_BAMMAN_DAMAGE ....................................................................................................................... 182
*MAT-CLOSED_CELL_FOAM ..................................................................................................................... 185
*MAT_ENHANCED_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE ........................................................................................... 188
*MAT_LOW_DENSITY_FOAM.................................................................................................................... 195
*MAT_LAMINATED_COMPOSITE-FABRIC ............................................................................................. 199
*MAT_COMPOSITE_FAILURE_OPTION_MODEL ................................................................................... 205
*MAT_ELASTIC_WITH_VISCOSITY.......................................................................................................... 210
*MAT_KELVIN-MAXWELL_VISCOELASTIC........................................................................................... 213
*MAT_VISCOUS_FOAM............................................................................................................................... 215
*MAT_CRUSHABLE_FOAM ........................................................................................................................ 217
*MAT_RATE_SENSITIVE_POWERLAW_PLASTICITY ........................................................................... 219
*MAT_MODIFIED_ZERILLI_ARMSTRONG.............................................................................................. 221
*MAT_CONCRETE_DAMAGE..................................................................................................................... 224
*MAT_LOW_DENSITY_VISCOUS_FOAM................................................................................................. 228
*MAT_BILKHU/DUBOIS_FOAM................................................................................................................. 232
*MAT_GENERAL_VISCOELASTIC ............................................................................................................ 234
*MAT_HYPERELASTIC_RUBBER.............................................................................................................. 238
*MAT_OGDEN_RUBBER ............................................................................................................................. 242
*MAT_SOIL_CONCRETE ............................................................................................................................. 246
*MAT_HYSTERETIC_SOIL .......................................................................................................................... 250
*MAT_RAMBERG_OSGOOD ....................................................................................................................... 253
*MAT_PLASTICITY_WITH_DAMAGE....................................................................................................... 255
*MAT_FU_CHANG_FOAM .......................................................................................................................... 260
*MAT_WINFRITH_CONCRETE................................................................................................................... 267
*MAT_WINFRITH_CONCRETE_REINFORCEMENT ............................................................................... 271
*MAT_ORTHOTROPIC_VISCOELASTIC ................................................................................................... 273
*MAT_CELLULAR_RUBBER....................................................................................................................... 276

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT_MTS..................................................................................................................................................... 281
*MAT_PLASTIC_POLYMER ........................................................................................................................ 286
*MAT_ACOUSTIC ......................................................................................................................................... 289
*MAT_SOFT_TISSUE_{OPTION}................................................................................................................ 291
*MAT_BRITTLE_DAMAGE ......................................................................................................................... 296
*MAT_SIMPLIFIED_JOHNSON_COOK ...................................................................................................... 299
*MAT_SPOTWELD_{OPTION}.................................................................................................................... 301
*MAT_GEPLASTIC_SRATE_2000a.............................................................................................................. 305
*MAT_INV_HYPERBOLIC_SIN................................................................................................................... 307
*MAT_ANISOTROPIC_VISCOPLASTIC..................................................................................................... 309
*MAT_DAMAGE_1........................................................................................................................................ 314
*MAT_DAMAGE_2........................................................................................................................................ 319
*MAT_ELASTIC_VISCOPLASTIC_THERMAL.......................................................................................... 323
*MAT_JOHNSON_HOLMQUIST_CERAMICS ........................................................................................... 326
*MAT_JOHNSON_HOLMQUIST_CONCRETE........................................................................................... 329
*MAT_FINITE_ELASTIC_STRAIN_PLASTICITY ..................................................................................... 332
*MAT_LAYERED_LINEAR_PLASTICITY ................................................................................................. 336
*MAT_UNIFIED_GREEP............................................................................................................................... 340
*MAT_COMPOSITE_LAYUP ....................................................................................................................... 341
*MAT_COMPOSITE_MATRIX ..................................................................................................................... 344
*MAT_COMPOSITE_DIRECT ...................................................................................................................... 347
*MAT_GURSON............................................................................................................................................. 349
*MAT_MODIFIED_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY.......................................................................... 353
*MAT_PLASTICITY_COMPRESSION_TENSION...................................................................................... 356
*MAT_MODIFIED_HONEYCOMB .............................................................................................................. 359
*MAT_ARRUDA_BOYCE_RUBBER ........................................................................................................... 367
*MAT_HEART_TISSUE ................................................................................................................................ 370
*MAT_LUNG_TISSUE................................................................................................................................... 373
*MATSPECIAL_ORTHOTROPIC ................................................................................................................. 376
*MAT_MODIFIED_FORCE_LIMITED......................................................................................................... 380
*MAT_COMPOSITE_MSC ............................................................................................................................ 392
*MAT_SEISMIC_BEAM ................................................................................................................................ 402
*MAT_SOIL_BRICK ...................................................................................................................................... 405
*MAT_DRUCKER_PRAGER ........................................................................................................................ 407
*MAT_RC_SHEAR_WALL ........................................................................................................................... 409
*MAT_CONCRETE_BEAM........................................................................................................................... 416
*MAT_LINEAR_ELASTIC_DISCRETE_BEAM.......................................................................................... 419
*MAT_NONLINEAR_ELASTIC_DISCRETE_BEAM ................................................................................. 421

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT_NONLINEAR_PLASTIC_DISCRETE_BEAM ................................................................................. 424


*MAT_SID_DAMPER_DISCRETE_BEAM.................................................................................................. 429
*MAT_HYDRAULIC_GAS_DAMPER_DISCRETE_BEAM....................................................................... 433
*MAT_CABLE_DISCRETE_BEAM.............................................................................................................. 435
*MAT_ELASTIC_SPRING_DISCRETE_BEAM .......................................................................................... 437
*MAT_ELASTIC_6DOF_SPRING_DISCRETE_BEAM .............................................................................. 439
*MAT_INELASTIC_SPRING_DISCRETE_BEAM ...................................................................................... 441
*MAT_INELASTIC_6DOF_SPRING_DISCRETE_BEAM .......................................................................... 444
*MAT_SPRING_ELASTIC............................................................................................................................. 446
*MAT_DAMPER_VISCOUS.......................................................................................................................... 447
*MAT_SPRING_ELASTOPLASTIC.............................................................................................................. 448
*MAT_SPRING_NONLINEAR_ELASTIC.................................................................................................... 449
*MAT_DAMPER_NONLINEAR_VISCOUS ................................................................................................ 450
*MAT_SPRING_GENERAL_NONLINEAR ................................................................................................. 451
*MAT_SPRING_MAXWELL......................................................................................................................... 453
*MAT_SPRING_INEKASTIC ........................................................................................................................ 454
*MAT_SPRING_TRILINEAR_DEGRADING .............................................................................................. 455
*MAT_SPRING_SQUAT_SHEARWALL ..................................................................................................... 456
*MAT-SPRING_MUSCLE.............................................................................................................................. 457
*MAT-SEATBELT .......................................................................................................................................... 462
*MAT_CFD_OPTION ..................................................................................................................................... 464
*MAT_THERMAL_OPTION.......................................................................................................................... 466
............................................................................................................................................

, ..................................................................A.1
B
, ...................................B.1
C
.....................................................................................C.1
D
.............................................................................. D.1
E
......................................................E.1
F
CAL3D MADYMO.......................................... F.1
...................................................................................................................................................... F.1
LS-DYNA F.1
............................................................................................................... F.4

LS-DYNA Version 960

................................................................................. F.4
...................................................................................................................................... F.6
....................................................................................... F.6
G
............................................................................................. G.1
H
................................................................ H.1
..................................................................................................................................................... H.1
..................................................................................................... H.1
................................................................................................................ H.3
I
VDA...................................................................................................................................... I.1
J
...................................................................J.1
.......................................................................................J.2
K
................................................................................................................ K.1
L
MPP LS-DYNA ..................................................................................................... L.1
M
........................................................................................M.1

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT
LS-DYNA
. . - , :
0

1H

1B

( )

1I

1T

1D

1SW

*MAT_ADD_EROSION
*MAT_NONLOCAL
1:

*MAT_ELASTIC_{OPTION} [0,1H,1B,1I,1T,2,3]

2:

*MAT_{OPTION} TROPIC_ELASTIC [0,2,3]

3:

*MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC [0,1H,1I,1T,2,3]

4:

*MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_THERMAL [0,1H,2,3]

5:

*MAT_SOIL_AND_FOAM [0]

6:

*MAT_VISCOELASTIC [0,1H]

7:

*MAT_BLATZ-KO_RUBBER [0,2]

8:

*MAT_HIGH_EXPLOSIVE_BURN [0]

9:

*MAT_NULL [0,1,2]

10:

*MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_HYDRO_{OPTION} [0]

11:

*MAT_STEINBERG [0]

11:

*MAT_STEINBERG_LUND [0]

12:

*MAT_ISOTROPIC_ELASTIC_PLASTIC [0,2,3]

13:

*MAT_ISOTROPIC_ELASTIC_FAILURE [0]

14:

*MAT_SOIL_AND_FOAM_FAILURE [0]

15:

*MAT_JOHNSON_COOK [0,2,3]

LS-DYNA 960

1 (MAT)

*MAT

2 (MAT)

16:

*MAT_PSEUDO_TENSOR [0]

17:

*MAT_ORIENTED_CRACK [0]

18:

*MAT_POWER_LAW_PLASTICITY [0,1H,2,3]

19:

*MAT_STRAIN_RATE_DEPENDENT_PLASTICITY [0,2,3]

20:

*MAT_RIGID [0,1H,1B,1T,2,3]

21:

*MAT_ORTHOTROPIC_THERMAL [0,2,3]

22:

*MAT_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE [0,2,3]

23:

*MAT_TEMPERATURE_DEPENDENT_ORTHOTROPIC [0,2,3]

24:

*MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY [0,1H,2,3]

25:

*MAT_GEOLOGIC_CAP_MODEL [0]

26:

*MAT_HONEYCOMB [0]

27:

*MAT_MOONEY-RIVLIN_RUBBER [0,2]

28:

*MAT_RESULTANT_PLASTICITY [1B,2]

29:

*MAT_FORCE_LIMITED [1B]

30:

*MAT_SHAPE_MEMORY [0]

31:

*MAT_FRAZER_NASH_RUBBER_MODEL [0]

32:

*MAT_LAMINATED_GLASS [2,3]

33:

*MAT_BARLAT_ANISOTROPIC_PLASTICITY [0,2,3]

33:

*MAT_BARLAT_YLD96 [2,3]

34:

*MAT_FABRIC [4]

35:

*MAT_PLASTIC_GREEN-NAGHDI_RATE [0]

36:

*MAT_3-PARAMETER_BARLAT [2]

37:

*MAT_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC_ELASTIC_PLASTIC [2,3]

38:

*MAT_BLATZ-KO_FOAM [0,2]

39:

*MAT_FLD_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC [2,3]

40:

*MAT_NONLINEAR_ORTHOTROPIC [2]

41-50:

*MAT_USER_DEFINED_MATERIAL_MODELS

51:

*MAT_BAMMAN [0,2,3]

52:

*MAT_BAMMAN_DAMAGE [0,2,3]

53:

*MAT_CLOSED_CELL_FOAM [0]

54-55:

*MAT_ENHANCED_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE [2]

57:

*MAT_LOW_DENSITY_FOAM [0]

58:

*MAT_LAMINATED_COMPOSITE_FABRIC [2]

59:

*MAT_COMPOSITE_FAILURE__OPTION _MODEL [0,2]

60:

*MAT_ELASTIC_WITH_VISCOSITY [0,2]

61:

*MAT_KELVIN-MAXWELL_VISCOELASTIC [0]

62:

*MAT_VISCOUS_FOAM [0]

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT
63:

*MAT_CRUSHABLE_FOAM [0]

64:

*MAT_RATE_SENSITIVE_POWERLAW_PLASTICITY [0,2,3]

65:

*MAT_MODIFIED_ZERILLI_ARMSTRONG [0,2]

72:

*MAT_CONCRETE_DAMAGE [0]

73:

*MAT_LOW_DENSITY_VISCOUS_FOAM [0]

75:

*MAT_BILKHU/DUBOIS_FOAM [0]

76:

*MAT_GENERAL_VISCOELASTIC [0,2]

77:

*MAT_HYPERELASTIC_RUBBER [0]

77:

*MAT_OGDEN_RUBBER [0]

78:

*MAT_SOIL_CONCRETE [0]

79:

*MAT_HYSTERETIC_SOIL [0]

80:

*MAT_RAMBERG-OSGOOD [0]

81:

*MAT_PLASTICITY_WITH_DAMAGE [2,3]

83:

*MAT_FU_CHANG_FOAM [0]

84:

*MAT_WINFRITH_CONCRETE [0]

84:

*MAT_WINFRITH_CONCRETE_REINFORCEMENT [0]

86:

*MAT_ORTHOTROPIC_VISCOELASTIC [2]

87:

*MAT_CELLULAR_RUBBER [0]

88:

*MAT_MTS [0,2]

89:

*MAT_PLASTICITY_POLYMER [2]

90:

*MAT_ACOUSTIC [0]

91:

*MAT_SOFT_TISSUE_{OPTION} [0,2]

96:

*MAT_BRITTLE_DAMAGE [0]

98:

*MAT_SIMPLIFIED_JOHNSON_COOK [0,1H,1B,1T,2,3]

100:

*MAT_SPOTWELD_{OPTION} [1SW]

101:

*MAT_GEPLASTIC_SRATE2000A [2]

102:

*MAT_INV_HYPERBOLIC_SIN [0]

103:

*MAT_ANISOTROPIC_VISCOPLASTIC [0,2]

104:

*MAT_DAMAGE_1 [0,2]

105:

*MAT_DAMAGE_2 [0,2]

106:

*MAT_ELASTIC_VISCOPLASTIC_THERMAL [0,2]

110:

*MAT_JOHNSON_HOLMQUIST_CERAMICS [0]

111:

*MAT_JOHNSON_HOLMQUIST_CONCRETE [0]

112:

*MAT_FINITE_ELASTIC_STRAIN_PLASTICITY [0]

114:

*MAT_LAYERED_LINEAR_PLASTICITY [2,3]

115:

*MAT_UNIFIED_CREEP [0]

116:

*MAT_COMPOSITE_LAYUP [2]

LS-DYNA 960

3 (MAT)

*MAT
117:

*MAT_COMPOSITE_MATRIX [2]

118:

*MAT_COMPOSITE_DIRECT [2]

120:

*MAT_GURSON [2]

123:

*MAT_MODIFIED_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY [2,3]

124:

*MAT_PLASTICITY_COMPRESSION_TENSION [0]

126:

*MAT_MODIFIED_HONEYCOMB [0]

127:

*MAT_ARRUDA_BOYCE_RUBBER [0]

128:

*MAT_HEART_TISSUE [0]

129:

*MAT_LUNG_TISSUE [0]

130:

*MAT_SPECIAL_ORTHOTROPIC [2]

139:

*MAT_MODIFIED_FORCE_LIMITED [1B]

161:

*MAT_COMPOSITE_MSC [0]

191:

*MAT_SEISMIC_BEAM [1B]

192:

*MAT_SOIL_BRICK [0]

193:

*MAT_DRUCKER_PRAGER [0]

194:

*MAT_RC_SHEAR_WALL [2]

195:

*MAT_CONCRETE_BEAM [1H]

( 6) ,
-
, :

4 (MAT)

66:

*MAT_LINEAR_ELASTIC_DISCRETE_BEAM [1D]

67:

*MAT_NONLINEAR_ELASTIC_DISCRETE_BEAM [1D]

68:

*MAT_NONLINEAR_PLASTIC_DISCRETE_BEAM [1D]

69:

*MAT_SID_DAMPER_DISCRETE_BEAM [1D]

70:

*MAT_HYDRAULIC_GAS_DAMPER_DISCRETE_BEAM [1D]

71:

*MAT_CABLE_DISCRETE_BEAM [1D]

74:

*MAT_ELASTIC_SPRING_DISCRETE_BEAM [1D]

93:

*MAT_ELASTIC_6DOF_SPRING_DISCRETE_BEAM [1D]

94:

*MAT_INELASTIC_SPRING_DISCRETE_BEAM [1D]

95:

*MAT_INELASTIC_6DOF_SPRING_DISCRETE_BEAM [1D]

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT
13 .
.
1:

*MAT_SPRING_ELASTIC

2:

*MAT_DAMPER_VISCOUS

3:

*MAT_SPRING_ELASTOPLASTIC

4:

*MAT_SPRING_NONLINEAR_ELASTIC

5:

*MAT_DAMPER_NONLINEAR_VISCOUS

6:

*MAT_SPRING_GENERAL_NONLINEAR

7:

*MAT_SPRING_MAXWELL

8:

*MAT_SPRING_INELASTIC

13:

*MAT_SPRING_TRILINEAR_DEGRADING

14:

*MAT_SPRING_SQUAT_SHEARWALL

15:

*MAT_SPRING_MUSCLE

. :
*MAT_SEATBELT


*MAT_CFD_OPTION. .
150:

*MAT_CFD_OPTION

6 , , .
*PART.
. .
1:

*MAT_THERMAL_ISOTROPIC

2:

*MAT_THERMAL_ORTHOTROPIC

3:

*MAT_THERMAL_ISOTROPIC_TD

4:

*MAT_THERMAL_ORTHOTROPIC_TD

5:

*MAT_THERMAL_ISOTROPIC_PHASE_CHANGE

6:

*MAT_THERMAL_ISOTROPIC_TD_LC

LS-DYNA 960

5 (MAT)

*MAT

. , , , .
.
*MAT _TITLE.
80a . LS-DYNA ,
.

6 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

Y
Y

6
7 -
8

9 -
10

Y
Y

Y
Y

()

1
2
( )
3
/

*MAT
Gn
Cm
Cr
Fl
Fm
Gl
Hy
Mt
Pl
Rb
Sl

Gn, Fl
Cm, Mt
Y

Cm, Mt, Pl
Y

Mt, Pl
Fm, Sl

Rb

Rb,

Fl, Hy
Hy, Mt

11

12

13

Mt

14

Fm, Sl

15

16

17

( )

18

(
)

19

20

LS-DYNA 960

Hy

Hy, Mt
Mt

Sl

Hy, Mt, Pl

Hy, Mt

Mt, Pl
Y

Mt, Pl

7 (MAT)

22

23

24

- ( )

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

()

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

- FLD

40

41-50 ,

8 (MAT)

. .

21

()

*MAT
Gn
Cm
Cr
Fl
Fm
Gl
Hy
Mt
Pl
Rb
Sl

Gn

Cm
Y

.
.

/.

Cm
Mt, Pl
Sl

Cm, Fm, Sl

Rb

Mt

Mt
Rb

Cm, Gl
Cr, Mt

Y
Y

Mt
Mt

Mt

Fm, Pl
Y

Mt
Y

Cm

Gn

LS-DYNA 960

Gn

Mt

52

53

( )

54

Cm

55

Cm

Fm

Cm, Cr

(,
/)

51

()

. .

.
.

/.

Gn
Cm
Cr
Fl
Fm
Gl
Hy
Mt
Pl
Rb
Sl

*MAT

Fm

56
57

58

59

( )

60

( )

61

Fm

62

( )

Fm

63

64

65

- (, /)

66

67

68

69

70

LS-DYNA 960

Y
Y

Gl

Fm

Mt

Mt

9 (MAT)

73

75

- ()

Fm

76

(
)

Rb

77

78

Sl

79

(-)

Sl

Mt, Pl

Fm

72

()

71

()

Gn
Cm
Cr
Fl
Fm
Gl
Hy
Mt
Pl
Rb
Sl

. .

*MAT
.
.

/.

Y
Sl
Fm

74

Rb

80
81

( )

82
83

84

85

86

87

88

MTS

89

90

91

10 (MAT)

Y
Y

Rb

Rb

Mt

Y
Fl
Y

LS-DYNA 960

98

100

101

General Electric

102

103

104

105

106

110

111

112

114

115

116

117

118

120

123

124

126

LS-DYNA 960

. .

96

()

*MAT
Gn
Cm
Cr
Fl
Fm
Gl
Hy
Mt
Pl
Rb
Sl

.
.

/.

Y
Y

11 (MAT)

127

128

129

130

139

150

161

MSC

191

192

193

194

195

DS1

DS2

DS3

DS4

DS5

DS6

DS7


( )

DS8

(
)

12 (MAT)

. .

()

*MAT
Gn
Cm
Cr
Fl
Fm
Gl
Hy
Mt
Pl
Rb
Sl

.
.

/.

Y
Y

Y
Y

LS-DYNA 960

. .

()

*MAT

DS13

( )

DS14

DS15

SB1

TH1

LS-DYNA 960

Gn
Cm
Cr
Fl
Fm
Gl
Hy
Mt
Pl
Rb
Sl

.
.

/.

13 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_ADD_EROSION

*MAT_ADD_EROSION
, LS-DYNA, . ADD_EROSION ,
/.
, -
, . :

.
:
1

MID

EXCL

PFAIL

SIGP1

SIGVM

EPSP1

EPSSH

SIGTH

IMPULSE

MID
EXCL

14 (MAT)

,
. - , (
). , - ,
- , , 1234, Pmin 0.0,
1234. 0.0, ,
0.0 .

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_ADD_EROSION

PFAIL

Pmin

SIGP1

max

SIGVM

max

EPSP1

max

EPSSH

max

SIGTH

0
K f

IMPULSE

:
1.

P Pmin , P ( ), Pmin .

2.

1 max , 1 , max
.

3.

3 ' '
ij ij max , ' ,
ij
2
.

s max

4.

1 max , 1 , max
.

5.

1 max , 1 , max .

6.

-
t

[max(0, -
0

)] 2 dt K f ,

1 , 0 ,
1 0 0 , K f . , , ,
.

.

LS-DYNA 960

15 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_NONLOCAL

*MAT_NONLOCAL

. , ,
, . ,
,
, .
. ,
. , . . .
, .
:
1

IDNL

PID

NFREQ

NL1

NL2

NL3

NL4

NL5

NL6

NL7

NL8

16 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_NONLOCAL

. . , "*".
3,...

XC1

YC1

ZC1

XC2

YC2

ZC2

IDNL
PID

(. ); 8,
L

(. ); 2

(. ).
.

NFREQ

.
, NFREQ
10 100 . .

NL1,..,NL8

XC1, YC1,ZC1

XC2, YC2, ZC2

LS-DYNA 960

17 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_NONLOCAL

. *CONTROL_NONLOCAL.
, 10.
, , , , .
NL1=1 NL2,, NL8=0. . ,
.

. .

PLASTIC_KINEMATIC

JOHNSON_COOK

PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY

PLASTICITY_WITH_DAMAGE

MODIFIED_ZERILLI-ARMSTRONG

DAMAGE_1

DAMAGE_2

MODIFIED_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLAST

PLASTICITY_COMPRESSION_TENSION

JOHNSON_HOLMQUIST_CONCRETE

GURSON

, , .
PID (. ), , .

18 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_NONLOCAL

[65]
Pijaudier-Cabot Bazant (1987). r - L er {ei }i=1,...,Nr - , W r ,

1
f&r = f& ( xr ) =
Wr

Wr

1
f&local w ( xr - y )dy
Wr

Nr

f&

i
local

wriVi ,

i =1

Nr

Wr =W ( xr ) = w ( xr -y )dy wriVi
i=1

wri =w ( xr -yi ) =

1
( x -y ( p
1+ r i
L

f&r xr - er ,
f& i , V y - , e .
local

LS-DYNA 960

19 (MAT)

*MAT

MAT_ELASTIC_{OPTION}

*MAT_ELASTIC_{OPTION}

1 , , LS-DYNA. FLUID, .
:
<>
FLUID

:
*MAT_ELASTIC
*MAT_ELASTIC_FLUID

FLUID .
:

20 (MAT)

MID

RO

PR

DA

DB

0.0

0.0

0.0

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_ELASTIC_{OPTION}
FLUID :

VC

CP

1.0E+20

MID

RO

PR

DA

(
-, 1)

DB

(
-, 1)

( FLUID)

VC

( 0.1 0.5)

CP

( = 1.0e+20)

LS-DYNA 960

21 (MAT)

*MAT

MAT_ELASTIC_{OPTION}


. , Fi Mi :
1

n+
DA
2
Fi n+1=Fi n + 1+
Fi
t

1
n+
DB
2
M in+1=M in + 1+
M
i

FLUID (K) ,
. , K p :
K=

E
3 (1 - 2n )

p = - K e& ii

. ,
Sijn+1 ,
:
Sijn +1 = VC DL a re& 'ij ,

- , a - ,
'
, e& ij - .
p

22 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_OPTION TROPIC_ELASTIC

*MAT_OPTION TROPIC_ELASTIC

2. , .
.
:
ORTHO
ANISO

:
*MAT_ORTHOTROPIC_ELASTIC

( 4 )

*MAT_ANISOTROPIC_ELASTIC

( 5 )

1 2 ORTHO
1

MID

RO

EA

EB

EC

PRBA

PRCA

PRCB

GAB

GBC

GCA

AOPT

LS-DYNA 960

23 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_OPTION TROPIC_ELASTIC

1, 2 3 ANISO
1

MID

RO

C11

C12

C22

C13

C23

C33

C14

C24

C34

C44

C15

C25

C35

C45

C55

C16

C26

C36

C46

C56

C66

AOPT

3/4 4/5 ORTHO ANISO


3/4

XP

YP

ZP

A1

A2

A3

V1

V2

V3

D1

D2

D3

BETA

REF

4/5

24 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_OPTION TROPIC_ELASTIC

MID

RO

ORTHO:
EA

Ea a

EB

Eb b

EC

Ec c

PRBA

nba , b a

PRCA

nca , a

PRCB

ncb , c b

GAB

Gab , a b

GBC

Gbc , b c

GCA

Gca , c a

ANISO. Cij
:
C11

1,1 66 . , 1 a .

C12

1,2 66 . , 2 b .

C66

LS-DYNA 960

6,6 66 .

25 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_OPTION TROPIC_ELASTIC

AOPT

, . . 20.1
= 0.0: ,
, . 20.1. 1, 2 4 , *DEFINE_COORDINATE_NODES.
= 1.0: ,

( a). .
= 2.0: , ,

*DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR
= 3.0: , BETA , , v .
, .
= 4.0: , v
P, .
.

XP YP ZP

p AOPT = 1 4

A1 A2 A3

a AOPT = 2

V1 V2 V3

v AOPT = 3 4

D1 D2 D3

d AOPT = 2

BETA

26 (MAT)

AOPT = 3; ,

*ELEMENT_SHELL_BETA *ELEMENT_SOLID_ORTHO

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_OPTION TROPIC_ELASTIC

REF


.
*INITIAL_FOAM_REFERENCE_GEOMETRY.
8- .
= 0.0:
= 1.0:

, , :
T

C =T C T ,
~
~
~

- ,

~ L

- , -

~ L

a, b c.

~ L

LS-DYNA 960

27 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_OPTION TROPIC_ELASTIC

(c)

(a)
n

n4

n
AOPT=0.0

(b)

d
c = a d

a
a

b = c a

AOPT=2.0
a

(d)

c
z

v
c=ad
b= ca

vxn

x
x p,y p, z p

6
5

d o z
1

. - .

AOPT=3.0

AOPT=1.0

axis
of

symmetry

(e)

a
x

Included
angle is
,

specified
in
the
element

definition

x =v r
y = r x
z= x y =r
AOPT=4.0

20.1. : (a) AOPT = 0.0, (b) AOPT = 1.0, (c)


AOPT = 2.0 ( c = a d b = c a), (d) AOPT = 3.0, (e) AOPT=4.0 .

28 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_OPTION TROPIC_ELASTIC

-1
C =
~ L

a
Ea
,

LS-DYNA 960

b
Eb

c
Ec

0
Eb
Ec

a b 1
c b
0
0
0
Ea Eb
Ec

a c b c 1
0
0
0
Ea
Eb Ec

1
0
0
0
0
0

Ga b

1
0
0
0
0
0

Gb c

1
0
0
0
0
Gc a

1
Ea

Ea

c
Ec

b
Eb

29 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC

*MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC
3.
.
. , (-),
.

1

MID

RO

PR

SIGY

ETAN

BETA

0.0

0.0

SRC

SRP

FS

VP

0.0

MID

RO

E
PR

SIGY

ETAN

(. . 20.2)

BETA

0 < b < 1 (. )

30 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC

SRC

C - (.
). ,
.

SRP

P - (.
). ,
.

FS

VP

:
= 0.0: ( )
= 1.0:

:
-
(Cowper-Symonds),
1

1+
C ,

p

- .
, -
. ,
. SRC SRP ,
.
,
b 0 1. b 0 1
, , (. . 20.2).

,
..
b = 1,

12,
*MAT_ISOTROPIC_ELASTIC_PLASTIC, .
, , 12.
, 12
.

LS-DYNA 960

31 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_PLASTIC_KINEMATIC

Et

l
ln
l0
b=0 .
b=1 .

20.2. , l0
l ,
. Et -

32 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_THERMAL
*MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_THERMAL

4.
. .
.
, , ,
*LOAD_THERMAL_LOAD_CURVE *LOAD_THERMAL_VARIABLE.

1

MID

RO

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

T7

T8

E1

E2

E3

E4

E5

E6

E7

E8

PR1

PR2

PR3

PR4

PR5

PR6

PR7

PR8

LS-DYNA 960

33 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_THERMAL

( )
5

ALPHA1

ALPHA2

ALPHA3

ALPHA4

ALPHA5

ALPHA6

ALPHA7

ALPHA8

SIGY1

SIGY2

SIGY3

SIGY4

SIGY5

SIGY6

SIGY7

SIGY8

ETAN1

ETAN2

ETAN3

ETAN4

ETAN5

ETAN6

ETAN7

ETAN8

MID

RO

TI

; 2 , 8

EI

, TI

PRI
ALPHAI

SIGYI

ETANI

34 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_THERMAL
:

2- .
, ,
. SIGY ETAN .
. ,
:

e& Tij = aT& dij

LS-DYNA 960

35 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_SOIL_AND_FOAM

*MAT_SOIL_AND_FOAM
5. , - .
,
.

1

MID

RO

BULK

A0

A1

A2

PC

VCR

REF

EPS1

EPS2

EPS3

EPS4

EPS5

EPS6

EPS7

EPS8

EPS9

EPS10

36 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_SOIL_AND_FOAM

P1

P2

P3

P4

P5

P6

P7

P8

P9

P10

MID

RO

,
VCR=0.0

A0

(. )

A1

(. )

A2

(. )

PC

VCR

:
= 0.0:
= 1.0: :

REF

.

*INITIAL_FOAM_REFERENCE_GEOMETRY.

.
= 0.0:
= 1.0:

LS-DYNA 960

37 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_SOIL_AND_FOAM

EPS1,.....

P1, P2,..PN

( ), .
. 10 , 2.

.
,
(0.0,0.0), 9 .
,

:
.
.
.
.
, ,
. . Kreig [14].


(VCR=1.0),
.

V
ln
V0


(VCR=0),

.
.
()

20.3.
.
V.

38 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_SOIL_AND_FOAM

f
J2
J2=

1
sij sij
2
,

p a0, a1 a2:
=J 2 - a0 +a1 p+a2 p 2 .

J 2 =

1 2
y ,
3

sy

- , ..

y = 3 ( a0 +a 1 p+a 2 p 2 ) .
1

.
, :
1
a0 = 2y .
3
,
.

a1=a2 =0

LS-DYNA 960

39 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_VISCOELASTIC

*MAT_VISCOELASTIC
6. (), .
*MAT_GENERAL_VISCOELASTIC.

1

MID

RO

BULK

G0

GI

BETA

MID

RO

BULK

G0

(. )

GI

() , G

BETA

:
[65]:

G ( t ) =G + ( G0 -G ) e-t .

ij =2 G ( t- ) Dij ( ) d ,
0

ij
Dij

40 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_BLATZ-KO_RUBBER
*MAT_BLATZ-KO_RUBBER

7.
. 0.463.

1

MID

RO

REF

RO

REF

MID



.
*INITIAL_FOAM_REFERENCE_GEOMETRY.
8-
.
= 0.0:
= 1.0:

:
- (Piola-Kirchhoff) :
1
1

Sij =G Cij -V 1-2 ij ,


V

V - , , Cij
-, n - , 0.463.
sij :

ij =V -1 Fik Fjl Slk ,


Fij . . Blatz Ko (1962).

LS-DYNA 960

41 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_HIGH_EXPLOSIVE_BURN

*MAT_HIGH_EXPLOSIVE_BURN
8. .
. . Wilkins Giroux [66].

1

MID

RO

PCJ

BETA

SIGY

MID

RO

PCJ
BETA

-
- (. ):
= 0.0: beta- +
= 1.0: beta-
= 2.0:

( BETA=2.0)

( BETA=2.0)

SIGY

sy ( BETA=2.0)

:
F ,
, .

p=Fpeos (V,E) ,
peos - ( 2 3), V - , E .

42 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_HIGH_EXPLOSIVE_BURN

tl
D.
, tl .
F
F=max(F1 ,F2 ) ,

2 ( t-tl ) DAemax

3ve

F1=
0

F2 ==

if

t>tl

if

t tl

1-V
,
1-VCJ

VCJ - -, t . F
1, 1.
F 1 ,
. F 1,
. Wilkins [66].
beta- (BETA=1.0),

F=F2
F1 .
(BETA=2.0),
, , ,
. ,
, .
,
, .
*sijn+1 :

*sijn+1 =sijn +sip pj +s jp pi +2G&ij dt ,


G - , &ij - .

2y
=J 2 - ,
3
LS-DYNA 960

43 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_HIGH_EXPLOSIVE_BURN
J2

:
1
J 2 = sij sij ,
2

y . , .. >0 ,

n+1:

sijn+1 =

y
3J 2

*sijn+1 .

sijn+1 =*sijn+1 .
:
1

p n + 1 =K n + 1 -1 ,
V

K .

sijn+1 =0 ,
.

44 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT_NULL

*MAT

*MAT_NULL
9.
. .
.
,
, ,
.
, ,
,
, ,
.
;
.

1

MID

RO

PC

MU

TEROD

CEROD

YM

PR

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

MID

RO

PC

( 0.0)

MU

m ( )

TEROD

LS-DYNA 960

V
.
V0
.
, .

45 (MAT)

*MAT

CEROD

*MAT_NULL

V
.
V0
.
, .

YM

(
)

PR

(
)

:
.
. ,
,

ij = ij

m, ij -
.

.
, ,
.

46 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_HYDRO_{}
*MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_HYDRO_{OPTION}
:
<>
SPALL

10.
.

1

MID

RO

SIGY

EH

PC

FS

0.0

0.0

0.0

SPALL.

A1

A2

SPALL

EPS1

EPS2

EPS3

EPS4

EPS5

EPS6

EPS7

EPS8

LS-DYNA 960

47 (MAT)

*MAT
3

*MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_HYDRO_{OPTION}

EPS9

EPS10

EPS11

EPS12

EPS13

EPS14

EPS15

EPS16

ES1

ES2

ES3

ES4

ES5

ES6

ES7

ES8

ES9

ES10

ES11

ES12

ES13

ES14

ES15

ES16

MID

RO

G
SIGY


(. )

EH

(. )

PC

( 0.0).
, -.

FS

A1

1 (. )

A2

2 (. )

48 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_HYDRO_{}

SPALL

:
= 0.0: 1.0
= 1.0: p > pmin
= 2.0: smax -pmin, ,
, .. p < 0,
= 3.0: p < -pmin, , ,
.. p < 0, .

EPS

(). 16
. ,
.
, .

ES

. 16 .

:
ES EPS ,
SIGY EH.
, . 20.2,
b = 1.

y =0 +Eh p + ( a1+pa2 ) max [ p,0 ] .


Eh , E
Et :

Eh =

Et E
E-Et

p , .
ES EPS , , ,
. 20.4.
sij:
1

= sij sij ,
2

:
1

=
p

LS-DYNA 960

2 p p
Dij Dij dt ,
3

49 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_HYDRO_{OPTION}
p

t , Dij - .
, 1, ,

y =f ( p ) ,
p
f ( ) (. .
20.4).

,
. (SPALL=1)
pcut.
, ,
pcut.

, ,
, pcut
. smax (SPALL=2)
, , smax
-pcut. , , .. pcut
, smax .
,
, (p<0) .
, ,
. , , ,
.
(SPALL=3) ,
, pcut. ,
,
(.. ).
(p<0),
.
, ,
. 16

. ,
.
,
.

50 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_ELASTIC_PLASTIC_HYDRO_{}

Piecewise linear curve defining the


-
yield
stress versus effective,
plastic strain.
A nonzero
yield stress is

defined when the plastic strain is zero.

sy

.

.

. 20.4. .

