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# OPTICAL COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKS

## University question with answers

Unit-1
1. Define refractive index The ratio of the speed of light in the vacuum to that in matter is the index of refraction n of the materials and is given by n=c/v Typical values of n are 1.00 for air ,1.33 for water,1.45 for silica glass and 2.42 for diamond. 2. What is four wave mixing? Four wave mixing is a third order nonlinearity, when wavelength channels are located near the zero dispersion point, three optical frequencies (Vi,Vj,Vk) will mix to produce a fourth inter modulation product Vijk given by, Vijk=Vi+Vj-Vk with i,j k (OR)

If the WDM system consist of frequencies f1,f2,...,fn four wave mixing (FWM) gives rise to new signals of frequencies such as 2fi-fj and fi+fj-fk.If the new frequencies fall in the transmission range, cross talk will appears. 3. Define Bragg wavelength. 0 =2n(eff)^ .This wavelength is called Bragg wavelength and neff is effective refractive index of the waveguide,^ is the period of the g rating element. 4. Mention the applications of Isolators. Isolators are used in systems in front of optical amplifiers and lasers primarily to prevent reflections from entering devices. 5. List the different types of optical switches. Optical switches are different from each other in the switching time. The different types of switches are mechanical switches, electro optic switches, thermo-optic switches and semi conductor switches. The switches are classified based on the arrangement used example cross bar switches, Benes switches and spanke switches.

## 6. Write the need for wavelength converters.

The wavelength converters are used in WDM network for 3 major reasons, 1. Wavelength converters may be needed within the network to improve the utilization of the available wavelengths on the network links. 2. Wavelength converters may be needed of boundaries between networks if the different networks are managed by different entities and their wavelength are different. 3. Data may enter the network of a wavelength that is not suitable for use within the network 7. Define population inversion. The total number of ions in the excited states is greater than the total number of ions present in the ground state. This condition is called population inversion. 8. What is statistical multiplexing? The statistical multiplexing makes use of the statistical properties of the virtual circuits. Statistical multiplexing is implemental by breaking up the data on each circuit into the short packets, and multiplexing and switching packets from different virtual circuits on a link. 9. Write the services offered by the second generation optical networks. The various services offered by second generation optical networks are, 1. Light path services, 2. Virtual circuit services 3. Data gram services Which allows short packets or messages of information to be transmitted between the nodes in the network without or ahead of setting up explicit connections. 10. Distinguish insertion loss and isolation with respect to isolators. Insertion loss is the loss in the forward direction and which should be as small as possible, and isolation is the loss in the reverse direction which should be as large as possible. The typical insertion loss is around 1dB and the isolation is 40-50dB

## OPTICAL COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKS

University question with answers
Unit-2
1. What is the line rate of a SONET.STS-1 signal? The line rate of a SONET-STS-1 signal is 51.84Mb/s and is calculated as follows. STS-1= (90bytes/row)(9rows/frames)(8bits/byte) 125s/frame =51.84Mb/s. The other line rates are integral multiples of STS-1 signal. 2. List out the functions of a path terminating equipments The STS PTE(path terminating equipment) is an NE that multiplex or demultiplex the STS payload. As an example STS-1 PTE assembles 28. 1.544 Mbps DSI signals and inserts POH to form a 51.84 Mbps STS-1 signal. 3. What are the topologies seen by a SONET layer? The various topologies seen by SONET networks are 1. Rings 2. linear configuration 3. point to point links. The most popular and used topology is point to point links. 4. Define virtual tributary in SONET An STS-1 payload can be subdivided into synchronous signals to handle the transmission of low speed transmission known as virtual tributaries.VT enables more efficient use of SONET multiplexing. 5. What are the two types of ring architecture? The two types of architectures are 1. Unidirectional ring carriers working traffic in only one direction of the ring. 2. Bidirectional ring carriers working traffic in both directions.

6. What is the role of a regenerator in a optical networks? The regenerator in a optical network perform the regeneration of the signal with refining and reshaping of the same signal. This type of regenerator is called 3R regeneration. 7. What is the topology seen by SONET network. The point to point topology and the ring topology is seen by SONET network. 8. Define Jitter Jitter is defined as short term phase variation and is above 10Hz 9. What is the actual data rate of the SPE of a SONET STS-1 frame? The actual data of the SPE of a SONET STS-1 frame is 50.112 Mbps and is calculated as follows Data rate= 87 columns * 9rows*8bits/bytes*8000frame/sec = 50.112Mbps 10. What are the advantages of SONET over traditional asynchronous methods? The advantages of SONET over traditional asynchronous methods are 1. 2. 3. 4. Multiplexing of low bit stream with high speed stream. Management technique used to monitor the performance of traffic. Inter operability Restoration of the network if failure occurs will be fast in SONET(s) as compared to asynchronous methods.

11. Write any two network management functions The network management consist of several functions 1. Configuration management 2. Performance management 3. Fault management 4. Security management 5. Accounting management 6. Safety management

## OPTICAL COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKS

University question with answers
Unit-3
1. Define throughput of a network The throughput of a network is the fraction of the transmission capacity of a network that carries useful data that is data that are successfully received by their intended destinations (or) The throughput per data channel is as the expected number of data packets carried by a data channels at the arbitrary point in time that will be successfully received. 2. What is meant by contention? When two node simultaneously sent packets to a same receiving node, then the transmitters are contending and thus process is called contention. 3. Compare single hop and multi hop networks Single hop network 1. There is no optical to electrical conversion in the intermediate nodes. 2.Single wavelength is used until the entire transmission 4. What is the need for a MAC protocol? MAC protocol are needed to resolve contentions, and avoid (or) minimize wasteful collisions between various nodes in the network. 5. What is the structure of lightning testbed? The structure of lightning testbed is an arbitarary tree structure where the processors are located at the leaves of the tree and the internal nodes of the tree represents the wavelength partitions. Multi hop network 1.Optical to electrical conversion may be taken in intermediate nodes 2.Multiple wavelength are used between the source node to the destination node

6. What is scheduling protocol? A node sends a control packets in its assigned control slot as soon as it has a new packet to send. It wait for d-prop time and it can learn which other nodes have packets to transmit to the same destination node with this knowledge and working together, all nodes that have packets to transmit to the same destination node schedule their transmissions in different data slot so that they never contend with each other.

