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Investing in Children: Responsibility and Response of the State

Reflection on 2012-13 National Budget

Response of the State Reflection on 2012-13 National Budget Centre for Services and Information on Disability
Response of the State Reflection on 2012-13 National Budget Centre for Services and Information on Disability

Centre for Services and Information on Disability

Response of the State Reflection on 2012-13 National Budget Centre for Services and Information on Disability
Response of the State Reflection on 2012-13 National Budget Centre for Services and Information on Disability

August,

2012

INVESTING IN CHILDREN: RESPONSIBILITY AND RESPONSE OF THE STATE

REFLECTION ON 2012-13 NATIONAL BUDGET

DR. KAZI MARUFUL ISLAM

ABUL BASHAR MOHAMMAD OMOR FARUQUE

JAFAR EMRAN

Department of Development Studies, University of Dhaka

Centre for Services and Information on Disability

Save the Children in Bangladesh

August 2012

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First we wish to extend our gratitude to the children who have participated in the study from time to time.

The study team is highly indebted to the Department of Development Studies, University of Dhaka for granting opportunity to take up the project. All members of the department have always been very supportive to the study team. We are especially grateful to Ms. Rounak Jahan, Humayun Kabir, Dr. Shuchita Sharmin, Dr. Niaz Ahmed Khan for their kind support.

The study wouldn’t have been conducted without the support from the Save the Children in Bangladesh and Centre for Services and Information on Disability. We are sincerely grateful to Save the Children in Bangladesh team, especially Ms. Birgit Lundback Mr. Shamsul Alam Bakul and Mr. Chowdhury Md. Tayub Tazammul. The study team is also grateful to the Centre for Services and Information on Disability team led by Mr. Khandoker Jahurul Alam.

Finally, we are also thankful to government officials, experts, media personnel who have given their feedback to the team on different occasions through various channels.

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Executive Summary

‘Investment in children’ accomplishes two intertwined goals: in one hand, this ensures the rights to protection, survival and development of children – specified in the national and international child rights charters, and on other hand, it congregates certain knowledge, skills, and competencies within the children that succors in overcoming unemployment, low pay and poverty. OECD (1998) called this as the heart of all strategies to promote social cohesion and economic prosperity. The report has analyzed the functioning of GoB in three child-related sectors (education, health and social protection sector) from this perspective by examining their budget allocation, implementation, coverage and output. In total six ministries – Ministry of Primary and Mass Education, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Ministry of Women and Child Affairs, Ministry of Social Welfare, Ministry of Labour and Employment – have been covered under these three sectors. The exercise carried out in the report conforms to the objectives of child budget, an evolving theme in quantifying and monitoring the performance of governments in materializing child rights.

This report is based on budget data from Ministry of Finance, budget planning from Ministry of Planning, and other various GoB publications. In addition, information about ministry-wise projects/programs has been gathered from the relevant ministries, various reports on ministry performance and credible internet sources.

In Bangladesh, Five Year Plan primarily sets the course of national budget by setting policy plans and targets. The current budget, FY2012-13, falls under the purview of Sixth Five Year Plan (FY2011 - FY2015). In education, though the country has achieved the targets of gross intake ratio and gender parity, the Plan admits enduring deficiencies in equity (rural vs. urban), quality, and efficiency in the delivery of primary and secondary education which are manifested in high dropout, grade repetition, and poor quality of learning. The Plan aims to address these issues in these five year period. While the last fiscal year focused on change in curricula, free distribution of education material, and training of teachers, the current fiscal year concentrates on developing education infrastructure, capacity of teachers, promotion of science-based education, and strengthen school monitoring.

By 2014, the plan projects to achieve i) 100 percent net intake ratio, ii) less than 5 percent repetition rate (from current rate of 12 percent), and iii) 100 percent completion rate (from current rate of 55 percent) in primary education. For secondary education, the Plan emphasizes on teacher training, life-skill based education and financial assistance to poor families for continuing secondary level education. In last fiscal year GoB enacted ‘Prime Minister’s Education Assistance Trust Act, 2011’ and ‘Creative Talent Hunt Policy 2012’ to support the livelihood of poor and underprivileged meritorious students. This is an exemplary shift in GoB’s understanding that stipend is not enough for poor students to

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continue education. This illustrates GoB’s understanding on child rights is evolving in right path. The current budget has provided allocation to these funds and initiatives.

In the health sector plan, severe child malnutrition and high mortality (children and women) has been selected as the thrust areas. The finance minister has admitted the failure in child malnutrition in the current fiscal year budget speech and spelled out the upcoming activities on this issue – “a National Nutrition Service Program has been taken up to overcome the problem of malnutrition. In our nutrition scheme, being delivered under the community nutrition program, we want to raise the rate of local participation up to 50 percent from 25 percent. Primarily, we have a plan to cover 35 percent pregnant mothers and infants to provide them with food supplements at the Upazila level. Aside from this, 90 percent of the children will be administered Vitamin ‘A’ capsule.” (Budget Speech, FY2012-

13)

The health sector objectives are to be attained through the ongoing implementation of Health, Population and Nutrition Sector Development Program (HPNSDP), July, 2011-June, 2016. The Plan however finds the program inadequate to produce the objectives and accedes to the need for upward rise in budgetary allocation in health sector. It recommended increasing budget allocation in health to 12 percent (of national budget) by 2015 from the present level of around 7 percent. Ironically, health sector allocation as a share of national budget has declined in both last and current fiscal year.