LS-DYNA 960

51 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_STEINBERG

*MAT_STEINBERG
11.
(>105). .
.
.

1

MID

RO

G0

SIGO

BETA

GAMA

SIGM

BP

TMO

GAMO

SA

PC

SPALL

RP

FLAG

MMN

MMX

ECO

EC1

EC2

EC3

EC4

EC5

EC6

EC7

EC8

EC9

52 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_STEINBERG

MID

RO

G0

SIGO

so (. )

BETA

b (. )

n (. )

GAMA

gi - (. )

SIGM

sm (. )

b (. )

BP

b (. )

h (. )

f (. )

( 0.0, R)

TMO

Tmo (. )

GAMO

go (. )

SA

a (. )

PC

pcut -sf ( =-1.e+30)

SPALL

RP

LS-DYNA 960

:
= 0.0: 2.0
= 1.0: p pcut
= 2.0: smax -pcut, ,
, .. p < 0,
= 3.0: p < -pcut , ,
.. p < 0, .
R.

R 0.0, A .

53 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_STEINBERG

FLAG

1.0 m
( ).
h.

MMN

mmin hmin - m h ()

MMX

mmax or hmax - m h ()

EC0,...EC9

()

:
, , [67],
. ,
KOVEC.
G

E i -Ec
- fE i Em -E i
1
3
G=G0 1+bpV -h
-300 e
,
3R

p , V , Ec :
x

Ec ( x ) = pdx0

900Rexp ( ax )

(1-x )

2 ( 0 -a- 1 2 )

x=1-V,
Em

Em ( x ) =Ec ( x ) +3R'Tm ( x )
Tm(x):
Tm ( x ) =

Tmo exp ( 2ax )

,
2 -a- 1
V ( o 3)

Tmo - r = ro.
R
R=
54 (MAT)

R
,
A
LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_STEINBERG

R , A . R , LS-DYNA
R, --.
sy :

Ei -Ec
- fEi E -E
1
y =0 1+bpV 3 -h
-300 e m i ,
3R

Em Ei. s0

y =0 1+ ( i + p ) ,
n

gi . s0 sm, s0
sm. , , sy G
.
EC0,...,EC9 , LSDYNA m
h - FLAG:
9

Ec ( i )= ECi i
i= 0
9

Ec ( i )= ECi i ,
i= 0

ECi i-
=

-1 .
o

.
,
. (SPALL=1)
pcut.
, ,
pcut.

, ,
, pcut
. smax (SPALL=2)
LS-DYNA 960

55 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_STEINBERG

, , smax
-pcut. , , .. pcut
, smax .
,
, (p<0) .
, ,
. , , ,
.
(SPALL=3) ,
, pcut. ,
,
(.. ).
(p<0),
.
, ,
. 16

. ,
.
,
.

56 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_STEINBERG_LUND
*MAT_STEINBERG_LUND

11. ,
(. [67]).
.

1

MID

RO

G0

SIGO

BETA

GAMA

SIGM

BP

TMO

GAMO

SA

PC

SPALL

RP

FLAG

MMN

MMX

ECO

EC1

EC2

EC3

EC4

EC5

EC6

EC7

EC8

EC9

UK

C1

C2

YP

YA

YM

LS-DYNA 960

57 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_STEINBERG_LUND

MID

RO

G0

SIGO

so (. )

BETA

b (. )

n (. )

GAMA

gi (. )

SIGM

sm (. )

b (. )

BP

b (. )

h (. )

f (. )

( 0.0, R)

TMO

Tmo (. )

GAMO

go (. )

SA

a (. )

PC

pcut -sf ( =-1.e+30)

SPALL

RP

58 (MAT)

:
= 0.0: 2.0
= 1.0: p pmin
= 2.0: smax -pmin, ,
, .. p < 0,
= 3.0: p < -pmin , ,
.. p < 0,
R.

R 0.0, A .

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_STEINBERG_LUND

FLAG

1.0 m (
).

h.

MMN

mmin hmin m h ()

MMX

mmin hmin m h ()

EC0,...EC9

()

UK

C1

( )

C2

(
)

YP

Peierls ( )

YA

(
)

YMAX

(
)

:
*MAT_STEINBERG,
, .
, :

y = YT ( & p ,T ) +YA f ( p )

G ( p,T )
.
G0

.
:

YA f ( p )=YA 1+ ( i + p ) Ymax ,
n

YT YP .

LS-DYNA 960

59 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_ISOTROPIC_ELASTIC_PLASTIC

*MAT_ISOTROPIC_ELASTIC_PLASTIC
12.
.

, .

. LS-DYNA
, .

MID

RO

SIGY

ETAN

BULK

MID

RO

SIGY

ETAN

BULK

p=-K ii ,
e& ii - .

60 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_ISOTROPIC_ELASTIC_FAILURE
*MAT_ISOTROPIC_ELASTIC_FAILURE

13
.

1

MID

RO

SIGY

ETAN

BULK

0.0

EPF

PRF

REM

TREM

0.0

0.0

0.0

MID

RO

SIGY

ETAN

BULK

EPF

PRF

( 0.0)

LS-DYNA 960

61 (MAT)

*MAT

REM

TREM

*MAT_ISOTROPIC_ELASTIC_FAILURE

:
= 0.0:
0.0: , Dt (.
TREM)
Dt :
= 0.0: Dt ( )
> 0.0: ,
Dt

:

,
,
, .. .
Dt .
Dt
.
-, -
. ,
.

62 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT_SOIL_AND_FOAM_FAIKURE

*MAT

*MAT_SOIL_AND_FOAM_FAILURE
14.
,
*MATERIAL_SOIL_AND_FOAM ( 5). , ,
, .
, -
.

LS-DYNA 960

63 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_JOHNSON_COOK

*MAT_JOHNSON_COOK
15. /,
, ,
, -
.
.
,

*MAT_
SIMPLIFIED_JOHNSON_COOK.
.

1

MID

RO

PR

DTF

VP

0.0

0.0

TM

TR

EPSO

0.0

0.0

0.0

CP

PC

SPALL

IT

D1

D2

D3

D4

0.0

2.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

64 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_JOHNSON_COOK
4

D5

0.0

MID

. .

RO

( )

PR
DTF

( )

( )

VP

:
=0.0:
(),
=1.0:
.

TM

TR

EPSO

CP

LS-DYNA Version 960

.
. 1 , 0.001
, 0.000001 ..

65 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_JOHNSON_COOK

(pmin < 0.0)

PC
SPALL

:
= 0.0:
2.0,
= 1.0:
p pmin,
= 2.0:
smax -pmin ,
, p < 0,
= 3.0:
p<-pmin ,
, p < 0.

IT

.
,
,
.
= 0.0:
( ),
=1.0:

.
.
, . .

D1-D5

:
(Johnson) (Cook)

y = A+B

pn

m
1+cln * ( 1-T* ) ,

A, B, C, n m - ,
p - ,

*=

-1
- , 0 =1s ,

T* -

T-Troom
.
Tmelt -Troom

[18].
(. VP)
. ,
.
66 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_JOHNSON_COOK

-

. ,
,
sy .

*

f = D1 +D2 expD3 * 1+D4 ln 1+D5 T * ,

s* -

* =

p
.
eff

D=

p
f

1.
,
.
p pmin .
, pmin .
,
, , pmin
.
, max
p . ,
,
.
. ,
.
, pmin .
, ,
. ,
.


tmax . ,
LS-DYNA Version 960

67 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_JOHNSON_COOK

tmax .
LS-DYNA tmax ,
.
, tmax
tcrit . ,
,
, , .
,
, , .
,
. , ,
.
15 ,
. - (Steinberg-Guinan),
-
. ,
.

68 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT_PSEUDO_TENSOR

*MAT

*MAT_PSEUDO_TENSOR
16.
, .

1

MID

RO

PR

SIGF

A0

A1

A2

A0F

A1F

B1

PER

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

ER

PRR

SIGY

ETAN

LCP

LCR

0.0

0.0

0.0

LS-DYNA Version 960

69 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_PSEUDO_TENSOR

X1

X2

X3

X4

X5

X6

X7

X8

X9

X10

X11

X12

X13

X14

X15

X16

YS1

YS2

YS3

YS4

YS5

YS6

YS7

YS8

YS9

YS10

YS11

YS12

YS13

YS14

YS15

YS16

70 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT_PSEUDO_TENSOR

*MAT

MID

. .

RO

PR

SIGF

(
)

A0

A1

A2

A0F

A1F

B1

PER

ER

PRR

SIGY

ETAN

LCP

,
, . *DEFINE_CURVE.

LCR

,
, . *DEFINE_CURVE.

, . .
.

YS

LS-DYNA Version 960

71 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_PSEUDO_TENSOR

:

, ,

. N1
. ,
8 9.
I.
,
- , 20.5.

[68]. ,
LS-DYNA 1 - 3 ,
-
1 3 , 1 - , 3 2
.
9 ()

100 ( 1.5 x 106 psi).
-

1 -s-3
1
2s
3

20.5. - .

72 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT_PSEUDO_TENSOR

*MAT

I , a0, a1, a2, b1, a0f a1f


. 5 6,
7 8.
, ,
, .

, a1f 1/3,
;
3p, p ( ).
,
( 1 )
( cut ). , 1 > cut ,
, , 20
.
cut .
II.

s y = a0 +

p
.
a1 + a2 p

,
. ,
.

LS-DYNA Version 960

73 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_PSEUDO_TENSOR
s max = a0 +

p
a1 + a2 p

s failed = a0 f +

p
a1 f + a2 p

20.6. .
II. A:

a0, a1, a2, a0f a1f, b1 5 8.



, ( 1 )
( cut ). , 1 > cut
, , , 20
.
II.B:

a0, a1, a2, a0f a1f, b1 5 8,


h, .
LS-DYNA h
,

s yield = s failed + h(s max -s failed )


,
max failed , 20.6.
, .
, .

74 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT_PSEUDO_TENSOR

*MAT

II.C:


, ,
, .
"" . ,
"".
:
p

-b1

p
p
= 1+
d .

cut
0

a0, a1, a2, a0f a1f, b1. 5 - 8 h


l , :
yield = failed + ( max - failed ) ,

.
II

II 16
; a0 , cut
f c' , -a0
LS-DYNA psi.

1

f '2 3
cut =1.7 c
-a0
f'
a0 = c
4
1
.
a1=
3
1
a2 = '
3f c

a0f =0
a1f =0.385
, a0f a1f
3, .
, 5 8.
a0, ,
LS-DYNA Version 960

75 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_PSEUDO_TENSOR

8
. 8
,
5 ( 75000 psi).

, f r .
,
, .. :
K = (1 - fr )Km + fr Kr ,

K m Kr -
. .
.
, , .

N1, N2.

.
DYNA3D 1991 [69] ( 11.C.)
16 :
f c'
4
1
a1=
3
1
a2 = '
3f c
a0 =

f c'
a0f =
10
a1f =1.5
b1=1.25

:
4:

0.0
5.17E-04

8.62E-06
6.38E-04

2.15E-05
7.98E-04

3.14E-05

3.95E-04

5:

9.67E-04
4.00E-03

1.41E-03
4.79E-03

1.97E-03
0.909

2.59E-03

3.27E-03

76 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT_PSEUDO_TENSOR

*MAT

6:

0.309
0.790

0.543
0.630

0.840
0.469

0.975

1.000

7:

0.383
0.086

0.247
0.056

0.173
0.0

0.136

0.114

,
Dilger, Koch Kowalczyk [70].
,
.
,
.
,
, 4% .

LS-DYNA Version 960

77 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_ORIENTED_CRACK

*MAT_ORIENTED_CRACK

17. ,
.

1

MID

RO

PR

SIGY

ETAN

FS

PRF

0.0

0.0

MID

. .

RO

E
PR

SIGY

ETAN

FS
PRF


( 0.0).

,
. :
2y
=J 2 - ,
3

J2

1
J 2 = sij sij ,
2

78 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_ORIENTED_CRACK

p
y eff

E p :

y =0 +E p effp .

t

effp = deffp ,
0

deffp =

2 p p
dij dij ,
3


Et :
EEt
E p=
.
E-Et
.
, .

.
f , ,
.
.
, ,
, .
,
.

, ,
.
,
.
, .
-
; . ,
, , .
,
,
. ,
, , , ,
.
LS-DYNA 960

79 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_POWER_LAW_PLASTICITY

*MAT_POWER_LAW_PLASTICITY

18.
, .

1

MID

RO

PR

SRC

SRP

0.0

0.0

SIGY

VP

0.0

0.0

MID

. .

RO

PR

SRC

C, ,
.

SRP

P, ,
.

80 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_POWER_LAW_PLASTICITY

SIGY

VP


s y . ,
, .
<0.02:
e yp = SIGY
0.02:
. .
:
=0.0:
( ),
=1.0:
.


. sy
:

y =k n =k ( yp + p ) ,
n

p
yp - , , -
(). SIGY ,
, ,
:

=E
=k n

:
1

E n-1
yp =
.
k
SIGY 0.02, :
1

n
yp = y .
k

,

1

1+ ,
C

e - .

. ,
.
LS-DYNA Version 960

81 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_STRAIN_RATE_DEPENDENT_PLASTICITY

*MAT_STRAIN_RATE_DEPENDENT_PLASTICITY

19. ,
. 24.
.

. ,

(
)
( ).

1

MID

RO

PR

VP

0.0

LC1

ETAN

LC2

LC3

LC4

TDEL

RDEF

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

MID

. .

RO

E
PR

82 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT_STRAIN_RATE_DEPENDENT_PLASTICITY

*MAT

VP

:
=0.0:
( ),
=1.0:
.

LC1

, s0
.

ETAN

Et

LC2


()

LC3


()

LC4



()

TDEL


. .

RDEF

:
=1.0:
,
=2.0:
.

0
& ,
1

2
& 2 &ij' &ij' ,
=
3

.
y =0 ( & ) +E p p ,

p - , Eh
:
E p=

LS-DYNA Version 960

EEt
.
E-Et
83 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_STRAIN_RATE_DEPENDENT_PLASTICITY

.
, ,
.

, ,
, ,
.
, .
, .
,
.
, ,
.
,
.
.

,
tmax . , tmax
.
, LS-DYNA ,
tmax , .
, tmax
tcrit .
, .

.
, ,
.
. ,
.

.
, .

84 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_RIGID
*MAT_RIGID

20.
( ).
MADYMO CAL3D. VDA,
, ,
. ,
. ,
, .

1

MID

RO

PR

COUPLE

ALIAS

CMO

CON1

CON2

LS-DYNA Version 960

85 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_RIGID

( ,
).
3

LCO A1

A2

A3

V1

V2

V3

MID

. .

RO

.
( ), . .

PR

.
( ), . .

- MADYMO3D ( CAL3D), n:
=0:
LSDYNA,
>0:
MADYMO
n,
<0:
MADYMO
|n|.

COUPLE

, :
=-1:
VDA

ALIAS ( )

LS-TAURUS.
MADYMO3D/CAL3D:
=0:
LSDYNA MADYMO/CAL3D.
.
=1:
LSDYNA MADYMO/CAL3D,
=2:

LS-DYNA3D.

86 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_RIGID

ALIAS

- MADYMO/CAL3D:
=0:
LS-DYNA
,
=m:

MADYMO/CAL3D m.
MADYMO/CAL3D.
VDA, . I.

CMO

CMO:
=+1.0:
,
= 0.0:
,
= -1.0:

( SPC).

CON1

:
CMO=+1.0,
:
=0:
,
=1:
x,
=2:
y,
=3:
z,
=4:
x y,
=5:
y z,
=6:
z x,
=7:
x, y z.
CM0=-1.0,
. . *DEFINE_ COORDINATE_OPTION:
.

CON2

:
CMO=+1.0,
:
=0:
,
=1:
x,
=2:
y,
=3:
z,
=4:
x y,
=5:
y z,
=6:
z x,
=7:
x, y z.

LS-DYNA Version 960

87 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_RIGID

CM0=-1.0, (SPC):
=000000 ,
=100000 x,
=010000 y,
=001000 z,
=000100 x,
=000010 y,
=000001 z.
,
.
LCO

.
.*DEFINE_ COORDINATE_OPTION.
****
.****

A1-V3

a v, ,

.

a, b, c,
c=av b=ca. .

20
, , , .

. ,
.
.
,
; ,
.

, .

. LS-DYNA ,
.
, ,
, , .

,
, . - ,
88 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT_RIGID

*MAT

LS-DYNA
( ),

, .
.

, . ,
,
,
.
, E u
, .
,
.
, ( CMO
+1 -1), , .
, ,
*BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_RIGID_LOCAL.

LS-DYNA Version 960

89 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_ORTHOTROPIC_THERMAL

*MAT_ORTHOTROPIC_THERMAL

21.
.

1

MID

RO

EA

EB

EC

PRBA

PRCA

PRCB

GAB

GBC

GCA

AA

AB

AC

AOPT

XP

YP

ZP

A1

A2

A3

V1

V2

V3

D1

D2

D3

BETA

90 (MAT)

REF

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_ORTHOTROPIC_THERMAL

MID

. .

RO

EA

Ea, a

EB

Eb, b

EC

Ec,

PRBA

nba, , b a

PRCA

nca, , c a

PRCB

ncb, , c b

GAB

Gab,

, a b

GBC

Gbc,

, b c

GCA

Gca,

, c a

AA

aa,

AB

ab ,

AC

ac,

AOPT

(. MAT_OPTION TROPIC_ELASTIC
):
= 0.0:
, 1,
2 4 , *DEFINE_ COORDINATE_NODES.
= 1.0:
,
,
a. .
= 2.0:
,
,

*DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR.
= 3.0: ,
BETA,
, v
.
= 4.0: ,
v P,
.
.

XP,YP,ZP

p AOPT = 1

A1,A2,A3

a AOPT = 2

LS-DYNA Version 960

91 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_ORTHOTROPIC_THERMAL

V1,V2,V3

v AOPT = 3

D1,D2,D3

d AOPT = 2

BETA

AOPT = 3,
, . *ELEMENT_SHELL_BETA
*ELEMENT_SOLID_ORTHO.

REF

*INITIAL_FOAM_REFERENCE_GEOMETRY.
8-
.
=0.0:
,
=1.0:
.


. ,
- S -- E,
S=C E=T t ClT E ,

T (Cook, 1974).
l12
2
l2
l32
T=
2l1l2
2l l
23
2l3l1
li , m i , ni

m12

n12

l1m1

m1n1

m22

n22

l2 m2

m2 n2

2
3

2
3

l3 m3

m3 n3

2m1m2

2n1n2

2m2 m3

2n2 n3

2m3 m1

2n3 n1

n2l2

n3l3

( n1l2 +n2l1 )
( n2l3 +n3l2 )
( n3l1+n1l3 )
n1l1

( l1m2 +l1m1 ) ( m1n2 +m2 n1 )


( l2 m3 +l3 m2 ) ( m2 n3 +m3 n2 )
( l3 m1+l1m3 ) ( m3 n1+m1n3 )

- .
xi' =li x1+mi x2 +ni x3

for i=1,2,3 ,

xi' .
:

92 (MAT)

Cl

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_ORTHOTROPIC_THERMAL
1
E
11
- u 12
E 11
u
- 13
-1
C l = E 11

u 21

E 22
1
E 22
u 23
E 22

u 31
E 33
u 32

E 33
1
E 33

0
0

1
G12

1
G23

1
G31

, . .,

ij =xixj andEii =Exi


Cl ,

12
E 11

21
E 22

,etc.

-- :

E t = E11 ,E22 ,E33 ,E12 ,E23 ,E31 , ,


, :
n+1
n
aa
=aa
+a (T n+1 -T n )

n+1
bb
=bbn +b (T n+1 -T n ) .

ccn+1=ccn +c (T n+1 -T n )

Sij (15.32),
.
, .

.
,
. , .

LS-DYNA Version 960

93 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE

*MAT_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE

22.
, ,
[20, 21]. , . .

,
.
*INTEGRATION_SHELL,
. , DKT,
,
. ,
.
, ,
, , .
, . *CONTROL_SHELL.

1

MID

RO

EA

EB

EC

PRBA

PRCA

PRCB

GAB

GBC

GCA

KFAIL

AOPT

MACF

0.0

0.0

1.0

XP

YP

ZP

A1

A2

A3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

94 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE

V1

V2

V3

D1

D2

D3

BETA

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

SC

XT

YT

YC

ALPH

SN

SYZ

SZX

MID

. .

RO

EA

Ea, a

EB

Eb, b

EC

Ec,

PRBA

nba, ba

PRCA

nca, ca

PRCB

ncb, cb

GAB

Gab,

ab

GBC

Gbc,

bc

GCA

Gca,

ca

KFAIL

LS-DYNA Version 960

.
.
95 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE

AOPT

(. MAT_OPTION TROPIC_ELASTIC
):
= 0.0:
,
1, 2 4 , *DEFINE_
COORDINATE_NODES.
= 1.0:
,
,
a.
.
= 2.0:
,
, ,
*DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR.
= 3.0:
,
BETA,
,
v .
= 4.0:

, v
P, .
.

MACF

- -:
=1.0:
,
=2.0:
a b,
=3.0:
a c.

XP,YP,ZP

p AOPT = 1

A1,A2,A3

a AOPT = 2

V1,V2,V3

v AOPT = 3

D1,D2,D3

d AOPT = 2

BETA

AOPT = 3,

,
.
*ELEMENT_SHELL_BETA

*ELEMENT_SOLID_ORTHO.

SC

ab, .

XT

a, .

YT

b, .

96 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE

b, .

YC

,
. 0 0.5.

ALPH

( )

SN
SYZ

( )

SZX

( )

,
LS-DYNA,
*DATABASE_BINARY NEIPS.

(ip = ):

ef (i )
cm(i )
ed (i )

1
0

LS-TAURUS
81
82
83

LS-TAURUS 81, 82, ...,


80+ NEIPS . 7
:

nip

1
ef (i )
nip i =1
nip

1
cm(i )
nip i =1

nip

1
ed (i )
nip i =1

LS-DYNA Version 960

97 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE

:
a) 3:

LS-TAURUS: intg 3 frin 81


b) :

LS-TAURUS: intg 2 frin 7

98 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_TEMPERATURE_DEPENDENT_ORTHOTROPIC
*MAT_TEMPERATURE_DEPENDENT_ORTHOTROPIC

23
.

1

MID

RO

AOPT

REF

XP

YP

ZP

V1

A1

A2

A3

V2

V3

D1

D2

D3

BETA

.
48 (96 ).
*.
1

Ti

EAi

EBi

ECi

PRABi

PRCAi

PRCBi

LS-DYNA 960

99 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_TEMPERATURE_DEPENDENT_ORTHOTROPIC

Ti

AAi

ABi

ACi

GABi

GCAi

GCBi

Ti

MID

RO

AOPT

(. MAT_OPTION TROPIC_ELASTIC):
=0.0:
,
1, 2 4, *DEFINE_
COORDINATE_NODES;
=1.0:
,

; a.
;
=2.0:
,
, .
*DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR;
=3.0:
,
BETA,
,
v ;
= 4.0:

, v P,
.
.

REF


.
*INITIAL_FOAM_REFERENCE_GEOMETRY.
8-
.
= 0.0:
= 1.0:

XP,YP,ZP

100 (MAT)

p AOPT = 1

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT_TEMPERATURE_DEPENDENT_ORTHOTROPIC

A1,A2,A3

a AOPT = 2

V1,V2,V3

v AOPT = 3

D1,D2,D3

d AOPT = 2

BETA

*MAT

BETA AOPT = 3;
, (.
*ELEMENT_SHELL_BETA *ELEMENT_SOLID_ORTHO)

EAi

Ea a Ti

EBi

Eb b Ti

ECi

Ec c Ti

PRBAi

nba , b a
Ti

PRCAi

nca , c a
Ti

PRCBi

ncb , c b
Ti

AAi

aa a
Ti

ABi

ab b
Ti

ACi

ac c
Ti

GABi

Gab , a b
Ti

GBCi

Gbc , b c
Ti

GCAi

Gca , c a
Ti

Ti

LS-DYNA 960

i-

101 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_TEMPERATURE_DEPENDENT_ORTHOTROPIC

:
.
, - (S)
- (), :
S=CE=T t ClTE ,

T (. Cook, 1974).
l12
2
l2
l2
T= 3
2l1l2
2l l
23
2l3l1

m12

n12

l1m1

m1n1

2
2
2
3

2
2
2
3

l2 m2

m2 n2

l3 m3

m3 n3

2m1m2

2n1n2

2m2 m3

2n2 n3

2m3 m1

2n3 n1

( l1m2 +l1m1 ) ( m1n2 +m2 n1 )


( l2 m3 +l3 m2 ) ( m2 n3 +m3 n2 )
( l3 m1+l1m3 ) ( m3 n1+m1n3 )

n2l2

n3l3

( n1l2 +n2l1 )
( n2l3 +n3l2 )
( n3l1+n1l3 )
n1l1

li , mi , ni -
xi' =li x1+mi x2 +ni x3

for i=1,2,3

xi' - . Cl :

21 (T )
31 (T )

E 22 (T )
E 33 (T )
E 11 (T )
(T )
32 (T )
1
- 12
E 11 (T ) E 22 ( T )
E 33 (T )

23 (T )
1
13 (T )

E 22 (T ) E 33 (T )
C l-1= E 11 (T )

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

1
G12 (T )
0
0

0
1
G23 (T )
0

1
G31 (T )
0

, ..

ij =xixj

102 (MAT)

and Eii =Exi .

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT_TEMPERATURE_DEPENDENT_ORTHOTROPIC

Cl

*MAT

,
12
E 11

21

, , ..

E 22

E t = ( E11 ,E22 ,E33 ,E12 ,E23 ,E31 ,) .


, :
n+1
n
aa
=aa
+a (T
n+1
bb

n
bb

= +b (T

ccn+1=ccn +c (T

n+

n+

n+

1
2

1
2

1
2

) T n+1 -T n
) T n+1 -T n
) T n+1 -T n

Sij , (15.32).
.
,
.
,

. .

LS-DYNA 960

103 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY

*MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY
24.
,
(. ). ,
,
. ,
MAT_MODIFIED_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY.
(

MAT_LAYERED_LINEAR_PLASTICITY.
, , ,
MAT_FINITE_ELASTIC_STRAIN_PLASTICITY ,
.

1

MID

RO

PR

SIGY

ETAN

FAIL

TDEL

0.0

10.E+20

LCSS

LCSR

VP

EPS1

EPS2

EPS3

EPS4

EPS5

EPS6

EPS7

EPS8

104 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY

ES1

ES2

ES3

ES4

ES5

ES6

ES7

ES8

MID

RO

E
PR

SIGY

ETAN

, , LCSS > 0

FAIL

:
<0.0:


= 0.0:
.
,
- ,
.
>0.0:
.
,
.

TDEL

C (. )

P (. )

LS-DYNA 960

105 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY

LCSS

.
,
. ,
EPS1-EPS8 ES1-ES8 .
,

(. . 20.7).
,

,
. ,
, ,
.
: C P;
LCSR; , EPS1EPS8 ES1-ES8 .

LCSR

VP

EPS1-EPS8

ES1-ES8

:
= -1.0:
-,

= 0.0:
( )
= 1.0:

(
SIGY, ).
2- .
. :
,
. ,
SIGY ETAN .
,
EPS1 - EPS8

:
ETAN, -
.
, , . 20.4,
(EPS1,ES1) - (EPS8,ES8); 8 ,

(LCSS). .
(LCSS) (. ).
106 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY
.

I.
-
(Cowper-Symonds),
1

1+ ,
C

& &ij &ij . VP=-1,


- . =
.

, .. VP=1.0, SIGY > 0,


s
p
y ( eff ) ,
, SIGY,
-:
1

&effp
p
p
s
p
y ( eff ,&eff )= y ( eff ) +SIGY
C

. ,
, ,
*MAT_ANISOTROPIC_VISCOPLASTIC. SIGY=0, :

y ( ,&
p
eff

p
eff

)=

s
y

p
eff

& p
1+ eff
C

y ( eff ) .
, .
s

II.
(LCSR)
.
.
III.
-,
(LCSS).
*DEFINE_TABLE (. .20.7).

LS-DYNA 960

107 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY

( VP),
, , .
,
.

5
4
3

2
sy
eeff

p
eeff

20.7. .

(. *DEFINE_TABLE).
.

. ,
.
, ,
.

108 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_GEOLOGIC_CAP_MODEL
*MAT_GEOLOGIC_CAP_MODEL

25 - ,
, (.
).

1

MID

RO

BULK

ALPHA

THETA

GAMMA

BETA

X0

PLOT

FTYPE

VEC

TOFF

MID

RO

BULK
G
ALPHA

LS-DYNA 960

K

a

109 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_GEOLOGIC_CAP_MODEL

THETA
GAMMA
BETA

q
g
b

X0

X0

PLOT

TAURUS
(
)
= 1: k
= 2: X (k) J1

= 3: V
= 4: J1
= 5:
= 6:
= 7:
= 8:
= 9:

FTYPE

J2



:
= 1: ( )
= 2: ( )

VEC

:
= 0: ( )
= 1:
,
,
.

TOFF

TOFF < 0 (
)

110 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_GEOLOGIC_CAP_MODEL
:

, (1990),
[23, 24, 22].
, Isenberg, Vaughn, Sandler
(1978). .

J2D
J2D = Fe

J2 D = Fc
f1
f
f3
T

X(k)

J1

20.8.

J 2D -J 1 . f1 ,
f2 f3 .

.
J 2D

s

J 2D

1
sij sij
2

. J1
.
J 2D -J 1 , . 20.8.
-, ,
f1

f1= J 2D -min ( Fe ( J 1 ) ,Tmises ) ,

Fe ( J 1 ) -exp ( -J 1 ) +J 1
LS-DYNA 960

111 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_GEOLOGIC_CAP_MODEL

Tmises X ( n ) -L ( n ) . J 2D -J 1 , ,
, .
f2

f 2 = J 2D -Fc ( J 1 , ) ,

Fc ( J 1 , )

2
2
1
X ( ) -L ( ) - J 1 -L ( ) ,
R

X(k) f2 J1

X ( ) =+RFe ( ) ,
L(k) :
if >0
L( )
.
0 if 0
p
k v :

vp =W 1-exp -D ( X ( ) -X 0 ) .
k J1
. , , ,
, f3
:
f 3 T-J 1 ,
T ,
, . ,
J 2D -J 1 , - ,
,
.
:
= e + p ,

ee ep .

=C ( - p ) ,

s - C .
112 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_GEOLOGIC_CAP_MODEL
:

f1 ( s ) 0

f 2 ( s, ) 0 ,
f3 ( s ) 0

k f k =0
k=1,2,3 ,

k 0

lk k. fk < 0, k = 0

. fk > 0, k , k

f k =0 .
,

:
p

= k
k=1

f k
.
s



.
,
J 2D -J ,
,
() (. . 20.8).
- -
,
, . ,
, , - . , ,
,
. , , ,
,
(). ,
,
,
.
LS-DYNA 960

113 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_GEOLOGIC_CAP_MODEL

-
- .
.
,
. ,
() . ,

.

. Fe N,
, (1978),
.
,
. ,
,
, J.

a.
s - . ,
a - , 5 .

a = cF ( s , a ) e p ,

p
c - , F - s a, e -
. ,

.

( - )
F max 0,1 ,
2NF
J
(
)
e
1

N , .
N
.

, Fe
a a - N.

114 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT_GEOLOGIC_CAP_MODEL

*MAT

,
. a, b, q g
,
. W, D X0
. W ,
D . R
,
.
Chen and Baladi, 1985.

LS-DYNA 960

115 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_HONEYCOMB

*MAT_HONEYCOMB
26.
.
.
(. ).

1

MID

RO

PR

SIGY

VF

MU

BULK

.05

0.0

LCA

LCB

LCC

LCS

LCAB

LCBC

LCCA

LCSR

LCA

LCA

LCA

LCS

LCS

LCS

EAAU

EBBU

ECCU

GABU

GBCU

GCAU

AOPT

XP

YP

ZP

A1

A2

A3

116 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_HONEYCOMB

D1

D2

D3

TSEF

SSEF

MID

RO

E
PR
SIGY

VF

MU

m - ( = 0.05)

BULK

- :
=0.0: (
)
= 1.0: m=0.

LS-DYNA.

LCA

(. *DEFINE_CURVE)
sigma-aa ,
(. )

LCB


(. *DEFINE_CURVE)
sigma-bb ,
(. ); LCB=LCA

LCC


(. *DEFINE_CURVE)
sigma-cc ,
(. ); LCC=LCA

LS-DYNA 960

117 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_HONEYCOMB

LCS


(. *DEFINE_CURVE)
,
(. );
LCS=LCA.
.

LCAB


(. *DEFINE_CURVE)
sigma-ab ,
(. ); LCAB=LCS

LCBC


(. *DEFINE_CURVE)
sigma-bc ,
(. ); LCBC=LCS

LCCA


(. *DEFINE_CURVE)
sigma-ca ,
(. ); LCCA=LCS

LCSR

(. *DEFINE_CURVE)
,
. ,
, .

EAAU

Eaau

EBBU

Ebbu

ECCU

Eccu

GABU

Gabu

GBCU

Gbcu

GCAU

Gcau

AOPT

(. MAT_OPTION TROPIC_ELASTIC):
=0.0:
,
1, 2 4 ,
*DEFINE_ COORDINATE_NODES
= 1.0:
,

; a.
.
=2.0:
,
, .
*DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR.

118 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_HONEYCOMB

XP YP ZP

p AOPT = 1

A1 A2 A3

a AOPT = 2

D1 D2 D3

d AOPT = 2

TSEF

(
)

SSEF

( )

:
,
LCA, LCB, LCC, LCS, LCAB, LCBC LCCA
. .
,
.
,
, . . a
a b c.
V ,
Vf :
Eaa =Eaau +(E-Eaau )
Ebb =Ebbu +(E-Ebbu )
Ecc =Eccu +(E-Eccu )
Gab =Gabu +(G-Gabu )
Gbc =Gbcu +(G-Gbcu )
Gca =Gcau +(G-Gcau ) ,

=max min

1-V
1-V f

,1 ,0

G :

G=
LS-DYNA 960

E
.
2(1+)
119 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_HONEYCOMB

V .
V=1. (MU) ( 0.02-0.10).

, ,
. -
.

( ) (. . 20.9). , ,
.
: a) (V) b)
, :
ev = 1 V.

, .
,
.
, .
,

.
:
trial

n+1
n
aa
= aa
+Eaa aa

trial

bbn+1 = bbn +Ebb bb


trial

ccn+1 = ccn +Ecc cc


trial

n+1
n
ab
= ab
+2Gab ab

trial

bcn+1 = bcn +2Gbc bc


trial

can+1 = can +2Gca ca .

120 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_HONEYCOMB

,
; ,
trial

ijn+1

> ij (V) ,

trial

n+1
ij

= ij (V)

ijn+1

trial

ijn+1

2 sij (V) LCA aa,


LCB - bb, LCC - cc LCS -
ab, bc, cb . l , ,
LCSR, l
. ,
.
-,
:

sijtrial =sijn +2Gijdev

n+ 1

ijdev =ij - 13 kk ij .
,

trial
seff
= ( 32 sijtrial sijtrial )

SIGY.
,
sijn+1=

LS-DYNA 960

y
trial
eff

sijtrial .

121 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_HONEYCOMB

p n+1=p n -Kkkn+ 2
1

K=

E
3(1-2)

ijn+1=sijn+1 -p n+1ij .
, ,
.

s ij

, 1-V

.
,
.. LS-DYNA
.
,
important
. .

20.9. . ,
.
(. *DEFINE_CURVE) -
, - .

122 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_MOONEY-RIVLIN_RUBBER

*MAT_MOONEY-RIVLIN_RUBBER

27,
.

1

MID

RO

PR

REF

SGL

SW

ST

LCID

MID

RO

PR

( > 0.49, ..
)

(. )

(. )

REF


.
*INITIAL_FOAM_REFERENCE_GEOMETRY.
8-
.
= 0.0:
= 1.0:

A=B=0.0,
.
.
LS-DYNA 960

123 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_MOONEY-RIVLIN_RUBBER

SGL

l0 (. . 20.10)

SW

(. . 20.10)

ST

(. .20.10)

LCID

(. *DEFINE_CURVE)
DL (.
. 20.11, )


W = A( I-3) + B( II-3) + C( III-2 -1 ) + D ( III-1)2 ,

C = 0.5 A + B,
D=

A ( 5-2 ) +B ( 11-5 )
2 ( 1-2 )

= ,

2(A+B) = ,
I, II, III = - C .
, ,
DL .
.
. l1

1=

LO +L
,
LO

L0 , L .