7. Give the algorithms that each nodes uses to achieve frame synchronization. Algorithm steps 1)Each node estimates or predicts the time arrival of the next sync pulse at it receives. The periodicity of the sync pulses is used in making this prediction quite accurate. 2)Each node estimates its roundtrip delay to the star using the fact that the signals sent by its are broadcast by the star to it. 3)Anode transmits the information for a specific frame, say frame x, are round trip delay prior to the estimated time of arrival of the sync pulse of the start of frame x.

8.Give the drawbacks of broadcast? In broadcast all node send a different wavelength signal to star coupler where the power of the combined signal is much high than individual signal. This may cause damage to the device used.

9.Why frame/slot synchronization is important for MAC protocols of broadcast and select networks? The frame/slot synchronization is done to avoid contention and collision between Any two nodes.

## OPTICAL COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKS

University question with answers
Unit 4

1.What are called static networks? A static networks does not have any switches or dynamic wavelength converters in it and the routing patterns cannot be changed.

2.Name any two routing techniques in optical communication networks? Static routing and wavelength assignment, fixed alternate routing and routing with wavelength conversion are some of the routing techniques used in optical communication network. 3.Define transparency and wavelength reuse? Transparency refers to the fact that the light path can carry any data as s variety of bit rates any protocols makes the line free protocol dependency. Wavelength reuse means spatially separated links make use of same wavelength to carry different data in a single network. This increases the capacities of network. 4. What are the issues to be considered during the design of wavelength routing network? The following issues are to be considering during the design of wavelength routing networks. 5.What is the role of state space of a networks? The operation of the network overtime can be traced by a set of connected points in the state space through which the networks evolves as setup and takedown requests for ligthpaths arrive. 6.How a path graph is constructed? Each path in p corresponds to a node in P(G),and two nodes in P(G) are connected by an (undirected) edge if the corresponding paths in P share a common edge in G. The pathgraph P(G) of the graph (G) is shown.

Graph

pathgraph

7. What is meant by reconfigurable networks? A network with switches and static converters or without switches but with dynamic wavelength converters are considered as reconfigurable networks. 8.Compare optical and electronic wavelength cross connects? Optical cross connects 1)Transparency is more 2)Wavelength conversion is much more difficult 3)Bit rate is much higher. For example >10 Gb/s
4)Physical dimension is small

Electronic WXC 1)Less transparent to signal 2)Wavelength conversion is easy 3)Bit rate is very small. For example <=2.5Gb/s
4)Physical dimension is large

9. What are the advantages of wavelength routing networks over broadcast and select networks? Broad cast and select networks 1) No routing and switching optical signals based on their wavelength 2)Power wasted by splitting of combined signal 3)Propagation delays is limited to sine of the lan Wavelength routing networks 1)Optical signals based on their wavelength 2) No power wasted 3)Minimum propagation delay and not limited to sine of the lan

## OPTICAL COMMUNICATION AND NETWORKS

University question with answers
Unit 5
1) How looping of a packet is prevented in a packet switched network? One way to eliminate the looping of a packet in packet switched network is to simply drop packets that have exceeded a certain threshold on the hop-count. 2)Compare OTDM and WDM approaches ? OTDM 1) In OTDM, base are time multiple sources data are interleaved to produce a single data stream 2) Because of the lower bit rates the distance limit due to chromatic dispersion is much large for WDM system than for equivalent TDM system. 3)Need large upfront installation to meet the capacity increases WDM 1)In WDM approach multiple wavelength are multiplexed and transmitted over a single line Chromatic dispersion is much large for WDM system.

3)The transmission capacity can be increased in a module manner by adding additional wavelength as and when capacity increases.

3) Define bit interleaving? The interleaving can be done as bit by bit basis to form multiplexed bit stream. 4) Compare broadcast OTDM networks with switch based OTDM networks? In broadcast OTDM networks no switching and routing function are available, but in contrast switch based OTDM routing and switching function are performed in optical domain. The broadcast OTDM networks suffers from large splitting losses not scalable and are generally suitable for LAN application. But in contrast switch based network on the other hand are scalable and suited for WDM applications. 5)What is a soliton pulse? Soliton pulse is special kind of pulse that can propagate undistorted over long distances and remain unaffected after collisions with each other. (or)

Solitons are very narrow high intensity optical pulses that retain shape through the interaction of balancing pulse dispersion with the nonlinear properties of an optical fiber. The SPM is counter balanced by GVD. 6) What is TOAD? In TOAD (Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer) a control pulse carrying sufficiently high power and energy is injected so that the optical properties of the NLE are significantly attend by the control pulse for a short time interval after the control pulse passes through it. In particular the phase shift undergone by another pulse passing through the NLE during this interval is altered. 7) Define test beds? Test beds are used to demonstrate the certain key optical network function such as multiplexing and demultiplexing, routing/switching, header recognition, optical clock recovery(synchronization or bit phase alignment) etc. 8) What does a nonlinear optical loop mirror consist of? The nonlinear optical loop mirror(NOLM) consists of a 3-db directional coupler, a fiber loop connecting both outputs of the coupler , and a nonlinear elements (NLE) located asymmetric in the fiber loop.