The Sixth Five Year Plan also amended the strategies of social protection sector hoisting special needs of ultra poor groups (such as beggars, destitute, landless, daily wage earners, bonded labour, female headed poor households, physically handicapped, seasonal labour, poor households living in char/ flood prone/ river erosion/climate change vulnerable areas) – consumption smoothing in short term and engage in productive employment in long term. The Plan therefore envisages increasing the support period to these groups which is an estimable shift in terms of human and child rights of the poor family and their children. It has also outlined a separate section presenting succinctly GoB’s plan on ensuring children advancement and rights focusing child health, food and nutrition, child education, access to water and sanitation, child empowerment, child protection, birth registration, child labour, and child abuse.

The provision and delivery of social protection involves a large number of ministries including food, disaster management, social welfare, rural development, women and child affairs, labour and employment, and education. The Ministry of Food and Disaster Management currently implements the majority of food and in kind transfer programs, while Ministry of Social Welfare run the allowance programs for the disadvantaged groups (orphan, elderly, widowed and deserted women, disable, etc.). Ministry of Labour and Employment undertakes activities to train people in different trades of self-employment

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and paid employment. And, Ministry of Women and Children Affairs carry out programs for ensuring the socio-economic and rights-based advancement of women and children.

Moving the focus of analysis toward current fiscal year budget uncovers that in FY2012-13 GoB allocated in total Tk 34,350 crores in national budget for the six ministries of these three child-related sectors which is about 18 percent of total budget. In current price

terms, the aggregate allocation in these six ministries has increased every year: the growth rates are 14.29 percent in FY2010-11, 3.39 percent in 2011-12 and 15.15 percent in 2012-

13. However, the collective share of these six ministries in the national budget has

dispiritingly declined from 22.84 percent in FY2009-10 to 17.92 percent in FY2012-13. This points that growth in allocation in electricity production, fuel subsidies and fertilizer subsidies has outstripped child-related services. The declining share in budget allocation in child-related sectors may bring unintended problems in child advancement (as child population is still increasing in Bangladesh) and in a way interrupts the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

In the education sector, allocation was Tk 22,145 crores in FY2012-13 which is 18.09 percent higher than revised expenditure of previous year. However, this growth figure needs to be seen with cautious. This was also the case in last fiscal year – the budget

allocation in FY2011-12 was 9.53 percent higher than the revised allocation of FY2010-11. However, in the end of that financial year (FY2011-12), it was found that the actual expenditure was lower (a negative growth of 0.27 percent) than preceding year, FY2010-

11. The poor implementation performance of MOPME was the chief cause for this

underperformance (MOPME’s failed to utilize about 30 percent of its development budget in FY2011-12).

The trend in public expenditure in education as a proportion of GDP is also unfavorable. In FY2007-08, public expenditure in education was 2.0 percent of GDP. This ratio surged to 2.36 in FY2010-11 but again precipitated to 2.05 in FY2011-12. Current fiscal year, FY2012-13, this would increase to 2.12. Comparing this figure with the Sixth Five Year Plan to increase this ratio to 4 percent of GDP by FY2014 seems unlikely at current allocation growth rate.

The development projects in education sector in current and last fiscal year (FY2012-13 and FY2011-12) shows primary education received the highest allocation. The next two largest components are Secondary and Higher Secondary (secondary sector), and University Grants Commission (tertiary sector). Higher allocation in Education Engineering Department demonstrates rise in infrastructural renovation and enlargement in both primary and secondary sector. ADP allocation in informal education has decreased in these the years in align with declining school dropout rates. Growth in vocational education manifests GoB’s strategy to provide productive employment related education for poor.

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No. of students appeared and pass rates has considerably improved in all public examinations in 2011 and 2012. Significant improvement also took place in other indicators such as no. of highest grade achievers and no. of schools with 100 percent pass rate. In 2011, gender parity was achieved at primary and junior secondary public examinations. In current year, 2012, gender parity has been achieved at SSC examination, two years before the forecast (BANBEIS forecasted to achieve gender parity in SSC and HSC in 2014 and 2016 respectively). The gender gap has also been noticeably reduced in 2012 HSC examination. This strongly hints that gender parity in HSC would also be achieved before the forecasted year.

Turning to the health sector, the current fiscal year budget, FY2012-13, allocated Tk 9,355 crores for Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) which is around 5 percent higher than previous year’s proposed budget. Of the total, Tk 3,825 crores is allocated in development budget and Tk 5,529 crores is allocated in non-development budget. An ongoing concern about MoHFW that was focused in earlier reports about low implementation of development budget has improved marginally in last fiscal year.

When the growth in allocation in MoHFW is factored with population growth and inflation, then it is found that, in real terms, increment did not took place – increment happened only in nominal terms. As an example, between FY2011-12 and FY2012-13, development and non-development budget has increased by 4 percent and 7 percent respectively. While according to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS), the inflation was 9.15 percent (point to point basis) in May 2012. Just factoring with inflation uncovers that in real terms the amount allocated to MoHFW is lower than the previous year. The scenario turns into a disappointing one when population is factored as no. of population is increasing by 1.34 percent. This is a cautious finding as MoHFW allocation is directly related with the child health and nutrition.