, ,
(1.0) ,
(. . 20.11).

.
124 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_MOONEY-RIVLIN_RUBBER

, ,
. A B .
(.
H).

D .

AA

AA

20.10. .

F
=
A0

L
=

20.11.
, ,
(1.0)
, .
LS-DYNA 960

125 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_RESULTANT_PLASTICITY

*MAT_RESULTANT_PLASTICITY

28.
-, .
-, ,
- 16
. -,
.
LS-DYNA.
- ,
.

1

MID

RO

PR

SIGY

ETAN

0.0

MID

RO

E
PR

SIGY

ETAN

( )

126 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_FORCE_LIMITED
*MAT_FORCE_LIMITED

29. ,
-,
.
.
:

1

MID

RO

PR

DF

AOPT

YTFLAG

ASOFT

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

M1

M2

M3

M4

M5

M6

M7

M8

LC1

LC2

LC3

LC4

LC5

LC6

LC7

LC8

LS-DYNA 960

127 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_FORCE_LIMITED

LPS1

SFS1

LPS2

SFS2

YMS1

YMS2

1.0

LPS1

1.0

1.0E+20

YMS1

LPT1

SFT1

LPT2

SFT2

YMT1

YMT2

1.0

LPT1

1.0

1.0E+20

YMT1

LPR

SFR

YMR

1.0

1.0E+20

MID

RO

PR

DF

(. ).
!

128 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_FORCE_LIMITED

AOPT

YTFLAG

:
=0.0:

=1.0:

.
- :
=0.0:

=1.0:

ASOFT


.

.
, .

M1, M2,...,M8

,
/
. .
8 . .

LC1, LC2,...,LC8

(.
*DEFINE_CURVE),

/ (. AOPT)
.
.
.

LPS1

,
s 1.
, .

SFS1


s 1; = 1.0

LPS2

,
s 2;
, 1

SFS2


s 2; ,
1

YMS1

s 1
( 1.0E+20,
)

LS-DYNA 960

129 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_FORCE_LIMITED

YMS2

s 2
( YMS1)

LPT1

,
t 1.
, .

SFT1


t 1; = 1.0

LPT2

,
t 2;
, 1

SFT2


t 2; ,
1

YMT1

t 1
( 1.0E+20,
)

YMT2

t 2
( YMT1)

LPR

,
.
, .

SFR


( = 1.0)

YMR


( 1.0E+20,
)


-. ,
.
.
: , .
,
: 0, .
, . ,
s t, .

130 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_FORCE_LIMITED

,
.
. :
, , : ,
. ,
.
: 0, .
, ,
. -,
, .
. , ,
, .
, ,
l, :

2*
,

x - w ( ). ,
1% 2 ,

2*0.01
=0.001592 .
2*2

.
LS-DYNA .

. ,
0.3L/cl ( L , c ).
:


. ,
,
. ,
:
Mr

M ryield

Ms
+
M syield

Mt
+
M tyield

1 ,

Mr, Ms, Mt ,
Mryield, Msyield, Mtyield .
LS-DYNA 960

131 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_FORCE_LIMITED

,
: , Msyield

,
s.
-.
:
Mr

M rupper =MAX M r , yield

Ms Mt.
,
Mrp, = min (Mrupper, Mrcurve),
s t,

Mrp-
Mrcurve - , ,
.
, ,
;
. , s,
t.
- (
, ).
.

132 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_FORCE_LIMITED

M7
M6
M

M4

M3

M2
M1

(. AOPT)
20.12. , .

, .

LS-DYNA 960

133 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_SHAPE_MEMORY

*MAT_SHAPE_MEMORY
30. ,

, (. . 20.13). .
. [71, 72].

1

MID

RO

PR

SIG_ASS

SIG_ASF

SIG_SAS

SIG_SAF

EPSL

ALPHA

YMRT

0.0

0.0

MID

RO

E
PR
SIG_ASS

134 (MAT)



(
)
. SIG_ASS
.

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_SHAPE_MEMORY

SIG_ASF


( )
. SIG_ASF

.

SIG_SAS

(
)
. SIG_SAS
.

SIG_SAF


( )
. SIG_SAF

.

EPSL

.
,
.

ALPHA

,
( , ). .
.

YMRT

, ;
,

:
a .
,
AS,+
AS, , s s :
=

135 (MAT)

sAS,- - sAS,+
.
sAS,- + sAS,+

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_SHAPE_MEMORY

20.13: .
, .
:

60000

nu

0.3

sig_AS_s

520

sig_AS_f

600

sig_SA_s

300

sig_SA_f

200

epsL

0.07

alpha

0.12

ymrt

50000

- . . 20.14
.

136 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_SHAPE_MEMORY


20.14. -

137 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_FRAZER_NASH_RUBBER_MODEL

*MAT_FRAZER_NASH_RUBBER_MODEL
31. ,
. ,
[73]. . .

1

MID

RO

PR

C100

C200

C300

C400

C110

C210

C010

C020

EXIT

EMAX

EMIN

REF

SGL

SW

ST

LCID

MID

RO

PR

; 0.49 0.50

C100

C100 (=1.0 )

C200

C200 (=1.0 )

138 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT_FRAZER_NASH_RUBBER_MODEL

*MAT

C300

C300 (=1.0 )

C400

C400 (=1.0 )

C110

C110 (=1.0 )

C210

C210 (=1.0 )

C010

C010 (=1.0 )

C020

C020 (=1.0 )

EXIT

:
=0.0: ,
( )
0.0:

EMAX

( -)

EMIN

( -)

REF


.
*INITIAL_FOAM_REFERENCE_GEOMETRY.
8-
.
=0.0:

=1.0:

SGL

(. 20.10)

SW

(. 20.10)

ST

(. 20.10)

LCID

(. DEFINE_CURVE),
.
. 20.11.

:

, (SGL,
SW, ST LCID). ,
, ,
LS-DYNA 960

139 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_FRAZER_NASH_RUBBER_MODEL

. ,
, I1 I2.
, C100 .
U , :
U=C100

I 1 +C200

C210 I 12 I 2 +C010

I 12 +C300

I 13 +C400

I 14 +C110 I1 I 2 +

I 22 +f(J)

I 2 +C020

Fij
- Eij:
J= Fij
I 1=Eii
I2=

1 ij
pq E pi Eqj
2!

Sij =

U
Eij

Sij -.
, ,
DL .
.
.
l1 :
1=

LO +L
.
LO

, ,
, ,

, (. . 20.11).

. , ,
, ,
. C100 - C020 .

140 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_LAMINATED_GLASS
*MAT_LAMINATED_GLASS

32. ,
. . .
.

1

MID

RO

EG

PRG

SYG

ETG

EFG

EP

PRP

SYP

ETP

1 4 , .. 32 . , 4,
*, .

3 ..

F1

F2

F3

F4

F5

F6

F7

F8

MID

RO

EG

PRG

LS-DYNA 960

141 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_LAMINATED_GLASS

SYG

ETG

EFG

EP

PRP

SYP

ETP

F1,..FN

:
Fn = 0.0:
Fn = 1.0:
, .
*INTEGRATION_SHELL

:
. ,
, , .
, .
Fi , (0.0)
(1.0). Fi ,
(NIPTS). - 32.

142 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_BARLAT_ANISOTROPIC_PASTICITY
*MAT_BARLAT_ANISOTROPIC_PLASTICITY

33. [74]
. - ,
LS-DYNA, [75].
6- , 3-
(. ). , ,
36, 3 .

1

MID

RO

PR

E0

AOPT

OFFANG

XP

YP

ZP

A1

A2

A3

LS-DYNA 960

143 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_BARLAT_ANISOTROPIC_PLASTICITY

V1

V2

V3

D1

D2

D3

MID

RO

PR

k (. )

EO

e0 , (.
)

144 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_BARLAT_ANISOTROPIC_PASTICITY

AOPT

:
=0.0:
,
, . 20.1. 1, 2 4
, (.
*DEFINE_COORDINATE_NODES).
=1.0:
,

. a.
=2.0:
,
,
(

*DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR)
=3.0:
,
OFFANG ,
v
-.

OFFANG

AOPT = 3

XP YP ZP

p AOPT = 1

A1 A2 A3

a AOPT = 2

V1 V2 V3

v AOPT = 3

D1 D2 D3

d AOPT = 2

:
=|S1 -S 2 |m +|S 2 -S3|m +|S3 -S1|m =2 m

- Si=1,2,3 -

Sab

S xx =[c( xx - yy )-b( zz - xx )]/3


S yy =[a( yy - zz )-c( xx - yy )]/3
S zz =[b( zz - xx )-a( yy - zz )]/3
S yz =f yz
S zx =g zx
S xy =h xy
LS-DYNA 960

145 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_BARLAT_ANISOTROPIC_PLASTICITY

a,b,c,f,g h .
a=b=c=f=g=h=1 , ,
m = 1 m = 2 4.

m=8.
m=6 .

y =k ( p +0 )

p
0 - , , -
.

146 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

MAT

*MAT_BARLAT_YLD96
*MAT_BARLAT_YLD96

33. , , , , ,
, , , , , [76]
, ,
. .

1

MID

RO

PR

E0

ESR0

HARD

C1

C2

C3

C4

AX

AOPT

OFFANG

AY

AZ0

AZ1

LS-DYNA 960

147 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_BARLAT_YLD96

A1

A2

A3

V1

V2

V3

D1

D2

D3

MID

RO

PR

k - a (.
)

EO

ESR0
M
HARD

A
148 (MAT)

e0 - , ,
b (. )

n - c

eSR0 -

m
:
< 0.0:

= 1.0:
= 2.0:

LS-DYNA Version 960

MAT

*MAT_BARLAT_YLD96

C1

c1 (. )

C2

c2 (. )

C3

c3 (. )

C4

c4 (. )

AX

ax (. )

AY

ay (. )

AZ0

az0 (. )

AZ1

az1 (. )

AOPT

:
=0.0:
,
, . 20.1. 1, 2 4
, (.
*DEFINE_COORDINATE_NODES).
=2.0:
,
,
(

*DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR)
=3.0:
,
OFFANG ,
v
-

OFFANG

AOPT = 3

A1 A2 A3

a AOPT = 2

V1 V2 V3

v AOPT = 3

D1 D2 D3

d AOPT = 2

:
y . -,
, :
y =k ( 0 +

LS-DYNA 960

p n

&

.
SR0
149 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_BARLAT_YLD96

-, :
y =a-be-c

, ,
. F :

=1|s1 -s2 |a +2 |s2 -s3|a +3|s3 -s1|a =2 y a

si - . :
s= L ,
~

~ ~

c1 +c3
3

-c3
L= 3
~

-c2
3
0

-c3
3
c3 +c1
3
-c2
3
0

-c2
3
-c2
3
c1 +c2
3
0

c4

k , ,
,
s :
~

k =x p1k2 + y p2k2 +z p3k2


z =z0 cos 2 2+z1 sin 2 2

pij - . b -
s .
~

150 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_FABRIC
*MAT_FABRIC

34. .
22
3- 4- .
, ,

. ,
, -.
, ,
, .
LS-DYNA 931
.

1

MID

RO

EA

EB

EC

PRBA

PRCA

PRCB

GAB

GBC

GCA

CSE

EL

PRL

LRATIO

DAMP

AOPT

FLC

FAC

ELA

LNRC

FORM

LS-DYNA 960

151 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_FABRIC

A1

A2

A3

V1

V2

V3

D1

D2

D3

BETA

6 , FORM=4.
6

LCA

LCB

LCAB

LCUA

LCUB

LCUAB

MID

RO

EA

.
EA PRBA,
, ,
.
.

EB

EC

PRBA

152 (MAT)

nba , b a

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_FABRIC

PRCA

, c a;

PRCB

ncb , c b;

GAB

Gab , a b;

GBC

, b c;

GCA

Gca

CSE

( 0.0):
= 0.0:
= 1.0: (
)

EL
PRL

LRATIO

nca

Gbc

, c a;

( )
(
)

DAMP

.
0.05, 5% .
.

AOPT

( . MAT_OPTION
TROPIC_ELASTIC):
=0.0:
,
1, 2 4 (. *DEFINE_
COORDINATE_NODES)
=2.0:
,
,
(

*DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR)
=3.0:
,
BETA
, v

LS-DYNA 960

153 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_FABRIC

FLC

( )
<0.0:
|FLC| - ,
(. )

FAC

( )
<0.0:
|FAC| - ,
(. 3)

ELA

, ELA.
<0.0:
|ELA| - ,
.
, ,
. 0.10, , 10%
.

LNRC

-
, ..
.
= 0.0:
= 1.0:

FORM

-
:
= 0.0:
( )
= 1.0:

= 2.0:
-
= 3.0:

(. 5)
= 4.0:


;

A1 A2 A3

a AOPT = 2

V1 V2 V3

v AOPT = 3

D1 D2 D3

d AOPT = 2

BETA

154 (MAT)

BETA AOPT = 3;
,

,
.
*ELEMENT_SHELL_BETA

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_FABRIC

LCA

,
a;
FORM=4; ,
EA

LCB

,
b;
FORM=4; ,
EB

LCAB

,
ab;
FORM=4; ,
GAB

LCUA

/ ,
a;
FORM=4;
, LCA

LCUB

,
b;
FORM=4; ,
LCB

LCUAB

,
ab;
FORM=4; ,
LCAB

:
1.


,
.

2.


,
.
.

3.

FLC FAC -,
.

.
, ,

LS-DYNA 960

155 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_FABRIC

.
- ,
. LS-DYNA
, ,
, .
FLC FAC ,
, .
4.

,
CSE .
, ,
(. *AIRBAG_REFERENCE_GEOMETRY).
LNRC 1.0, ,
, .

5.

FORM=0, 1, 2 a b
AOPT=0, 2, 3. FORM=3
4
ICOMP=1 *SECTION_SHELL.
B1 B2,
1 2. a b
a, AOPT=0, 2
3.

6.

FORM=4 ,
, a b,
, .

. a b
. EA
EB.
. - ,
EA, EB GAB.

7.

, , ,
,
, .
, ,
, ,
, .
, / x
.
,
/ . ( )
, .

156 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_PLASTIC_GREEN-NAGHDI_RATE
*MAT_PLASTIC_GREEN-NAGHDI_RATE

35. -,
3,
, - (Green-Naghdi).
. , (Cowper-Symonds).

1

MID

RO

PR

SIGY

ETAN

SRC

SRP

BETA

MID

RO

E
PR

SIGY

ETAN

SRC

SRP

BETA

LS-DYNA 950

0 < b < 1

157 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_3-PARAMETER_BARLAT

*MAT_3-PARAMETER_BARLAT
36. [77]
.
(Lankford).

1

MID

RO

PR

HR

P1

P2

ITER

R00

R45

R90

LCID

E0

SPI

A1

A2

A3

AOPT

158 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_3-PARAMETER_BARLAT

V1

V2

V3

D1

D2

D3

BETA

MID

RO

PR

HR

:
= 1.0: ( )
= 2.0:
= 3.0:

P1

:
HR = 1.0:
HR = 2.0: k

P2

:
HR = 1.0:
HR = 2.0: n

ITER

:
ITER = 0.0:
ITER = 1.0:
ITER=0.
ITER=1
.
m

R00

R00 ,

R45

R45 ,

R90

R90 ,

LS-DYNA 950

159 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_3-PARAMETER_BARLAT

LCID

(HR=3)

E0

-
( = 0.0)

SPI

spi ,

AOPT

e0

0 = 0 ( = 0.0)
= 0.0: e 0 = (E / k ) **[1/ (n - 1)]
0.02: e 0 = spi
> 0.02: e 0 = (spi / k ) **[1 / n]

( . MAT_OPTION
TROPIC_ELASTIC:
=0.0:
,
1, 2 4 (. *DEFINE_ COORDINATE_NODES)
=2.0:
,
, (
*DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR)
=3.0:
,
BETA
, v

XP YP ZP

p AOPT = 1

A1 A2 A3

a AOPT = 2

V1 V2 V3

v AOPT = 3

D1 D2 D3

d AOPT = 2

BETA

BETA AOPT = 3; ,
, . *ELEMENT_SHELL_BETA

=a K1+K 2 +a K 1 -K 2 +c 2K 2 =2Ym

Y - , Ki=1,2 :

160 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_3-PARAMETER_BARLAT

K 1=

x +h y
2
2

-h y
2 2
K2= x
+p xy
2
.
a, c, h, p R00, R45 R90:

a=2-2

R00
R90
1+R00 1+R90
h=

c=2-a

R00 1+R90
1+R00 R90

p .
R
f :

R =

2mYm

+

x
y

-1 ,

- .
p . =45.
g :

g ( p )=

2mYm

+


x y

-1-R45 .

.

m=8.
m=6. k n:

y =k n =k ( yp + p ) ,
n

p
yp - , , -
(). SIGY=0, ,

LS-DYNA 950

161 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_3-PARAMETER_BARLAT

=E
=k n

, :
1

E n-1
yp =
.
k
SIGY0 0.02, :
1

y n
yp = .
k

162 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC_ELASTIC_PLASTIC
*MAT_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC_ELASTIC_PLASTIC

37,
. .
,
.

. . .

1

MID

RO

PR

SIGY

ETAN

HLCID

MID

RO

PR
SIGY

ETAN

HLCID

:
,
. ,
[78], :
F ( 22 - 33 ) +G ( 33 -11 ) +H ( 11 - 22 ) +2L 232 +2M 312 +2N122 -1=0 ,
2

LS-DYNA 960

163 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC_ELASTIC_PLASTIC

sy1, sy2, sy3 , sy12, sy23, sy31


. F, G H, L, M, N :
2L=
2M=
2N=

F = G = H =

1
232
1
2
y31

1
2
y12

2F=

1
1 1
+ 2 - 2
2
y2 y3 y1

2G=

1
1 1
+ 2 - 2
2
y3 y1 y2

2H=

1
1 1
+ 2 - 2 .
2
y1 y2 y3

1
2 2y
L=M=N=

3
.,
2 2y

.
, x1-x2 ,
:
2F=2G=
2H=
N=

1
2
y3

2 1
2y y32

2 1 1
y2 2 y32

, sy1 = sy2 = sy.


K=

y
y3

, :
F(s) = se = sy ,

164 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC_ELASTIC_PLASTIC

*MAT

2
2
F ( ) 112 + 22
+K 2 33
-K 2 33 ( 11 + 22 ) - ( 2-K 2 ) 11 22

1

+2L ( + ) +2 2- K 2 122
2

2
y

2
23

2
31

, ij :
p

ij =

F
.
ij

, s33 = 0.
R,

p

R=

22
p

33

,
R=

2
-1.
K2


R, :
1

2R
2R+1 2 2

2
F ( ) = 112 + 22
11 22 +2
12 .
R+1
R+1


, , , MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY.
-,
, , , , . , ,
, , R=1.0,
, .

LS-DYNA 960

165 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_BLATZ-KO_FOAM

*MAT_BLATZ-KO_FOAM
38. .
,
0.25.

1

MID

RO

REF

MID

RO

G
REF



.
*INITIAL_FOAM_REFERENCE_GEOMETRY.
8-
.
= 0.0:
= 1.0:

:

:
W=

G II

+2 III -5 .
2 III

Blatz Ko (1962) ,
47% , , 0.25.
(I, II III) - :

1
II -1
S ij =G ( Iij -Cij ) + III Cij
III
III ,

166 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_BLATZ-KO_FOAM

Cij -.
sij :
1

ij =III - 2 Fik Fjl Slk ,


Fij .

LS-DYNA 950

167 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_FLD_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC

*MAT_FLD_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC
39.
. .
,
.
(Forming Limit Diagram FLD), ,
LS-POST.
.
. .

1

MID

RO

PR

SIGY

ETAN

HLCID

LCIDFLD

MID

RO

E
PR

SIGY

ETAN

(. 37)

168 (MAT)

(. 37)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_FLD_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC

HLCID

,
.
.

LCIDFLD

,
.
, .
. 20.15.
-

(. *DEFINE_CURVE).

:
37.
:
m a jo r
,
m a jo r
w o rk p ie ce

fld

e min orworkpiece .
e mnr = 0

PLANE STRAIN

e mjr

80
70
60

% MAJOR STRAIN

50
40
e mjr

e mnr

30

e mnr

20
e mjr
10

-50

DRAW

-40

-30

STRETCH

-20

-10

+10

+20

+30

+40

+50

% MINOR STRAIN

20.15. .
LS-DYNA 960

169 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_NONLINEAR_ORTHOTROPIC

*MAT_NONLINEAR_ORTHOTROPIC
40. -

.
. , , .
.
.
- , ,
- .

1

170 (MAT)

MID

RO

EA

EB

EC

PRBA

PRCA

PRCB

GAB

GBC

GCA

DT

TRAMP

ALPHA

LCIDA

LCIDB

EFAIL

DTFAIL

CDAMP

AOPT

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_NONLINEAR_ORTHOTROPIC

A1

A2

A3

V1

V2

V3

D1

D2

D3

BETA

LCIDC

LCIDAB

LCIDBC

LCIDCA

MID

RO

EA

Ea a

EB

Eb b

EC

Ec

PRBA

nba , b a

PRCA

nca

PRCB

ncb , c b

GAB

Gab

LS-DYNA 960

, c a

, a b
171 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_NONLINEAR_ORTHOTROPIC

GBC

Gbc

, b c

GCA

Gca

, c a

DT

.
.

TRAMP

ALPHA

LCIDA

,
a.
a-1, a
a.

LCIDB

,
b.
b-1, b
b.

EFAIL

l-1

DTFAIL

CDAMP

AOPT

( . MAT_OPTION
TROPIC_ELASTIC):
= 0.0: , 1,
2 4 , . *DEFINE_ COORDINATE_NODES
= 2.0:
,
,

(.
*DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR)
= 3.0:
,
BETA
, v

A1,A2,A3

a1 a2 a3 a AOPT = 2

D1,D2,D3

d1 d2 d3 d AOPT = 2

V1,V2,V3

v1 v2 v3 v AOPT = 3

172 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_NONLINEAR_ORTHOTROPIC

BETA

BETA AOPT = 3;
,

(.
*ELEMENT_SHELL_BETA)


.
LCIDC

,
c.
c-1, c c.

LCIDAB

,
ab ab ab.
sin(ab), ab - .

LCIDBC

,
ab ab bc.
sin(b), b - .

LCIDCA

,
ab ab ca.
sin(), - .

LS-DYNA 960

173 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_USER_DEFINED_MATERIAL_MODELS

*MAT_USER_DEFINED_MATERIAL_MODELS
41-50.
(. A). ,
.
.

1

MID

RO

MT

LMC

NHV

IORTHO

IBULK

IG

IVECT

IFAIL

ITERMAL

, IORTHO=1.
3

AOPT

MAXC

XP

YP

ZP

A1

A2

A3

V1

V2

V3

D1

D2

D3

BETA

174 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_USER_DEFINED_MATERIAL_MODELS

, LMC, 8
.

P1

P2

P3

P4

P5

P6

P7

P8

MID

RO

MT

( 41 50 )

LMC

, ,
(LMC 40, IORTHO=1)

NHV

,
(. A)

IORTHO
IBULK

IG

1,
(.
A)
(. A)

IVECT

- (,
1).
.

IFAIL

- (,
1),

ITHERMAL

- (,
1).

AOPT

( . *MAT_OPTION
TROPIC_ELASTIC):
= 0.0: ,
1, 2 4 , . *DEFINE_ COORDINATE_NODES

LS-DYNA 960

175 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_USER_DEFINED_MATERIAL_MODELS

= 1.0: ,

; a.
.
= 2.0: ,
,

(.
*DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR).
= 3.0: ,
BETA
, v
.
= 4.0:
, v P,
.
.
MAXC

- :
= 1.0:
= 2.0: a b
= 3.0: a c

XP YP ZP

p AOPT = 1

A1 A2 A3

a AOPT = 2

V1 V2 V3

v AOPT = 3

D1 D2 D3

d AOPT = 2

BETA

BETA AOPT = 3;
,

(.
*ELEMENT_SHELL_BETA)

P1

P2

P3

P4

PLCM

176 (MAT)

LCM

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_BAMMAN
*MAT_BAMMAN

51. ,
, [79].

1

MID

RO

PR

HC

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

C7

C8

C9

C10

C11

C12

C13

C14

C15

C16

C17

C18

A1

A2

A3

A4

A5

A6

LS-DYNA 960

177 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_BAMMAN

MID

RO

E
PR
T

(psi)

(oR )

HC

(oR/psi)

C1

psi

C2

oR

C3

psi

C4

oR

C5

1 /s

C6

oR

C7

1/psi

C8

oR

C9

psi

C10

oR

C11

1/psi-s

C12

oR

C13

1/psi

C14

oR

C15

psi

C16

oR

C17

1/psi-s

178 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_BAMMAN

C18

oR

A1

a1 1

A2

a2 2

A3

a4 3

A4

a5 4

A5

a6 5

A6

k 6
sec-psi-oR
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9
C10
C11
C12
C13
C14
C15
C16
C17
C18
C0=HC
E
u
T

LS-DYNA 960

sec-MPa-oR
*1145

1
* 145

*145

1
* 145

*145

*145

1
* 145

*145

*145
*1145

sec-MPa-oK
*1145
*59
*1145
*59

*5 / 9
*145
*59
*1145
*59
*145
*59
*145
*59
*1145
*59
*145
*59
*145*59
*1145

*59

179 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_BAMMAN

:
, , [78-80].
[79].
:
o

=tr ( D e ) 1+2D e ,
s - , We :
o

= -W e +W e .

(. [80] [81]).
,
De We :
De = D - Dp - Dth,

We = W = Wp .

Wp
Dp
Dth. :
--Y (T )
D p =f (T ) sinh
.

V (T )

T , k - , x -
s a
x = s - a,
f(T), Y(T), V(T) , ,
.
A& , :

D th = AT 1.
a k ,
:
o

=h (T ) D p - rd (T ) D p +rs (T ) ,

180 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_BAMMAN

=H (T ) D p - Rd (T ) D p -Rs (T ) 2 .

h H , rs (T) Rs (T) ,
, , rd (T) Rd (T) ,
.
Wp = 0, ,

(. [81]).

W p =RT U U -1 R ,
- (Green-Naghdi) .
, , (.
[80]). , ,
, ,
,
.
,
, - ,
. ,
- - , ,
, , 9095% .

T=

.9
Dp ) ,
(
Cv

r - , Cv .
, ,
:
V(T)
Y(T)
f(T)
rd(T)

=
=
=
=

C1 exp(-C2/T)
C3 exp(C4/T)
C5 exp(-C6/T)
C7 exp(-C8/T)

h(T)
rs(T)
RD(T)
H(T)
RS(T)

=
=
=
=
=

C9 exp(C10/T)
C11exp(-C12/T)
C13exp(-C14/T)
C15exp(C16/T)
C17exp(-C18/T)

:
.9
HC=
.
CV

LS-DYNA 960

181 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_BAMMAN_DAMAGE

*MAT_BAMMAN_DAMAGE
52. 51
(. [82]).

1

MID

RO

PR

HC

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

C7

C8

C9

C10

C11

C12

C13

C14

C15

C16

C17

C18

A1

A2

A3

A4

A5

A6

182 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_BAMMAN_DAMAGE

D0

FS

MID

RO

E
PR
T

(psi)

(oR )

HC

(oR/psi)

C1

psi

C2

oR

C3

psi

C4

oR

C5

1 /s

C6

oR

C7

1/psi

C8

oR

C9

psi

C10

oR

C11

1/psi-s

C12

oR

LS-DYNA 960

183 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_BAMMAN_DAMAGE

C13

1/psi

C14

oR

C15

psi

C16

oR

C17

1/psi-s

C18

oR

A1

a1 1-

A2

a2 2-

A3

a3 3-

A4

a4 4-

A5

a5 5-

A6

a6 6-

D0

()

FS

:
f , [78]:

=
1-

(
)
N
( 1- )

Dp


2 ( 2N-1) p
=sinh
,
( 2N-1)

p - , - .

184 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_CLOSED_CELL_FOAM
*MAT_CLOSED_CELL_FOAM

53. ,
.
, .
.

1

MID

RO

P0

PHI

GAMA0

LCID

MID

RO

a , (.
)

b , (.
)

c , (.
)

P0

P0

PHI

f -

GAMA0

LS-DYNA 960

g0 ( )
185 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_CLOSED_CELL_FOAM

LCID

,
-g . ,
, a, b c .
, ..
g , .

:
,
[25], LSDYNA , .
, ,
.

26, , ,
. ,
, ,
:

ij = ijsk -ij air ,


sk
air
ij - , - , :

air =-

p0
.
1+-

p0 , , g
:
=V-1+0 ,
V , , , g0
, .
,
. :
ijsk = ij + ij air
sskt

ijskt = ijsk +E&ij t ,


E . ,
, 2G=E, G .

186 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_CLOSED_CELL_FOAM

,
skt
i sy,
skt

isk =min( y , iskt ) iskt .


i

y =a+b(1+c) ,

a, b, c , , g - , .
,
:

ij = ijsk -ij air .

LS-DYNA 960

187 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_ENHANCED_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE

*MAT_ENHANCED_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE
54-55,
22.
, ,
. ,
e [83].
(. [84]).
. , ,
, .
22 59. ,
(. *INTEGRATION_SHELL),
. , , DKT,
,
. ,

. , ,
, ,
. .
*CONTROL_SHELL.

1

MID

RO

EA

EB

(EC)

PRBA

(PRCA)

(PRCB)

GAB

GBC

GCA

(KF)

AOPT

A1

A2

A3

MANGLE

188 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_ ENHANCED_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE
4

V1

V2

V3

D1

D2

D3

DFAILM

DFAILS

TFAIL

ALPH

SOFT

FBRT

YCFAC

DFAILT

DFAILC

EFS

XC

XT

YC

YT

SC

CRIT

BETA

MID

RO

EA

Ea

EB

Eb

(EC)
PRBA

Ec

( )

nba , b a

(PRCA)

nca

(PRCB)

ncb , c b (
)

, c a (
)

, a b

GAB

Gab

GBC

Gbc

LS-DYNA 960

, b c

189 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_ENHANCED_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE

GCA

Gca

(KF)

AOPT

, c a

( . MAT_OPTION
TROPIC_ELASTIC):
= 0.0: , 1,
2 4 , . *DEFINE_ COORDINATE_NODES
= 2.0:
,
,

(.
*DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR)
= 3.0:
,

(MANGLE), ,
v

A1 A2 A3

a AOPT = 2

V1 V2 V3

v AOPT = 3

D1 D2 D3

d AOPT = 2

MANGLE

MANGLE AOPT = 3;
,

(.
*ELEMENT_SHELL_BETA *ELEMENT_SOLID_ORTHO)

DFAILM


.
.
.

DFAILS

.
. .

TFAIL

:
0: ;
, tfail > 0,
0 < tfail 0.1: ,
,
>0.1: ,
.

ALPH

(.
22)

190 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT_ ENHANCED_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE

*MAT

SOFT

(
= 1.0). TFAIL
.

FBRT

:
= 0.0: X (. ),
> 0.0: X,
X t *FBRT

YCFAC


.
X c =YCFAC*Yc (
YCFAC = 2.0).

DFAILT

(
, 1, (100%) ).

.

DFAILC

( ,
1, (100%) ).


. .

EFS

XC

XT

YT

(. )
b (. )
b (. )

SC

ab (. )

YC

CRIT

( ):
= 54.0: - 22
( ),
= 55.0: - (Tsai-Wu).

BETA

(0.0 BETA 1.0)

LS-DYNA 960

191 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_ENHANCED_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE

:
- :

2


0 failed
aa >0 then e = aa + ab -1
,
Xt
Sc <0 elastic
2
f

Ea =Eb =Gab =ba =ab =0 ,



2


0 failed
aa <0 then e = aa -1
,
<0 elastic
Xc
2
c

Ea =ba =ab =0.



2


0 failed
bb >0 then e = bb + ab -1
,
<0 elastic
Yt S c
2
m

Eb =ba =0. Gab =0 ,



2
2
2
bb Yc bb ab
0 failed
bb <0 then e =
+
,
+
-1
-1
<0 elastic
2Sc 2Sc Yc Sc
2
d

=ba =ab =0. Gab =0

X c =2Yc for50% fiber volume

- (Tsai-Wu)
- (Chang-Chang).
:
2

2
( Y -Y )
0 failed
bb
e =
+ ab + c t bb -1
YcYt Sc
YcYt
<0 elastic
2
md

b =1 (Hashin) (1980)
. b =0 ,
.

192 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_ ENHANCED_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE
:

1.
DFAILT = 0, ,
- .
2.
DFAILT > 0, ,
DFAILT, DFAILC.
3.
EFS > 0, ,
, EFS.
4.
TFAIL > 0,
, TFAIL, .
(
), . ,
, , ,
SOFT TFAIL .
( )
,
.
LS-DYNA
NEIPS
*DATABASE_BINARY. 54 55
(i ):

1.ef (i)
2.ec(i)
3.em(i )
4.ed (i )

5.efail





max[ef(ip)]

6. dam

1 -
0 -

-1
,
-8
10

,
+1

LS-TAURUS

81
82
83
84
85
86

LS-TAURUS
81, 82, ..., 80+NEIPS. ,
, 7
:
LS-DYNA 960

193 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_ENHANCED_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE

1 nip
ef ( i )
nip i=1

1 nip
ec ( i )
nip i=1

1 nip
cm ( i )
nip i=1

:
a) 3:
LS-TAURUS I: intg 3 frin 81
LS-TAURUS II: etime 81 n e1 e2 ... en
b) :
LS-TAURUS I: intg 2 frin 7
LS-TAURUS II: etime 7 3 e e e ( e ... )
c) dam
LS-TAURUS: frin 86

194 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_LOW_DENSITY_FOAM
*MAT_LOW_DENSITY_FOAM

57.
,
( ).
. . .

1

MID

RO

LCID

TC

HU

BETA

DAMP

---

---

---

---

1.E+20

1.

---

---

---

---

---

---

SHAPE

FAIL

BVFLAG

ED

BETA1

KCON

REF

1.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

---

MID

RO

E
LCID

TC

LS-DYNA 960


(. *DEFINE_CURVE,
)
,
()

195 (MAT)

*MAT

HU

*MAT_LOW_DENSITY_FOAM

, 0 1
( = 1, .. ), . . 20.16

BETA

DAMP

(0.05<

SHAPE

.
.
, ,
, (. . 20.16).

FAIL

BVFLAG

ED

<0.50)

:
= 0.0:

= 1.0:
(. ):
= 0.0: ()
= 1.0:
Ed
(. )

BETA1

KCON

-.

,
. Dt
,
.

REF


.
: *INITIAL_FOAM_REFERENCE_GEOMETRY.
8-
.
= 0.0:
= 1.0:

:
. 20.16,
. ,
196 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_LOW_DENSITY_FOAM

.
. ,
[85].
,
,
ei, li :
ei = li 1.
Vij,
Fij.
,
Fij = RikUkj = VikRkj.
Vij ,
[44]. ,
,
ti. ,

ti = Eei

i
.
j k

.
i =

:
1.


, b .
, :
1e-bt.

2.

, , ,
,
.

3.

,
, . 20.16.
,
.

LS-DYNA 960

197 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_LOW_DENSITY_FOAM


- :
t

ijr = g ijkl ( t- )
0

kl
d ,

r
gijkl (t-) - . ij
f
( ij ), ij :

ij = ijf + ijr .
,
:
N

g(t)=0 + m e-t
m=1

g(t)=Ed e-1 t .

,
, .
Ed 1 .
,
.
.
12 ,
..
.

,

.

.


, , 5-8,

,
, 0.010.

20.16. .

198 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_LAMINATED_COMPOSITE_FABRIC
*MAT_LAMINATED_COMPOSITE_FABRIC

58.
,
. .

1

MID

RO

EA

EB

(EC)

PRBA

TAU1

GAMMA1

GAB

GBC

GCA

SLIMT1

SLIMC1

SLIMT2

SLIMC2

SLIMS

AOPT

TSIZE

ERODS

SOFT

FS

XP

YP

ZP

A1

A2

A3

LS-DYNA 960

199 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_LAMINATED_COMPOSITE_FABRIC

V1

V2

V3

D1

D2

D3

BETA

E11C

E11T

E22C

E22T

GMS

XC

XT

YC

YT

SC

MID

RO

EA

Ea

EB

Eb

(EC)

( )

PRBA

nba - , b a

TAU1

t1 - , ,
,
. t1 g1
. ,
FS, , -1.

