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A Modified Newton-Raphson Power Flow Method Considering Wind Power

Yan Li, Yulei Luo, Buhan Zhang, Chengxiong Mao

College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhan 430074, Hubei Province, China Email: liyanhust@mail.hust.edu.cn

AbstractPower flow calculation is an important constituent in power system analysis, it is very necessary to modify the Newton-Raphson power flow Method that can accurately describe the characteristics of wind power in order to obtain accurate calculation results. This paper expands Newton-Raphson power flow method with the wind power, the asynchronous generator and doubly-fed induction generator are discussed in detail, the Jacobian matrix is revised correspondingly; at last the modified Newton-Raphson power flow Method applies to IEEE-5 system, the results are checked by PSASP platform, the case study show that the modified Newton-Raphson power flow Method is better in convergence.

Keywords-modified Newton-Raphson power flow method; wind power; Jacobian matrix

I.

INTRODUCTION

Wind power is a cost-effective renewable source; it can smoothly be integrated into the power system by application of adequate control technologies. The worldwide development of wind power make it as an important type of distributed generation, it will have an impact on the power system stability and operation [1] . Power flow study is conducted to determine the steady state operating condition of power system and is most frequently carried out by power utilities, with the development of wind power combined to the grid; the accurate power flow analysis is becoming an important issue.

Many studies have been carried out on this focus, a new algorithm which is an improvement to Zbus method is developed in paper[2], different interfaces between DG and the power grid are discussed, the operation modes and control characteristics of typical DG including the asynchronous and synchronous generators. For the load flow

of the distribution system with DG, the improved backward-forward sweep is adopted in paper[3-5], paper[6] developes the RX model of the wind generators, considering the slippage iteration in power flow calculation. Paper[7] introduces the steady model of wind turbines with an asynchronous generator, based on the conventional RX model, the difference between mechanical power and electric power for a wind turbine, and the slip of an asynchronous generator are introduced into the correction function of Newton iteration method to form an expanded correction function. Paper[8] develops a joint iteration method based on the simplified steady-state equivalent circuit of asynchronous generator in order to calculate load flow of power system containing wind farms, by means of modifying Jacobian matrix, the iteration process is simplified.

Above all, power flow calculation with wind power has been improved in different ways, but as a popular method in practice, Newton-Raphson power flow (NRPF) method has the good property of exact problem formulation and very good convergence. This paper expands NRPF method with the wind power generation nodes, the steady state equivalent circuit of an asynchronous generator(AG) and doubly-fed induction generator(DFIG) are discussed in detail, the power equations are modified according to the PQ(V) character, the Jacobian matrix is revised correspondingly; at last a program based on the modified NRPF method is designed to calculate the power flow with the wind power, then the power analysis work has been done on Power System Analysis Software Package (PSASP), the same results have been achieved by these two different ways, but the modified NRPF method developed by this paper is better in convergence.

978-1-4244-6255-1/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE

II. THE STEADY STATE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF THE TYPICAL WIND GENERATION

The popular forms which combine the wind power to the

grid are through AG and DFIG today, the circuit models of

these two types of the wind generators are discussed, the

operation modes and control characteristics are considered

in the equivalence.

A. The steady state equivalence of DFIG

The steady state equivalence of DFIG is shown in

represents the

Fig.1 [9] ,

V

s

represents the stator voltage,

I

s

stator current, V represents the rotator voltage, r I r represents the rotator current, and
stator current,
V
represents the rotator voltage,
r
I
r represents the rotator current,
and
x
s represent the stator
r s
resistance and reactance respectively,
r
and
x
represent the
r
r
rotator resistance and reactance respectively,
x
is the
m
excitation reactance, s is the slip ratio.
r
x
x
s
r r
s
s
r
I
I
s
r
V
x
V
s
s
m
r

Figure1The circuit model of DFIG

According to the steady state equivalent circuit, the

voltage across the stator and the rotator of the doubly-fed

induction generator can be got in (1).