However, disaggregated figures show revenue budget in MoHFW has increased considerably with the expense of decrease in capital budget. This trend is anticipated as GoB hired large number of medical professionals and caregivers in the past two years. GoB defends this allocation trend stating the priority is to improve service at current facilities rather than establishing low-quality new health care facilities. In this line of observation, GoB is in the right path in terms of allocation and activities in health sector.

GoB in the current budget acknowledges disparity in healthcare usage in terms of income, gender and age. The special need and importance of child health also caught its focus. Therefore, this year MoHFW is initiating a new project titled ‘Introduction of woman and child friendly hospital initiative program in district hospitals and upazila health complexes project’. There three other projects undertaken solely for children – providing primary health care, health and nutrition services for mothers, children and rural people through

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3500 community clinics, providing expanded program of immunization, vitamin A campaign and polio campaign program, and expansion of Dhaka Shisu (Children) Hospital.

Among the ministries of social protection sector, FY2012-13 budget allocated Tk 1,306 crore for Ministry of Women and Child Affairs (MoWCA) - of which development and non- development budgets are Tk 225 crores and Tk 1,080 crores respectively. In terms of revenue and capital budget categorization, 95 percent of total budget for MoWCA is allocated for revenue and the rest 5 percent in capital expenditure. The very uneven distribution between revenue and capital budget clearly shows that almost entire of MoWCA budget is spent on service delivery.

In current fiscal year, MoWCA will implement several projects such as Child Empowerment and Protection Project, Violence against Women Project, Capacity Building for Monitoring Child Rights in Bangladesh Project, Establishment of Ahsania Mission Children City for Comprehensive of Distressed Children Project, Food and Livelihood Security of poor children Project, Daycare Program of the Children of Lower and Middle Income Working Women Project, Early Learning for Children Development Project, Sisimpur Outreach Project, and Establishment of Pediatric and Women Cardiac Unit in National Heart Foundation of Bangladesh Project.

Ministry of Social Welfare (MoSW) got an allocation of Tk 2,056 crores in FY2012-13 – only a trivial increase from previous year’s allocation. However, significant structural difference – in terms of development and non-development budget – can be observed between FY2011-12 and FY2012-13. In current year, the development budget has been decreased while non-development budget has been significantly increased. The share of development and non-development budget in MoSW in FY2012-13 stands at around 11 percent and 89 percent, respectively.

Among the ministries of social sector, Ministry of Labour and Employment (MoLE) has received small allocation, only Tk 201 crores, but in comparison to previous year the allocation has almost tripled. This happened due to a hefty increase in development budget of MoLE from Tk 29 crore in FY2011-12 to Tk 127 crore in FY2012-13. Child focused projects to be implemented by MoLE in current fiscal year are: Eradication of Hazardous Child Labour in Bangladesh (3rd Phase) Project, Training on 34 different trades in 26 TTC, Implementation of NSDC (National Skill Development Council) related activities, and Formulating National Action Plan in line with Child Labour Elimination Policy 2010.

In sum, if there were growth in inflation-adjusted allocation in all these six ministries, GoB would deliver more output in terms of child socio-economic rights. However, the report understands that there is a substantial positive shift in GoB’s frame of mind about child rights and significant number of new projects focusing child has been incorporated in this year’s budget.

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction

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1.1 Budget Tracking

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1.2 Child Budget

10

1.3 Methodology of Child Budget

11

2. Strategies and Policy Targets for Children in Bangladesh

13

2.1 SFYP Goals and Objectives for Education Sector

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2.2 SFYP Goals and Objectives for Health Sector

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2.3 SFYP Goals and Objectives for Social Protection Sector

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2.4 SFYP Strategic Objectives for Children’s Advancement and Rights

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3. Methodology

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4. Trends in collective allocation and spending in child-related sectors

21

5. Tracking Education Sector Expenditure

23

5.1 Achievements in the last three years (from FY2009-10 to FY2011-12)

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5.2 Trends in Education Sector Spending by GoB

24

5.3 Trends in Education Sector Expenditure as Share of National Budget

26

5.4 Trends in Public Investment in Education as Share of GDP

27

5.5 Trends in MOPME and MOE Budgets

28

5.6 Trends in Development, Non-development, Revenue and Capital Budgets

29

5.7 Growth Trends within MOPME Budget

30

5.8 Growth Trends within MOE Budget

30

5.9 Trend in allocation in primary, secondary and tertiary sector in ADP

31

5.10 Coverage in public examinations

32

5.11 Ratio of boys and girls in public examinations

33

5.12 Key Activities of MOPME and MOE

34

6. Tracking Health Sector Expenditure

36

6.1 Achievements in the last three years (from FY2009-10 to FY2011-12)

36

6.2 Trend in budget allocation for MoHFW

37

6.3 Trend in allocation in real-terms (constant prices)

38

6.4 Trends in Development, Non-development, Revenue and Capital Budgets

39

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6.5 Trend in ADP allocation

40

6.6 Trend in implementation performance of development budget

40

6.7 Children focused projects of MoHFW

41

6.8 Status of Beneficiaries in Health Sector

41

6.9 Key projects/programs of MoHFW for FY2012-13

43

7. Tracking Social Protection Sector Expenditure

45

7.1

Ministry of Women and Child Affairs (MoWCA)

45

7.1.1.