GAMMA1

g1 - , ,
,

200 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT_LAMINATED_COMPOSITE_FABRIC

*MAT

, ab

GAB

Gab

GBC

Gbc

, bc

GCA

Gca

, ca

SLIMT1

,
(
)

SLIMC1

,
(
)

SLIMT2

,
(
)

SLIMC2

,
(
)

SLIMS

,
()

AOPT

( . MAT_OPTION
TROPIC_ELASTIC):
= 0.0: , 1,
2 4 , . *DEFINE_ COORDINATE_NODES
= 2.0:
,
,

,
.
*DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR
= 3.0:
,
BETA
, v

TSIZE

ERODS

,
; , 1, 100%

SOFT

LS-DYNA 960

201 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_LAMINATED_COMPOSITE_FABRIC

FS

:
= 1.0:
(a), (b).
;
= 0.0: (b)
(a).

;
= -1: .

, .
.
.

XP YP ZP

p AOPT = 1

A1 A2 A3

a AOPT = 2

V1 V2 V3

v AOPT = 3

D1 D2 D3

d AOPT = 2

BETA

BETA AOPT = 3, ,
*ELEMENT_SHELL_BETA.

E11C

,
, a

E11T

,
, a

E22C

,
, b

E22T

,
, b

GMS

, ,
ab

XC

XT

(. )
, b (. )
, b (.
)

YC
YT

202 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT_LAMINATED_COMPOSITE_FABRIC

SC

*MAT

, ab (. )

:
ERODS,
, .. , 1,
100 % . (/,
) .

:

s min = SLIMxx .
, , ,
, .
SLIMxx 0.0 1.0. 1.0,
,
.
SLIMTx, SLIMCx = 1.0.
. SLIMxx < 1.0,
.
SLIMxx < 1.0, - ,
- 0.05 0.10.
, .
SLIMXX = 1.0E-8.
,
TSIZE ( , ).


.
FS=1 FS=-1 ,
.
FS=1 a b
.
a b.
FS=-1 ,
. .

LS-DYNA 960

203 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_LAMINATED_COMPOSITE_FABRIC

, a b
.
.


FS=-1, .
FS .
, . 20.17, :
) (0,0)
) , (TAU1)
(GAMMA1) , , (
)
) ,
.
, SLIMS,
, .
1.0, .
. 1.0E-08,
SC.

20.17. .
204 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_COMPOSITE_FAILURE_OPTION_MODEL
*MAT_COMPOSITE_FAILURE_OPTION_MODEL
59.

OPTION SHELL, SOLID ,


(. *PART).
1-4 .

1

MID

RO

EA

EB

EC

PRBA

PRCA

PRCB

GAB

GBC

GCA

KF

AOPT

MAFLAG

XP

YP

ZP

A1

A2

A3

V1

V2

V3

D1

D2

D3

BETA

LS-DYNA 960

205 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_COMPOSITE_FAILURE_OPTION_MODEL

5 6 SHELL
5

TSIZE

ALP

SOFT

FBRT

SR

SF

XC

XT

YC

YT

SC

5 6 SOLID
5

SBA

SCA

SCB

XXC

YYC

ZZC

XXT

YYT

ZZT

206 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT_COMPOSITE_FAILURE_OPTION_MODEL

*MAT

MID

RO

EA

Ea

EB

Eb

EC

Ec

PRBA

nba - , b a

PRCA

nca -

PRCB

ncb - , c b

GAB

Gab

- , a b

GBC

Gbc

- , b c

GCA

Gca

- , c a

KF
AOPT

XP YP ZP

LS-DYNA 960

, c a


( . MAT_OPTION
TROPIC_ELASTIC):
= 0.0: , 1,
2 4 , . *DEFINE_ COORDINATE_NODES
= 1.0: ,

; a.
.
= 2.0:
,
,

,
.
*DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR.
= 3.0:
,
BETA
, v

= 4.0:
, v P,
.
.
p AOPT = 1 4
207 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_COMPOSITE_FAILURE_OPTION_MODEL

A1 A2 A3

a AOPT = 2

V1 V2 V3

v AOPT = 3 4

D1 D2 D3

d AOPT = 2

BETA

MAFLAG

TSIZE

BETA AOPT = 3, ,

*ELEMENT_SHELL_BETA

*ELEMENT_SOLID_ORTHO.
-:
= 1.0:
= 2.0: a b
= 3.0: a c

ALP

SOFT

FBRT

SR

sr ( = 0.447)

SF

sf - ( = 0.0)

XC

, a

XT

, a

YC

, b

YT

, b

SC

, ab:
> 0.0:
< 0.0:

SBA

SCA

SCB

XXC

, x

208 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT_COMPOSITE_FAILURE_OPTION_MODEL

*MAT

YYC

, b

ZZC

, c

XXT

, a

YYT

, b

ZZT

, c

LS-DYNA 960

209 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_ELASTIC_WITH_VISCOSITY

*MAT_ELASTIC_WITH_VISCOSITY
60.
(,
) .
, .
, ,
, .
-.

1

MID

RO

V0

LCID

PR1

PR2

PR3

PR4

PR5

PR6

PR7

PR8

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

T7

T8

V1

V2

V3

V4

V5

V6

V7

V8

210 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_ELASTIC_WITH_VISCOSITY

E1

E2

E3

E4

E5

E6

E7

E8

ALPHA1

ALPHA2

ALPHA3

ALPHA4

ALPHA5

ALPHA6

ALPHA7

ALPHA8

MID

RO

V0

V0. ,
, ,
, . (i) (ii)

, . (i) (ii)

, . (i) (ii)

, . (i) (ii)

LCID
T1, T2,...TN
PR1, PR2,...PRN

() (. *DEFINE_CURVE),

( 8 )
Ti

V1, V2,...VN

(
, )

E1, E2,...EN

( ,
)

ALPHA....

LS-DYNA 960

211 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_ELASTIC_WITH_VISCOSITY

:
.
:

~ total

~ elastic

~ viscous

2G

2v

G , v , ~ .
dt -

d =2G
~

~ total

dt-

G
dt .
~

~ .
:

,
d 33 =0=K 11 + 22 + 33 dt+2G 33 dt- dt 33

ij = 33 , K .
:

33 =-a 11 + 22 +bp

2
K- G
3
a=
4

K+ G
3

b=

Gdt
,
( K+ 43 G )

p , .
:
( i) , V = V0. A, B C
- ( 4 ).
( ii) V = V0 10** (A/(T-B) + C)
(iii) - : .
: .

212 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_KELVIN-MAXWELL_VISCOELASTIC
*MAT_KELVIN-MAXWELL_VISCOELASTIC

61. -
, , . . .
.

1

MID

RO

BULK

G0

GI

DC

FO

SO

0.0

0.0

0.0

MID

RO

BULK

()

G0

G0

GI

DC

b [FO=0.0]
t [FO=1.0]

FO

:
= 0.0:
= 1.0:

SO

()
7 LS-TAURUS ( D3PLOT),
.

:
= 0.0: ,
= 1.0: ,

= 2.0: ,

LS-DYNA 960

213 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_KELVIN-MAXWELL_VISCOELASTIC

:
:
G(t) = G + (G0 G) e-bt

ij =2 G ( t- ) Dij ( ) dt ,
0

ij
Dij . :

1
G
s ij + sij = ( 1+ij ) G0 eij + ( 1+ij ) eij

, LS-DYNA,
(. [86]).

214 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_VISCOUS_FOAM
*MAT_VISCOUS_FOAM

62. Confor,
, .
,
.

1

MID

RO

E1

N1

V2

E2

N2

PR

MID

RO

E1

(E1)

N1

(n1)

V2

(V2)

E2

(E2) (. )

N2

(n2)

PR

:
,
. , .
E2 , .
, E1t , E2.
, , .
E1 V2 :
E1t =E1 (V -n1 )
V2t =V2 ( abs ( 1-V ) )
LS-DYNA 960

n2

215 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_VISCOUS_FOAM

=V2 & ,
& - , V ,
. ( ,
, ):
E1=0.0036

n1=4.0

V2=0.0015

E2=100.0

n2=0.2

n =0.05

216 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_CRUSHABLE_FOAM
*MAT_CRUSHABLE_FOAM

63.
.
. .

1

MID

RO

PR

LCID

TSC

DAMP

MID

RO

E
PR

LCID

,
g (. . 20.18)

TSC

DAMP

,
(0.05 < < 0.50)

:
V:
g = 1-V.
.

LS-DYNA 960

217 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_CRUSHABLE_FOAM

20.18. .
.
.

218 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_RATE_SENSITIVE_POWERLAW_PLASTICITY
*MAT_RATE_SENSITIVE_POWERLAW_PLASTICITY

64.
.
.

1

MID

RO

PR

E0

---

---

---

---

---

0.0001

---

0.0002

VP

EPS0

0.0

1.0

MID

RO

PR

k. k<0, k
, k,
.

m. m<0,
m ,
m, .

LS-DYNA 960

219 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_RATE_SENSITIVE_POWERLAW_PLASTICITY

n. n<0,
n ,
n,
.

E0

( = 0.0002)

VP

:
= 0.0: ( )
= 1.0: -

EPS0

:
= 1.0: ( )
= 1.E-3:
= 1.E-6:

:
:
=k m & n ,

s - , e - , & -
, k, m n

.
,
, 0.0001.

,
,
.
.
, .

220 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_MODIFIED_ZERILLI_ARMSTRONG
*MAT_MODIFIED_ZERILLI_ARMSTRONG

65.
, ,
.

1

MID

RO

E0

TROOM

PC

SPALL

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

EFAIL

VP

B1

B2

B3

G1

G2

G3

G4

BULK

MID

RO

E0

0 -

n -

TROOM

LS-DYNA 960

Tr -

221 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_MODIFIED_ZERILLI_ARMSTRONG

PC
SPALL

pc
:
= 1.0:
= 2.0:
= 3.0:

C1

C1 (. )

C2

C2 (. )

C3

C3 (. )

C4

C4 (. )

C5

C5 (. )

C6

C6 (. )

EFAIL

( )

VP

:
= 0.0: ( )
= 1.0:

B1

B1

B2

B2

B3

B3

G1

G1

G2

G2

G3

G3

G4

G4

BULK

222 (MAT)

,
;

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_MODIFIED_ZERILLI_ARMSTRONG
:

- (Armstrong-Zerilli)
.
(n=0):
*
1

(T )
2 ( -C3 +C4 ln ( & ) )T
=C1 + C2 ( p ) e
+C

( 293 )

p =

* =

&

- , 0 = 1, 1-3, 1-6

0
, , .

- (n>0):

( -C +C ln( & ))T + C p n +C (T )


,
6
5 ( )

=C1 +C2 e

( 293 )

(T )
2

=B1+B2T+B3T .
( 293 )

( )
:

C p =G1+G2T+G3T 2 +G4T 3
.
, .

LS-DYNA 960

223 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_CONCRETE_DAMAGE

*MAT_CONCRETE_DAMAGE
72.
, .

1

MID

RO

PR

SIGF

A0

A1

A2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

A0Y

A1Y

A2Y

A1F

A2F

B1

B2

B3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

224 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_CONCRETE_DAMAGE

PER

ER

PRR

SIGY

ETAN

LCP

LCR

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

l1

l2

l3

l4

l5

l6

l7

l8

l9

l10

l11

l12

l13

h1

h2

h3

h4

h5

h6

h7

h8

LS-DYNA 960

225 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_CONCRETE_DAMAGE

h9

h10

h11

h12

h13

MID

RO

PR

SIGF

A0

A1

A2

A0Y

A1Y

A2Y

A1F

A2F

B1

B2

B3

PER

ER

226 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_CONCRETE_DAMAGE

PRR

SIGY

ETAN

LCP

,
, . *DEFINE_CURVE

LCR

,
, . *DEFINE_CURVE

l1-l13

h1-h13

:
a0f = 0.0
b3 .
ln < ln+1 . .

LS-DYNA 960

227 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_LOW_DENSITY_VISCOUS_FOAM

*MAT_LOW_DENSITY_VISCOUS_FOAM
73.
,
,
.
( ), .
. .
57: *MAT_LOW_DENSITY_FOAM.

1

MID

RO

LCID

TC

HU

BETA

DAMP

---

---

---

---

1.E+20

1.

---

---

---

---

---

---

SHAPE

FAIL

BVFLAG

KCON

LCID2

BSTART

TRAMP

NV

1.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

228 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_LOW_DENSITY_VISCOUS_FOAM

LCID2 = 0, . 6
. , 6,
* . LCID2 0, ,
REF .
.

GI

BETAI

REF

RO

LCID

MID


(. *DEFINE_CURVE)

TC

HU

, 0 1
( 1, .. ); .
. 20.16

BETA


= 0:
.

DAMP

(0.05 < < 0.50)


SHAPE

.
.
, , ,
. . . 20.16.

FAIL

,
():
= 0.0:

,
= 1.0:
.

LS-DYNA 960

229 (MAT)

*MAT

BVFLAG

*MAT_LOW_DENSITY_VISCOUS_FOAM

(. ):
= 0.0: (),
= 1.0: .

KCON

.

.
.
t ,
.

LCID2

, l
.
. 20.25.
.

BSTART

. 1
, 2 BSTART, 3 = 10
2, 4 = 100 3 , .. , BSTART= 0.01.

TRAMP

NV

. ,
6 .
6. 2-3 , ..

.
. ,
.
.
,
(
).

GI

i-

BETAI
REF

230 (MAT)

i-

.
*INITIAL_FOAM_REFERENCE_GEOMETRY.
8-
.
= 0.0:
,
= 1.0:
.
LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_LOW_DENSITY_VISCOUS_FOAM
:

.
57.

- :
t

ijr = g ijkl ( t- )
0

gijkl (t-)

kl
d ,

r
- . ij

f
ij ; , ij
:

ij = ijf + ijr .
,
:
N

g(t)=0 + m e-t .
m=1

,
.
,
.
.
42 ; ,

.
:
1.


, b .
,
1-e-t .

2.

, , ,
,
.

3.

,
, . 20.16.
,
.

LS-DYNA 960

231 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_BILKHU/DUBOIS_FOAM

*MAT_BILKHU/DUBOIS_FOAM
75.
.
.
.

1

MID

RO

YM

LCPY

LCUYS

VC

MID

RO

YM

(E)

LCPY

,

(. . 20.24)

LCUYS

,
(.
. 20.24)

VC

(0.05 < <


0.50)

:

:

=-ln(V) .

-
.

232 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT_BILKHU/DUBOIS_FOAM

*MAT

M
A
X
S
T
R
E
S
S


20.24. . .

LS-DYNA 960

233 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_GENERAL_VISCOELASTIC

*MAT_GENERAL_VISCOELASTIC
76. ,
6 .
.

, .

1

MID

RO

BULK

, 3,4,..., .
2

LCID

NT

BSTART

TRAMP

LCIDK

NTK

BSTARTK

TRAMPK

. 6 .
, * .
, . ,
, ,
, , .
.

GI

BETAI

KI

BETAKI

234 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_GENERAL_VISCOELASTIC

MID

RO

BULK

LCID

, Gi bi
.
.

NT

. ,
6 .

, , NT.
6.

BSTART

b1=0, b2 = BSTART, b3 = 10 b2 , b4 = 100 b3,


.. , BSTART
.

TRAMP

LCIDK

,
Ki bKi
. .

NTK

.
,
6. .

BSTARTK

bK1 = 0, bK2 = BSTARTK, bK3 = 10 bK2, bK4 =


100 bK3, .. , BSTARTK
.

TRAMPK

GI
BETAI
KI
BETAKI

LS-DYNA 960

i-
i-
i-
i-
235 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_GENERAL_VISCOELASTIC

:

-
t

ij = g ijkl ( t- )
0

kl
d ,

gijkl (t-t ) - .
, .
,
:
N

g(t)= Gm e-m t .
m=1

Gi i .
, 6.

:
N

k(t)= K m e

-km t

m=1

236 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_GENERAL_VISCOELASTIC

20.25. ,
, .

. ,
.

, LS-DYNA ,

.
, , ,
. , .

LS-DYNA 960

237 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_HYPERELASTIC_RUBBER

*MAT_HYPERELASTIC_RUBBER
77,
, [87].

1

MID

RO

PR

NV

2 N > 0,
.

2

SGL

SW

ST

LCID1

DATA

LCID2

BSTART

TRAMP

2 N = 0

2

238 (MAT)

C10

C01

C11

C20

C02

C30

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_HYPERELASTIC_RUBBER

. 6 .
6, * .

GI

BETAI

MID

RO

PR

( >0.49,
)

, :
= 1:
C10 C01
= 2:
C10, C01, C11, C20, C02
= 3:
C10, C01, C11, C20, C02, C30

NV

. ,
.
.
, , 3-5, ..
.
. ,
.
.
,

( ).

N>0, :
SGL

SW

ST

LCID1

LS-DYNA 960

239 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_HYPERELASTIC_RUBBER

DATA

:
= 0.0: (
).

LCID2

, bl
.
. 20.25.
.

BSTART

b1 = 0, b2 = BSTART, b3 = 10 b2, b4 = 100 b3,


.. , BSTART
.

TRAMP

N=0, :
C10

C10

C01

C01

C11

C11

C20

C20

C02

C02

C30

C30

GI
BETAI

i-
i-

:
, ..
. ,
, J , ,
, - WH (J) (Ogden, 1984):

240 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_HYPERELASTIC_RUBBER
n

W(J 1 ,J 2 ,J)= C pq ( J 1 -3 )

p,q=0

J 1=I1 J J 2 =I 2 J

-2

( J 2 -3 )

+WH ( J )


, , .
(Sussman, Bathe. 1987).

- :
t

ij = g ijkl ( t- )
0

Sij

kl
d ,

Eij :

Sij = Gijkl ( t- )
0

Ekl
d ,

gijkl (t-) Gijkl ( t- ) - .


, .
,
:
N

g(t)=0 + m e-t ,
m=1

..
n

g(t)= Gi e-i t .
i=1

,
.
Gi i .
, .
n=1, - ( 27).
27, , ,
, 27, ..
.

LS-DYNA 960

241 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_OGDEN_RUBBER

*MAT_OGDEN_RUBBER
77, (Ogden, 1984)
, [87].

1

MID

RO

PR

NV

2 N > 0,
.

2

SGL

SW

ST

LCID1

DATA

LCID2

BSTART

TRAMP

2,3 N = 0 .

2

242 (MAT)

MU1

MU2

MU3

MU4

MU5

MU6

MU7

MU8

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_OGDEN_RUBBER

ALPHA1

ALPHA2

ALPHA3

ALPHA4

ALPHA5

ALPHA6

ALPHA7

ALPHA8

. 6 .
6, * .

GI

BETAI

MID

RO

PR

( 0.49, ..
)

(Ogden) (
<5, 2). ,
,
,
.

NV

. ,
6 . .
, , 3-5, ..

.
. ,
.

,
(
).

LS-DYNA 960

243 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_OGDEN_RUBBER

N>0, :
SGL

SW

ST

LCID1

DATA

:
= 0.0:
,
= 1.0:
.

LCID2

, bl
.
. 20.25.
.

BSTART

b1 = 0, b2 = BSTART, b3 = 10 b2, b4 = is 100


b3, .. , BSTART
.

TRAMP

,
. N=0, MUi ALPHAi.

MUi
ALPHAi
GI
BETAI

mi, - i- , i 8 (. )
ai, - i- , i 8 (. )
i-
i-

:
, ..
.
, ,
J , ,
(Ogden, 1984):
3

W * =
i=1 j=1

244 (MAT)

j
j

*j
i

1
2
-1 + K ( J-1) .
2

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_OGDEN_RUBBER

* ,
n 1 8 . K .

l *j .

:
t

ij = g ijkl ( t- )
0

kl
d

-
t

Sij = Gijkl ( t- )
0

Sij

Eij :

Ekl
d ,

gijkl (t-) Gijkl ( t- ) - .


, .
,
:
N

g(t)=0 + m e-t
m=1

g(t)= Gi e-i t .
i=1

,
.
Gi i .
, .
n=1, - ( 27).
27, , ,
, 27, ..
.

LS-DYNA 960

245 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_SOIL_CONCRETE

*MAT_SOIL_CONCRETE
78, (.
).

1

MID

RO

LCPV

LCYP

LCFP

LCRP

PC

OUT

FAIL

MID

RO

LCPV

,
. .
,
,
.

LCYP


:
> 0:
,
< 0:
J2 ;
.

LCFP

,
, .
B>0.0.

246 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_SOIL_CONCRETE

LCRP

,
,
. B>0.0.

PC

()

OUT

:
= 0: ,
= 1: .

B
FAIL

(. . 20.26)
:
= 0:
,
=1:
,
,
= 2:
,
.

:
. ,
,
( V ).
.
, , .
(LCYP) ,
, ,

= 3J 2 -F ( p ) = y -F ( p ) ,
F(p) ,
, J2 :
1
J 2 = Sij Sij .
2

,
:

=J 2 -F ( p ) .

LS-DYNA 960

247 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_SOIL_CONCRETE


B, 2 0.0 1.0,
f,
, . 20.26.

f
1.0

e1

e2

ep

20.26. .
b

e1

, ,

e2

, .

e1 e2 ,
(. . 20.27). -.
.
.

(. . 20.28).
e
e2
e1

20.27. .

248 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_SOIL_CONCRETE

Yield
stress
p2

p3

p1

Plastic strain

20.28.

LS-DYNA 960

249 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_HYSTERETIC_SOIL

*MAT_HYSTERETIC_SOIL
79, , 5
,
.
, ..
(. ).

1

MID

RO

K0

P0

A0

A1

A2

DF

RP

LCID

SFLC

GAM1

GAM2

GAM3

GAM4

GAM5

TAU1

TAU2

TAU3

TAU4

TAU5

250 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_HYSTERETIC_SOIL

MID

RO

K0

P0

() / ( 0,
.. ).
; ,
.
b :

G=G0 ( p-po )

.
b
K=K0 ( p-po )
b 0b<1.
, 1, .

A0

ao ( 1.0), . 5

A1

a1 ( 0.0), .
5

A2

a2 ( 0.0), .
5

DF

( 0 df 1):
= 0:
,
= 1:
.

RP

LCID

,
. 10 (.
*DEFINE_CURVE).

SFLD

LCID

GAM1

g1 (, LCID 0)

GAM2

g2 (, LCID 0)

GAM3

g3 (, LCID 0)

GAM4

g4 (, LCID 0)

GAM5

g5 (, LCID 0)

LS-DYNA 960

251 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_HYSTERETIC_SOIL

TAU1

t1 g1 (, LCID 0)

TAU2

t2 g2 (, LCID 0)

TAU3

t3 g3 (, LCID 0)

TAU4

t4 g4 (, LCID 0)

TAU5

t5 g5 (, LCID 0)

:
a0, a1, a2 .
,
.
-
. (0,0)
, . g.
;
a0, a1, a2 5
SOIL_AND_FOAM.
G K :

G=G0 ( p-po )

K=K0 ( p-po )

G0 K0 , p , p0
( ). p
p0, , p0.
, .
:

p= -K0 ln (V )

1-b

V , .. .

252 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_RAMBERG-OSGOOD
*MAT_RAMBERG-OSGOOD

80 .
.

1

MID

RO

GAMY

TAUY

ALPHA

BULK

MID

RO

GAMY

(gy)

TAUY

(ty)

ALPHA

R
BULK

:
- (Ramberg-Osgood)
,
, . ,
, ,
, .
:

LS-DYNA 960

253 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_RAMBERG-OSGOOD
r

= +
y y
y

= -
y y
y

if

>0

if

<0

- , t - . r .

& . ,
. <0
, -
:

( -0 ) = ( -0 ) + ( -0 )
2 y

2 y

2 y

( -0 ) = ( -0 ) - ( -0 )
2 y

2 y

2 y

if

if

<0

0 0 - .
& .
( -0 ) <0
- , ,
.
,

.
. ,
, p

p=-Kv ,
v - .

254 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_PLASTICITY_WITH_DAMAGE
*MAT_PLASTICITY_WITH_DAMAGE

81 -
.
. ,
,
.

1

MID

RO

PR

SIGY

ETAN

EPPF

TDEL

0.0

10.E+20

10.E+20

LCSS

LCSR

EPPFR

VP

LCDM

EPS1

EPS2

EPS3

EPS4

EPS5

EPS6

EPS7

EPS8

LS-DYNA 960

255 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_PLASTICITY_WITH_DAMAGE

ES1

ES2

ES3

ES4

ES5

ES6

ES7

ES8

MID

RO

PR

SIGY

ETAN

(,
LCSS > 0)

EPPF

fs (),

TDEL

C (. )

P (. )

LCSS

,
. ,
EPS1-EPS8 ES1-ES8 .

LCSR

EPPFR

(),

VP

256 (MAT)

:
= 0.0:
( ),
= 1.0:
.

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_PLASTICITY_WITH_DAMAGE

LCDM

EPS1-EPS8

(,
, SIGY). ,
, 2 .

ES1-ES8

, EPS1 EPS8

:
-
, ETAN. , ,
, . 20.4, (EPS1,ES1) - (EPS8,ES8).
, ,
(LCSS).
.
LCSS, .
.
I.
-
(Cowper-Symonds),
1

1+ ,
C

& &ij &ij .


- , =

, .. VP=1.0, SIGY > 0,


s
p
y ( eff ) ,
, SIGY,
-:
&effp
p
p
s
p
y ( eff ,&eff )= y ( eff ) +SIGY
C

.
,
*MAT_ANISOTROPIC_VISCOPLASTIC. SIGY=0,
s
p
, y ( eff )
LS-DYNA 960

257 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_PLASTICITY_WITH_DAMAGE

y ( ,&
p
eff

p
eff

)= ( )
s
y

p
eff

& p
1+ eff
C

,
.
II.

(LCSR),
.
.
w ,
( ) 1 ( ).

P
nominal = ,
A
P , A .

true =

P
,
A-Aloss

Aloss - . :
=

Aloss
A

01

,
:

p
effp - failure
p
p
rupture
- failure

if

p
p
failure
effp rupture
.

, , ,
, .

258 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_PLASTICITY_WITH_DAMAGE

yield

=1

=0

effp

20.29. -

damage

eff -fs
effp -fs

20.30. . ,
(0,0).
fs.
, ,
.
LS-DYNA 960

259 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_FU_CHANG_FOAM

*MAT_FU_CHANG_FOAM
83.
(. . 20.31).

,
, .
, [88].
.
[89], : ,
,
,
.

1

MID

RO

ED

TC

FAIL

DAMP

TBID

---

---

---

---

1.E+20

---

---

---

---

---

BVFLAG

SFLAG

RFLAG

TFLAG

PVID

1.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

---

260 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_FU_CHANG_FOAM
3

D0

N0

N1

N2

N3

C0

C1

C2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

C3

C4

C5

AIJ

SIJ

MINR

MAXR

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

MID

RO

ED

Ed
(. )
= 0.0:
,
.
,

.
t ,
.

TC

FAIL

LS-DYNA 960


:
=0.0:
,
=1.0:
.
261 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_FU_CHANG_FOAM

DAMP

(0.05 < < 0.50)


TBID

(. *DEFINE_TABLE),

. , 3 4
, .

BVFLAG

(. ):
= 0.0:
(),
= 1.0:
.

D0

(. )

N0

(. )

N1

(. )

N2

(. )

N3

(. )

C0

(. )

C1

(. )

C2

(. )

C3

(. )

C4

(. )

C5

(. )

AIJ,

(. )

SIJ

(. )

MINR

MAXR

SFLAG

(. 2):
= 0.0:
,
= 1.0:
.

262 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_FU_CHANG_FOAM

RFLAG

:
= 0.0:
,
= 1.0:

,
= 2.0:
.

TFLAG

:
= 0.0:

,
= 1.0:

,

PVID

:
:
E(t)=E L (t)+E N (t)

&
& L (t)+E& N (t)
E(t)=E
,
N
N
E& - E .
:

(t)= EtN ( ) ,S(t)d ,


=0

S(t) - ,

- T :0 ,

.=0

EtN ( ) =E N ( t- )

- :

EtN ( = )

, , ..
N
=0 . , Et ( )
=0 :
LS-DYNA 960

263 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_FU_CHANG_FOAM

EtN ( )=E N ( 0 ) +

EtN
( 0 ) dt .
t

:
( t ) = * ( E N ( t ) ,E& N ( t ) ,S ( t ) ) ,

EtN
N
*
E& , - .
t


( t ) = * ( E& N ( t ) ,S ( t ) )

E& tN =f ( S ( t ) ,s ( t ) ) .
,
, . ,
:
tr S 2n0
( )

E& = D0 exp -c0


2



,
N

D0, c0, n0 , S - .
.

S&ij = c1 ( aij R-c2 Sij ) P+c3W n1 E& N

n2

D0 = 0

c0 ,

I ij R

3
E& N

R=1+c4
-1
c5

P=tr ( E& N )
W= tr ( dE )

c1, c2, c3, c4, c5, n1, n2, n3, aij

264 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_FU_CHANG_FOAM

= ( ij ij )

1
2
1

E& = ( E& ij E&ij ) 2

E& N = ( E& ijN E& ijN ) 2

,
Sij .
s

e= C3

& 3
=C

e= C2

& 2
=C
e= C1

C3 > C2 > C1

& 1
=C

lne

20.31.

LS-DYNA 960

265 (MAT)

aij

*MAT

*MAT_FU_CHANG_FOAM

:
1.

, ,
, ,
.

2.

,
,
. ,
, , .

,
,
.

3.



, .

4.



. ,
, ,
, , .

266 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_WINFRITH_CONCRETE
*MAT_WINFRITH_CONCRETE

84 85, .
. 8 .
(1987), . [90].
.
Fortran .
*MAT_WINFRITH_ CONCRETE_REINFORCEMENT,
.

1

MID

RO

TM

PR

UCS

UTS

FE

ASIZE

YS

EH

UELONG

RATE

CONM

CONL

CONT

EPS1

EPS2

EPS3

EPS4

EPS5

EPS6

EPS7

EPS8

P1

P2

P3

P4

P5

P6

P7

P8

LS-DYNA 960

267 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_WINFRITH_CONCRETE

MID

RO

TM

( )

PR

UCS

UTS

FE

ASIZE
E

RATE (.
).
RATE = 0: (,
, )
RATE = 1: , ,
,
()

YS

EH

UELONG

RATE

:
= 0.0: ( 84); ,
= 1.0: ( 85).

CONM

> 0:

= -1:
= -2:
= -3:
= -4:
= -5:

( ):
, , -*2/, , ,
, , , , ,
, , , , ,
, , , , ,
, , , , .

CONL

CONM > 0,
; CONL

CONT

CONM > 0, ;
CONL

268 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_WINFRITH_CONCRETE

EPS1,.....

P1, P2,..PN

( ), .
. 8 .
,
. , (0.0, 0.0)
, 9
.
,

:
;
.
, .
,
, p1 - ,
:
p1=

c
,
3

K - , :

K=

Es
,
3 ( 1-2 )

Es - , , -
.

LS-DYNA 960

269 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_WINFRITH_CONCRETE

()

-p1/K

1.00xp1

-0.002

1.50xp1

-0.004

3.00xp1

-0.010

4.80xp1

-0.020

6.00xp1

-0.030

7.50xp1

-0.041

9.45xp1

-0.051

11.55xp1

-0.062

14.25xp1

-0.094

25.05xp1

20.1. ,
, .
,
, .
:
q=crf,

crf (, q=DYNCRCK).

LS-TAURUS ,

. :
q=crf, crf (, q=DYNCRCK).

cracks w ,
"time" "state",
, "view" "draw"
. "w" . ,
, w, .. .
w=1, .
270 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_WINFRITH_CONCRETE_REINFORCEMENT
*MAT_WINFRITH_CONCRETE_REINFORCEMENT

84 . ,

.
( ).
, , .
1 ( )

EID1

EID2

INC

XR

YR

ZR

2 ( )

PID

AXIS

COOR

RQA

RQB

EID1

EID2

INC

XR

X ( ,
x)

YR

Y ( ,
y)

ZR

Z ( ,
z)

LS-DYNA 960

271 (MAT)

*MAT

PID

*MAT_WINFRITH_CONCRETE_REINFORCEMENT

AXIS

, :
= 1: A B Y Z
= 2: A B Z X
= 3: A B X Y

COOR

( X, AXIS=1;
Y, AXIS=2; Z, AXIS=3)

RQA

(A)

RQB

(B)

:
1.
. 1,
2. ,
. 1 .
2 PID
(), AXIS COOR.

272 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_ORTHOTROPIC_VISCOELASTIC
*MAT_ORTHOTROPIC_VISCOELASTIC

86 .
.

1

MID

RO

EA

EB

EC

VF

G0

GINF

BETA

PRBA

PRCA

PRCB

GAB

GBC

GCA

AOPT

MANGLE

A1

A2

A3

LS-DYNA 960

273 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_ORTHOTROPIC_VISCOELASTIC

V1

V2

V3

D1

D2

D3

MID

RO

EA

Ea

EB

Eb

EC

Ec

VF

G0

G0

GINF

G -

BETA

PRBA

nba

PRCA

nca

PRCB

ncb

GAB

Gab

GBC

Gbc

GCA

Gca

274 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_ORTHOTROPIC_VISCOELASTIC

AOPT

( . MAT_OPTION
TROPIC_ELASTIC):
= 0.0:
,
1, 2 4 , . *DEFINE_ COORDINATE_NODES,
= 2.0:
,
,

,
.
*DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR,
= 3.0:
,

MANGLE ,
v .

MANGLE

MANGLE AOPT = 3,
, *ELEMENT_SHELL_BETA

A1 A2 A3

a AOPT = 2

V1 V2 V3

v AOPT = 3

D1 D2 D3

d AOPT = 2

:
. 2 21.

LS-DYNA 960

275 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_CELLULAR_RUBBER

*MAT_CELLULAR_RUBBER
87
, [87]. . . 20.32.

1

MID

RO

PR

2 N > 0,


2

SGL

SW

ST

LCID

2 N = 0,

2

276 (MAT)

C10

C01

C11

C20

C02

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_CELLULAR_RUBBER

3

P0

PHI

IVS

BETA

MID

RO

PR

, 0.0 0.2.

- .

( < 3). n>0,



.
,

2.
.

*MAT_MOONEY_RIVLIN_RUBBER ( 27).
, ,
0.5.
, 1. .

N > 0:
SGL

l0

SW

ST

LCID

,
DL

N = 0:
C10

C10

C01

C01

C11

C11

LS-DYNA 960

277 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_CELLULAR_RUBBER

C20

C20

C02

C02

P0

P0

PHI

IVS

g0

BETA

G
()
1

:
, ..
. ,
, J , ,
, - WH (J) (Ogden, 1984):
n

W(J 1 ,J 2 ,J)= C pq ( J 1 -3 )

p,q=0

J 1=I1 I 3-

J 2 =I 2 I 3-

( J 2 -3 )

+WH ( J )

y = 3 ( a0 +a 1 p+a 2 p 2 )


, , .
(Sussman, Bathe, 1987).

:

ij = ijsk -ij air ,


sk
air
ij - , - , :

air =-

p0
,
1+-

p0 , , g
:

278 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_CELLULAR_RUBBER

=V-1+0 ,
V , g0 ,
. .

- :
t

ij = g ijkl ( t- )
0

kl
d

- Sij Eij :
t

Sij = Gijkl ( t- )
0

Ekl
d ,

gijkl (t-) Gijkl ( t- ) - .


,
.
,
:
N

g(t)=0 + m e-t ,
m=1

..
g(t)=Ed e-1 t .

,
.
G 1 .
- ( 27) n=1
. 27, ,
, , 27, ..
.

LS-DYNA 960

279 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_CELLULAR_RUBBER

20.32. . ,
.

280 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_MTS
*MAT_MTS

88. Maudlin, Davidson Henninger (1990).


, .
.
,
, .

, ,
.
,
,
. ,
.