⎪ ⎨

V = I

s

(

r

ss

+

jx

s

)

V

r

s

=

I

r

⎝ ⎜

r

r

s

+

jx

r

++ I I

⎠ ⎟

(

s

(

I

r

jx

m

)

jx

)

++

I

srm

(1)

The real power P generated by DFIG includes two parts,

, another part is the rotator

is positive, the rotator provide power to

one part is the stator power

power

the grid, if s<1,

from the grid.

P

s

P

r

, if s>1,

P

r

P

r

is negative, the rotator absorb power

The reactive power of the doubly-fed induction generator Q also includes two parts, one part is the stator

reactive power

power

, to the variable speed wind power DFIG based

, another part is the converter reactive

Q

s

Q

r

generation systems,

considered as

Q

r

0 the reactive power Q can be

Q

s

approximately.

22 rx ( 2 P + Q ) 2 r x r ss s s
22
rx
(
2
P
+ Q
)
2 r x
r
ss
s
s
r
ss
P
=
P
+
P
=
+
sr
2
2
2
x
V
x
m
m
s
Where,
= xx+
x ss
sm
2 r V r s Q +− (1 sP ) + (2) s s 2
2
r
V
r
s
Q
+− (1
sP )
+
(2)
s
s
2
x
m

When DFIG is combined to the grid, the constant power

factor mode is adopted, if the power factor is set to be cosϕ , then

P

QQ≈ = P tan ϕ (3) s s Consider (2) and (3), Q 222 r
QQ≈
= P tan
ϕ
(3)
s
s
Consider (2) and (3),
Q
222
r x
(
)
(
1
+
tan
ϕ
)
2
r
ss
tan
ϕ
2
rx
tan
ϕ
Q
r
V
r
ss
r
s
=
++
(1
s
)
+
2
2
2
2
x
V
x
tan
ϕ
x
m
m
m
s

The output active power P is decided by wind speed, it

will be a fixed value in the power flow calculation [11-12] .

Suppose P is constant, the equation in form

determined in (4).

(

Q = fV

s

2 2

rx

r

ss

sin

Q

2

rx

+

r

ss

xxϕ

2

mm

22

+

⎞ ⎟

1

s

tan

ϕ

V

s

2

Q

+

r

r

2

x m

42

−= PV 0

ss

V

)

is

(4)

Assume that

a

=

2

ss

r x

r

x

2

m

sin

2

ϕ

,

(4) is rewritten in (5).

b =

2 r x

r

ss

x

2

m

+

1

s

tan

ϕ

aQ + bV Q +−=cV

s

dV

ss

22

42

0

,

c

=

r

r

x

2

m

, d = P ,

(5)

The Q-V relationship is determined in (6).

Q

=−

b

2

a

V

s

2

+

( 42 b 2 − 4 ac V ) + 4 adV s s
(
42
b 2
4
ac V
)
+
4
adV
s
s

2

a

(6)

B. The steady state equivalence of AG

The steady state equivalence of asynchronous generator

is the excitation reactance,

is the leakage

c is the capacitance of the

is the rotator

is shown in Fig.2 [2] . Where,

x

m

x 1 is the leakage reactance of the stator,

reactance

of

the

rotator,

x

capacitor in parallel with the generator,

resistance, s is the slip ratio.

x

2

R

2

P + jQ jx R jx 2 s 1 2 V − jx c jx
P + jQ
jx
R
jx
2 s
1
2
V − jx
c jx
m

Figure2The circuit model of AG

From the equivalent circuit, we can get (7) and (8)

below. ( 22 2 − P sx + R ) 2 V = R s
below.
(
22
2
P sx
+
R
)
2
V =
R s
2
2
V
Px
Q
=−
+
s
x
R
P
2
x x
Where
xx=
,
c
m
+ x
x
=
1
2
p
x
x
c
m

(7)

(8)

The output active power P is also decided by wind speed,

which could be considered as a fixed value in the load flow

calculation. Consider (7) and (8), the Q-V relationship can

be determined in (9) [2] .

