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Infectious Disease, Diet and Exercise Questions

70 minutes
70 marks

Page 1 of 18

Q1.

Obesity is a factor that affects Coronary Heart Disease (CHD).


(a)

What is meant by obesity?


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(1)

(b)

The graph shows how the percentages of obese men and women in the UK changed
between 1994 and 2004.

(i)

Describe how the percentage of obese women changed between 1994 and 2004.
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(2)

(ii)

The percentage of obese men changed between 1994 and 2004.


Suggest two reasons for this change.
1. .......................................................................................................................
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2. .......................................................................................................................
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(2)

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(c)

The chart below is published by the British Heart Foundation. It shows how death from
CHD is related to a number of different factors.

copyright National Heart Forum

Each factor is represented by a circle.


The bigger the circle, the more people are affected by the factor.
(i)

What is the main factor causing death from CHD?


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(1)

(ii)

Estimate the percentage of deaths from CHD related to high blood pressure.
.................................................. %
(1)

(iii)

The data are shown as overlapping circles instead of a bar chart. The percentages
of deaths related to the different factors add up to more than 100%.
What does this tell you about some of the people who died from CHD?
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(1)
(Total 8 marks)

Page 3 of 18

Q2.

In the 19th century, Dr Semmelweiss investigated infection in a hospital.


He compared the number of deaths of mothers on two maternity wards.

On Ward 1, babies were delivered mainly by doctors. These doctors worked on


many different wards in the hospital.

On Ward 2, babies were delivered by midwives. The midwives did not work on other
wards.

The bar chart shows the results of his investigations.

(a)

(i)

600 mothers gave birth on Ward 2 in 1845.


How many mothers died from infections on Ward 2 in 1845?
Show clearly how you work out your answer.
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Number of mothers who died ..............................
(2)

(ii)

Which was the safer ward on which to have a baby?


Draw a ring around your answer. Ward 1 / Ward 2.
Using data from the bar chart, give a reason for your answer.
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(1)

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(b)

In January 1848, Dr Semmelweiss asked all doctors to wash their hands before delivering
babies.
The table shows the number of deaths on the two wards in 1848.

(i)

Ward

Number of deaths from


infections per 100
births

Ward 1

Ward 2

Plot this data on the bar chart above.


(1)

(ii)

What was the effect on the death rate on Ward 1 of doctors washing their hands
before delivering babies?
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(1)

(iii)

Suggest an explanation for this effect.


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(1)
(Total 6 marks)

Page 5 of 18

Q3.

Students investigated how well antibacterial mouthwashes worked.


They tested four different mouthwashes, P, Q, R and S.

They spread bacteria on nutrient jelly in a Petri dish.

They soaked identical discs of filter paper in mouthwashes P, Q, R or S.

They placed the discs on the growing bacteria as shown in Diagram 1.

They covered the Petri dish.

They incubated the Petri dish for two days.

(a)

The nutrient jelly was heated to 120 C before being poured into the Petri dish.
Why is this necessary?
Tick ( ) one box.

Statement

Tick
( )

To make bacteria grow more quickly.


To kill microorganisms.
To make the nutrients dissolve.
(1)

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(b)

What is the maximum temperature at which bacteria should be incubated in a school


laboratory?
Tick ( ) one box.

Temperature

Tick
( )

15 C
25 C
37 C
(1)

(c)

Diagram 2 shows the appearance of the Petri dish after two days.

Which mouthwash, P, Q, R or S kills most bacteria?


Give one reason for your answer.
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........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 4 marks)

Page 7 of 18

Q4.

The chart below shows factors that are related to death from coronary heart disease (CHD).

Reproduced under the terms of the Click-Use Licence.

Each factor is represented by a circle.


The bigger the circle, the more people are affected by the factor.
(a)

(i)

The data are shown as overlapping circles instead of a bar chart.


The percentage of deaths related to the different factors add up to more than 100 %.
What does this tell you about some of the people who died from CHD?
..............................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Estimate the percentage of deaths from CHD related to high blood pressure.
.................................................... %
(1)

(b)

CHD is affected by hereditary factors.


Give two hereditary factors that affect our health.
1. ....................................................................................................................
2. ....................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 4 marks)

Page 8 of 18

Q5.

Read the passage about the use of antibiotics in food production.


People do not always agree about the use of antibiotics in food production.
Some farmers put low doses of antibiotics in feed for animals such as cattle and
sheep. Antibiotics help to keep animals disease-free. Antibiotics also help animals to
grow.
The use of antibiotics in livestock feed means that there is a higher risk of antibioticresistant bacteria developing. These could be dangerous to human health.
(a)

Explain how a population of antibiotic-resistant bacteria might develop from non-resistant


bacteria.
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(3)

(b)

Suggest two reasons why it is an advantage to keep farm animals disease free.
1 .....................................................................................................................
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2 .....................................................................................................................
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(2)
(Total 5 marks)

Q6.

A popular diet book claims that a low-carbohydrate diet results in quicker weight loss and a
more healthy body than a low-fat diet.
Scientists carried out an investigation to see if this claim is true.

They used 120 overweight volunteers divided into two equal groups.

Group 1 was given a diet containing less than 20 g of carbohydrate per day.