1

MID

RO

SIGA

SIGI

SIGS

SIG0

BULK

HF0

HF1

HF2

SIGS0

EDOTS0

BURG

CAPA

BOLTZ

SM0

SM1

SM2

EDOT0

GO

PINV

QINV

EDOTI

LS-DYNA 960

281 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_MTS

G0I

PINVI

QINVI

EDOTS

G0S

PINVS

QINVS

RHOCPR

TEMPRF

ALPHA

EPS0

MID

RO

SIGA

a -
(/)

SIGI

i - (/)

SIGS

s - (/)

SIG0

0 -
(/);

HF0

a0 ,
(/)

HF1

a1 ,
(/)

HF2

a2 ,
(/)

SIGS0

282 (MAT)

so - 0o (/)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_MTS

BULK

EDOTS0

&so - ( -1 )

BURG

( ),
()

CAPA

BOLTZ

k (/)

SM0

G0 - 0 (/)

SM1

b1 - (/)

SM2

b2 - ()

EDOT0
G0

&o - ( -1 )
g0 -

PINV

1
p

QINV

1
q

EDOTI

&o,i - ( -1 )

G0I

g0,i -

PINVI

1
pi

QINVI

1
qi

EDOTS

&o,s - ( -1 )

LS-DYNA 960

283 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_MTS

G0S

g0,s -

PINVS

1
ps

QINVS

1
qs

RHOCPR

c p -

TEMPRF

Tref -

ALPHA

( 0 2)

EPS0

o -
( 1.0, 10 -3 , 10 -6 ,
)

Qo

:
:
= a +

G
th,i i +sth,s s .
sth +s
G0

,
(Mechanical Threshold
Stress - MTS). sth :sth ,
P
T & .
,
:


tanh

o 1,

p
tanh ( )

-
p - ,
s

284 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_MTS

s .
s :
Qo ,
& p
& p
o =ao +a1ln +a2
,
0
0
ao , a1 , a2 - . s
& p
s = so

&so

kT/Gb3 A

so , &so , b , A, k , .
G :
G=G0-b1 /(eb2 /T -1)

G0 , b1 , b2 - . ,
, sth :

kT1n &0
& p


sth = 1-
3
Gb g0

1
q

1
p

:
T=Tref +c p E

E .

LS-DYNA 960

285 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_PLASTICITY_POLYMER

*MAT_PLASTICITY_POLYMER
89.
-
. ,
, .
.
.
.

1

MID

RO

PR

LCSS

LCSR

EFTX

DAMP

RATEFAC

LCFAIL

286 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_PLASTICITY_POLYMER

MID

RO

PR

C ( -)

P ( -)

LCSS

LCSR

EFTX

:
= 0.0: ( )
= 1.0: x
= 2.0: y

DAMP

, .
1-3 1-4.
.

RATEFAC


. 0 ( ) 1 (
).

, .
[(1 - RATEFAC) / ] /.

LCFAIL

,
. x
, y
.
,
.

LS-DYNA 960

287 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_PLASTICITY_POLYMER

:
1.

, LS-DYNA,
-,
, .
.
, ,
.
.

2.

- (.. ) ,
, .
, .

3.


64- , .

4.


(. *CONTROL_ ACCURACY).

288 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_ACOUSTIC
*MAT_ACOUSTIC

90.
, ,
.
. .
.

1

MID

RO

BETA

CF

ATMOS

GRAV

XP

YP

ZP

XN

YN

ZN

MID

. .

RO

C
BETA
CF

ATMOS
GRAV
XP

LS-DYNA Version 960


. 0.1 1.0.
- :
=0.0:
,
=1.0:
.
()
()
x

289 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_ACOUSTIC

XP

YP

XN

YN

ZN

290 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_SOFT_TISSUE
*MAT_SOFT_TISSUE_{OPTION}
:
<BLANK>
VISCO

91 (OPTION=<BLANK>) 92 (OPTION=VISCO).

, , .
-, ,
.
,
. , ()
. [91] [92].
-.
, - (2).

MID

RO

C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

XK

XLAM

FANG

XLAM0

LS-DYNA Version 960

291 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_SOFT_TISSUE

()
3

AOPT

AX

AY

AZ

BX

BY

BZ

LA1

LA2

LA3

VISCO:
5

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

MID

. .

RO

C1 - C5

292 (MAT)

(. )

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_SOFT_TISSUE

XK
XLAM

FANG


( )
( )

XLAM0
AOPT

, . 20.1 ( -):
= 0.0:
,
20.1. 1, 2 4
, ,
*DEFINE_ COORDINATE_NODES.
= 1.0:
,
,
a.
= 2.0:
,
, ,

*DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR.

AX, AY, AZ

( - )

BX, BY, BZ

( - )

LAX, LAY, LAZ

( - )

S1 - S6


(OPTION=VISCO)

T1 - T6


(OPTION=VISCO)

:
W ""
,
:
2
~
~
W=C1 I1 -3 +C2 I 2 -3 +F ( ) + 12 K ln ( J ) .

I 1 I 2 , -
, J=detF - .

LS-DYNA Version 960

293 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_SOFT_TISSUE

C1 C2 -, K
( XK).
, , F ,
. , , . .
, l < 1 . ,
,
l l* ( XLAM):

F C3
= exp ( C4 ( -1) ) -1

1

( C5 +C6 )

<*
*

. C6
*
LS-DYNA = .
*
C1 -C5 [93].
K , , 3 , C1 ,
, .

C3 , C4

<1

C5


- S(C,t ):
t

S ( C,t ) =S e ( C ) + 2G ( t-s )
0

W
ds .
C ( s )

e
S -,
, G ( t-s ) ,
:

6
t
G ( t )= Si exp .
i=1
Ti

[92]
, ,
.
:
1- 4- , , 3 4 .

294 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT_SOFT_TISSUE

*MAT

.
n1 n2,
FANG.
- ,
*MAT_ORTHOTROPIC_ELASTIC.

LAX, LAY LAZ.
,
(LAX,LAY,LAZ) = (1,0,0) x.
XLAM0.
.
, , . ,
3%
1.03.
VISCO, (S1, T1).

LS-DYNA Version 960

295 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_BRITTLE_DAMAGE

*MAT_BRITTLE_DAMAGE
96.

1

MID

RO

PR

TLIMIT

SLIMIT

FTOUGH

SRETEN

VISC

FRA_RF

E_RF

YS_RF

EH_RF

FS_RF

SIGY

MID

. .

RO

E
PR

TLIMIT

SLIMIT

FTOUGH

SRETEN

VISC
FRA_RF
E_RF

296 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

MAT_BRITTLE_DAMAGE

YS_RF

EH_RF

FS_RF

()

SIGY

.
=0:

:

[94, 95]. ,
, .
,
.
J2, .
,
. , ,
(Oliver, 1989).
:
1. E , .
2. u ,
.
3. f n () .
- ,
, .
, , .
, ,
.

, , ,
.

t = ( n n ) :-f n + ( 1- ) f n ( 1-exp [ -H ]) 0 ,

n - , e - , H - , -
.
H ; . gc .
a
e p , .

LS-DYNA Version 960

297 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_BRITTLE_DAMAGE

a .
, ,
2% , .
, , 5.
4.

fs

- ,

. f s ( 1- ) ( 1-exp [ -H ]) ,
. ,

a, . b -
, .
,
.
5. gc - .
.
.
6. - .
f s .
7. .
.
.
, ,
.
8. y - .
J2 s:s- 23 y 0 , s . ,
. , (1)
, (2) ,
, (3)
(.. ). , ,

.

: ,
: .
: E=3.15x106 /2, f n =450 /2, f s =2100 /2, n = 0.2, gc =
0.8 /, b =0.03, h = 0.0 /2-, s y = 4200 /2.
h 104 106 /(2c).
, h ,
.
: ,
, , .
298 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_SIMPLIFIED_JOHNSON_COOK
*MAT_SIMPLIFIED_JOHNSON_COOK

98. /, ,
, .
,
, ,
,
. ,
, ,
, /.
, (
). ,
- ,
C0 16,
*SHELL_SECTION , .
, , .
,
.
-, .
,
.
,
.

1

MID

RO

PR

PSFAIL

SIGMAX

SIGSAT

EPSO

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.0E+17

SIGSAT

1.0E+28

1.0

LS-DYNA Version 960

299 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_SIMPLIFIED_JOHNSON_COOK

MID

. .

RO

E
PR

PSFAIL

.
, .

SIGMAX

,
, .

SIGSAT

,
,
.

EPSO

.
. 1 , 0.001
, 0.000001 ..

y = A+B

pn

1+cln
*

A, B, C n ;
ep

- ;

e*=

e 0 = 1 s -1 .

e0

sigmax sigsat :

pn

y =min min A+B ,sigmax 1+cln * ,sigsat .

, psfail.

300 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_SPOTWELD_{OPTION}
*MAT_SPOTWELD_{OPTION}

100. 9
. ,
-,
*CONTACT_SPOTWELD,
.

, ,
, . *CONSTRAINED_
EXTRA_NODES_OPTION. ,
.
(rigid body switching).

, .
,

,
*CONTACT_
SPOTWELD_WITH_TORSION,
.
, 8- ,
, .
, , MAT_SPOTWELD
SWFORC, , ELOUT
,
, ,
, -,
*CONTACT_SPOTWELD. ,
, ,
.
:
<BLANK>
DAMAGE
DAMAGE
.

1

MID

RO

PR

SIGY

ET

DT

TFAIL

LS-DYNA Version 960

301 (MAT)

*MAT
2

*MAT_SPOTWELD_{OPTION}

EFAIL

NRR

NRS

NRT

MRR

MSS

MTT

NF

, DAMAGE.
3

RS

MID

. .

RO

PR

SIGY

ET

, Et

DT

, Dt

TFAIL

, . ,
.

EFAIL

.
DAMAGE, ,
EFAIL.
DAMAGE,
,
.

NRR

Nrr .
- .

302 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_SPOTWELD_{OPTION}

NRS

Nrs .
- .

NRT

Nrt .
- .

MRR

Mrr .
- .

MSS

Mss .
- .

MTT

Mtt .
- .

NF

, .
,
,
.

,
.
NF
,
.
NF ,
.

RS

:

. ,
.
,
, :
2

max ( N rr ,0 ) N rs

+
N
rr
F

N rsF

N rt
+
N rtF

M rr
+
M rrF

M ss
+
M ssF

M tt
+
M ttF

-1=0 ,

,
, , .
NF , .

LS-DYNA Version 960

303 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_SPOTWELD_{OPTION}

,
. ,
, .
, Nrr , N rr =N rrF .
,
, , .
F


, Dt.
,
Dt. Dt , ,
, , .
,
. .
, , SWFORC
ASCII. ,
.

. w , ,
, , .

P
nominal = ,
A
P , A .
:
true =

P
A-Aloss ,

Aloss - .
:
=

Aloss
A

01

,
:
p
effp - failure

p
p
if failure
effp rupture
p
p
rupture
- failure
,
.

304 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_GEPLASTIC_SRATE_2000a
*MAT_GEPLASTIC_SRATE_2000a

101. GEPLASTIC_SRATE_2000a
,
.
: , ,

.

1

MID

RO

LCSS
F

RATESF

EDOT0

ALPHA

LCFEPS

LCFSIG

LCE

PR

MID

. .

RO

E
PR

RATESF

EDOT0

ALPHA

LCSS

LS-DYNA Version 960

,
.
-

, .
, , ,
, .
, .
305 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_GEPLASTIC_SRATE_2000a

LCFEPS

,
, .

LCFSIG

,
,
.

LCE

, ,
.

:
:
& p=& 0exp(A{-S( p )}) exp(-pA) ,

&0 A , S( p ) ( ) a - ,
.
-
, .
.
, ,
,
.
, ,

, .

306 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_INV_HYPERBOLIC_SIN
*MAT_INV_HYPERBOLIC_SIN

102.
Sheppard Wright (1979).

1

MID

RO

PR

HC

VP

ALPHA

EPS0

MID

. .

RO

PR

HC

VP

:
=0.0: ( ),
=1.0: .

ALPHA

LS-DYNA Version 960

307 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_INV_HYPERBOLIC_SIN

:
, .
:
1

N
1
Z

= sinh -1 ,
A

- , -
Q
&
Z=exp
.
GT

.
A (1/), N ( ), a (1/),
Q (/) G (/ K).
G .
.
.
8.3144 / K, 40.8825 / R.
,
, ,
. , , , ,
, 90-95%
. ,
HC

r - ,

308 (MAT)

Cv

0.9
,
Cv

- .

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_ANISOTROPIC_VISCOPLASTIC
*MAT_ANISOTROPIC_VISCOPLASTIC

103.
-.
, , - , LS-DYNA
.
.
[96-98].

1

MID

RO

PR

SIGY

FLAG

LCSS

ALPHA

QR1

CR1

QR2

CR2

QX1

CX1

QX2

CX2

VK

VM

R00 or F

R45 or G

R90 or H

AOPT

LS-DYNA Version 960

309 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_ANISOTROPIC_VISCOPLASTIC

XP

YP

ZP

A1

A2

A3

V1

V2

V3

D1

D2

D3

BETA

MID

. .

RO

PR

SIGY

FLAG

-
=0: ,
=1: LS-DYNA
, . Qr1 , Cr1 ,
Qr 2 Cr2 ,

(1 - a ), a
51-60.
=2: , . .
Qr1 , Cr1 , Qr 2 , Cr2 .

LCSS

.

. 2 . (.
20.7)
,
.
, V k
V m , .
,
.

310 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_ANISOTROPIC_VISCOPLASTIC

ALPHA

a
: a = 0 - , a = 1
.

QR1

Qr1

CR1

Cr1

QR2

Qr 2

CR2

Cr2

QX1

Qc1

CX1

Cc1

QX2

Qc 2

CX2

Cc 2

VK

Vk

VM

Vm

R00

R00

( 1.0)

R45

R45

( 1.0)

R90

R90

( 1.0)

G - ( 1/2)

- ( 1/2)

- ( 3/2)

- ( 3/2)

- ( 3/2)

LS-DYNA Version 960

- ( 1/2)

311 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_ANISOTROPIC_VISCOPLASTIC

AOPT

(. MAT_OPTION TROPIC_ELASTIC
):
= 0.0:
,
1, 2 4 , *DEFINE_
COORDINATE_NODES.
= 1.0:
,
,
a.
.
= 2.0:
,
, ,
*DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR.
= 3.0:
,
BETA,
,
v .
= 4.0:

, v
P, .
.

XP,YP,ZP

xp yp zp, p AOPT = 1 4.

A1,A2,A3

a1 a2 a3, a AOPT = 2.

D1,D2,D3

d1 d2 d3, d AOPT = 2.

V1,V2,V3

v1 v2 v3, v AOPT = 3 4.

BETA

AOPT = 3,

,
.
*ELEMENT_SHELL_BETA

*ELEMENT_SOLID_ORTHO.

:
:

(effp ,&effp )= 0 +Qr1 (1-exp(-Cr1effp ))+Qr2 (1-exp(-Cr2 effp ))


+Q1 (1-exp(-C 1effp ))+Q2 (1-exp(-C 2 effp ))

+Vk &effp Vm
- :

312 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_ANISOTROPIC_VISCOPLASTIC
F( 22 - 33 )2 +G( 33 -11 )2 +H(11 - 22 )2
2
2
+2L 23
+2M 31
+2N122 =(effp ,&effp )

eff - , &eff -
. R00 , R45 R90 .
, 3 .
V k = 0 , .
:
p

F=G=H=

1
2

L=M=N=

3
2

R00 =R45 =R90 =1 .


,
(, 3)
&effp
1+
C

.
p

,
:

Vk

Vm

1 p
Vk =
C
Vm =

1
p


, 3 24.

LS-DYNA Version 960

313 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_DAMAGE_1

*MAT_DAMAGE_1
104. (CDM),
. CDM ,
-.
[99].

1

MID

RO

PR

SIGY

Q1

C1

Q2

C2

EPSD

DC

FLAG

VK

VM

R00/F

R45/G

R90/H

314 (MAT)

AOPT

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_DAMAGE_1

XP

YP

ZP

A1

A2

A3

V1

V2

V3

D1

D2

D3

BETA

MID

. .

RO

E
PR
SIGY

.
.
0 .

Q1

Q1

C1

C1

Q2

Q2

C2

C2

EPSD

S
DC

LS-DYNA Version 960

rd . ,
( =0.0).
S . ( =

0
)
200

DC . D
, . (
=0.5)
315 (MAT)

*MAT

FLAG

*MAT_DAMAGE_1

-
=0.:
=1.: ,

VK

Vk

VM

Vm

R00

R00 ( =1.0)

R45

R45 ( =1.0)

R90

R90 ( =1.0)

F - ( =1/2)

G - ( =1/2)

H - ( =1/2)

L - ( =3/2)

M - ( =3/2)

N - ( =1/2)

AOPT

(. MAT_OPTION
):

TROPIC_ELASTIC

= 0.0:
,
1, 2 4,
*DEFINE_ COORDINATE_NODES.
= 1.0:
,
: a.
.
=2.0:
,
, ,
*DEFINE_COORDINATE _VECTOR.
=3.0:
,

BETA ,
v .
=4.0:
, v,
, P, .
.

316 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_DAMAGE_1

XP,YP,ZP

xp yp zp, p AOPT = 1 4.

A1,A2,A3

a1 a2 a3, a AOPT = 2.

D1,D2,D3

d1 d2 d3, d AOPT = 2.

V1,V2,V3

v1 v2 v3, v AOPT = 3 4.

BETA

( ) AOPT = 3,

,
.
*ELEMENT_SHELL_BETA

*ELEMENT_SOLID_ORTHO.

:
(CDM) ,
[100]. % , ,
,
%
=

1-D ,

D - .
:
for
r rD
0

&
D= Y
S(1-D) r& for r>rD and 1 >0

rD - , S - , S -
1 - .

2 R
1
Y= ee :C:ee = vm v 2
2
2E(1-D) ,
vm - . Rv
:

2
Rv = (1+)+3(1-2) H
3
vm

LS-DYNA Version 960

317 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_DAMAGE_1

(r,&effp )=0 +Q1 (1-exp(-C1r))+Q2 (1-exp(-C2 r))


+Vk &effp Vm

r - ,

& &effp (1-D)


r=
-
F(% 22 -% 33 )2 +G(% 33 -%11 )2 +H(%11 -% 22 )2
2
2
2
+2L% 23
+2M% 31
+2N%12
=(r,&effp )
p
r - , &eff -
.
R-: R00 , R45 R90 . Vk =0 ,
.

F=G=H=

1
2

L=M=N=

3
2

R00 =R45 =R90 =1


.
,
:
.

1+
C

, Vk Vm
:
1

1 p
Vk =
C
1
Vm =
p

318 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_DAMAGE_2
*MAT_DAMAGE_2

105. ,
(CDM). ,
-.
24. CDM
104.

1

MID

RO

PR

SIGY

ETAN

FAIL

TDEL

0.0

10.E+20

LCSS

LCSR

EPSD

DC

LS-DYNA Version 960

319 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_DAMAGE_2

EPS1

EPS2

EPS3

EPS4

EPS5

EPS6

EPS7

EPS8

\F

ES1

ES2

ES3

ES4

ES5

ES6

ES7

ES8

MID

. .

RO

PR

.
.

SIGY

ETAN

. , LCSS > 0.

FAIL

- .
=0.0:
.
>0.0: .
, .

TDEL

320 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_DAMAGE_2

C, . .

P, .

LCSS

.

.
EPS1-EPS8, ES1-ES8 .

,
, . .20.7.
,

. ,

,
. : C
P; , LCSR, EPS1-EPS8 ES1-ES8
, .

LCSR

EPSD

rd


, ( =
0.0).
S ( =

0
)
200

DC

DC . D
, (
=0.5)

EPS1-EPS8

(,
SIGY). , , 2 .

ES1-ES8

EPS1 - EPS8.

LS-DYNA Version 960

321 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_DAMAGE_2

:
-
ETAN. , , . 20.4,
(EPS1, ES1) - (EPS8, ES8);
,
(LCSS).
.
LCSR.
.
I.

,

1

1+
C
,

& &ij &ij


- =

II.


(LCSR).
.

III.

-
(. . 20.7), (LCSS).
*DEFINE_TABLE.
.

322 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_ELASTIC_VISCOPLASTIC_THERMAL
*MAT_ELASTIC_VISCOPLASTIC_THERMAL
106,
.

MID

RO

PR

SIGY

ALPHA

LCSS

QR1

CR1

QR2

CR2

QX1

CX1

QX2

CX2

VK

VM

LCE

LCPR

LCSIGY

LCR

LCX

LCALPH

MID

. .

RO

E
PR

SIGY

LCSS

.
.
2 .

ALPHA

LS-DYNA Version 960

323 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_ELASTIC_VISCOPLASTIC_THERMAL

QR1

Qr1

CR1

Cr1

QR2

Qr2

CR2

Cr2

QX1

Q1

CX1

C 1

QX2

Q2

CX2

C 2

VK

Vk

VM

Vm

LCE

,
. E 1
.

LCPR

,
. PR 1
.

LCSIGY

,
. SIGY 1
.

LCR

QR1
QR2 , LCSS
.

LCX

QX1
QX2 .

LCALPH

,
. ALPHA 1
.

324 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_ELASTIC_VISCOPLASTIC_THERMAL
:
-
(effp ,&effp )= 0 +Qr1 (1-exp(-Cr1effp ))+Qr2 (1-exp(-Cr2 effp ))
+Q1 (1-exp(-C 1effp ))+Q2 (1-exp(-C 2 effp )) +Vk &effp Vm

-,
:
&effp
1+
C

.
p

, Vk Vm
:
1

1 p
Vk =
C
1
Vm =
p
.

LS-DYNA Version 960

325 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_JOHNSON_HOLMQUIST_CERAMICS

*MAT_JOHNSON_HOLMQUIST_CERAMICS
110. -
, .
[101].

1

MID

RO

EPSI

SFMAX

HEL

PHEL

BETA

D1

D2

K1

K2

K3

FS

MID

. .

RO

( )

(
)

326 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_JOHNSON_HOLMQUIST_CERAMICS

EPSI
T
SFMAX

(
).



( =.0, 1e20).

HEL

PHEL

BETA

D1

D2

(
)

K1

( )

K2

K3

(k1 )

FS

:
FS < 0.0
p* + t* < 0 (
)
FS = 0.0
( )
FS> 0.0
, > FS.

:

*
*
*
*
= i -D( i - f )


*
*
* n
&
i =a( p +t ) (1+cln)

, ,

LS-DYNA Version 960

327 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_JOHNSON_HOLMQUIST_CERAMICS

D= p / pf

,
fp =d 1( p* +t * )d 2

* m
*
& sfma
f =b( p ) (1+cln)

. '*'
;
(. ), ,
(. ),
. d1 .
, , ..
. ,
- .

P=k 1+k 2 2+k 3 3 ,

= / 0 -1 . , .
, 0 1,
(). .
HEL G, hel

hel=k 1 hel+k 2 2hel+k 3 3hel+(4/3)g( hel /(1+ hel )



2
3
p hel=k 1 hel+k 2 hel+k 3 hel

hel=1.5( hel - p hel )

LS-DYNA , p hel
.

328 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_JOHNSON_HOLMQUIST_CONCRETE
*MAT_JOHNSON_HOLMQUIST_CONCRETE

111. ,
, .
, .

. ,
.
[101].

1

MID

RO

FC

EPS0

EFMIN

SFMAX

PC

UC

PL

UL

D1

D2

K1

K2

K3

FS

MID

RO

LS-DYNA Version 960

329 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_JOHNSON_HOLMQUIST_CONCRETE

FC

T
EPS0

EFMIN

SFMAX

PC

UC

PL

UL

D1

D2

K1

K2

K3

FS

:

* =

f c'

'
- , f c -
.

* = A ( 1-D ) +BP* N 1-cln ( &* ) ,

330 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_JOHNSON_HOLMQUIST_CONCRETE

*
'
*
& &0 -
D - , P =P/f c - & =/
.
, ,

D=

p + p
D1 (P* +T * )D2 ,

p p -
*
'
, D1 D2 - , T =T/f c -
.

P=K 1 +K 2 2 +K 3 3

K1 , K 2 K 3 - ,

-lock
1+lock ,

lock - .

LS-DYNA Version 960

331 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_FINITE_ELASTIC_STRAIN_PLASTICITY

*MAT_FINITE_ELASTIC_STRAIN_PLASTICITY
112.
- .
,
.
. . .

1

MID

RO

PR

SIGY

ETAN

0.0

LCSS

LCSR

EPS1

EPS2

EPS3

EPS4

EPS5

EPS6

EPS7

EPS8

332 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_FINITE_ELASTIC_STRAIN_PLASTICITY

ES1

ES2

ES3

ES4

ES5

ES6

ES7

ES8

MID

. .

RO

E
PR

SIGY

ETAN

, ,
(LCSS.GT.0)

FAIL

- .
<.0.0:
,
=.0.0: .
, ,
.
>.0.0: .
,
.

TDEL

C, .

P, .

LS-DYNA Version 960

333 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_FINITE_ELASTIC_STRAIN_PLASTICITY

LCSS

. ,

. ,
EPS1-EPS8 ES1-ES8 .

,
, . . 20.7.


, .
,

,
. C P,
LCSR EPS1-EPS8 ES1-ES8 ,
.

LCSR

,
.

EPS1-EPS8

ES1-ES8

(,
SIGY). , , 2
. ,
. : ,
.
, SIGY ETAN ,
.
, EPS1 - EPS8

:
- , ETAN.
, . 20.4, (EPS1,ES1) (EPS8,ES8). ,
(LCSS),
.
(LCSS), .
.

334 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT_FINITE_ELASTIC_STRAIN_PLASTICITY

*MAT

I.
, ,

1

1+ ,
C

& &ij &ij .


- , =

II.
1
(LCSR).
.
III.
-
, (LCSS).
*DEFINE_TABLE, . . 20.7.

LS-DYNA Version 960

335 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_LAYERED_LINEAR_PLASTICITY

*MAT_LAYERED_LINEAR_PLASTICITY
114.
- .
,
, . *INTEGRATION-SHELL,
,
, .

. ,
, . ,
.
. . .

1

MID

RO

PR

SIGY

ETAN

0.0

LCSS

LCSR

EPS1

EPS2

EPS3

EPS4

EPS5

EPS6

EPS7

EPS8

336 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_LAYERED_LINEAR_PLASTICITY

ES1

ES2

ES3

ES4

ES5

ES6

ES7

ES8

MID

. .

RO

E
PR

SIGY

ETAN

; ,
(LCSS.GT.0).

FAIL

- .
<.0.0:
,
=.0.0: .
, ,
.
>.0.0: .
,
.

TDEL

C, . .

P, . .

LS-DYNA Version 960

337 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_LAYERED_LINEAR_PLASTICITY

LCSS

. ,

. ,
EPS1-EPS8 ES1-ES8 .

,
, . . 20.7.


, .
,

,
. C P,
LCSR EPS1-EPS8 ES1-ES8 ,
.

LCSR

,
.

EPS1-EPS8

ES1-ES8

(,
SIGY). , , 2
. ,
. : ,
.
, SIGY ETAN ,
.
, EPS1 - EPS8

:
- , ETAN.
, . 20.4, (EPS1,ES1) (EPS8,ES8). ,
(LCSS),
.
(LCSS), .
.

338 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_LAYERED_LINEAR_PLASTICITY

I.
, ,

1

1+ ,
C

& &ij &ij .


- , =

II.
1
(LCSR).
.
III.
-
, (LCSS).
*DEFINE_TABLE, . . 20.7.

LS-DYNA Version 960

339 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_LAYERED_LINEAR_PLASTICITY

*MAT_UNIFIED_CREEP
115 - .

1

MID

RO

PR

MID

. .

RO

PR

(. )

ec

c =A n t m ,
A, n, m , t

- .

3
ij ij .
2

, , .
. m
(m<1), (m=1)
(m>1). [102].

340 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_COMPOSITE_LAYUP
*MAT_COMPOSITE_LAYUP

116,
.
- -
,
.
*SECTION_SHELL.
, .
*INTEGRATION_SHELL,
.

,
.
1

MID

RO

EA

EB

EC

PRBA

PRCA

PRCB

GAB

GBC

GCA

AOPT

XP

YP

ZP

A1

A2

A3

V1

V2

V3

D1

D2

D3

BETA

LS-DYNA Version 960

341 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_COMPOSITE_LAYUP

MID

. .

RO

EA

Ea, a

EB

Eb, b

EC

Ec,

PRBA

nba, ba

PRCA

nca, ca

PRCB

ncb, cb

GAB

Gab,

ab

GBC

Gbc,

bc

GCA

Gca,

ca

AOPT

, . . 20.1:
=. 0.0: ,
, . 20.1. 1, 2, 4
,
*DEFINE_COORDINATE_NODES.
=. 1.0: ,
,
a.
.
=. 2.0: ,
, ,
*DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR.
=. 3.0: ,
BETA
,

v .

,
, ,
.

342 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_COMPOSITE_LAYUP
E

=. 4.0:
, v
, .
.
XP YP ZP

p AOPT = 1 4

A1 A2 A3

a AOPT = 2

V1 V2 V3

v AOPT = 3 4

D1 D2 D3

d AOPT = 2:

BETA

AOPT = 3,
, . *ELEMENT_SHELL_BETA.

:
[103],
N , M
:

N x A11 A12 A16


N y = A21 A22 A26


A A A
N xy 16 26 66
M x B11 B12 B16

M y = B21 B22 B26

M xy B16 B26 B66

x0 B11 B12 B16 x


0

y + B21 B22 B26 y
0 B B B
z 16 26 66 xy
x0 D11 D12 D16 x
0

y + D21 D22 D26 y
0 D D D
z 16 26 66 xy ,

Aij - , Dij - , Bij - ,


.
0
ij ij .
, 18
- , .
,
,
; , 100 , 800
.
, .

LS-DYNA Version 960

343 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_COMPOSITE_MATRIX

*MAT_COMPOSITE_MATRIX
117, .
- -
,
.
,
.

MID

RO

C11

C12

C22

C13

C23

C33

C14

C24

C34

C44

C15

C25

C35

C45

C55

C16

C26

C36

C46

C56

C66

AOPT

344 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_COMPOSITE_MATRIX

XP

YP

ZP

A1

A2

A3

V1

V2

V3

D1

D2

D3

BETA

MID

. .

RO

CIJ

Cij

AOPT

, . . 20.1:
=. 0.0: ,
, . 20.1. 1, 2, 4
,
*DEFINE_COORDINATE_NODES.
=. 1.0: ,
,
a.
.
=. 2.0: ,
, ,
*DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR.
=. 3.0: ,
BETA
,
v .

, , ,
.

LS-DYNA Version 960

345 (MAT)

*MAT
E

*MAT_COMPOSITE_MATRIX

=. 4.0:
, v ,
.
.
XP YP ZP

p AOPT = 1 4

A1 A2 A3

a AOPT = 2

V1 V2 V3

v AOPT = 3 4.

D1 D2 D3

d AOPT = 2:

BETA

AOPT = 3,
, . *ELEMENT_SHELL_BETA.

:
N ij M ij , ,
0
, i
i :

N x C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16


N

y C21 C22 C23 C24 C25 C26


N xy C C C C C C

31 32 33 34 35 36

=
M x C41 C42 C43 C44 C45 C46
M y C51 C52 C53 C54 C55 C56


M xy C61 C62 C63 C64 C65 C66

x0
0
y

z0

x

y
xy
,

Cij =C ji . ,
.
*MAT_COMPOSITE_DIRECT, , , , ,
21
.
, ,
, ,
.

346 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_COMPOSITE_DIRECT

*MAT_COMPOSITE_DIRECT
118, .
- -

, .
,
.

MID

RO

C11

C12

C22

C13

C23

C33

C14

C24

C34

C44

C15

C25

C35

C45

C55

C16

C26

C36

C46

C56

C66

LS-DYNA Version 960

347 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_COMPOSITE_DIRECT

MID

. .

RO

CIJ

Cij

:
N ij M ij , ,
0
, i
i , :

N x C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16


N

y C21 C22 C23 C24 C25 C26


N xy C C C C C C

31 32 33 34 35 36

=
M x C41 C42 C43 C44 C45 C46
M y C51 C52 C53 C54 C55 C56


C
C
C
C
C
C

M
xy 61 62 63 64 65 66

x0
0
y

z0

x

y
xy

Cij =C ji .
, . ,
, .
*CONTROL_ACCURACY.
, ,
, ,
.

348 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_GURSON
*MAT_GURSON

120. .
.
[104-106], Tvergaard Needleman (1984). LS-DYNA,
LSTC, [107] [108].

1

MID

RO

PR

SIGY

Q1

Q2

0.0

FC

F0

EN

SN

FN

ETAN

ATYP

FF0

EPS1

EPS2

EPS3

EPS4

EPS5

EPS6

EPS7

EPS8

LS-DYNA Version 960

349 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_GURSON

ES1

ES2

ES3

ES4

ES5

ES6

ES7

ES8

L1

L2

L3

L4

FF1

FF2

FF3

FF4

LCSS

LCLF

NUMINT

MID

. .

RO

E
PR
SIGY
N

350 (MAT)




.
, ATYP=1 LCSS=0.

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_GURSON

Q1

q1

Q1

q2

FC

F0

EN

SN

FN

SN

fc

f0
eN

eN

ETAN

. , ATYP=2
LCSS=0.

ATYP


=1.0: ,
=2.0: ,
=3.0: 8 .

FF0

. ,
L1, FF1 - L4, FF4 LCLF=0.

EPS1-EPS8

.
.
, ATYP 3.
, , 2 . ,
ATYP=3 LCSS=0.

ES1-ES8

, EPS1 EPS8. , ATYP=3 LCSS=0.

L1-L4

. ,
LCLF=0.

FF1-FF4

, . ,
LCLF=0.

LCSS

,
.
ATYP .

LS-DYNA Version 960

351 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_GURSON

LCLF

,
. L1-L4
FF1-FF4 .

NUMINT

,
, .

3q
M2
+2q1 f * cosh 2 H
2
Y
2 M

* 2
-1- ( q1 f ) =0

s M - , s Y - , s H -
.
f

f ( f )=
1/q1 -f c
f c + f -f ( f-f c )
F c

ff c

f>f c

& & +f& ;


f=f
G
N

f&G = ( 1-f ) &kkp ,


f&N =A&P

A=

352 (MAT)

1 p -N 2

exp -
2 S N
2

fN
SN

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_MODIFIED_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY
*MAT_MODIFIED_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY

123.

-
. .
MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY,
.
, ,

. ,
MAT_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY.

1

MID

RO

PR

SIGY

ETAN

FAIL

TDEL

0.0

10.E+20

LCSS

LCSR

VP

EPSTHIN

EPSMAJ

NUMINT

EPS1

EPS2

EPS3

EPS4

EPS5

EPS6

EPS7

EPS8

LS-DYNA Version 960

353 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_MODIFIED_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY

ES1

ES2

ES3

ES4

ES5

ES6

ES7

ES8

MID

. .

RO

E
PR

SIGY

ETAN

; , LCSS > 0

FAIL

- :
<0.0:
,
=0.0: .
, ,
,
>.0.0: , .
,
.

TDEL

C, .

P, .

354 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT_MODIFIED_PIECEWISE_LINEAR_PLASTICITY

*MAT

LCSS

,

. , EPS1-EPS8 ES1ES8 .
,
, . . 20.7.
,
. ,
,
.
C P, , LCSR,
EPS1-EPS8 ES1-ES8 , .

LCSR

,
.

VP

(
)

EPSTHIN

,
. .

EPSMAJ

NUMINT

,
, . (
, .)

EPS1-EPS8

( ,
SIGY). , , 2
. ,
. :
,
.
, SIGY ETAN
.

ES1-ES8

LS-DYNA Version 960

, EPS1 - EPS8.

355 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_PLASTICITY_COMPRESSION_TENSION

*MAT_PLASTICITY_COMPRESSION_TENSION
124. ,

. (
).
-.

1

MID

RO

PR

FAIL

TDEL

10.E+20

LCIDC

LCIDT

PC

PT

356 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_PLASTICITY_COMPRESSION_TENSION

MID

. .

RO

PR

C, . .

P, . .

FAIL

- :
<0.0:
,
=0.0: ;
, ,
,
>0.0: , .
,
.

TDEL

,
.

LCIDC

,
.

LCIDT

,
.

PC

(),
LCIDC.
PC PT,
.

PT

,
LCIDT.

LS-DYNA Version 960

357 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_PLASTICITY_COMPRESSION_TENSION

:
- ,
. ,
(.. )
.
,
, .
, -,

1

1+
C
,

& &ij &ij


- =

358 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_MODIFIED_HONEYCOMB
*MAT_MODIFIED_HONEYCOMB

126,
.
.
, . . .

1

MID

RO

PR

SIGY

VF

MU

BULK

.05

0.0

LCA

LCB

LCC

LCS

LCAB

LCBC

LCCA

LCSR

LCA

LCA

LCA

LCS

LCS

LCS

EAAU

EBBU

ECCU

GABU

GBCU

GCAU

AOPT

XP

YP

ZP

A1

A2

A3

LS-DYNA Version 960

359 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_MODIFIED_HONEYCOMB

D1

D2

D3

TSEF

SSEF

VREF

TREF

MID

. .

RO

E
PR

()

()

SIGY

()

VF

,
().
( ), 0 9.

MU

m ( = .05)
.

BULK

- :
=0.0: .
.
=1.0: m=0
,
LS-DYNA.