Q

=−

V

2

x

p

+

2 4 22 −+ V V − 4 Px 2 x
2
4
22
−+
V
V
4 Px
2 x

(9)

In the proposed steady state equivalence, the coupling

relation among the terminal voltage, active power, reactive

power of wind turbine and the slip is taken into account, in

NRPF method, elements of Jacobian matrix are computed

from the standard expressions, which are functions of bus

voltages, bus powers and the elements of bus admittance

matrix, the power equation of the wind power will be set up

in order to calculate the corresponding elements in the

Jacobian matrix, the modified NRPF will improve its

convergence when it is applied to the grid with wind power.

C. Power Equations of the wind generation

as the real power, PQ(V) nodes can be used

to express the wind power nodes, their corresponding power

equations are expressed below.

Define

P is

1)

Power equation of DFIG:

Δ=

PP

i

is

P

=−

is

P

e

i

i

n

=

1

j

Δ=

QQQ

i

is

i

(

Ge

ij

j

B f

ij

j

n

)( ij

f

i

G f

j

j

=

1

+

Be

ij

j

)

=−

f i

b

2

a

(

(

22

f

+

e

ii

)

+

1

2

a

( (

b

2

4

ac

)(

22

f

+

e

ii

)

2

+

n

=

1

j

(

Ge

ij

j

n

)( ij

B f

−+

ij

j

e

i

G f

j

j

=

1

)

+= Be 0

ij

j

Where,

= 0

4

ad

(

22

f

+

e

ii


Q is

V

is

b

=−

=

(

2

2

i

is

i

2

V

a

ef +

2

+

1

2

a

)

1 2
1
2

((

b

2

4

)

ac V

42

is

+

4

adV

is

)

)

)



1 2 ⎪
1
2


1 2
1 2

2)

Power equation of AG:

Δ=

PP

i

is

P

=−

is

P

e

i

i

n

=

1

j

(

Ge

ij

j

Δ= QQ

i

is

Q

i

11 +

xx P 2

=−

(

2

i

e

B f

ij

j

+

f

i

2

)

n

)( ij

f

i

G f

j

j

=

1

+

1

2

x

( (

e

2

i

+

f

i

2

+

Be

ij

j

)

= 0

)

2 22

4

Px

is

)

n − f ∑ ( Ge i ij j j = 1 Where, ⎧ ⎛
n
− f
(
Ge
i
ij
j
j
=
1
Where,
11 +
2
=−
(
e
⎪ ⎪
Q is
i
xx
2
P
1
2
2
2
V
=
(
ef
+
)
is
i
i

n

)( ij

B f

−+

ij

j

e

i

G f

j

j

=

1

+

f

i

2

)

+

1

2

x

( (

2

i

e

+

f

i

)

+= Be 0

ij

j

2

)

2

4

22

Px

is

)

1 2
1
2



1 2 ⎪
1
2


(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

D. Modification on NRPF Method

The iteration function of the universal NRPF method is:

⎡⎤⎡ P ⎢⎥⎢

⎢⎥⎢ Q

⎢⎥⎢

⎣⎦⎣

2

= −

U

HN

ML

RS

⎥ ⎡ e

⎥ ⎦ ⎣

f

Considering the power equation of the wind power, M

should be revised

correspondingly; to the diagonal elements( i = j ), if they

and

L

in

the

Jacobian

matrix

are wind power nodes, they should be modified respectively

as below:

1)

DFIG

2)

∂Δ Q

e

i

i

∂Δ Q

f

i

i

n

= (

k = 1

G f

ik

k

+

Be

ik

k

)

+

Be

ii

i

G f

ii

i

+−


b

a

=

n

k = 1

(

Ge

ik

k

B f

ik

k

)

+

Ge

ii

i

+

B f

ii

i

+−


e

i

b

a

+

f

i


⎪ ⎪

⎪ ⎪


b 2

44

(

ac

e i

++

e

ii

)(

22

f

)

ade

8

i

((

2

44

b

a

ac

)(

22

++ f

e

ii

)

2

(

ad e

4

ii

22

+

f

))

1 2 ⎥
1
2

⎦ ⎥

+

⎤ ⎥

⎥ ⎪ 1 2 ⎥ ⎪
1
2

b 2

44

(

ac

e

i

++

ii

)(

22

f

f

adf

8

i

)