Share of Development and Non-Development Budget in FY 2012-13

45

7.1.2

Trend of Development Allocation in MoWCA

45

7.1.3

Share of Development Budget of the MoWCA in national ADP

46

7.1.4

Share of Revenue and Capital Budget

48

7.1.5

Projects targeted for Children

49

7.2

Ministry of Social Welfare

49

7.2.1. Trend in allocation of MoSW

49

7.2.2. Share of Development and Non-Development Budget in 2012-13

51

7.2.3. Share of MoSW in ADP in FY 2012-13

52

7.2.4. Child focused Projects

53

7.3

Ministry of Labour and Employment

54

7.3.1. Trends in allocation in MoLE

54

7.3.2. Share of Development and Non-Development Budget in 2012-13

54

8. Conclusion

57

References

61

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ACRONYM

ADP

ANNUAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME

BBS

BANGLADESH BUREAU OF STATISTICS

FY

FISCAL YEAR

GDP

GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT

GOB

GOVERNMENT OF BANGLADESH

MOE

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION

MOF

MINISTRY OF FINANCE

MOHFW

MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE

MOLE

MINISTRY OF LABOUR AND EMPLOYMENT

MOP

MINISTRY OF PLANNING

MOPME

MINISTRY OF PRIMARY AND MASS EDUCATION

MOSW

MINISTRY OF SOCIAL WELFARE

MOWCA

MINISTRY OF WOMEN AND CHILD AFFAIRS

NSDC

NATIONAL SKILL DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL

OECD

ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

SFYP

SIXTH FIVE YEAR PLAN

TTC

TECHNICAL TRAINING CENTER

UNCRC

UNITED NATIONSCONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD

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1. Introduction

‘Investment in children’ has two intertwined objectives: primarily, it ensures the right to protection, survival and development of children that are specified in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) 1 , 1990. Secondarily, it develops certain knowledge, skills, competencies and other attributes in the children that largely help them in combating the problems of unemployment, low pay and poverty. OECD (1998) termed it as the heart of all strategies to promote social cohesion and economic prosperity.

The report addresses the activities and objectives of the Government of Bangladesh (GoB) related to children from this perspective (‘investment in children’) by documenting and analyzing the budgetary allocation and expenditures in the national budget. Such exercise is termed as ‘budget tracking’ and essential in measuring the adequacy and performance of government in ensuring holistic development of child.

1.1 Budget Tracking

Budget tracking is defined as the full disclosure and analysis of relevant fiscal information in regular basis and in organized approach to the aim of finding and evaluating the policy goals in a desired sector. This approach provides credible and accessible information on government activities and thereby makes timely contribution in policy debate.

Structure of Budget Tracking Briefs

Trends in Government Allocations and Expenditures

Overall trends in allocation

Trends in revenue and capital budget allocation

Nature and reasons for change in the budgetary allocation

Expenditure performance

Assess the implementation of budget vis-à-vis the allocated budget

Reasons and causes for non-implementation

Quality of implementation activities and services

Coverage and Beneficiaries

Estimating the number of beneficiaries

Quality and sufficiency of services received

Peoples’ perception regarding the quality of service

1 “The UNCRC spells out the basic rights to which children are entitled and sets forth the minimum standards that governments are required to meet in all aspects that affect the lives and welfare of children.” (Save the Children Sweden, 2006)

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1.2 Child Budget

Child budget addresses the part of national budget that deals with providing human development services, safeguarding rights, and ensuring social protection of children. It is not a separate budget exercise, rather only extricates child-related allocations from the national budget documents and investigates how the budget is performing to protect, invest in and educate all our children right now.

To portray an example on how child budget works, the allocation in Ministry of Labour and Employment, Bangladesh can be presented as a case. According to government circular, the major functions of Ministry of Labour and Employment, Bangladesh are: “i) All matters relating to labour welfare, employment in industry and social security of labour force; ii) Registration of trade unions, establishment of labour courts and Labour Appellate Tribunals and their administrative matters; iii) Establishment of Minimum Wage Board, Industrial wages commission, implementation of their recommendation and declaration of essential services of different organisations; and iv) Training of manpower, creation of awareness about labour rights and responsibilities and work related to International Labour Organisations (ILO), administering labour laws and policies” (Government of Bangladesh Circular, Ministry of Labour and Employment, 2012). The functions list boils down to the ministry’s engagement in providing skills, protecting labour rights and ensuring welfare for various age groups – adolescent, youth and adult. The child budget tracking exercise will only cover the part of the allocations and activities of Ministry of Labour and Employment targeted for adolescent and, in some cases, also youth (depending on the age range defined by adolescent and youth).

Table 1.1: Composition of important activities/projects/programs scheduled to be implemented by Ministry of Labour and Employment in FY2012-13

 

Projects

Beneficiary Age Group

1.

Eradication of Hazardous Child Labour in Bangladesh (3rd Phase)

 

Project

 

Child (Adolescent) – Age range 10- 15 Years

2.

Formulating National Action Plan in line with Child Labour

Elimination Policy 2010

   

1. Northern Areas Reduction of Poverty Initiative (NARI) Project

 

2. Training on 34 different trades in 26 TTC

 

Child (Youth) – Age range 14-18 years and Adults – Age range 19-22

3. Implementation

of

NSDC

(National

Skill

Development

Council)

related activities

   

1.

Renovation and Modernisation of 3 Industrial Relations Institute

 

(IRI) and 22 Labour Welfar Centrers (LWC) Project

 

2.