LCA

, . *DEFINE_CURVE,
aa
aa.
( ), 0 9,
,

. . .

360 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_MODIFIED_HONEYCOMB

LCB

, . *DEFINE_CURVE,
bb
bb.
( ), 0 9,
,
.
LCB = LCA. . .

LCC

, . *DEFINE_CURVE,

.
( ), 0 9,
,
.
LCC=LCA. . .

LCS

, . *DEFINE_CURVE,
.
( ),
0 9, ,

.
LCS=LCA.

. . .

LCAB

, . *DEFINE_CURVE,
ab
ab.
( ), 0 9,
,

. LCAB=LCS. . .

LCBC

, . *DEFINE_CURVE,
bc
bc.
( ), 0 9,
,

. LCBC=LCS. . .

LS-DYNA Version 960

361 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_MODIFIED_HONEYCOMB

LCCA

, . *DEFINE_CURVE,

.
( ), 0 9,
,

. LCCA=LCS. . .

LCRS

, . *DEFINE_CURVE,

&
=
.
.
,
, .

EAAU

Eaau

EBBU

Ebbu

ECCU

Eccu

GABU

Gabu

GBCU

Gbcu

GCAU

Gcau

AOPT

(.
*MAT_OPTION TROPIC_ELASTIC):
= 0.0: ,
1, 2 4, *DEFINE_
COORDINATE_NODES.
=1.0: ,
;
a.
=2.0: ,
,
.
,

*DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR.

XP YP ZP

p AOPT = 1

A1 A2 A3

a AOPT = 2

D1 D2 D3

d AOPT = 2.

TSEF

( )

SSEF

( )

362 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_MODIFIED_HONEYCOMB

VREF

1, 2,
3, 4 10. ,
.
.
TREF, VREF .

TREF

1, 2, 3, 4
10. ,
.
, .
VREF, ,
TREF .

:
,
LCA, LCB, LCC, LCS, LCAB, LCBC LCCA, ,
. ,
.
, .
1 2
, , . .
a
b c.
, ,
:

Eaa =Eaau +(E-Eaau )

Gab =Gabu +(G-Gabu )

Ebb =Ebbu +(E-Ebbu )

Gbc =Gbcu +(G-Gbcu )

Ecc =Eccu +(E-Eccu )

Gca =Gcau +(G-Gcau ) ,

=max min

1-V
1-V f

,1 ,0 ,

G -

G=

LS-DYNA Version 960

E
.
2(1+)

363 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_MODIFIED_HONEYCOMB

V , ,
V=1 .

( ), 0 9,
, ..
.
,
. ,
, .
,
.

.

:
trial

n+1
n
ab
= ab
+2Gab ab

trial

trial

bcn+1 = bcn +2Gbc bc ,

trial

can+1 = can +2Gca ca

n+1
n
aa
= aa
+Eaa aa

trial

n
bbn+1 = bb
+Ebb bb

trial

ccn+1 = ccn +Ecc cc

,
, , . .

trial

ijn+1

> ij (ij ) ,

trial

n+1
ij

= ij (ij )

ijn+1

trial

ijn+1

3 s ij (e ij ) , 31-40
aa, 41-50 bb, 51-60 cc 6170 ab, bc, cb. l ,
, LCSR, l .
,
.

364 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_MODIFIED_HONEYCOMB

( 1 2) ,
-,
:

sijtrial =sijn +2Gijdev

n+ 1

ijdev =ij - 13 kk ij .
, ,

trial
seff
= ( 32 sijtrial sijtrial )

sy ( 3, 21-30).
,
sijn+1=

y
trial
seff

sijtrial .

, K

p n+1=p n -Kkkn+ 2
1

K=

E
3(1-2)

ijn+1=sijn+1 -p n+1ij .
.

LS-DYNA Version 960

365 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_MODIFIED_HONEYCOMB

sij
unloading and

reloading path

Strain -eij
curve
extends
into negative
strain quadrant


since
LS-DYNA will
extrapolate
,
using
the

two
end points.LS-DYNA
It is important
that the

not

extropolation
does
extend
into.
the
,
negative stress region.
.

unloading
is based on the

Youngs modulii
interpolated

,
which
must
provide an

tangent

unloading
that exceeds

the loading tangent.

20.33 . ,
.
,
. 0 9
,
.

366 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_ARRUDA_BOYCE_RUBBER
*MAT_ARRUDA_BOYCE_RUBBER

127, (. [109]),
, Christensen, [87].

1

MID

RO

LCID

TRAMP

NT

. 6 .
( * 1) , 6 .
.

GI

BETAI

LS-DYNA Version 960

367 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_ARRUDA_BOYCE_RUBBER

MID

. .

RO

LCID

TRAMP

,
bi .
20.25.
.

NT

.
, 6.
- 6. 6, 3-5,

.
. .
,
.
.
,
, ,
.

GI

i-

BETAI

i-

,
.
,
J , W H (J ) (Ogden, 1984):
3
1
11

W(J 1 ,J 2 ,J)=nk 12 (J 1 -3)+ 20N


(J 12 -9)+ 1050N
2 (J 1 -27)

4
19
519
+nk 7000N
(J 15 -243) +WH ( J )
3 (J 1 -81)+
673750N 4

J 1=I 1 J

-1

J 2 =I 2 J
368 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_ARRUDA_BOYCE_RUBBER

K
(J-1)2
2
.

WH ( J ) =


, :
t

ij = g ijkl ( t- )
0

kl
d

- Sij
t

Sij = Gijkl ( t- )
0

Eij ,

Ekl
d ,

gijkl (t-) Gijkl ( t- ) - .


, .
,
:
N

g(t)=0 + m e-t ,
m=1

g(t)= Gi e-i t .
i=1

,
.
Gi i .
, .

LS-DYNA Version 960

369 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_HEART_TISSUE

*MAT_HEART_TISSUE

128, ; [110].
- .

MID

RO

B1

B2

B3

XP

YP

ZP

A1

A2

A3

V1

V2

V3

D1

D2

D3

BETA

AOPT

370 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_HEART_TISSUE

MID

B1

b1

B2

b2

B3

b3

AOPT

XP,YP,ZP

(.
*MAT_OPTION TROPIC_ELASTIC):
= 0.0: ,
1, 2 4, *DEFINE_
COORDINATE_NODES.
=1.0: ,
;
a.
=2.0: ,
,
.
,

*DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR.
=3.0: ,
BETA
, v
.
=4.0: ,
v
, P, .
xp yp zp p
AOPT = 1 4.

A1,A2,A3

a1 a2 a3, a AOPT = 2.

D1,D2,D3

d1 d2 d3, d AOPT = 2.

V1,V2,V3

v1 v2 v3, v AOPT = 3 4.

BETA

LS-DYNA Version 960

AOPT = 3,
, . *ELEMENT_SOLID_ORTHO.

371 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_HEART_TISSUE

,
Eij ,

1
W(E)= C2 (eQ -1)+ P ( I 3 -1)
2
Q=b1 E112 +b2 (E222 +E332 +E232 +E322 )+b3 (E122 +E212 +E132 +E312 ) .

, .

372 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_LUNG_TISSUE
*MAT_LUNG_TISSUE

129. ,
[111] , [87].

1

MID

RO

DELTA

ALPHA

BETA

C1

C2

LCID

TRAMP

NT

. 6 .
( * 1) , 6
.
.

GI

BETAI

LS-DYNA Version 960

373 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_LUNG_TISSUE

MID

. .

RO

DELTA

ALPHA

BETA

C1

C2

LCID

TRAMP

, bi
.
20.25. .

NT


. , 6.
- 6.
6, 3-5,
.

.

.
,
.
.
,
, ,
.

GI

i-

BETAI

374 (MAT)

i-

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_LUNG_TISSUE
:

,
:
W(I 1 ,I 2 )=

12C1
C (I12 +I 2 )
A(1+C2 ) -1
e
+
2
(1+C2 )
,

A2 = 43 ( I1+I 2 ) -1
K J :
K
(J-1)2 .
2

WH ( J ) =


:
t

ij = g ijkl ( t- )
0

kl
d

- Sij Eij
t

Sij = Gijkl ( t- )
0

Ekl
d ,

gijkl (t-) Gijkl ( t- ) - .


, .
,

N

g(t)=0 + m e-t
m=1

g(t)= Gi e-i t .
i=1

,
.
Gi i .
, .

LS-DYNA Version 960

375 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_SPECIAL_ORTHOTROPIC

*MAT_SPECIAL_ORTHOTROPIC
130. -
C0
-.
, ,
. ,
-.

1

MID

RO

YS

EP

E11P

E22P

V12P

V21P

G12P

G23P

G31P

E11B

E22B

V12B

V21B

G12B

AOPT

A1

A2

A3

376 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_SPECIAL_ORTHOTROPIC

V1

V2

V3

D1

D2

D3

BETA

MID

. .

RO

YS

.
. ,
.

EP

E11P

E11p,

E22P

E22p,

V12P

n12p,

V11P

n21p,

G12P

G12p,

G23P

G23p,

G31P

G31p,

E11B

E11b,

E22B

E22b,

V12B

n12b,

V21B

n21b,

G12B

G12b,

LS-DYNA Version 960

377 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_SPECIAL_ORTHOTROPIC

AOPT

(. MAT_OPTION
TROPIC_ELASTIC):
=0.0: ,
1, 2 4, *DEFINE_
COORDINATE_NODES.
=2.0: ,
, ,
*DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR.
=3.0: ,
BETA
,
v .

A1,A2,A3

a1 a2 a3, a AOPT = 2.

D1,D2,D3

d1 d2 d3, d AOPT = 2.

V1,V2,V3

v1 v2 v3, v AOPT = 3.

BETA

AOPT = 3,
, . *ELEMENT_SHELL_BETA.

:


Q11p

Q12p
Cin plane = 0
0

378 (MAT)

0 0 0
Q44p 0 0 .
0 Q55p 0

0 0 Q66p

Q12p 0
Q22p
0
0
0

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_SPECIAL_ORTHOTROPIC

Qijp :

Q11p =
Q22p =
Q12p =

E11p
1-12p 21p
E22p
1-12p 21p
12p E11p
1-12p 21p

Q44p =G12p
Q55p =G23p
Q66p =G31p
:
Q11b Q12b 0

Cbending = Q12b Q22b 0 .


0
0 Q44b

Qijp .

LS-DYNA Version 960

379 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_MODIFIED_FORCE_LIMITED

*MAT_MODIFIED_FORCE_LIMITED
139.
- - 29.
29
. ,
, ,
.

MID

RO

PR

DF

AOPT

YTFLAG

ASOFT

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

M1

M2

M3

M4

M5

M6

M7

M8

LC1

LC2

LC3

LC4

LC5

LC6

LC7

LC8

380 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_MODIFIED_FORCE_LIMITED

LPS1

SFS1

LPS2

SFS2

YMS1

YMS2

1.0

LPS1

1.0

1.0E+20

YMS1

LPT1

SFT1

LPT2

SFT2

YMT1

YMT2

1.0

LPT1

1.0

1.0E+20

YMT1

LPR

SFR

YMR

1.0

1.0E+20

LYS1

SYS1

LYS2

SYS2

LYT1

SYT1

LYT2

SYT2

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

LS-DYNA Version 960

381 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_MODIFIED_FORCE_LIMITED

LYR

SYR

1.0

HMS1_1

HMS1_2

HMS1_3

HMS1_4

HMS1_5

HMS1_6

HMS1_7

HMS1_8

10

LPMS1_1 LPMS1_2 LPMS1_3 LPMS1_4 LPMS1_5 LPMS1_6 LPMS1_7 LPMS1_8

HMS2_1

HMS2_2

HMS2_3

HMS2_4

HMS2_5

HMS2_6

HMS2_7

HMS2_8

11

382 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_MODIFIED_FORCE_LIMITED

12

LPMS2_1 LPMS2_2 LPMS2_3 LPMS2_4 LPMS2_5 LPMS2_6 LPMS2_7 LPMS2_8

HMT1_1

HMT1_2

HMT1_3

HMT1_4

HMT1_5

HMT1_6

HMT1_7

HMT1_8

13

14

LPMT1_1 LPMT1_2 LPMT1_3 LPMT1_4 LPMT1_5 LPMT1_6 LPMT1_7 LPMT1_8

HMT2_1

HMT2_2

HMT2_3

HMT2_4

HMT2_5

HMT2_6

HMT2_7

HMT2_8

15

LS-DYNA Version 960

383 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_MODIFIED_FORCE_LIMITED

16

LPMT2_1 LPMT2_2 LPMT2_3 LPMT2_4 LPMT2_5 LPMT2_6 LPMT2_7 LPMT2_8

HMR_1

HMR_2

HMR_3

HMR_4

HMR_5

HMR_6

HMR_7

HMR_8

LPMR_1

LPMR_2

LPMR_3

LPMR_4

LPMR_5

LPMR_6

LPMR_7

LPMR_8

17

18

MID

. .

RO

PR

DF

, . .
!

384 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_MODIFIED_FORCE_LIMITED

AOPT

YTFLAG

:
=0.0:
,
=1.0:
.
-, :
=0.0: ,
=1.0:
.

ASOFT


. ,
.
, .

M1, M2,...,M8


/ . , ,
. - 8.
.

LC1, LC2,...,LC8

(. *DEFINE_CURVE),
/ (.
AOPT) .
, .
.

LPS1


s 1. ,
.

SFS1


s 1. = 1.0.

LPS2


s 2. ,
1.

SFS2


s 2.
, 1.

YMS1

s 1 (
1.0E+20
).

LS-DYNA Version 960

385 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_MODIFIED_FORCE_LIMITED

YMS2

s 2 (
YMS1).

LPT1


t 1. ,
.

SFT1


t 1. = 1.0.

LPT2


t 2.
, 1.

SFT2


t 2.
, 1.

YMT1

t 1 (
1.0E+20
)

YMT2

s 2 (
YMT1)

LPR


. ,
.

SFR


( = 1.0).

YMR

(
1.0E+20 )

LYS1

,
s 1.

SYS1

LYS1.

LYS2

,
s 2.

SYS2

LYS2.

LYT1

,
t 1.

386 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_MODIFIED_FORCE_LIMITED

SYT1

LYT1.

LYT2

,
t 2.

SYT2

LYT2.

LYR

,
.

SYR

LYR.

HMS1_n

s 1.

LPMS1_n

,
s 1
HMS1_n

HMS2_n

s 2.

LPMS2_n

,
s 2
HMS2_n

HMT1_n

t 1.

LPMT1_n

,
t 1
HMT1_n

HMT2_n

t 2.

LPMT2_n

,
t 2
HMT2_n

HMR_n

LPMR_n

,

HMR_n

:

-.
, .

LS-DYNA Version 960

387 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_MODIFIED_FORCE_LIMITED

.
: - ,
- . ,

. ,
.
s t.
,
.
. :

. , ,
, . .
, .
-,
.
.
.
, ,
l, :
2*
=

x - w ( ). ,
1% 2 ,
=

2*0.01
=0.001592 .
2*2

, .
LS-DYNA ,
.
, ,
, 0.3Lcl, (L - , c - ).


. ,
. ,
:
2

M
M M
r
s
t

+
+
1,
Mryield
Msyield Mtyield

388 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_MODIFIED_FORCE_LIMITED

Mr, Ms, Mt - ,
Mryield, Msyield, Mtyield .

, ,
, : , Msyield
, , ,
s. ,

- .
:
Mr

M rupper =MAX M r , yield

Ms Mt.
,
Mrp, = min (Mrupper, Mrcurve) s t,

Mrp - ,
Mrcurve - ,
.
, ,

. , s,
t.
-
( , ).

, ,
.
.

LS-DYNA Version 960

389 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_MODIFIED_FORCE_LIMITED


, 7- 18-
s t ,
. , ,
, 7 8
. 5 ,
.
, .
, .
.

.
,
10, 12, 14, 16 18. 8
, ,
.
. ,
, .
, ,
4-6. ,
4-6.
,
. ,
: ,
, Mrp.

390 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_MODIFIED_FORCE_LIMITED
M8
M7
M6
M

M4

M3
axial
force

M2
M1

strains or change in length (see AOPT)

20.12. .
LS-DYNA
,
.

LS-DYNA Version 960

391 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_COMPOSITE_MSC

*MAT_COMPOSITE_MSC
161.
, .
,
Hashin (1980), ,
.
, ,
, . ,

,
. -
.
(Material Sciences Corporation),
.

1

MID

RO

EA

EB

EC

GAB

GBC

GCA

AOPT

XP

YP

ZP

A1

A2

A3

PRBA

PRCA

PRCB

392 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_COMPOSITE_MSC

V1

V2

V3

D1

D2

D3

BETA

SAT

SAC

SBT

SBC

SCT

SFC

SFS

SAB

SBC

SCA

SFFC

PHIC

E_LIMT

S_DELM

OMGMX

ECRSH

EEXPN

CERATE

AMODEL

MID

RO

EA

Ea a

EB

Eb b

EC

Ec

PRBA

LS-DYNA Version 960

nba - ba
393 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_COMPOSITE_MSC

NUCA

nca - ca

NUCB

ncb - cb

GAB

Gab - ab

GBC

Gbc - bc

GCA

Gca - ca

AOPT

, . . 20.1:
=0.0: ,
, . 20.1. 1, 2 4
,
*DEFINE_COORDINATE_NODES;
=1.0: ,
,
a;
=2.0: ,
,

*DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR.

XP YP ZP

p AOPT = 1

A1 A2 A3

a AOPT = 2

V1 V2 V3

v AOPT = 3

D1 D2 D3

d AOPT = 2

BETA

( )

SAT

SAC

SBT

SBC

SCT

SFC
SFS

SAB

ab, .

SBC

bc, .

394 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_COMPOSITE_MSC

SCA

ca, .

SFFC

AMODEL

PHIC

:
=1:

=2:

E_LIMT

S_DELM

OMGMX

ECRSH

EEXPN

CERATE



. ,
,
(s a ,s b ,s c ,t ab ,t bc ,t ca ) , a , b - ,
, c ,
a b.
.
/, ,
.
:
- / :
2

2 + 2
f1 = a + ab 2 ca -1=0 ;
SaT S FS
- :
LS-DYNA Version 960

395 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_COMPOSITE_MSC
'a
f2 =
S aC

+
-1=0, 'a = - a + - b c ;

- :
2

p
a + b + c
f3 =
,
-1=0, p=3
S FC

- Macaulay, SaT S aC -
, S FS S FC - ,
.
, , ,
, .
: ,
. :
- , :
2



f 4 = b + bc' + ab -1=0 ,
S ab
SbT Sbc
- , ():

2 2 2
f 5 =S c + bc" + ca -1=0 ,
SbT Sbc Sca
SbT . -

:
(0)
Sab =Sab
+tan(j) - b
'
Sbc
=Sbc(0) +tan(j) - b

Sca =Sca(0) +tan(j) - c


"
Sbc
=Sbc(0)+tan(j) - c ,
(0)
(0)
(0)
j , tan(j) , S ab , Sca Sbc
- .

396 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT_COMPOSITE_MSC

*MAT

, f4,
,
f5, , ,
, . ,
S
. S
.
/ f1,
.
( 100 ).
, ,
.
f2 ,
S RC (= SFFC*S AC ).
, .. a =-S RC -
, ,
,
. , ,
p > 0,
, p < 0.
() a-b,
(0)
(0)
Sca Sbc . sc, tbc
tca ,
. , sc >0, .
, sc <0, sc .
, ,
( ) -
. -

tbc tca.
a-c,
f4, , a-b.
(0)
(0)
, , S ab Sbc .
f5
(0)
(0)
S ab
= 0 Sbc = 0. sb>0, sb, tab tbc .
sb <0, sb , tab tbc
- .
-
. ,
tbc
.
LS-DYNA Version 960

397 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_COMPOSITE_MSC


, ,
. ,
,
( a ,b , c , ab ,bc , ca ) , a , b - ,
, c ,
a b.
/
:


( ab +ca ) -1=0
f6 = a +
2
SaFS
S aT
2

2
ab
+bc2 )
b
(
f7 =
-1=0 ,
+
2
S
S
bFS
bT
2

SaT SbT -
, SaFS SbFS - .
,
. , SaFS = SFS,

SbFS =SFS*SbT /SaT .


a b , ,
:
2

'a
-1=0, 'a =- a + - c
f8=
S
ac
2

b'
-1=0, b' =- b + - c ,
f9=
Sbc

SaC SbC -
.
2

a + b + c
p
f10 =
.
-1=0, p=3
S FC

398 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_COMPOSITE_MSC


.
2


f11 = ab -1=0 ,
S ab

Sab - .
, ,
, , .
:

2 2 2
f12 =S c + bc + ca -1=0 ,
S
Sbc Sca
cT
2

ScT - , Sbc Sca -


, sc:
(0)
Sca Sca
=
(0) +tan(j) - c .
Sbc Sbc

, , ,
, ,
, , , .
,
S. S
.
,
/ f6 f7,
.
f8 f9 ,
, ,
, .

, SaC SbC ,
SaRC SbRC , SaRC =SFFC*SaC
SbRC =SFFC*SbC . , .. a =-SaCR b =-SbCR -
,
. ,
, p > 0,
, p < 0.

LS-DYNA Version 960

399 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_COMPOSITE_MSC

f11,
,
.
(), f12,
,
(0)
(0)
S A ST .
, sc >0, . ,
sc <0, sc . ,
, tbc tca .
-
.

SRT:

S RT =1+Crate 1n

&
,
&0

-1
& - &0 =1s .


:
1.


E_LIMIT.
E_LIMIT.

2.

, ECRSH.

3.

,
EEXPN.



LSPOST LS-TAURUS.
:

400 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_COMPOSITE_MSC

LS-POST

LS-TAURUS

1. efa(I)


a

b

0-
1-

88

89

10

90

11

91

12

92

2. efb(I)
3. efp(I)
4. em(I)
5. ed(I)

LS-DYNA Version 960

401 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_SEISMIC_BEAM

*MAT_SEISMIC_BEAM
191. 2
- ( ).
.

1

MID

RO

PR

AOPT

FTYPE

0.1

LCPMS

SFS

LCPMT

SFT

LCAT

SFAT

LCAC

SFAC

1.0

LCMPS

1.0

1.0

LCAT

1.0

, FTYPE, 1 (
)
3

402 (MAT)

ALPHA

BETA

GAMMA

DELTA

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT_SEISMIC_BEAM

*MAT

, FTYPE, 2
3

SIGY

TF

TW

MID

. .

RO

E
PR

AOPT

:
=0.0:
,
0.0:

FTYPE

:
=1:
,
( ),
=2:
,

LCPMS

,
2 s.
.
*DEFINE_CURVE.

SFS
LCPMT

SFT

LS-DYNA Version 960

s 2
,
2 t. .
*DEFINE_CURVE.
t 2

403 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_SEISMIC_BEAM

LCAT

,
( + )
. . AOPT . .
. *DEFINE_CURVE.

SFAT

LCAC

,
( + )
. . AOPT . . .
*DEFINE_CURVE.

SFAC

ALPHA

BETA

GAMMA

DELTA

SIGY

, .

TF

TW

:
1, ALPHA, BETA, GAMMA, DELTA A B
, :
ALPHA
BETA
GAMMA
DELTA
A
B

404 (MAT)

=
=
=
=
=
=

2.0
2.0
2.0
4.0
2.0
-1.0

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_SOIL_BRICK
*MAT_SOIL_BRICK

192. ,
.
.
, .

1

MID

RO

RLAMDA

RKAPPA

RIOTA

RBETA1

RBETA2

RMU

1.0

RNU

RLCID

TOL

PGCL

SUB-INC

BLK

0.0005

GRAV

9.807

MID

RO

RLAMDA

RKAPPA

RIOTA

RBETA1

RBETA2

LS-DYNA Version 960

405 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_SOIL_BRICK

RMU

RNU

.
: 1,0
, 1,1 1,25 .
1,0.

RLCID

, 10
G / Gmax

TOL

.
0,02.

PGCL

.
( z = 0.0 ).

.

SUB-INC

.
,
. , d3hsp
.

BLK

.
.

GRAV

.
, .

2
9,807 / .

:
1. , , z
. ,
(.. z).
2. 1,25,
1,35.

406 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_DRUCKER_PRAGER
*MAT_DRUCKER_PRAGER

193. . ,
,
(.. ).
- (Drucker-Prager) .
.

1

MID

RO

GMOD

RNU

RKF

PHI

CVAL

PSI

1.0

0.0

GMODDP

PHIDP

CVALDP

PSIDP

GMODGR

PHIGR

CVALGR

PSIGR

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

STR_LIM

0.005

LS-DYNA Version 960

407 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_DRUCKER_PRAGER

MID

. .

RO

GMOD

RNU

RKF

PHI

( )

CVAL
PSI


( )

STR_LIM

,
STR_LIM*CVAL

GMODDP

, (GMOD)

PHIDP
CVALDP
PSIDP
GMODGR
PHIGR
CVALGR
PSIGR

, (PHI)
, (CVAL)
, (PSI)
, (GMOD)
, (PHI)
, (CVAL)
, (PSI)

:
1. , , z
. ,
(.. z)
2. 0,8, 0,75.
3. STR_LIM , 0,005, 0,005.

408 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_R_SHEAR_WALL
*MAT_RC_SHEAR_WALL

194. .

. ,
, .

, . ,
: ,
.

1

MID

RO

PR

TMAX

0.0

0.0

8
I

,

, .
2

Fc

PREF

FYIELD

SIG0

UNCONV

ALPHA

FT

ERIENF

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.05

0.55

0.125

0.66

0.25

1.0

LS-DYNA Version 960

409 (MAT)

*MAT
4

*MAT_R_SHEAR_WALL

Y1

Y2

Y3

Y4

Y5

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

XP

YP

0.0

410 (MAT)

ZP

A1

A2

A3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

AOPT

0.0

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_R_SHEAR_WALL

V1

V2

V3

D1

D2

D3

BETA

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

MID

. .

RO

E
PR

TMAX

. , LS-DYNA
tmax ,
2. . .

Fc=

(
; )

PREF
FYIELD

, , 1,2%, 1.2

SIG0

( )
. sig0
.

UCONV

. UCONV = SQRT(1 .
). ,
SQRT(fc=) fc= . .
sqrt( . /
). :
UCONV = 0.083 - MN/m2 N/mm2
UCONV = 83.3 - N/m2

ALPHA
FT

. .
. .
8% .

LS-DYNA Version 960

411 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_R_SHEAR_WALL

ERIENF

.
. .

, .

, .

, .

, .

, .

.
, F
. F=1,0
( ). F=0,5 ,
.

Y1,Y2...Y5

-.
1. . .

T1,T2...T5

-.
1. . .

AOPT

:
= 0.0: ,
, 19.1. 1, 2, 4
, ,
*DEFINE_COORDINATE_NODES.
= 2.0: ,
, , *DEFINE_COORDINATE_VECTOR.
= 3.0: .
,
,
v, .

XP,YP,ZP

p AOPT = 1.

A1,A2,A3

a AOPT = 2.

V1,V2,V3

v AOPT = 3.

D1,D2,D3

d AOPT = 2.

412 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT_R_SHEAR_WALL

*MAT

-,
.
,
. ,
.
,
x-y (txy).
, , 45
, txy . ,
:
. , X 1 2 .
AOPT>0.
TMAX ,
(), 1997,
1921.6.5:
max shear stress (UBC) = Vu/Acv = uconv.alpha.sqrt(fc=) + ro.fy,

uconv

= , 0,083 (MN)

Alpha = , = 2.0 , h/l < 2,0



2.0 h/l=2,0 3,0 h/l=1.5.
Fc
=
ro
= = / 100
fy
=

:
tmax = () + sig0,

sig0 =

(, , ), 50% .
:
tmax = a1*2.7*(1.9-M/LV)*UCONV*sqrt(fc=) + ro*fy*0.5 + sig0,

a1

= max((0.4 + Ac/Aw),1.0),

LS-DYNA Version 960

413 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_R_SHEAR_WALL

Ac/Aw = / ,
M/LV = (/)
, . :
tmax 1,
.
, , ,
.
50%.
, , ,
, ARUP:
, (yu) = 0,0048
( ) 0,3tu, =0,3tu/G
G , E/2(1+v)
( ) 0,5yu, 0,8tmax
( ) yu, tmax
( ) 2yu, tmax
() 3yu, 0,6tmax.
, .
,
. , ,
, .
(Shiga) (.
*MAT_SPRING_SQUAT_SHEARWALL). A,B,C,D,E
,
.

x y. ,
. :
1.
1.
2. x y,
ft ( , 8%
).

414 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT_R_SHEAR_WALL

*MAT

( ,
).
3. ( ).
/.
-
1.
,
. , fc=, % fy.

LS-DYNA Version 960

415 (MAT)

*MAT

MAT_CONCRETE_BEAM

*MAT_CONCRETE_BEAM
195 .

. . . ,
.

1

MID

RO

PR

SIGY

ETAN

FAIL

TDEL

0.0

10.E+20

10.E+20

LCSS

LCSR

NOTEN

TENCUT

SDR

E15.0

0.0

LS-DYNA Version 960

416 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_CONCRETE_BEAM

MID

. .

RO

E
PR

SIGY

ETAN

; , (LCSS.<0).

FAIL

- :
>0.0:

,
=0.0:
. ,
,
.
<0.0:
.
,
.

TDEL

C, .

P, .

LCSS

.

. ,
EPS1-EPS8 ES1-ES8.

,
, .
19.5.
,
.
,
,
.
: C P.

LCSR

LS-DYNA Version 960

417 (MAT)

*MAT

MAT_CONCRETE_BEAM

NOTEN

- :
=0:
,
=1:
,
=2:

TENCUT

SDR

-

ETAN. ETAN
.
. ,
(LCSS), .
.
I.
, ,

1

1+ ,
C

& &ij &ij .


- , =

II.
(LCSR)
.
.
III.

, (LCSS).

LS-DYNA Version 960

418 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_LINEAR_ELASTIC_DISCRETE_BEAM
*MAT_LINEAR_ELASTIC_DISCRETE_BEAM

66. -
, .
, , , ,
, .
SCOOR SECTION_BEAM
2.0, r
.
.
. /
, . .
.

1

MID

RO

TKR

TKS

TKT

RKR

RKS

RKT

TDR

TDS

TDT

RDR

RDS

RDT

MID

. .

RO

, .
*SECTION_BEAM.

TKR

r, .
.

TKS

TKT

RKR

LS-DYNA Version 960

419 (MAT)

*MAT

MAT_LINEAR_ELASTIC_DISCRETE_BEAM

RKS

RKT

TDR

()
r

TDS

()
s

TDT

()
t

RDR

() r

RDS

() s

RDT

() t

:
( 6) ,
. ,
. , (r, s, t),
, . *DEFINE_COORDINATE_OPTION,
. *SECTION_BEAM, .

, (. SCOOR
*SECTION_BEAM).
,
, . .

LS-DYNA Version 960

420 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_NONLINEAR_ELASTIC_DISCRETE_BEAM
*MAT_NONLINEAR_ELASTIC_DISCRETE_BEAM

67. - ,
. , , ,
, ,
.

SCOOR SECTION_BEAM 2.0,
r
.
. .

/ . . .

1

MID

RO

LCIDTR

LCIDTS

LCIDTT

LCIDRR

LCIDRS

LCIDRT

LCIDTDR LCIDTDS LCIDTDT LCIDRDR

LCIDRDS LCIDRDT

MID

. .

RO

, .
*SECTION_BEAM.

LCIDTR

,
r
, .
20.19

LCIDTS

,
s

LS-DYNA Version 960

421 (MAT)

*MAT

MAT_NONLINEAR_ELASTIC_DISCRETE_BEAM

LCIDTT

,
t

LCIDRR

,
r

LCIDRS

,
s

LCIDRT

,
t

LCIDTDR

,
r

LCIDTDS

,

s

LCIDTDT

,
t

LCIDRDR

,
r

LCIDRDS

,
s

LCIDRDT

,
t

:
.
( 6) ,
. ,
. , (r, s, t),
, . *DEFINE_COORDINATE_OPTION,

LS-DYNA Version 960

422 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_NONLINEAR_ELASTIC_DISCRETE_BEAM

. *SECTION_BEAM, .

, (. SCOOR
*SECTION_BEAM).
,
,
,
. ,
. ,
, . 20.19
. ,
,
, , ..
(0, 0).
(a.)

N
.

(b.)

| |

. 20.19.

.
(0, 0), . b,
.

LS-DYNA Version 960

423 (MAT)

*MAT

MAT_NONLINEAR_PLASTIC_DISCRETE_BEAM

*MAT_NONLINEAR_PLASTIC_DISCRETE_BEAM
68.
- ,
. , , ,
, ,
.
SCOOR SECTION_BEAM 2.0, r
.
.
.
/ .
/ /.
/
/. . .

1

MID

RO

TKR

TKS

TKT

RKR

RKS

RKT

TDR

TDS

TDT

RDR

RDS

RDT

LS-DYNA Version 960

424 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_NONLINEAR_PLASTIC_DISCRETE_BEAM

LCPDR

LCPDS

LCPDT

LCPMR

LCPMS

LCPMT

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

FFAILR

FFAILS

FFAILT

MFAILR

MFAILS

MFAILT

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

UFAILR

UFAILS

UFAILT

TFAILR

TFAILS

TFAILT

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

MID

. .

RO

, .
*SECTION_BEAM.

TKR

TKS

TKT

RKR

LS-DYNA Version 960

425 (MAT)

*MAT

MAT_NONLINEAR_PLASTIC_DISCRETE_BEAM

RKS

RKT

TDR

TDS

TDT

RDR

RDS

RDT

LCPDR

,
r.
, TKR ,
-.

LCPDS

,
s.
, TKS ,
-.

LCPDT

,
t.
, TKT ,
-.

LCPMR

,
r.
, RKR ,
-.

LCPMS

,
s.
, RKS ,
-.

LCPMT

,
t.
, RKT ,
- ,
RKT ,
-.

LS-DYNA Version 960

426 (MAT)

*MAT_NONLINEAR_PLASTIC_DISCRETE_BEAM

*MAT

FFAILR

. ,
Fr .

FFAILS

. ,
Fs .

FFAILT

. ,
Ft .

MFAILR

. ,
Mr .

MFAILS

. ,
Ms .

MFAILT

. ,
Mt .

UFAILR

. ,
ur .

UFAILS

. ,
us .

UFAILT

. ,
ut .

TFAILR

. ,
qr .

TFAILS

. ,
qs .

TFAILT

. ,
qt .

:
,
, .
( 6) ,
. ,
. , (r,s,t),
, . *DEFINE_COORDINATE_OPTION,
, . *SECTION_BEAM, .

, (. SCOOR *SECTION_BEAM).
LS-DYNA Version 960

427 (MAT)

*MAT

MAT_NONLINEAR_PLASTIC_DISCRETE_BEAM

, -, ,
:
2

Fr Fs Ft M r M s M t
fail + fail + fail + fail + fail + fail -1. 0.
Fr Fs Ft M r M s M t

. , ,
, , :
2

ur us ut r s t
fail + fail + fail + fail + fail + fail -1. 0.
ur us ut r s t

. ,
, .

. 20.20.


.
.

LS-DYNA Version 960

428 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_SID_DAMPER_DISCRETE_BEAM
*MAT_SID_DAMPER_DISCRETE_BEAM

69. ,

, . .
.

1

MID

RO

ST

C3

STF

RHOF

C1

C2

LCIDF

LCIDD

S0

15 , .

, , *. ,
, SF DF.
3,...

ORFLOC

ORFRAD

SF

DC

LS-DYNA Version 960

429 (MAT)

*MAT

MAT_SID_DAMPER_DISCRETE_BEAM

MID

. .

RO

, . *SECTION_BEAM.

ST

St - .
, . . 20.21 .

d -

R -

K -
>0.0: |K| - , . *DEFINE_CURVE,
,
.

C -

C3

STF

k - ,

RHOF

r fluid

C1

C1 -

C2

C2 -

LCIDF

,
s, . . f (s + s0 ) .
.
,
, . ,
.

LCIDD

,
s, . .
g(s + s0 ) . ,
, .
, .

LS-DYNA Version 960

430 (MAT)

*MAT_SID_DAMPER_DISCRETE_BEAM
S0

s0,
.

*MAT

ORFLOC

di - i-

ORFRAD

ri - i- ; ,
.

SF

, 1.0

DC

c - ,
,
, .

:
,
. , , 20.21,
.
.

Ap 2

C1

F=SF KApVp t +C2 (V p ( fluid t -1 -f ( s+s0 ) +V p g(s+s0 ) ,


CA0
A0

K , ,
, Vp , C , Ap
, A0t - t, rfluid
, C1 , C2 .
,
. .
,
. ,
k, . . ,

k c .
.