Group 2 was given a low-fat diet. This contained less than 30% of energy from fat
and less than 300 mg of cholesterol per day.

Both groups were given the same exercise programmes and a weekly information
meeting.

Both groups were allowed only 2000 kilocalories per day.


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The results after 24 weeks are shown in the table.

Group 1
Low-carbohydrate diet

Group 2
Low-fat diet

76%

57%

Mean change in body


mass

12.9%

6.7%

Mean change in body fat


mass

9.4 kg

4.8 kg

Mean change in blood


HDL concentration

+55 mg per litre

16 mg per litre

Mean change in blood


LDL concentration

+16 mg per litre

74 mg per litre

Proportion of volunteers
who completed the trial

(a)

What was the independent variable in this investigation?


....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Give one variable that the scientists tried to control in this investigation.
....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

Give two ways in which the method used by the scientists could have led to unreliable
data.
1 .................................................................................................................................
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2 .................................................................................................................................
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(2)

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(d)

Does the data support the claim in the book?


Draw a ring around your answer.

Yes / No

Give two reasons for your answer.


1 .................................................................................................................................
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2 .................................................................................................................................
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(2)
(Total 6 marks)

Q7.

Many people who are overweight try slimming programmes.


A research study evaluated four different slimming programmes over 6 months.
Scientists selected a group of 40 people for each slimming programme and a control group.
Each of the five groups was matched for age, gender and mass.
The graph shows the results of the study.

Adapted from British Medical Journal, 2006, volume 332, pages 1309 1314.

(a)

Give two control variables that were used in this study.


1 ..................................................................................................................................
2 ..................................................................................................................................
(2)

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(b)

Give two conclusions that can be drawn from the results of this study.
1 ..................................................................................................................................
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2 ..................................................................................................................................
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(2)

(c)

The costs of the four programmes were:

Atkins book cost 3


Rosemary Conley classes cost 140 for 6 months
Weight Watchers classes cost 170 for 6 months
Twice-daily Slim-Fast meal replacements cost 240 for 6 months.

Use this information and the graph to answer this question.


Which is the most cost effective of the four programmes?
.....................................................................................................................................
Explain the reason for your answer.
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(2)

(d)

Some slimming programmes include daily exercise.


Explain how daily exercise helps a person to lose mass.
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(2)
(Total 8 marks)

Page 12 of 18

Q8.

Medical scientists research microbes and the diseases they cause.


An important part of this research is identifying what type of microbe causes which disease.
(a)

Many diseases in humans are caused by bacteria and viruses.


Tick ( ) the correct box in the table for each disease to show if the disease is caused by
bacteria or viruses.
Disease

Caused by bacteria

Caused by viruses

Influenza
Mumps
Cholera
Tuberculosis
(3)

(b)

In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly
and using specialist terms where appropriate.
Describe how vaccination helps people to develop immunity to a disease.
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(6)
(Total 9 marks)

Page 13 of 18

Q9.

Many diseases are caused by viruses. Children are given vaccines to protect them against
viral disease.
(a)

Explain how vaccination protects a child against a viral disease.


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(3)

(b)

In the 1990s many people thought that the MMR vaccine caused autism in some children.
This is why the Japanese government stopped using the MMR vaccine.
The graph gives information about the percentage of Japanese children who developed
autism during the 1990s.

Page 14 of 18

The data in the graph support the view that there is no link between MMR vaccination and
autism.
Explain why.
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(4)
(Total 7 marks)

Q10.

Some students investigated the effect of pH on the growth of one species of bacterium.

They transferred samples of bacteria from a culture of this species to each of eight flasks. Each flask
contained a solution of nutrients but at a different pH.
After 24 hours, the students measured the amount of bacterial growth.
(a)

It was important that the flasks in which the bacteria grew were not contaminated with
other microorganisms.
Describe two precautions the students should have taken to prevent this contamination.
1 ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
2 ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

To see the effect of pH on the growth of the bacteria, other conditions should be kept
constant.
Suggest two conditions which should have been kept constant for all eight flasks.
1 ..................................................................................................................................
2 ..................................................................................................................................
(2)

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(c)

The graph shows the results of the investigation.

The students wanted to find the best pH for the growth of this species of bacterium.
(i)

Use the graph to estimate the pH at which the bacteria would grow best.
pH ..............................
(1)

(ii)

What could the students do to find a more accurate value for the best pH for growth
of the bacteria?
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 6 marks)

Q11.

Influenza is a disease caused by a virus.


(a)

Explain why it is difficult to treat diseases caused by viruses.


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.....................................................................................................................................
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(2)

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(b)

In some years there are influenza epidemics.


The graph shows the death rate in Liverpool during three influenza epidemics.

(i)

The population of Liverpool in 1951 was approximately 700 000.


Calculate the approximate number of deaths from influenza in week 4 of the 1951
epidemic.
Show clearly how you work out your answer.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
Number of deaths ..............................
(2)

(ii)

In most years, the number of deaths from influenza in Liverpool is very low.
Explain, in terms of the influenza virus and the bodys immune system, why there
were large numbers of deaths in years such as 1918 and 1951.
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(3)
(Total 7 marks)

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