((

2

44

b

a

ac

)(

22

++ f

e

ii

)

2

(

ad e

4

ii

22

+

f

))

⎦⎭ ⎪

(14)

AG

∂Δ Q

e

i

i

∂Δ Q

f

i

i

n

= (

k = 1

G f

ik

k

+

Be

ik

k

)

+

Be

ii

i

G f

ii

i

+−


1

xx

2

+

P

e

i

=

n

k = 1

(

Ge

ik

k

B f

ik

k

)

+

Ge

ii

i

+

B f

ii

i

+−

⎢⎝

⎣ ⎢

1

xx

2

+

P


f

i



⎦⎪ ⎬



(

2

ee

ii

i

2

+ f

)

+

2

2

2 22

2

x

((

e

i

+ f

i

)

4 Px

is

) 1

(

2

fe

ii

2

+ f

i

)

+

2

2

2

22

2

x ((

e i

+ f

i

)

4 Px

is

) 1

⎥ ⎥

⎦⎭


(15)

III. CASE STUDY

The wind generation node is added to the IEEE-5 system from bus 2 as shown in Fig.3, bus B5 is the slack bus, bus B4 is PV and bus B1B2B3 are PQ respectively, bus B6 is a wind generator, it is set as PQ(V) node. All the given

parameter in Fig.3 are in pu. ( S = 100 MVA ) 。 B B5
parameter in Fig.3 are in pu. (
S
=
100 MVA
) 。
B
B5
B3
B1
1:1.05
0.1+ j0.35
1.6 + j0.1
0 + j0.03
3.7 + j1.3
B2
B6
B4
1:1.05
1.05:1
2 + j3.5
0 + j0.02
0 + j0.015
0.08
0.3j+
0.4
0.25j+

Figure3IEEE-5 system with wind generation node

Rated condition of AG is 600kW/690V, total number is 30 [2] , Rated condition of the DFIG is 864kW/690V, total number is 58 [13] . Compare the power flow results calculated by user-defined model (UD) of PSASP and the modified NRPF Method, the results are shown in Table 1.

TABLE I

THE COMPARISON OF THE NRPF AND UD OF PSASP

 

DFIG

AG

Bus

 

UD of

 

UD of

modified NRPF

PSASP

modified NRPF

PSASP

B1

0.968435

0.96854

0.974638

0.97462

B2

1.049882

1.05000

1.046532

1.0465

B3

1.035748

1.03577

1.040276

1.04027

B4

1.050000

1.05000

1.050000

1.05000

B5

1.050000

1.05000

1.050000

1.05000

B6

1.004835

1.00509

0.994930

0.99484

Calculation results show the modification is right, The

difference of PSASP and the modified NRPF method is that

UD model of PSASP doesn’t change the iteration at all,

instead, it considers the wind power farm as a PQ node in

the iteration, the imbalance of reactive power is amended out of the iteration, as a result, it has two iteration processes. On the contrary, the modified NRPF method improves the Jacobi matrix, which the imbalance of reactive power is

amended in the iteration. The convergence comparison is

shown in Fig.4. On the other hand, the core process which is

simulated in PSASP, the square astringency would be suffered, it may not converges with more wind generators. while the modified NRPF method won’t be influenced by the number of the wind generators in theory, it has a good potential in the power flow calculations to the large grid with wind power.

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
-0.1
MAX(DVR DVI)

iteration

The modified NRPF method PSASP

The modified NRPF method

PSASP

Figure4The convergence of two kinds of power flow calculation

IV.

CONCLUSION

Power flow study is conducted to determine the steady state operating condition of power system and is most frequently carried out by power utilities. This paper explores the modified NRPF method in order to consider the wind power.

The steady state equivalent circuit of AG and DFIG are discussed in detail.

The power equations are modified according to the

PQ(V) character, the Jacobian matrix is revised

correspondingly.

The modified NRPF method developed by this paper is better in convergence, it has the good potential to calculate the large grid with wind power.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors would like to acknowledge that this research project is supported by the Key Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China (50837003) and the National Basic Research Program of China (2009CB219702).

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