.
20.22.
SF 1.0
.

LS-DYNA Version 960

431 (MAT)

*MAT

MAT_SID_DAMPER_DISCRETE_BEAM

d1

d2

d3

d4

St

Vp

2R

2R-h

. 20.21. .

. 20.22.
. .

LS-DYNA Version 960

432 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_HYDRAULIC_GAS_DAMPER_DISCRETE_BEAM
*MAT_HYDRAULIC_GAS_DAMPER_DISCRETE_BEAM

70.

. 20.23.

.
. . .

MID

RO

CO

P0

PA

AP

KH

LCID

FR

SCLF

CLEAR

MID

. .

RO

, .
*SECTION_BEAM.

CO

, Co

P0

, P0

PA

, Pa

AP

, Ap

KH

, K

LS-DYNA Version 960

433 (MAT)

*MAT

MAT_HYDRAULIC_GAS_DAMPER_DISCRETE_BEAM

LCID

, . *DEFINE_CURVE,
a0

FR

.
.

, ,
. ,
1.0.

SCLF
CLEAR

. ( = 1.0)
( ,
,
).

. 20.23. / .
:
.
-,
. -,
. ;
, .
.
:
V 2 C n

F=SCLF K h + P0 0 -Pa Ap ,
a
C -S

0 0

S , V .

LS-DYNA Version 960

434 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_CABLE_DISCRETE_BEAM
*MAT_CABLE_DISCRETE_BEAM

71. ;
, .

MID

RO

LCID

F0

MID

. .

RO

, .
*SECTION_BEAM.

< 0.0:
>0.0:

LCID

, . *DEFINE_CURVE,

.
().

F0

. F0 ,
.

:
F, , ,
. :
F=max(F0 +KL,0.) ,

DL

DL = _ - ( _ - ) ,
( E > 0.0) :
K=

LS-DYNA Version 960

E
.
( _ - )

435 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_CABLE_DISCRETE_BEAM

, , :
F0 >0 and K=0 ,
.
, .
.
.
, ,
.
, .. , .

LS-DYNA Version 960

436 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_ELASTIC_SPRING_DISCRETE_BEAM
*MAT_ELASTIC_SPRING_DISCRETE_BEAM

74.
6.
, - .
.

1

MID

RO

F0

CDF

TDF

FLCID

HLCID

C1

C2

DLE

MID

RO

(. *SECTION_BEAM)

F0

. ,
,
*MAT_ELASTIC_6DOF_SPRING

CDF

, .
. .
.
= 0.0:

TDF

,
.

LS-DYNA 960

437 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_ELASTIC_SPRING_DISCRETE_BEAM

FLCID

(. *DEFINE_CURVE),
.

HLCID

(.
*DEFINE_CURVE),

( ).
(0,0),
, .. .

C1

()

C2

()
( )

DLE

:
, F :
F=F0 +KL+DL&

, :

( L& (
&
&
& ( L& ) .

F=F0 +Kf ( L ) 1+C1 L+C2 sgn ( L ) ln max 1.,


+DL+h

DLE

DL

- :
DL = _ - _ .

*SECTION_BEAM
.
,
.

438 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_ELASTIC_6DOF_SPRING_DISCRETE_BEAM
*MAT_ELASTIC_6DOF_SPRING_DISCRETE_BEAM

93. -
- ,
. ,
*MAT_ELASTIC_SPRING_DISCRETE_BEAM (
74). ,
. , ,
, , ,
.
SCOOR SECTION_BEAM 2.0,
r
.
.
.

1

MID

RO

TPIDR

TPIDS

TPIDT

RPIDR

RPIDS

RPIDT

MID

RO

(. *SECTION_BEAM)

TPIDR

-,

r. ,

TPIDS

-,

s. ,

TPIDT

-,

t. ,

RPIDR

-,
r. ,

LS-DYNA 960

439 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_ELASTIC_6DOF_SPRING_DISCRETE_BEAM

RPIDS

-,
s. ,

RPIDT

-,
t. ,

440 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_INELASTIC_SPRING_DISCRETE_BEAM
*MAT_INELASTIC_SPRING_DISCRETE_BEAM

94.
6.
,
.

1

MID

RO

F0

CDF

TDF

FLCID

HLCID

C1

C2

DLE

MID

RO

(. *SECTION_BEAM)

/.
.

F0

, .
,
*MAT_INELASTIC_6DOF_SPRING.

CDF

, .
. .

= 0.0:

TDF

,

= 0.0:

LS-DYNA 960

441 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_INELASTIC_SPRING_DISCRETE_BEAM

FLCID

(. *DEFINE_CURVE),

. (0, 0),
, .. .

.
.
.

HLCID

(. *DEFINE_CURVE),
( ).
(0, 0),
, .. .

C1

C2

DLE

:
, , :
F Y = Fy (DLplastic )

Lplastic - .

F T =F n +KL& ( t )
, , F :
F Y if F T > F Y
F= T
T
Y
F if F F

( L& (
&
& ( L& ) .
F n+1=F 1+C1L+C2
sgn ( L& ) ln max 1.,
+DL+h

DLE

(0, 0),
, ,

442 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT_INELASTIC_SPRING_DISCRETE_BEAM

*MAT

Fy . ,
. D L -
DL = _ - _

*SECTION_BEAM
.
,
.

LS-DYNA 960

443 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_INELASTIC_6DOF_SPRING_DISCRETE_BEAM

*MAT_INELASTIC_6DOF_SPRING_DISCRETE_BEAM
95. -
- ,
. ,
*MAT_ELASTIC_SPRING_DISCRETE_BEAM (
94). ,
. , ,
, , ,
.
SCOOR SECTION_BEAM 2.0,
r
.
.
.

1

MID

RO

TPIDR

TPIDS

TPIDT

RPIDR

RPIDS

RPIDT

MID

RO


*SECTION_BEAM)

(.

TPIDR

-,

r. ,

TPIDS

-,

s. ,

TPIDT

-,

t. ,

RPIDR

-,
r. ,

444 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT_INELASTIC_6DOF_SPRING_DISCRETE_BEAM

*MAT

RPIDS

-,
s. ,

RPIDT

-,
t. ,

LS-DYNA 960

445 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_SPRING_ELASTIC

*MAT_SPRING_ELASTIC
1 .
,
. .

1

MID
K

446 (MAT)

MID


(/ /)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_DAMPER_VISCOUS
*MAT_DAMPER_VISCOUS

2 .
,
. .

1

MID

DC

MID

DC

(/ / )

LS-DYNA 960

447 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_SPRING_ELASTOPLASTIC

*MAT_SPRING_ELASTOPLASTIC
3 .

, .
.

1

MID
K

MID

KT

FY


(/ /)

KT

(/ /)

FY

( )

448 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_SPRING_NONLINEAR_ELASTIC
*MAT_SPRING_NONLINEAR_ELASTIC

4 .
-

-
.

, . , ,
.

1

MID

LCD

LCR

MID

LCD

LCR

,

.

(0, 0).

LS-DYNA 960

449 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_DAMPER_NONLINEAR_VISCOUS

*MAT_DAMPER_NONLINEAR_VISCOUS
5 .

- - . ,
, .

1

MID
LCDR

450 (MAT)

MID

LCDR


,
.

(0, 0).

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_SPRING_GENERAL_NONLINEAR
*MAT_SPRING_GENERAL_NONLINEAR

6 .

. .
, , .

1

MID

LCDL

LCDU

BETA

TYI

CYI

MID

LCDL

,
(. .
20.34)

LCDU

,
(.
. 20.34)

BETA


=0.0:

( -
),
0.0:
,
= 1.0:

TYI

, ( > 0)

CYI

, ( < 0)

:
(, ) (, ).
,
() ().
.
, ..
.
LS-DYNA 960

451 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_SPRING_GENERAL_NONLINEAR


. (TYI
CYI) , (. .
). -
, , ,
,
.
b>0.

b=0.

b>0.

F
yt

b=0.

F - F
yt yc
d

d
F
yc

. b<1

F - F
yt yc

b=1.

F
2

F
1

d
F
2

F
1

. 20.34. .

452 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_SPRING_MAXWELL
*MAT_SPRING_MAXWELL

7 .

. ,
/ .

1

MID

K0

KI

BETA

TC

FC

COPT

---

---

---

---

1020

MID

K0

K0

KI

K -

BETA

TC

FC

COPT

:
= 0:
0:

:
K(t)

K(t)=K +(K0 -K )e-t .
[112]
, [888].
, ,
-
. ,
,
, . . ,
.
.
LS-DYNA 960

453 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_SPRING_INELASTIC

*MAT_SPRING_INELASTIC
8 .

.
.

1

MID

MID

LCFD

KU

CTF

LCFD

,
/ /.
-
, .

KU

( ).
KU
/ /.

CTF

/:
= -1.0:
,
= 0.0:
1.0,
= 1.0:

454 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_SPRING_TRILINEAR_DEGRADING
*MAT_SPRING_TRILINEAR_DEGRADING

13 .
,
. ,
. ,
.

1

MID

DEFL1

F1

DEFL2

F2

DEFL3

F3

FFLAG

MID
DEFL1
F1
DEFL2
F2
DEFL3
F3
FFLAG

LS-DYNA 960


,
, DEFL1
,
, DEFL2

, DEFL3
-

455 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_SPRING_SQUAT_SHEARWALL

*MAT_SPRING_SQUAT_SHEARWALL
14 .
.
, ,
, .

1

MID

A14

B14

C14

D14

E14

LCID

FSD

MID

A14

B14

C14

D14

E14

LCID

FSD

A, B, C D ,
,
.
. E
, ( ),
.
- . ,
, .
/ .
FSD .

456 (MAT)

LS-DYNA Version 960

*MAT

*MAT_SPRING_MUSCLE
*MAT_SPRING_MUSCLE

15 .
.
. LS-DYNA (J.A. Weiss).

1

MID

L0

VMAX

SV

FMAX

TL

TV

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

FPE

LMAX

KSH

0.0

MID
L0
VMAX


Lo
Vmax CE

SV

Sv , Vmax
:
< 0:
,
0: , 1.0

:
< 0:
,
0: , A

FMAX

LS-DYNA 960

Fmax

457 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_SPRING_MUSCLE

TL

:
< 0:
,
0: , 1.0

TV

:
< 0:
,
0: , 1.0

FPE

(Fpe) :
< 0:
,
= 0: (. ),
> 0: , 0.0

LMAX

KSH

, Fpe Fmax;
, Fpe=0
Ksh, Fpe;
, Fpe=0

:
, [113].
[114] [115] .
(CE)
(PE) (. 20.35).
(CE) (SEE). ,
,
, .
( ). ,
, ,
, .
,

, .
. ,
,
.

458 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_SPRING_MUSCLE
LM

a(t)
F CE

vM

CE
SEE

FM

F PE

LM

. 20.35

PE

, .
FPE FCE.
(PE) , ,
(CE) ,
. ,
, (SEE),
, . a(t) , LM
, vM .

(CE) ,
. , .. , CE
, .
,
, [114]. ,
CE, ,
, .
,
CE. , - y,
, ,
CE.
(SEE) FM
(CE) (PE), . .
:

F M = F PE + F CE .
, , CE PE
LM, VM a(t), Fmax
([114], . 80), L0 ([114], . 81) Vmax
CE ([114], . 80).
,
:

LS-DYNA 960

459 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_SPRING_MUSCLE
LM
L=
,
Lo
V=

VM
Vmax*SV (a(t)) .

SV Vmax, CE,
a(t).
[116].
. 0 1. SV(a(t))
a(t) . ,
: SV=1 a(t)=0. , L , V
.
FCE, V L [117].
, ,
([114], . 81,
(5.16)). :
F CE =a(t)*Fmax*fTL (L)*fTV (V)

fTL fTV - -
. , LM, VM a(t), FCE
(. 20.35).
FPE
([114], . 73, (5.5)):
f PE =

F PE
=0,
FMAX

L1

K sh

F PE
1
f PE =
=
( L-1) -1 ,
exp
FMAX exp ( K sh ) -1
Lmax

.
L>1

Lmax - , Fmax, Ksh


, .
fPE ,
.
FM, ,
fTL fTV, - -
. 50- ,
. fTL
,
,
460 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT_SPRING_MUSCLE

*MAT

.
L=1.05.
L=0.4 L=1.5. , .
, fTL
, ( 0 1)
L (. 20.36).

. 20.36

, - (TL)
- (TV) .

fTV,
, . , V.
V=0 1.0. V0
. V , 1.0,
1.4. V<0 ,
,
(. 20.36).
fTV ,
( 0 1) V.

LS-DYNA 960

461 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_SEATBELT

*MAT_SEATBELT

: (. )

1

MID

MPUL

LLCID

ULCID

LMIN

0.

0.0

MID

MPUL

LLCID

(
)

ULCID

(
)

LMIN

( ,
); .


.
, .
, ..
Strain=

currentlength
-1.
initiallength

. (0,0),
.
, ,
.
.
, .

462 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

*MAT

*MAT_SEATBELT

, ,
. ,
, , .
,
,
, .
.
, -
.
;
:
D=

.1massrelativevelocity
timestepsize

, ,
-, .
, .
(MPUL),
.
(LMIN),
. ,
.
, .

LS-DYNA 960

463 (MAT)

*MAT

*MAT_CFD_OPTION

*MAT_CFD_OPTION

*MAT_CFD_
,
(. *CONTROL_SOLUTION).
:
CONSTANT

150.
.
1
1

MID

RHO

MU

CP

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464 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

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3
1

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LS-DYNA 960

10

465 (MAT)

*MAT

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:
ISOTROPIC
ORTHOTROPIC
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ORTHOTROPIC_TD
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.
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466 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

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.
1

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,
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:
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LS-DYNA Version 960

467 (MAT)

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2.
.
1

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468 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

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v AOPT = 2

LS-DYNA 960

TMID

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469 (MAT)

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470 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

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LS-DYNA 960

471 (MAT)

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472 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

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4
1

(K1)

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LS-DYNA 960

473 (MAT)

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a AOPT = 2

D1, D2, D3

v AOPT = 2

474 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

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LS-DYNA 960

475 (MAT)

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LS-DYNA 960

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LS-DYNA 960

477 (MAT)

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478 (MAT)

LS-DYNA 960

1.

Hallquist, J.O., A Procedure for the Solution of Finite Deformation Contact-Impact Problems by
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2.

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3.

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4.

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LS-DYNA Version 960

.1


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.2

LS-DYNA Version 960


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LS-DYNA Version 960

.3


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.4

LS-DYNA Version 960


60. Randers-Pehrson, G. and K. A. Bannister, "Airblast Loading Model for DYNA2D and DYNA3D,"
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.5


77. Barlat, F. and J. Lian, "Plastic Behavior and Stretchability of Sheet Metals. Part I: A Yield Function
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.6

LS-DYNA Version 960


92. Puso, M.A. and Weiss, J.A., "Finite Element Implementation of Anisotropic Quasilinear
Viscoelasticity Using a Discrete Spectrum Approximation", ASME J. Biomech. Engng.,
120, 62-70 (1998).
93. Quapp, K.M. and Weiss, J.A., "Material Characterization of Human Medial Collateral Ligament",
ASME J. Biomech Engng., 120, 757-763 (1998).
94. Govindjee, S., Kay, J.G., and Simo, J.C. [1994], "Anisotropic Modeling and Numerical Simulation
of Brittle Damage in Concrete," Report No. UCB/SEMM-94/18, Department of Civil
Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720.
95. Govindjee, S., Kay, J.G., and Simo, J.C. [1995], "Anisotropic Modeling and Numerical Simulation
of Brittle Damage in Concrete," Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng, 38, 3611-3633.
96. Berstad, T., Langseth, M. and Hopperstad, O.S., "Elasto-viscoplastic Constitutive Models in the
Explicit Finite Element Code LS-DYNA3D," Second International LS-DYNA3D
conference, San Francisco, (1994).
97. Hopperstad, O.S. and Remseth, S.," A return Mapping Algorithm for a Class of Cyclic Plasticity
Models", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 38, pp. 549-564,
(1995).
98. Berstad, T., "Material Modelling of Aluminium for Crashworthiness Analysis", Dr.Ing.
Dissertation, Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and
Technology, Trondheim, Norway, (1996).
99. Berstad, T., Hopperstad, O.S., Lademo, O.-G. and Malo, K.A., "Computational Model of Ductile
Damage and Fracture in Shell Analysis", Second European LS-DYNA Conference,
Gothenburg, Sweden, (1999).
100.Lemaitre, J., A Course on Damage Mechanics, Springer-Verlag, (1992).
101. Holmquist, T.J., G.R. Johnson, and W.H. Cook, "A Computational Constitutive Model for Concrete
Subjected to Large Strains, High Strain Rates, and High Pressures", Proceedings 14th
International Symposium on Ballistics, Quebec, Canada, pp. 591-600, (1993).
102.Whirley, R. G., and G.A. Henshall, "Creep Deformation Structural Analysis Using An Efficient
Numerical Algorithm," IJNME, Vol. 35, pp. 1427-1442, (1992)
103.Jones, R.M., Mechanics of Composite Materials, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York,
(1975).
104.Gurson, A.L., "Plastic Flow and Fracture Behavior of Ductile Materials Incorporating Void
Nucleation, Growth, and Interaction", Ph.D. Thesis, Brown University, (1975).
105.Gurson, A.L., "Continuum Theory of Ductile Rupture by Void Nucleation and Growth: Part I Yield Criteria and Flow Rules for Porous Ductile Media", J. of Eng. Materials and
Technology, (1977).
106.Chu, C.C. and A. Needleman, "Void Nucleation effects in Biaxially Stretched Sheets", Journal of
Engineering Materials and Technology, (1977).
107.Feucht, M., "Ein gradientenabhngiges Gursonmodell zur Beshreibung duktiler Schdigung mit
Entfestigung," Dissertation, Technishe Universitt Darmstadt, (1998).

LS-DYNA Version 960

.7


108. Fanacht, W., "Simulation der Ribildung in Aluminiumgubauteilen," Dissertation, Technishe
Universitt Darmstadt, (1999).
109.Arruda, E. and M. Boyce, "A Three-Dimensional Constitutive Model for the Large Stretch
Behavior of Rubber Elastic Materials," published in the Journal of the Mechanics and
Physics of Solids, Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 389-412, (1993).
110.Guccione, J., A. McCulloch, and L. Waldman, "Passive Material Properties of Intact Ventricular
Myocardium Determined from a Cylindrical Model," published in the ASME Journal of
Biomechanical Engineering, Vol. 113, pages 42-55, (1991).
111.Vawter, D., "A Finite Element Model for Macroscopic Deformation of the Lung," published in the
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, Vol.102, pp. 1-7, (1980).
112.Herrmann, L.R. and F.E. Peterson, A Numerical Procedure for Viscoelastic Stress Analysis,
Seventh Meeting of ICRPG Mechanical Behavior Working Group, Orlando, FL, CPIA
Publication No. 177, 1968.
113.Hill A.V., "The heat of shortening and the dynamic constants of muscle," Proc Roy Soc B126:136195, (1938).
114.Winters, J.M., "Hill-based muscle models: A systems engineering perspective," In Multiple
Muscle Systems: Biomechanics and Movement Organization, JM Winters and SL-Y Woo
eds, Springer-Verlag (1990).
115.Zajac F.E., "Muscle and tendon: Properties, models, scaling, and application to biomechanics and
motor control, "CRC Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering 17(4):359-411, (1989).
116.Winters J.M. and Stark L., "Estimated mechanical properties of synergistic muscles involved in
movements of a variety of human joints,": J Biomechanics 21:1027-1042, (1988).
117.Bahler AS: The series elastic element of mammalian skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol 213:15601564, 1967.

.8

LS-DYNA Version 960

A: ,
LSDYNA .
, 14 .
, 0.
,
9. ,
,
, , , .
,
. , ,
,
. , 6-10,
, ,
. , ,
10
.
.
9 ,
.
:
CALL COMPUTE_FS(F11,F21,F31,F12,F22,F32,F13,F23,F33),

,
CALL COMPUTE_F (F11,F21,F31,F12,F22,F32,F13,F23,F33,LFT,LLT),

.
. F11-F33
,
, LFT LLT .
, F11-F33 .


. EPS(3),
.
EPS(2) EPS(3), .
.
, ,
, , ,
*LOAD_THERMAL_LOAD_CURVE.
, - ,
.
, .
LS-DYNA 960

A.1

SUBROUTINE UMAT41 (CM,EPS,SIG,HISV,DT1,CAPA,ETYPE,TIME,TEMP)


C********************************************************************
C
LIVERMORE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION (LSTC)
C
-----------------------------------------------------------C
COPYRIGHT 1987-1994, LSTC
C
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
C********************************************************************
C
C
( )
C
C

C
C
CM(1) =
C
CM(2) =
C
C
EPS(1)
= X
C
EPS(2)
= Y
C
EPS(3)
= Z
C
EPS(4)
= XY
C
EPS(5)
= YZ
C
EPS(6)
= ZX
C
C
SIG(1)= X
C
SIG(2)= Y
C
SIG(3)= Z
C
SIG(4)= XY
C
SIG(5)= YZ
C
SIG(6)= ZX
C
C
HISV(1)=1-
C
HISV(2)=2-
C
.
C
.
C
.
C
.
C
HISV(N)=n- ,

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

*MAT_USER_DEFINED_MATERIAL_MODELS
DT1=
CAPA=
ETYPE:
EQ.BRICK -
EQ.SHELL
EQ.BEAM
TIME=
TEMP=


.
.

C
C
C

A.2

LS-DYNA Version 960


C
C
C
C
C

.
, DYNA3D,

CHARACTER*(*) ETYPE
DIMENSION CM(*),EPS(*),SIG(*),HISV(*)
C
C
C

G2=CM(1)/(1.+CM(2))
G =.5*G
C
IF (ETYPE.EQ.BRICK) THEN
DAVG=(-EPS(1)-EPS(2)-EPS(3))/3.
P=-DAVG*CM(1)/((1.-2.*CM(2)))
SIG(1)=SIG(1)+P+G2*(EPS(1)+DAVG)
SIG(2)=SIG(2)+P+G2*(EPS(2)+DAVG)
SIG(3)=SIG(3)+P+G2*(EPS(3)+DAVG)
SIG(4)=SIG(4)+G*EPS(4)
SIG(5)=SIG(5)+G*EPS(5)
SIG(6)=SIG(6)+G*EPS(6)
C
ELSEIF (ETYPE.EQ.SHELL) THEN
C
GC =CAPA*G
Q1
=CM(1)*CM(2)/((1.0+CM(2))*(1.0-2.0*CM(2)))
Q3
=1./(Q1+G2)
EPS(3)=-Q1*(EPS(1)+EPS(2))*Q3
DAVG =(-EPS(1)-EPS(2)-EPS(3))/3.
P
=-DAVG*CM(1)/((1.-2.*CM(2)))
SIG(1)=SIG(1)+P+G2*(EPS(1)+DAVG)
SIG(2)=SIG(2)+P+G2*(EPS(2)+DAVG)
SIG(3)=0.0
SIG(4)=SIG(4)+G *EPS(4)
SIG(5)=SIG(5)+GC*EPS(5)
SIG(6)=SIG(6)+GC*EPS(6)
C
ELSEIF (ETYPE.EQ.BEAM) THEN
Q1
=CM(1)*CM(2)/((1.0+CM(2))*(1.0-2.0*CM(2)))
Q3
=Q1+2.0*G
GC
=CAPA*G
DETI =1./(Q3*Q3-Q1*Q1)
C22I = Q3*DETI
C23I =-Q1*DETI
FAC
=(C22I+C23I)*Q1
EPS(2)=-EPS(1)*FAC-SIG(2)*C22I-SIG(3)*C23I
EPS(3)=-EPS(1)*FAC-SIG(2)*C23I-SIG(3)*C22I
DAVG =(-EPS(1)-EPS(2)-EPS(3))/3.
P
=-DAVG*CM(1)/(1.-2.*CM(2))
SIG(1)=SIG(1)+P+G2*(EPS(1)+DAVG)
SIG(2)=0.0
SIG(3)=0.0
SIG(4)=SIG(4)+GC*EPS(4)
SIG(5)=0.0
SIG(6)=SIG(6)+GC*EPS(6)
ENDIF
C
RETURN
LS-DYNA 960

A.3

END

A.4

LS-DYNA Version 960

B: ,

. , .
,
20. ,
, - .
, ,
.
.
SUBROUTINE AIRUSR (RBU,RBV,RBA,TIME,DT1,DT2,PARAM,HIST,ITRNON,
. RBUG,RBVG,RBAG)
C********************************************************************
C
LIVERMORE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION (LSTC)
C
-----------------------------------------------------------C
COPYRIGHT 1987, 1988, 1989 JOHN O. HALLQUIST, LSTC
C
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
C********************************************************************
C
C

C
C

C
C
N+1
N+1/2
C
C
N
C
C
RBU(1-3) XYZ
C
RBU(3-6) XYZ
C
RBV(1-3) XYZ
C
RBV(3-6) XYZ
C
RBA(1-3) XYZ
C
RBA(3-6) XYZ
C
TIME -
C
DT1
N-1/2
C
DT2
N+1/2
C
PARAM ( 25)
C
HIST ( 25)
C
ITRNON ,
C
RBUG,RBVG,RBAG RBU,RBV,RBA,
C
.
C
C
ITRNON :
C
C
ITRNON=0
C
ITRNON=1 ,

C
C
DIMENSION RBU(6),RBV(6),PARAM(25),HIST(25),
. RBUG(6),RBVG(6),RBAG(6)
RETURN
END

LS-DYNA 960

B.1

B.2

LS-DYNA Version 960

C:

/, ,
.
. ,
.
SUBROUTINE UCTRL1 (NUMNP,NDOF,TIME,DT1,DT2,PRTC,PLTC,FRCI,PRTO,
. PLTO,FRCO,VT,VR,AT,AR,UT,UR,XMST,XMSR,IRBODY,RBDYN,USRHV,
. MESSAG,TOTALM,CYCL,IDRINT)
C********************************************************************
C
LIVERMORE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION (LSTC)
C
-----------------------------------------------------------C
COPYRIGHT 1987, 1988, 1989 JOHN O. HALLQUIST, LSTC
C
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
C********************************************************************
C
CHARACTER*(*) MESSAG
INTEGER CYCLE
C
C
C

C
C
: LS-DYNA
. ,
C
C
N,
: M=LQF(N,1), ,
C
C
: SET N=LQFINV(M,1)
C
C
:
C
NUMNP
=
C
NDOF
=
C
TIME
=
C
PRTC
= TAURUS
C
PLTC
= TAURUS
C
FRCI
= TAURUS
C
PRTO
=
C
PLTO
=
C
FRCO
=
C
VT(3,NUMNP) =
C
VR(3,NUMNP) = .
C
, NDOF=6
C
AT(3,NUMNP) =
C
AR(3,NUMNP) = .
, NDOF=6
C
C
UT(3,NUMNP) =
C
UR(3,NUMNP) = .
, NDOF=6
C
C
XMST(NUMNP) =
C
XMSR(NUMNP) = .
C
, NDOF=6
C
IRBODY
=
1.0,
C
C
0.0,
,
C
C
.. IRBODY.NE.0,
LS-DYNA 960

C.1

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

USRHV(LENHV) = ,
. LENHV=100+U*NUMMAT,
NUMMAT .
USRHV .
MESSAG
= DYNA3D, :
SW1.
SW3.
SW4.
TOTALM
=
CYCLE =
IDRINT
=
0:
=0:
COMMON/PTIMES/

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

PRTIMS(32),PRTLST(32),IGMPRT

PRTIMS(32)= ASCII
ASCII-
( 1)=
( 2)=
( 3)=
( 4)=
( 5)=
( 6)=
( 7)=
( 8)=
( 9)=
(10)= SMUG
(11)= SPC
(12)=
(13)=
(14)= AVS
(15)=
(16)=
(17)(32)=
PRTLST(32)= ASCII . ,
, , , .

COMMON/RBKENG/ENRBDY,RBDYX,RBDYY,RBDYZ
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

:
ENRBDY=
RBDYX = X
RBDYY = Y
RBDYZ = Z

COMMON/RBKENG/ENRBDY,RBDYX,RBDYY,RBDYZ
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

:
SWXMOM= X
SWYMOM= Y
SWZMOM= Z
ENRBDY=

COMMON/DEENGS/DEENG
C.2

LS-DYNA Version 960


C
C
C

DEENG=
COMMON/ENERGY/XPE

C
C
C

XPE

DIMENSION VT(3,*),VR(3,*),AT(3,*),AR(3,*),UT(3,*),UR(3,*)
XMST(*),XMSR(*),RBDYN(*),USRHV(*)
C
C
C
C

CC
CC
CC
XKE X,Y,Z.
CC
C
XKE=2.*SWKENG+2.*ENRBDY
C
XM-SWXMOM+RBDYX
C
YM=SWYMOM+RBDYY
C
ZM=SWZMOM+RBDYZ
CC
C
NUMNP2=NUMNP
C
IF (NDOF.EQ.6) THEN
C
NUMNP2=NUMNP+NUMNP
C
ENDIF
C
PRINT *,NDOF
C
IF(IRBODY.EQ.0) THEN
CC
CC
CC

CC
CC
, VR VT.
C
DO 10 N=1,NUMNP2
C
XMSN=1./XMST(N)
C
VN1=VT(1,N)
C
VN2=VT(2,N)
C
VN3=VT(3,N)
C
XM=XM+XMSN*VN1
C
YM=YM+XMSN*VN2
C
ZM=ZM+XMSN*VN3
C
XKE=XKE+XMSN*(VN1*VN1+VN2*VN2+VN3*VN3)
C 10 CONTINUE
CC
C
ELSE
CC
CC

CC
C
DO 20 N=1,NUMNP
C
XMSN=1./XMST(N)
C
VN1=RBDYN(N)*VT(1,N)
C
VN2=RBDYN(N)*VT(2,N)
C
VN3=RBDYN(N)*VT(3,N)
C
XM=XM+XMSN*VN1
C
YM=YM+XMSN*VN2
C
ZM=ZM+XMSN*VN3
C
XKE=XKE+XMSN*(VN1*VN1+VN2*VN2+VN3*VN3)
C 20 CONTINUE
LS-DYNA 960

C.3

C
IF (NDOF.EQ.6) THEN
C
DO 30 N=1,NUMNP
C
XMSN=1./XMSR(N)
C
VN1=RBDYN(N)*VR(1,N)
C
VN2=RBDYN(N)*VR(2,N)
C
VN3=RBDYN(N)*VR(3,N)
C
XM=XM+XMSN*VN1
C
YM=YM+XMSN*VN2
C
ZM=ZM+XMSN*VN3
C
XKE=XKE+XMSN*(VN1*VN1+VN2*VN2+VN3*VN3)
C 30 CONTINUE
C
ENDIF
CC
C
ENDIF
RETURN
END
CC
CC.....
C
XKE=.5*XKE
CC.....
C
XIE=.XPE+DEENG
CC.....
C
XTE=XKE+XPE+DEENG
CC..... X
C
XRBV=XM/TOTALM
CC..... Y
C
YRBV=YM/TOTALM
CC..... Z
C
ZRBV=ZM/TOTALM
C
RETURN
END

C.4

LS-DYNA Version 960

D:

*USER_INTERFACE_CONTROL. .
SUBROUTINE UCTRL2 (NSI,NTY,TIME,CYCLE,MSR,NMN,NSV,NSN,
1
THMR,THSV,VT,XI,UT,ISKIP,IDRINT,NUMNP,DT2,NINPUT,UA)
C********************************************************************
C
LIVERMORE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION (LSTC)
C
-----------------------------------------------------------C
COPYRIGHT 1987, 1988, 1989 JOHN O. HALLQUIST, LSTC
C
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
C********************************************************************
C
INTEGER CYCLE
C
C
C

C
C
: LS-DYNA
. ,
C
C
N,
C
: M=LQF(N,1), ,
: SET N=LQFINV(M,1)
C
C
C
:
C
NSI
=
C
NTY
=
C
=4:
C
4:-
C
TIME
=
C
CYCLE
=
C
MSR(NMN)
= ,
C
NMN
=
C
NSV(NSN)
= ,
C

C
NSN
=
C
THMR(NMN)
=
C
THSV(NSN)
=
C
VT(3,NUMNP) =
C
XI(3,NUMNP) = 0
C
UT(3,NUMNP) =
C
IDRINT
=
C
0:
C
= 0:
C
NUMNP
=
C
DT2
= N+1/2
C
NINPUT
= , UA
C
UA(*)
= , NINPUT ,
.
C
C
10.
C
NSI.
C
C

LS-DYNA 960

D.1

C
ISKIP=0
C
ISKIP=1
C
C********************************************************************
DIMENSION MSR(*),NSV(*),THMR(*),THSV(*),VT(3,*),XI(3,*),
UT(3,*)UA(*)
C
C
.
, -.
C
C
, ISKIP=1, .
C
IF (NTY.EQ.4) RETURN
DT2HLF=DT2/2.
XMINS= 1.E20
XMAXS=-XMINS
YMINS= 1.E20
YMAXS=-YMINS
ZMINS= 1.E20
ZMAXS=-ZMINS
XMINM= 1.E20
XMAXM=-XMINM
YMINM= 1.E20
YMAXM=-YMINM
ZMINM= 1.E20
ZMAXM=-ZMINM
THKS=0.0
THKM=0.0
DO 10 I=1,NSN
DSP1=UT(1,NSV(I))+DT2HLF*VT(1,NSV(I))
DSP2=UT(2,NSV(I))+DT2HLF*VT(2,NSV(I))
DSP3=UT(3,NSV(I))+DT2HLF*VT(3,NSV(I))
X1=XI(1,NSV(I))+DSP1
X2=XI(2,NSV(I))+DSP2
X3=XI(3,NSV(I))+DSP3
THKS =MAX(THSV(I),THKS)
XMINS=MIN(XMINS,X1)
XMAXS=MAX(XMAXS,X1)
YMINS=MIN(YMINS,X2)
YMAXS=MAX(YMAXS,X2)
ZMINS=MIN(ZMINS,X3)
ZMAXS=MAX(ZMAXS,X3)
10 CONTINUE
DO 20 I=1,NMN
DSP1=UT(1,MSR(I))+DT2HLF*VT(1,MSR(I))
DSP2=UT(2,MSR(I))+DT2HLF*VT(2,MSR(I))
DSP3=UT(3,MSR(I))+DT2HLF*VT(3,MSR(I))
X1=XI(1,MSR(I))+DSP1
X2=XI(2,MSR(I))+DSP2
X3=XI(3,MSR(I))+DSP3
THKM =MAX(THMR(I),THKS)
XMINS=MIN(XMINM,X1)
XMAXS=MAX(XMAXM,X1)
YMINS=MIN(YMINM,X2)
YMAXS=MAX(YMAXM,X2)
ZMINS=MIN(ZMINM,X3)
ZMAXS=MAX(ZMAXM,X3)
20 CONTINUE

D.2

LS-DYNA Version 960


IF (XMAXS+THKS.LT.XMINM-THKM)
IF (YMAXS+THKS.LT.YMINM-THKM)
IF (ZMAXS+THKS.LT.ZMINM-THKM)
IF (XMAXS+THKM.LT.XMINS-THKS)
IF (YMAXS+THKM.LT.YMINS-THKS)
IF (ZMAXS+THKM.LT.ZMINS-THKS)
ISKIP=0
RETURN
40 ISKIP=1
RETURN
END

LS-DYNA 960

GO
GO
GO
GO
GO
GO

TO
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO

40
40
40
40
40
40

D.3

D.4

LS-DYNA Version 960

E:

*USER_INTERFACE_FRICTION. .
SUBROUTINE USRFRC (NSI,TIME,CYCLE,DT2,NSLAVE,AREAS,XS,YS,ZS,
. MSN,MASTRS,AREAM,XCM,YCM,ZCM,STFSN,STFMS,FORCEN,RVX,RVY,RVZ,
. FRIC1,FRIC2,FRIC3,FRIC4,NINPUT,UA,SIDE)
C********************************************************************
C
LIVERMORE SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION (LSTC)
C
-----------------------------------------------------------C
COPYRIGHT 1987, 1988, 1989 JOHN O. HALLQUIST, LSTC
C
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
C********************************************************************
C
INTEGER CYCLE
CHARACTER*(*) SIDE
DIMENSION UA(*),MASTRS(4),XCM(4),YCM(4),ZCM(4)
C
C
C

C
C
: LS-DYNA
C
. ,
N,
C
C
: M=LQF(N,1), ,
: SET N=LQFINV(M,1)
C
C
C
:
C
NSI
=
C
TIME
=
C
CYCLE
=
C
DT2
= N+1/2
C
NSLAVE
= ,
C
AREAS
= ( 5 10)
C
XS
= X ()
C
YS
= Y ()
C
ZS
= Z ()
C
MSN
=
C
MASTRS(4)
=
C
AREAM
=
C
XCM(4)
= X ()
C
YCM(4)
= Y ()
C
ZCM(4)
= Z ()
C
STFSN
=
C
STFMS
=
C
FORCEN
=
C
RVX,RVY,RVZ,= X,Y,Z

LS-DYNA 960

E.1

C********************************************************************

C
C
C
FRIC1
=
C
FRIC2
=
C
FRIC3
=
C
FRIC4
= ( ,

FRIC4=0)
C
C********************************************************************
C
C
NINPUT
= , UA
C
UA(*)
= , NINPUT ,
C
.
C
15.
NSI.
C
C
C
SIDE
=MASTER .
C
.
C
=SLAVE ,

C
C
3
C
C********************************************************************
C
RETURN
END

E.2

LS-DYNA Version 960

F: CAL3D
MADYMO

LS-DYNA
,
. LS-DYNA
, ,
. ,
. , , ,
LS-DYNA
.