Modernization and Strengthening the Department of Inspection for

Adult – Age range 19-60

Factories and Establishments" Project

 

3. Fixation of minimum wage for the garments and other sectors

 

1. Reconstruction of Dhaka Divisional Labour Office for Multipurpose

 

Usages Project

 

All Age range

2.

Up-gradation of the Industrial Relations Institutes (IRI) Tongi to

National Institute of Labour Administration and Training (NILAT)”

 

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Project 3. Activities relating to inspection of shops and factories, registration of trade unions, fixation of minimum wages, labour welfare works, updating and amendment of labour law and rules and issuing license for new factories and establishments;

welfare works, updating and amendment of labour law and rules and issuing license for new factories

Source: Project list is adopted from Ministry of Finance

By analyzing such child-related projects, programs and activities planned in national budget of a country, the child budget looks on how government is faring in providing, ensuring and protecting child rights. More specifically, the child budget tracking is comprised of three key features: a) disentangle the plan of government (through scrutinizing budget allocation and project/program list) for delivery of services to children, b) evaluate government’s performance in the delivery of children’s services – in terms of quality, gap, adequacy and outcome, and c) examine whether government has been budgeting following national and international commitments related to child rights.

Generally, child budget in a developing country has four concerns related to child’s well- being: child poverty, child abuse and neglect, unsatisfactory child development (socio- emotional, physical, and cognitive), and poor school performance/drop out. Reviews of cross-country child policies support this position. However, recent National Child Policies of developing countries are increasingly acknowledging that besides the economic rationale in investing in child, the legal obligation of governments to ensure socio- economic rights for child are equally important. Recent evidence shows this realization has not only forced the countries to gradually increase child-related allocation and programs but also kept child-related budget allocation untouched even in the midst of budget crisis and recession.

1.3 Methodology of Child Budget

In OECD countries, analysis of budget allocation and its impact on children generally has five principal components (Children’s Rights Alliance, 2010): a) Social Protection, b) Education and skill, c) Health and nutrition, d) Sports, cultural and other activities impacting children’s cognitive development, and e) day-care or other facilities for working mothers.

As preparing child budget is an evolving exercise by organizations working to promote child rights in both developed and developing countries, there is no such as universal model and principles in preparing the child budget. This difference in the contents and approaches of child budget, however, is not a manifestation of different goals of these child- related organizations rather largely because of the structural variations of national budget among countries.

Nevertheless, reviewing these child budgets brings four key processes in our attention that

has been adopted by majority of these organizations.

The first process is uncovering how

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the current social welfare system is responding to the needs of child poverty. It entails all resource transfer mechanisms related to child poverty.

The second process looks into universal benefits received by all child-bearing families, i.e. child-related tax benefits. The rationale is if families have enough resources and are guarded against poverty, they will continue investing for the upbringing and development of child. This rationale is based on the inherent responsibilities of families and society toward child that are greatly acknowledged throughout the world (also in the Article 18 of Convention on the Rights of the Child).

The next process involves looking into the quality, accessibility, flexibility and responsiveness of the services and supports (education, health, nutritional, skill building, child care etc.) provided to the children. This analysis, therefore, chiefly involves the planning quality, infrastructure support, institutional mechanism and the governance of the state apparatus – all of which are core components for providing superior quality services to people.

Finally, the outcome of the previous years’ policies and programs are being evaluated in terms of productivity of labor (economic rationale) and social mobility (social and rights- based rationale). Social mobility is about make sure that there are fairer chances for everyone (children of both rich and poor families) to get the job. Surely to make this happen, government need to provide high quality human capital building services for poor. OECD (2010) acknowledges that besides stimulating the motivation, effort and productivity of future citizen, the ultimate goal of child related policies is to promote greater equality in the society through improved social mobility.

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2. Strategies and Policy Targets for Children in Bangladesh

In Bangladesh, the national budget pursues the policy plans and targets stipulated in the Five Year Plan. Between 1973 and 2002, Bangladesh implemented 5 successive Five Year Plans and an interim Two Year Plan (1979-80). From 2003 to 2010, GoB deviated from Five Year Plan and adopted Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) process with the advice and support of external development partners. The current government switched back to Five Year Plan process in 2011. The 2012-13 national budget, therefore, adheres to the overarching agenda of the Sixth Five Year Plan (SFYP) (FY2011 - FY2015).

2.1 SFYP Goals and Objectives for Education Sector

Bangladesh has not been quite successful in addressing and achieving equity (rural vs. urban), quality, and efficiency of the delivery of primary and secondary education. The internal inefficiencies are manifested in high dropout, grade repetition, and poor quality of learning at school level. SFYP has looked at the root of these issues of Secondary and Higher Education with the objective of overcoming these deficiencies.

The principle reasons identified for disparity in the quality of education by SFYP are: low status of schools, inappropriateness of curricula and pedagogy, capacity of teachers, and multiplicity of education systems. In this context, SFYP planned to upgrade the curricula, training of teachers, improving incentive structure of teachers, bridging the gap in the quality of educational institutes at rural and urban areas, and strengthen gender and region based monitoring at both Primary and Secondary level.

In setting the objectives of education sector, SFYP has guaranteed special treatment for the poor in all stages of education. The document agrees “poverty has been exponentially inhibiting students from going to higher education. Children from poor families have fewer chances for accessing schools especially in the secondary level, as a majority of them are engaged in different works to meet basic necessities”.

The current status and targets under SFYP for Primary and Mass Education is presented in Table 2.1.

Table 2.1: Indicators of performance for Primary and Mass Education

Indicators

Sub-indicators

Current Status

Projection

2009

2014

Indicators of Intake

a) Gross Intake Rate

115%

116%

b) Net Intake Rate

99%

100%

Indicators of Participation

a) Gross Enrollment Rate

103.5%

116%

b) Net Enrollment Rate

93.5%

100%

Indicators of Internal

a) Repetition Rate

12.0%

<5% (each class)

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Efficiency

b) Completion Rate

55%

100%

c) Survival Rate

59.7%

100%

d) Student Absenteeism

18%

3%

 

a) Student Teachers Ratio

1:48

1:30

Indicators of Quality

b) Classroom Size

40

25

c)

Percentage of Trained Teacher

70.39%

100%

Indicators of Educational Expenditure

a) Public Expenditure on Primary Education as % of Total Education Public Expenditure

45.36%

50%

b) Public Current Expenditure on Education as % of GDP

2%

4%

Source: 6 th Five Year Plan (FY2011-FY2015): Accelerating Growth and Reducing Poverty, General Economics Division, Planning Commission, Ministry of Planning, GoB, 2011

Table 2.2 shows the indicators and targets identified by SFYP as policy goals in improving Secondary and Higher education.

Table 2.2: Indicators of performance for Secondary and Higher Education

Goals

 

Input Indicators

 

Output Indicators

 

a)

Stipend

Students and their parents interest in schooling

Quantitative

 

b) Financial Support

 

Students support for educational expenses

Increment

c) Better Environment

 

Students interest in schooling

d) Female Stipend

 

Girls and their parents interest in schooling

e) Inclusion

 

Education for the disabled

 

f) Awareness

 

People understanding of the importance of education

 

a)

New Institutions

 

More room for admission

Qualitative Increment

b)

Books

&

teaching

learning

Wide range of knowledge disseminations

materials

 

c) Modern equipments, ICT

 

Up to date practical sessions and access to ICT

d) Teachers Training

 

Quality teachers

e) Modern Curricula & Modern system of education

Modern education and better evaluation of students

 

f)

Life-skill based education

 

Students with life-skills

Source: 6 th Five Year Plan (FY2011-FY2015): Accelerating Growth and Reducing Poverty, General Economics Division, Planning Commission, Ministry of Planning, GoB, 2011

2.2 SFYP Goals and Objectives for Health Sector

SFYP has emphasized on reducing severe malnutrition, high mortality (of children and women) and fertility, promoting healthy lifestyles, and reducing risk factors to human

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health from environmental, economic, social and behavioral causes. In all these objectives, the poverty dimension and gender dimension has received special attention.

SFYP health sector objectives are to be attained through the ongoing implementation of Health, Population and Nutrition Sector Development Program (HPNSDP), July, 2011-June, 2016. GoB has targeted to achieve MDG 4, 5, 6 and part of the MDG 1 and 8 through this health sector program.

Table 2.3: HPNSDP Budget Estimate

 

Taka/US$

Share (%) of Total

Total Estimated Cost

Tk 56,993.54 Crore (US$ 7.7 billion)

-

Revenue Budget

Tk 34,816.88 Crore (US$ 4.7 billion)

61.04%

Development Budget

Tk 22,176.66 Crore (US$ 3.0 billion)

38.96%

GoB Contribution

Tk 43,420.38 Crore (US$ 5.9 billion)

76.62%

Development Partners Contribution

Tk 13,573.16 Crore (US$ 1.83 billion)

23.76%

Source: Website of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, GoB

SFYP accedes to the need for upward rise in budgetary allocation in health sector and plans to gradually raise it to 12 percent by 2015 from the present level of around 7 percent. It also envisions increasing health sector financing through introducing cost-sharing by well- to-do patients. Expansion of private sector investment is also eyed with various incentives such as land at lower price, tax exemption, cheap bank loan, lump sum grant etc.

Table 2.4: development expenditure allocation of Health Sector in SFYP (crore Taka, current price)

Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

FY2011

FY2012

FY2013

FY2014

FY2015

3473

4499

5404

6820

8361

Source: 6 th Five Year Plan (FY2011-FY2015): Accelerating Growth and Reducing Poverty, General Economics Division, Planning Commission, Ministry of Planning, GoB, 2011

The child-related health sector targets in SFYP are listed in Table 2.5.

Table 2.5: Child-related Health Sector targets in SFYP

Sl

Impact/Outcome/Output

Base value with year

2014-15

1

Life-expectancy

66.6 (2007)

70

2

Maternal Mortality Ratio

194 (2010)

143

3

Neonatal Mortality Rate

37

(2007)

27

4

Infant Mortality Rate

52

(2007)

31

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5

Under 5 Mortality Rate

65 (2007)

50

6

Prevalence of Night blindness among pregnant women

2.9%

1%

7

Underweight of Under 5 Children

41% (2007)

33%

8

Stunting of Under-5 Children

43% (2007)

25%

9

Contraceptives use rate of married adolescent

37.6% (2007)

50%

10

Under 5 children sleeping under mosquito net

70%

80%

11

Births attended by skill personnel

26.5% (2010)

50%

12

PNC Coverage (Children)

21.9% (2007)

50%

13

TT Coverage (Children protected at birth from Tetanus)

93%

95%

14

Valid Coverage of full Immunized children

75.2% (2008)

90%

15

Immunization of 1-year old children against Measles

83% (2008)

100%

16

Postnatal VAC supplementation

29%

80%

17

Severe Anemia (children)

64%

50%

18

Exclusive Breast feeding of Children (less than 6 months)

42%

80%

Source: 6 th Five Year Plan (FY2011-FY2015): Accelerating Growth and Reducing Poverty, General Economics Division, Planning Commission, Ministry of Planning, GoB, 2011

2.3 SFYP Goals and Objectives for Social Protection Sector

Social protection in the SFYP has been addressed on three dimensions. First, substantially reducing poverty by accelerating pro-poor based economic growth through supporting the poor with factors of production and aiding them engaging in productive employment. The key tools on this approach are to further expand the access to credit through microfinance and distribution of seeds, fertilizer, agriculture tools etc.