.

. LSTC,
,
,
- .
,
.
LS-DYNA .
, : ,
, .
, .

LS-DYNA

. CAL3D,
LS-DYNA . MADYMO,
- LS-DYNA . ,
,
.
.

.
.
,
LS-DYNA 960

F.1

. ,
. LS-DYNA
.
, , .
, ,
100 ,
1 . , LSDYNA, 1000 . ,
LS-DYNA
.
LS-DYNA.
, ,
,
. ,
, .
LS-DYNA ,
. , ,
, .
LS-DYNA
.
LS-DYNA ,
. , .
. ,
, .
100 ,
, - , ,
, . .
, .
, ,
. ,
.
:
.
.
, ,
LS-DYNA .
*MAT_RIGID (
20). LS-DYNA
,
,
LS-DYNA , ..
:

F.2

LS-DYNA Version 960

1. LS-DYNA ,
.
common block .
2. , LS-DYNA
,
, .
3.
common block .
,
.
LS-DYNA .
,
.
, LS-DYNA
.
LS-DYNA MADYMO
, , . TNO
MADYMO ,
LS-DYNA .
.
TNO
. CAL3D
.
. -
common block, .
LSTC CAL3D.

LS-DYNA3D.
, . .
.
,
. ,
LS-DYNA3D, .

.
.
,
LS-DYNA3D.
LS-DYNA
, /,
, , .

LS-DYNA 960

F.3

,
, ,
.


.
LS-DYNA
.
LSDYNA 2.0. LS-DYNA ,
, ,
.
, LS-DYNA3D
LS-POST.
. , ,
.
.
LS-DYNA3D
*CONSTRAINED_EXTRA_NODES_OPTION.
LS-DYNA3D, , MADYMO.
,
, . (.
*CONTACT_ENTITY) ,
. , , ,
(. *AIRBAG_OPTION).



(. *AIRBAG_OPTION).

(. *CONTACT_ OPTION).
,
a.
:
*MAT_ELASTIC = 1. .
*MAT_COMPOSITE_DAMAGE = 22. ,
.
*MAT_FABRIC = 34. .

F.4

LS-DYNA Version 960

34 , .
.
:
- .
,

. ,
.
-.
-,
.
, .
- .
C0.
. , .

.
.

. .
,
. ,

. , ,
, .
, . ,
, ,
. :

r r
2
P = a Vi - Vcg n .

((

) )

.
a 0 1, ,
0.1.

LS-DYNA 960

F.5

,
. .
,
.
,
.
.
/ .
.
-, . -
6 (*MAT_VISCOELASTIC) ,
. -
,
*CONSTRAINED_EXTRA_NODES_OPTION.
SURFACE-TO-SURFACE.


1.

,
.
.
. ,
,
, , , . .
.
2.

.
, .
, .
,
.
,
.
3.

.
, .
. 1
( PENCHK *CONTACT_...),

F.6

LS-DYNA Version 960

- .
.
4.

,
.
,
LS-DYNA.
5.

.
(*MAT_ELASTIC *MAT_COMPOSITE, 1 22),
*MAT_FABRIC,
,
.
. , ,
.
, .

LS-DYNA 960

F.7

F.8

LS-DYNA Version 960

G:
.
LS-DYNA.
SW5. Ctrl-C. MENU
.
ANIMATE

, ,
1.

BACK

BGC

(, ,
): BGC <red> <green> <blue>

BIP


; BIP <>

CENTER

; ,
, . . CENT <> CENT gin

CL

;
commercial_in_confidence ( )

CMA

COLOR

CONTOUR

; CONTOUR
< > < >; .
TAURUS.

COOR

COP


<laserj paintj tekcol coljet epson>

CR

CUT

,
;
.

CX

zmin x

LS-DYNA 960

G.1

CY

zmin y

CZ

zmin z

DIF

; DIF <
, -1 > <>

DISTANCE

; DIST
<
>

DMATERIALS

;
DMAT <ALL () >

DRAW

DSCALE

DYN

TAURUS

DYNA3D

ELPLT

END

ESCAPE

EXECUTE

FCL

FOV

; FOV < >

FRINGE

; FRINGE
< > < >; .
TAURUS

GETFRAME

; GETF < >

HARDWARE

, ,

;

HELP
G.2

LS-DYNA Version 960

HZB

z-
,
;

LIMIT


; LIMIT < > <
>

MAT

;
MAT <ALL () >

MENU

MOTION


.
,
,
;
.

MOV

NDPLT

NOFRAME

PAUSE

( )

PHS2 THISTORY

(
LS-TAURUS)

PICK

POST

/ postscript , eps-
, ; eofs
initgraphics eps-

QUIT

, EXECUTE

RANGE

;
RANGE < > < >

RAX

xy;
RESTORE

LS-DYNA 960

G.3

RAY

yz;
RESTORE

RAZ

zx;
RESTORE

RESTORE

,
, ,

RETURN

RGB

-: < > <red> <green>


<blue>

RX

RY

RZ

SAVE

SEQUENCE

;
SEQ < > <> EXE

SHR


; SHRINK <>

SIP


; SIP <>

SLICE

z-minimum; SLICE
<
>; RESTORE.

-

SNORMAL

SPOT

; SPOT <
> < >

G.4

LS-DYNA Version 960

TAURUS

LS-DYNA; TAU
< >, STATE < >;

LS-TAURUS

TRIAD

TSHELL

TV

TX

TY

TZ

VECTOR v d

; <v>
<d>

ZB

zbuffer

ZIN

ZMA

zmax; ZMAX <


>

ZMI

zmin; ZMIN <


>

ZOUT

LS-DYNA 960

G.5

G.6

LS-DYNA Version 960

H:


.
, LS-DYNA3D,
,
, .
.



LS-DYNA ,
. ,
,
.
.
,
.
,
, ,
.
, H.1.
Lij
, H.1.
Sij ,
L (t ) =
ij

S (t ) - S (tk -1 )
ij
ij
,
t
t
( k)

:
dij =

Lij + Lij
2


w ij =

LS-DYNA 960

Lij - Lij
2

H.1

H.1.


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

H.2

u
x
v
y
w
z
u
y
v
x
u
z
w
x
v
z
w
y

LS-DYNA Version 960


LS-DYNA
.
.
HELP.
ACCL

f;
f=1

ASET amin amax


, amin amax . amin=amax=0,
.

CHGL n

n. LS-DYNA
.

CONTINUE

CROSS c1 c2

c1 c2

ECOMP

:
1 x,
2 y,
3 z,
4 xy,
5 yz,
6 zx,
7 ,
8 ,
9 () ,
10 1- ,
11 2- ,
12 3- ,
13 ,
14 1- ,
15 2- ,
16 3- ,
17 ln (v v0),
18 ,
19 v0 v - 1.0,
20 1- ,
21 2- .

LS-DYNA 960

H.3


1-16 100 400, ,
, .

FILE

pampers

GRID

NOGRID

OSCL

f.
f=1.

OSET omin omax


, , omin omax.
omin=omax=0, .

PRINT

pampers
. ,
.
FILE.

QUIT, END, T

RDLC m n r1 z1 ... rn zn

m
n (r1,z1) (r2,z2),...(rn,zn)

TIME c

TV n

n. LSDYNA .


. .

H.4

LS-DYNA Version 960

VDA

I
I: VDA

VDA
.
(VDA) VDA [46] ,
, .
LS-DYNA
. LS-DYNA3D
,
/.
. ,
LS-DYNA.
, ,
. VDA,
LS-DYNA3D V=vda .
, ; . .
.
VDA, ,
vda .
, . , } {
. vda
:
file afile bfile {

}

.
afile , , ASCII,
VDA,
.
bfile ,
VDA. afile , bfile
. , , afile ,
bfile. bfile , ,
LS-DYNA VDA.
afile , bfile .
LS-DYNA
afile bfile.

alias name { el1 el2 ... eln },
LS-DYNA 960

I.1

VDA

name 12 , el1,..., eln VDA,


afile. ,
VDA SURF FACE afile. ,
name , ,
VDA afile. VDA
name. , name
.
.
vda : VDA,
, .
, .
Offset, 1:
offset ,
( )
VDA . offset VDA,
. offset
offset elem normal x y z,
normal , x,y,z
.
u v VDA, .
normal .
Offset, 2:
name
name.
goffset:
goffset alias_name xc yc zc normal x y z { alias_name },
normal, x, y, z , offset. xc, yc, zc
, VDA,
P(xc,yc,zc). . .
offset alias die 1.0 2.0 1.0 5.0 0.0 1.0
{ previous alias dieold }
die

offset 10 5.0 0 0 1.0

1.0

1=z
z
z

5, normal
y

I.2

5.0
y

x
w

w v
u

element 10

v
u

dieold

LS-DYNA Version 960

VDA

, vda ,
VDA. ,
[ ], :
gap [5.0]

,
. , ,
,
, .
,
. , VDA
( ), 0.0.
- 5.0.

track [2.0]

,
.

, ,
. ,
. ,
, .
2.0.

track2 [5.0]

VDA .
,
track2, .
,
, , ,
. 5.0.

ntrack [4]

VDA,
.

.
, ,
VDA.

, -
( ,
). ntrack,
, . ntrack
, .

4.0.

toroid [.01]

,
[t], . ,
, .
0.01.

LS-DYNA 960

I.3

VDA

converge [.01]

,
,
( VDA ).
0.01.

iterate [8]

.

,
, , ,
.
, , VDA
(, )
- ,
. ,
. 8.

el_size [t mx mn]
, :
t = ,
mx= ,
mn= .
[0.25 100. 1.0]
aspect [s1 s2]
, :
s1 =
, VDA,
s2 =
.
[1.5 4.0]
cp_space [10]

,
.
,
.
, ,
, , .
10.

meshonly

LS-DYNA
, VDA, .

I.4

LS-DYNA Version 960

VDA

onepatch

LS-DYNA
VDA.

somepatch [n]

onepatch, [n].

V=vda. :
file vda1 vda1.bin {
alias die {
sur0001
sur0003
offset fce0006 1.5 0 0 120
}
alias holder1 { sur008 }
}
file vda2 vda2.bin {
alias holder2 { sur003 }
}
alias holder { holder1 holder2 }
ntrack 6
gap 0.5
end
:
vda1

/ sur0001,sur0003, fce0006
sur0008.

alias die face

/ sur0001, sur0003
fce0006 .

alias holder1

/ sur0008 holder1.

vda2

/ sur0003.

alias holder2

/ sur0003 holder2.

alias holder

holder1 holder2
holder.

ntrack 6

6 VDA.

gap 0.5

0.5 .

end

LS-DYNA 960

I.5

I.6

VDA

LS-DYNA Version 960

J:
:

(x,y),

MAZE,

.
n ,
M n. n
V. S,
B,
. B
:
ER, EZ, ES, VS, BD, ERS, EZS, ESS, VSS, BDS, SLN, SLNS.
. .

(.
TV). ,
.

LS-DYNA 960

J.1



SEQ n <> EXE

n
. , seq 100 g exe ,

100 .

ctrl-c sw7..

FRAME

HELP

HELP

HELP/

LOGO

LLNL ( );

NOFRAME

PHP ans

HELP ans=y (),


.

RESO nx ny

x y , ,
nx ny. 1024.

TV n

n.
.
.

TR t

t LS-DYNA

J.2

LS-DYNA Version 960

FR

T END


PLTI t

PRTI t

TERM t


ESET n

n r z.

UNFIX, .

FF

.

.

FIX


.
GSET, FSET SETF,
UNFIX.

FSET n r z

n
r z. ,
UNFIX.

GSET r z l

(r,z)
l.
, UNFIX.

GRID

NOGRID

LS-DYNA 960

J.3

SETF r z r z

(r,z)
r z. ,
UNFIX.

UNFIX

,
FIX, GSET, FSET SETF

UZ a b l

(a,b) l, a, b l
0 1. ,
.

UZG

1010
UZ.

UZOU a b l

(a,b) l, a, b l
0 1.
1l. ,
.

Z r z l

(r,z) l.

ZOUT r z l

(r,z) l.
,
l.
. DZOU

.
.
DZZO.
,
(2).

(x,y)
,
..
ASCL fa

fa; fa = 1.

ASET amin amax


amin amax . amin=amax=0.0 (
), LS-DYNA
.

OSCL fo

fo; fo = 1.

J.4

LS-DYNA Version 960

OSET omin omax


omin omax, . omin=omax=0.0 (
), LS-DYNA
.

SMOOTH n

,
. n=0.


ELPLT

FSOFF

FSON

FSON


O. (
O.)

GO

GS

Mn

MNOFF

O, G
GO ( )

MNON

O, G
GO

NDPLT

RPHA

, , .
.
RPHA.

RPVA

, , .
.
RPVA.

LS-DYNA 960

J.5

TN r z l


(r l2, z l2)

UG

n (. M)

VSF


BACKUP

.
.

BLEN s

s=0

s=1

.
, 0 s 1.

CN m r z

m (r,z)

DEB n f1 l1 ... fn ln

n ,
f1 l1, f2 l2 ... , fo ln .
, .

DE e1 e2

e1 e2

DMB n m1 m2 ... mn

n ,
m1, m2,...,mn. ,
.

DM n m1 m2 ... mn

n m1, m2,..., mn

DZER k d incr nrow

. k , d
, incr - , nrow
.

DZLN number n1 n2 n3...nlast

. number , n1, n2,


... nlast .

DZNR l j incr

. l , j
, incr - .

J.6

LS-DYNA Version 960

n. -
GSET,
FSET SETF. ,
.

, .
.

n
.

BD m n

m
n ( ).

BDS s

DSL n l1 l2...ln

n l1, l2...,ln.

ER m n

m n (
)
r

ERS s

r s

ES m n

m n (
)

ESS s

EZ m n

m n (
)
z

EZS s

s
z

MC n

n
, ,

LS-DYNA 960

J.7

MD n


n.
SC MC

MN n

SC n

n
, ,

SD n


n;
SC MC

SLN m n

m n
, m
n

SLNS n

n
,

SN n

VS m n r


m n , r

VSS s r

s
, r

MAZE
B

n
(. M)

LD n k l

n MAZE k l

LDS n l

n MAZE l

Mn

n B


MOLP

J.8

,
.
MOLP.

LS-DYNA Version 960

NLOC

NUMCON n

n . n=9.

PLOC

,
( )

RANGE r1 r2

r1 r2 ,
LS-DYNA.
RANGE 0 0.


CONTOUR c n m1 m2...mn

c n m1,
m2, ..., mn. n=0, m1.
1.

FRINGE c n m1 m2...mn

c n m1, m2,...,
mn. n=0, m1.
1.

IFD n

n. n
, .

IFN l m


l m ( ).
B.

IFP c m

c
2.

IFS m

m. m
n B.

IFVA rc zc


(rc,zc) .
y.

IFVS


( ).

LINE c n m1 m2...mn

c ,
NLDF, PLDF, NSDF, NSSDF,
. n
m1, m2, ... , mn.

LS-DYNA 960

m.

J.9

NCOL n

n. n=6, ..
6 , , , ,
. n=5,
.

NLDF n n1 n2...n3

LINE n n1,
n2,...nn. .

NSDF m

LINE m.
m n B.

NSSDF l m

LINE,
l m ( ),
.
B.

PLDF n r1 z1...rn zn

LINE n
(r1,z1), (r2,z2), ... , (rn,zn). .

PRIN c n m1 m2...mn


yz n m1, m2,...,mn. n
= 0, m1.
.
, 1, - 0, 5, 6, 100,
105, 106,..., ..
,
0, 100, 200 ..

PROFILE c n m1 m2...mn

c
n m1, m2, ... , mn. n = 0 ,
.
1.

VECTOR c n m1 m2...mn

c n
m1, m2,..., mn. n=0,
m1 . c
D V
.

J.10

LS-DYNA Version 960

.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

y
21* ln (VVo) ( )
z
22*
y

23*
z
yz
24*
max
25*
y
min
26*
z, y
( A) 27* ,

28
ij
9
max - min 29
jk
10
y
30
kl
11
max
31
li
12
. ij kl ( B) 32
ij
13
jk li
33
jk
14
ij kl
34
kl
15
jk li
35
li
16
y -
36*
VVo
17
z -
37* VoV-1
18
. 38*
Q
19*
. . 39* P + Q
20*
/
40*


41*-70*
71* max r
76*

72* max z
77*

73* max r
78*

74* max z
79*
75*

1. . ,
*, 100, 200 300, 400, 500 600,
, , ,
, .
rz.
.
ij, jk .. ij, jk ..
610 Control Card 4, 71-79 .

LS-DYNA 960

J.11

1
2
3
4
5
6




y
z

2.

.

.

DBD a b

a b .
,
a b.

DCN a b

a b.
a b.

DCSN n a

n a,

DCNM a b

a b. a
b.

DER a b

a b .
r a
b ( ) .

DES a b

a b .
a
b ( ).

DEZ a b

a b .
z a
b ( ) .

DTE a b

a b .
, ,
.

J.12

LS-DYNA Version 960

DTN a b

a b .
, ,
.

DTNC a

a.
a .

DVS a b r

a b .

a b.

r ( ).

DZ a b

a b

DZOUT a b

.

.

DZZ a

a
. 0.15
. 0.15,
,
crzf.

DZZO a

a, 2 .

LS-DYNA 960

J.13

J.14

LS-DYNA Version 960

K:
LSDYNA .

*COMPONENT.
GEBOD
, HYBRID III A.7.
GEBOD
*COMPONENT_GEBOD LS-DYNA
.
GEBOD (Cheng ., 1994), ,
Wright-Patterson AFB .
, , LS-DYNA
- . -

(.
*CONTACT_GEBOD).
, ,
( ) : ,
, , , , , /, ,
. . K.1
50- ,
*COMPONENT_GEBOD_MALE. , ,
, ,
.

. K.1: 50- .
LS-DYNA 960

K.1

, , ,
. K.1
.
K.1: . .

(x)
(y)
(z)

(x)
(y)
(z)

(x)
(y)
(z)

(x)
(y)
(z)

- -
(x)
(z)
(y)

(y)

- -
(x)
(z)
(y)

(y)


(x)
(y)
(z)

:
. ,
K.1. ,
;
, .
( ) .
,
, .
*COMPONENT_GEBOD_JOINT_OPTION ,
. K.2
, .
.
K.2
.
; 1
*COMPONENT_GEBOD_OPTION ,
.

K.2

LS-DYNA Version 960

K.2: .
-
Min
Max

()
(in-lbf)
(in-lbf-s/rad)
()
()
- 1
65000
5.77
-20
20
0
- 2
65000
5.77
-20
20
0
- 3
65000
5.77
-5
5
0
- 1
65000
5.77
-20
20
0
- 2
65000
5.77
-20
20
0
- 3
65000
5.77
-35
35
0

10000
5.77
-25
25
0

-1

10000
5.77
-25
25
0

2

10000
5.77
-35
35
0

-3

10000
5.77
-25
25
0

-1

10000
5.77
-25
25
0

-2

10000
5.77
-35
35
0

-3
. - 1
100
5.77
-30
175
0
. - 1
100
5.77
-175
30
0
- 2
100
5.77
-65
65
0
- 3
100
5.77
-175
60
0
- 1
100
5.77
1
-140
0
. - 1
10000
5.77
-25
70
0
. - 1
10000
5.77
-70
25
0
- 2
10000
5.77
-70
70
0
- 3
10000
5.77
-140
40
0
- 1
100
5.77
-1
120
0
. - 1
100
5.77
-30
20
0
. - 1
100
5.77
-20
30
0
- 2
100
5.77
-20
45
0
- 3
100
5.77
-30
30
0

LS-DYNA 960

K.3

.
(-3.14,2.0)

(-0.5,0.1)

(0,0)
(0.5,-0.1)

( )

(3.14,-2.0)
. K.2: .
, . K.1, , .
, x,
z. ,
,
.
,
.
*COMPONENT_GEBOD
"gebod.did"
LS-DYNA; did , . 1
*COMPONENT_GEBOD_OPTION.
K.3; 40 (59a1,e30.0).
,
1 *COMPONENT_GEBOD_OPTION.
, "" .

K.4

LS-DYNA Version 960

K
K.3:
..
..
..


. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .






















LS-DYNA 960


.
. x
. y
. z
. x
. y
. z

+ =

+ =

+ =

+ =

+ =

+ =

+ =

+ =

+ =

+ =

+ =

+ =
-
+ =
-
+ =
-
- =
-
- =
-
- =
-
- =
-
+ =
-
+ =
-
+ =
-
+ =
-
+ =
-
- =
-
- =
-
+ =
-
+ =
-
+ =
-
+ =
-
+ =
-
+ =
-
- =
-
+ =
-
- =

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
-20.0
180.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
30.0
-10.0
-40.0
-30.0
10.0
-40.0
-60.0
-60.0
0.0
0.0
-80.0
0.0
0.0
-80.0
50.0
50.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
K.5

K.3 50- ,
. ,
, K.3. ,

.
, .
: x, y,
z. K.3
" y", -20. "
z" 180
z, -x.

. .
. .

K.3: , K.3.

K.6

LS-DYNA Version 960


HYBRID III

, Hybrid III.
K.4: . .

(y)
.
(y)
.
(y)

-
(y)

-
(y)

-
(x)

-
(y)
. -
(x)
.
. (z)

(z)
(z)
(z)
- (x)

-
(z)


(y)

-
(z)
(y)

-
(y)
(z)

*COMPONENT_HYBRIDIII .
T = alo (q - qlo ) + blo (q - qlo )

qqlo

qqhi

T = ahi (q - qhi ) + bhi (q - qhi )

T=0

qlo<q<qhi,

T ;
q ;
alo blo , ,
;
ahi bhi , ,
;
qlo qhi .

LS-DYNA 960

K.7

K
REFERENCES

Cheng, H., Obergefell, L.A., and Rizer, A., March 1994, "Generator of Body (GEBOD) Manual,"
Report No. AL/CF-TR-1994-0051.

K.8

LS-DYNA Version 960

MPP LS-DYNA

L: MPP LS-DYNA
MPP LS-DYNA.
LS-DYNA
LS-DYNA. ,
, ,
manual@lstc.com.


920 ,
. ,
,
LS-DYNA .
LS-DYNA MPP.
, , .
LS-DYNA 93x MPP/LS-DYNA,
.
:
*ALE
*BOUNDARY_CONVECTION
*BOUNDARY_FLUX
*BOUNDARY_RADIATION
*BOUNDARY_USA_SURFACE
*CONTACT_TIEBREAK_NODES_TO_SURFACE
*CONTACT_TIEBREAK_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE
*CONTACT_1D
*DATABASE_AVS
*DATABASE_MOVIE
*DATABASE_MPGS
*DATABASE_TRACER
*DATABASE_BINARY_XTFILE
*INTERFACE_JOY
*LOAD_SUPERELASTIC_OPTION
*USER
*PART_REPOSITION
*TERMINATION_NODE
MPP/LS-DYNA ; .
,
, .
:
*CONTROL_TERMINATION
LS-DYNA 960

L.1

MPP LS-DYNA

*CONTROL_TIMESTEP
*DATABASE_BINARY
,
.


MPP/LS-DYNA ,
.

:
*CONTACT_TIEBREAK_SURFACE_TO_SURFACE
*CONTACT_FORCE_TRANSDUCER_CONSTRAINT

,
SMP LS-DYNA.
, .
CONTACT_control
_MPP.
, ( TITLE, ).
5 I10. :
trackpen
1,
.
, .
,
. ,
, /
. ,
, , .
.
bucket

lcbucket
, .

.
nseg2track
, ,

L.2

LS-DYNA Version 960

MPP LS-DYNA

inititer

pfile
( ). , :
*CONTACT_SINGLE_SURFACE_TITLE
-

*CONTACT_SINGLE_SURFACE_TITLE_MPP
-
1
. SMP
.

-

ASCII, LS-DYNA, ,
MPP/LS-DYNA. - dumpbdb,
ASCII-.
,
pfile (. pfile). ( ) dbout.nnnn, nnnn
, .
ASCII, :
cd <global directory>
cat dbout.* > dbout
dumpbdb dbout
ASCII :
*DATABASE_SECFORC
*DATABASE_RWFORC
*DATABASE_NODOUT
*DATABASE_ELOUT
*DATABASE_GLSTAT
*DATABASE_DEFORC
*DATABASE_MATSUM
*DATABASE_NCFORC
*DATABASE_RCFORC
*DATABASE_DEFGEO
*DATABASE_ABSTAT
*DATABASE_NODOFR
*DATABASE_RBDOUT
*DATABASE_SLEOUT

LS-DYNA 960

L.3

MPP LS-DYNA

*DATAGASE_JNTFORC
*DATABASE_SBTOUT
LS-DYNA ,
MPP/LS-DYNA, . d3dump
( = d3dump.nnnn), messag ( mesnnnn) .
, pfile.
d3plot . ,
-.


, MPP
LS-DYNA.
SMP LS-DYNA ,
, memory=XXX,
XXX , . MPP
XXX .
, .
, .
memory2=YYY.
memory,
XXX , YYY .
, 250000 4 ,
memory=80m memory2=20m. 16 ,
memory=80m, memory2=6m. memory2
, ,
() .
MPP LS-DYNA,
, SMP . ,
, D3FULL.
, d3dump03 (
: d3dump03.0000, d3dump03.0001, ..),
d3full03. , , d3dump
MPP . MPP ,
,
SMP . r=d3dump03
n=d3full03. MPP-,
, , d3full03
, .

L.4

LS-DYNA Version 960

MPP LS-DYNA

PFILE
: p=pfile. pfile ,
MPP . ,
. : directory,
decomposition, contact, general. pfile:
directory {
global rundir
local /tmp/rundir
}
contact {
inititer 3
}
, ,
,
. :

directory.

global path
, .
.
=

local path

. .
,
.
= global path

decomposition ,
file _
, . ,
, . _
.pre, . ,
MPP/LS-DYNA .
=
numproc n
n . n > 1,
, , , n ,
.
.
, numproc, file.
= , .

LS-DYNA 960

L.5

MPP LS-DYNA

costinc n
, , n
.
30, costinc
30 , ,
, , .

, .
= 0
method
, rcb greedy.
rcb (Recursive Coordinate Bisection).
greedy .
, rcb .
= rcb
expdir n
(RCB),
n 1 X, 2 Y, 3 Z.
. .
= 1
. .
.
expsf t
.

RCB t ,
expdir.
,
1/t .

,
. ,
expdir ,
expsf 0, .
,
,
.
= 1
. .
.

rx ry rz sx sy sz c2r s2r 3vec mat


.
L.6

LS-DYNA Version 960

MPP LS-DYNA

show
, d3plot
, -.
1 , 0, .
, ,
d3plot.
rcblog _
, RCB.
, ,
. ,
. ,
. , ,
, . -
-, -
. rcblog,
.
slist n1,n2,n3,...
. n1,n2,n3
,
( , 1).
(, "1,2,3", "1, 2, 3"). ,
.
, , ,
, ,
. 5 . ,
, 1 2 , ,

.

.
sidist n1,n2,n3,...
silist:
(
).
.
vspeed
,
,
.
.

LS-DYNA 960

L.7

MPP LS-DYNA

contact
, . MPP

SMP, , ,
MPP, . MPP
. pfile
.
bucket n
.
= 200 (5 a13)
ntrack n
.
.
, , 1 2
.
= 3
inititer n

, . ,

, .
.

, ,
.
, , ,
.
"mes"
, , ,
mes0003.
= 2

general
nodump
,

nofull
, d3full (
).

L.8

LS-DYNA Version 960

MPP LS-DYNA

nofail
,
. ,
.
swapbytes
, d3plot
.


"" pfile ,
rcb. rcb
,
. ,
.
, . ,
, .
,
.
,
. : ,
xy , 30 x,
, .
:
sx 0.5
rz -30
. .
, . :
sx t
x t.
sy t
y t.
sz t
z t.
rx t
x t .
ry t
y t .
rz t
z t .
mat m11 m12 m13 m21 m22 m23 m31 m32 m33

LS-DYNA 960

L.9

MPP LS-DYNA

x
m11 m12 m13
x
y =
m21 m22 m23
y
z
m31 m32 m33
z
3vec v11 v12 v13 v21 v22 v23 v31 v32 v33

, :

x
v11 v21 v31
x
y =
v12 v22 v32
y
z
v13 v23 v33
z
, :
, rcb ,
(v11, v12, v13), (v21, v22, v23), (v31, v32, v33).

,
.
C2R x0 y0 z0 vx1 vy1 vz1 vx2 vy2 vz2

(x0, y0,
z0), (vx1, vy1, vz1) theta=0 (vx2, vy2, vz2).
, (vx2, vy2, vz2)
(vx1, vy1, vz1). , ,
"" :
. :
(x,y,z) = (r,theta,z)
, .
S2R x0 y0 z0 vx1 vy1 vz1 vx2 vy2 vz2

, , . (vx1,vy1,vz1) phi=0.
(x,y,z) = (rho, theta, phi)
:
"expdir 2 expsf 5.0" "sy 5.0"
rz 45
, z -45 .

L.10

LS-DYNA Version 960

MPP LS-DYNA

C2R 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
. (0,0,1),
(1,0,0). , (1,0,0),
. -
, "theta=0"
. , , , 100
50 , C2R
x=[0,50], y=[0, 2PI), z=[0,100]. , y (theta)
. ,
,
y. ,
.
, :
C2R 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
SY 5000
C2R, y 5000.
, y 30000
,

() y.
"" .
, :
SX 5 SY .2 RZ 30
x, y, .

MPP/LS-DYNA
MPP/LS-DYNA ,
. .

. .
.
SMP SIGINT
( Ctrl-C) ,
"- ".
MPP
. MPI
( "mpirun").
Ctrl-C , , MPPDYNA. , MPP, ,
"bg_switch" . :
rsh < > kill -INT <PID>

LS-DYNA 960

L.11

MPP LS-DYNA

< > - ,
MPP-DYNA, <PID> - ( HP "rsh"
"remsh"). ,
.
, , . ,
-, .

DEC Alpha
Fujitsu
Hitachi
HP
IBM

NEC
SGI
Sun


dmpirun -np n mpp-dyna
jobexec vp n mem m
mpp-dyna
mpirun -np n mpp-dyna
mpp-dyna np n
#!/bin./ksh
export MP_PROC=n
export MP_LABELIO=no
export MP_EUILIB=us
export MPI_EUIDEVICE=css0
poe mpp-dyna
mpirun -np n mpp-dyna
mpirun -np n mpp-dyna
tmrun n-p n mpp-dyna

n , mpp-dyna MPP/LS-DYNA, m
.

L.12

LS-DYNA Version 960

M:

.
,
.
. ,
, .
,
,
. ,
,
.
,
,
, . ,
,
, ,
.
, .
950.
,
. 960
,
.

*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_GENERAL. LS-DYNA
, .
*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_SOLUTION. ,

.

*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_GENERAL, , ,
.
*CONTROL_TERMINATION.
, . ,
, *CONTROL_IMPLICIT_SOLUTION.

LS-DYNA 960

M.1

*SECTION_SOLID / *SECTION_SHELL.
LSDYNA .

*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_GENERAL, , .
.
*CONTROL_TERMINATION (
, ,

).

*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_EIGENVALUE
.
LS-DYNA .
.
, . ,
. ,

. ,
.
.
, /
, .
, ,
*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_SOLUTION. ,
,
, NLPRINT <ctrl-c> nlprint
(
). ,
(du/u) (Ei/E0) . ,
( ,
1.0e-3 1.0e-2 ), , .
.
BEGIN time step
3 ( )
============================================================
time = 1.50000E-01 ()
current step size = 5.00000E-02 ( )
Iteration:
1
*|du|/|u| = 3.4483847E-01
*Ei/E0 = 1.0000000E+00
Iteration:
2
*|du|/|u| = 1.7706435E-01
*Ei/E0 = 2.9395439E-01
Iteration:
3
*|du|/|u| = 1.6631174E-03
*Ei/E0 = 3.7030904E-02
Iteration:
4
*|du|/|u| = 9.7088516E-05
*Ei/E0 = 9.6749731E-08

.
. ,
NLPRINT <ctrl-c>
nlprint .

M.2

LS-DYNA 960


KD u = R .
K
R , D u .
.
, KD u = R ,
*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_SOLVER. :
( ) ( ,
).
. ,
.


.
.
. ,
.
.
D u R . ,
K ,
.
BFGS,
. K
,
.
, . .
( R ),
.
.
. 10. 1,
.
BEGIN time step
1 ( )
============================================================
time = 1.00000E+00 ()
current step size = 1.00000E+00 ( )
Iteration:

LS-DYNA 960

*|du|/|u| =

2.5517753E+00

*Ei/E0 =

1.0000000E+00

M.3

DIVERGENCE (increasing residual norm) detected:


|{Fe}-{Fi}| ( 7.5426269E+03) exceeds |{Fe}| ( 5.0000000E+00)
automatically REFORMING stiffness matrix...

( )):
|{Fe}-{Fi}| ( 7.5426269E+03) |{Fe}| ( 5.0000000E+00)
...
Iteration:
Iteration:
Iteration:
Iteration:
Iteration:
Iteration:
Iteration:
Iteration:

2
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

*|du|/|u|
*|du|/|u|
*|du|/|u|
*|du|/|u|
*|du|/|u|
*|du|/|u|
*|du|/|u|
*|du|/|u|

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

6.0812935E-01
1.0974191E-02
1.0978787E-02
4.2201181E-03
4.1142219E-03
1.9794757E-03
1.7957653E-03
1.2022830E-03

*Ei/E0
*Ei/E0
*Ei/E0
*Ei/E0
*Ei/E0
*Ei/E0
*Ei/E0
*Ei/E0

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

4.0526413E-01
2.3907781E-04
1.7910795E-04
4.2557768E-05
3.0658711E-05
9.1215551E-06
6.1669480E-06
2.9031284E-06

ITERATION LIMIT reached, automatically REFORMING stiffness matrix...


,
...
Iteration:

11

*|du|/|u| =

5.4011414E-04

*Ei/E0 =

1.0553019E-06

BFGS. ,
. - ,
( 10 ).
, .
NLPRINT <ctrl-c> nlprint
(
).
T
T
-1
K -1
n+1 = (I + wv )K n (I + vw )

BFGS:

.


, LS-DYNA ,
. .
,
. - -
2 6, 16.

, 6.

M.4

LS-DYNA 960


,
. .
,
.
.
, , , 100
4 . ,
. , 0.25, 1.0.
: (0.0, 0.0) (1.0, 100.0).
LS-DYNA
.
.
100 ,
, 9 .
(. ).
, ,
.

Pressure (psi.)

100.0

0.0
1.0

2.0

Problem Time, t

1.0

2.0

Problem Time, t

Displacement (in.)

9.0

0.0

.
0.0
1.0, 1.0
2.0.

LS-DYNA 960

M.5



*CONTROL_TERMINATION, -
*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_GENERAL. .
. ,
,
.
.
*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_AUTO.
. -,
/
. ,
. -, - ,
. .
,
( )
.

. ,
, ,
, ,
. .


. ,
.
*INTERFACE_SPRINGBACK_DYNA3D,
"dynain", , *NODE,
*ELEMENT *INITIAL_STRESS.
.
LS-DYNA .
, , ,
, .
, .. .
IMFLAG
*CONTROL_IMPLICIT_GENERAL.

M.6

LS-DYNA 960



LS-DYNA.
,
. , "<ctrl-c> iteration". LS-DYNA
"d3iter",
.
d3plot. , .

LS-DYNA 960

M.7

M.8

LS-DYNA 960