Table 2.6: Changes in headcount poverty rate in the last decade

 

Lower Poverty Line (Extreme Poverty)

Upper Poverty Line

 

2000

2005

2010

2000

2005

2010

National

34.3

25.1

17.6

48.9

40.0

31.5

Rural

37.9

28.6

21.1

52.3

43.8

35.2

Urban

20.0

14.6

7.7

35.2

28.4

21.3

Source: BBS, HIES 2005 and HIES 2010

The plan explicitly suggests GoB to look for and actively promote novel approaches in micro-credit for the specially challenged ultra poor groups such as beggars, destitute, landless, daily wage earners, bonded labour, female headed poor households, physically

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handicapped, seasonal labour, poor households living in char/ flood prone/ river erosion areas. Growing land constraint and faster expanding non-farm sector suggests that large part of these disadvantaged people would increasingly rely on non-farm sources of income. SFYP, therefore, claims that boosting their skill and human capital would also be a prime feature in GoB’s poverty alleviation activities.

Table 2.7: Strategies for Micro-credit expansion in SFYP

sl

Strategies

1

Increase formal rural credit growth to 15% annually from current annual growth rate of 10%.

2

Public sector banks have been proved inefficient and costly. Therefore, future GoB resources/ funds to be distributed through micro-finance institutions.

3

Increasing the coverage and reducing seasonal vulnerability are the two key targets in streamlining the microcredit programs in the country.

4

A national microcredit policy will be framed.

5

GoB will facilitate the microcredit institutions to upscale the loan ceilings for both micro-enterprise and regular programs.

6

Savings tools would be introduced in all microfinance institutions.

7

Special efforts will be made to introduce ICT programs in microcredit for better access of information.

Source: 6 th Five Year Plan (FY2011-FY2015): Accelerating Growth and Reducing Poverty, General Economics Division, Planning Commission, Ministry of Planning, GoB, 2011

The second dimension is to continue and expand current social safety net programs for the households with irregular flow of income. Minimizing income and consumption vulnerability is eyed as the key objective of these programs. SFYP agrees that even with higher growth and better access to factors of production, a part of under-privileged population will likely to be left out. Also number of vulnerable population has been increasing due to natural disasters and climate change impacts. SFYP plans to address this challenge by significantly strengthening the social safety net programs, especially the food transfer activities.

The issue of better targeting is also adopted as a key strategy in reviewing the safety net programs. In this regard, the priority groups are identified as disable, elderly, tribal population, and children and women at risk. SFYP also called for short-term programs as a complimentary of first dimension for the people who failed to successfully engage in productive economic activity.

Finally, the protection and preservation of assets and wealth of poor households during natural calamities and income shocks have been looked as the third dimension in SFYP. Accident, death, disability, deserted family, and natural disasters (crop loss, livestock loss, habitat loss, etc.) are identified as chief causes of despairing poverty for part of the population who resorts to property selling and/or migration as the leading survival strategies. SFYP asserts current social safety net programs cannot protect these households

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from asset loss and therefore access to micro-insurance and customized relief programs are to be expanded in several fold.

Table 2.8: The main types of social protection programs in Bangladesh

Type

 

Program Examples

 

Cash transfers

Old

age

allowance,

widowed

and

distressed

women

allowance,

Disabled allowance

 

Conditional cash transfers

Primary education stipend program, Stipends for female secondary students

Public works or training based cash or in kind transfer

Rural maintenance program, Food-for-work, Vulnerable group development (VGD), Employment generation program

Emergency or seasonal relief

Vulnerable group feeding (VGF), Gratuitous relief (GR), Test relief (TR), open market sale (OMS)

Source: Ministry of Finance, Bangladesh

The provision and delivery of social protection involves a large number of ministries including food, disaster management, social welfare, rural development, women and child affairs, labour and employment, and education. The Ministry of Food and Disaster Management currently implements the majority of food and in kind transfer programs, while Ministry of Social Welfare run the allowance programs for the disadvantaged groups (orphan, elderly, widowed and deserted women, disable, etc.). Ministry of Labour and Employment undertakes activities to train people in different trades of self-employment and paid employment. And, Ministry of Women and Children Affairs carry out programs for ensuring the socio-economic and rights-based advancement of women and children.

Table 2.9: Development expenditure allocation for social protection in SFYP (crore taka, current price)

 

FY2011

FY2012

FY2013

FY2014

FY2015

Ministry of Social Welfare

235

250

290

348

402

Ministry of Labour and Employment

33

71

83

102

122

Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, and Youth and Sports

209

247

286

343

396

Source: 6 th Five Year Plan (FY2011-FY2015): Accelerating Growth and Reducing Poverty, General Economics Division, Planning Commission, Ministry of Planning, GoB, 2011

2.4 SFYP Strategic Objectives for Children’s Advancement and Rights

SFYP has outlined following proposed interventions and actions that GoB will perform in the next five years for promoting children’s advancement and rights:

Child Health: The program area covers eradication of polio, elimination of measles and neonatal tetanus, improvement of hygienic practices and strengthening school health programs.

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Food and Nutrition: The major focus would be to control vitamin A deficiency, iron deficiency, fortification of food with different vitamins and micronutrients, and promote nutritious food practice.

Child Education: First, early childhood development will be promoted by awareness raising program for parents on techniques and benefits of early childhood development and pilot programs on community-based child care centers. Second, Non-formal education, mostly in the form of trade skill, will be provided to child labour as well as to un-enrolled, drop-out children.

Access to Water and Sanitation: Primary schools will be ensured access to sanitation and arsenic-free safe drinking water. Standards for sound, air and water pollution will be decided and implemented keeping the concern of children.

Child Empowerment: Endeavors to create a national platform for allowing children to express opinions on their needs and expectations.

Child Protection: Awareness amongst law enforcing officials and judicial officers and the development of a diversion scheme involving the courts, social workers and probations officers as an alternative to custodian sentences will be undertaken.

Birth Registration: All relevant authorities will be mobilized to register all births.

Child Labour: Effective measures will be taken to reduce child labour based on the formulated policy. Working children as waste collectors, leather workers, brick breakers, auto-workshop workers and tempo helpers will have access to life-skill development activities.

Child Abuse: Various interventions such as providing livelihood alternatives, basic services and adoption, serving harsh penalty for abuse, etc. will be undertaken to recover and remove children from abusive and exploitative circumstances.

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3. Methodology

The report has followed the methodology suggested by Malena (2008) with some revisions in the context of different structure of national budget in Bangladesh and constrains in data availability. The report covered government allocation and expenditure in three sectors and six ministries related to welfare of children.

The key steps in the budget tracking exercise are:

Step -1: To determine the scope and purpose of the tracking exercise

i. The objective is to record and compare government expenditure and allocation as well as commitment for the materialization of welfare of children.

ii. Sixth Five Year Plan, Budget Documents, Bangladesh Economic Review 2012, and Ministry publications on 3-year achievements are the major documents consulted in preparing the report.

iii. Three sectors – education, health and nutrition, and social protection – have been covered in this exercise. The analysis has been made on yearly aggregate basis. Individual programs or projects were not monitored or evaluated.

Step-2: To select partners and key stakeholders

i. The researchers’ has established rapport with officials in ministry of Finance and Ministry of planning to collect necessary information/ documents. In addition, these officials also help in cross-checking the findings made in the report.

ii. In setting the structure and tone of the report, partnership is established with various non-governmental organizations. These organizations play a key factor in disseminating the findings of the report in digestible forms to relevant audience (citizens, beneficiaries, women, youth, public officials, policy-makers, politicians, the media, etc.).

Step-3: To specify the information needs of the research/survey

i. In measuring the commitment and performance of ministries for the welfare of children, the report relies on quantitative data. However, qualitative information is also included in the report – from various government documents – to make the findings complete and meaningful.

Step-4: Collection, processing and analyzing the data

i. Tracing fund flows – i.e. from Ministry of Finance to the respective Ministry and then distribution of development and non-development, or capital and revenue budgets of that Ministry.

ii. Identify child-centered key projects and programs that are run by the Ministry including its objectives, activities and coverage.

iii. Comparing public expenditure per capita with some selected South Asian countries.

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4. Trends in collective allocation and spending in child-related sectors

In FY2012-13, GoB allocated in total Tk 34,350 crores for six ministries: Ministry of Primary and Mass Education, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Ministry of Social Welfare, Ministry of Women and Children’s Affairs, and Ministry of Labour and Employment. These ministries represent the backbone of GoB’s effort in developing human capital (health and education) and providing social protection for the children of Bangladesh.

In current price terms, the aggregate allocation in these six ministries has increased in every year in compared to previous year from FY2010-11 to FY2012-13. The growth rates are 14.29 percent in FY2010-11, 3.39 percent in 2011-12 and 15.15 percent in 2012-13 (FY2009-10 to FY2011-12 are revised figures, while FY2012-13 is allocated figure).

Figure 4.1: Allocation in six child-related ministries from FY2009-10 to FY2012-13

35,000.00 GR = 15.15% GR = 3.39% GR = 14.29% 30,000.00 25,000.00 20,000.00 15,000.00 Total
35,000.00
GR = 15.15%
GR = 3.39%
GR = 14.29%
30,000.00
25,000.00
20,000.00
15,000.00
Total (in crore Taka)
10,000.00
5,000.00
0.00
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
Revised Budget
Budget

Source: Ministry of Finance

*(GR=Growth Rate)

However, figure 4.2 depicts that collective share of these six ministries in the national budget has substantially declined from 22.84 percent in FY2009-10 to 17.92 percent in FY2012-13. This is a dire scenario in every aspect as the child population is still growing and it is not aligned with SFYP’s envisaged strategy of harnessing the demographic dividend 2 for accelerating growth and poverty reduction.

GoB counter this argument stating that enormous increase in allocation in electricity production, fuel subsidies and fertilizer subsidies due to surge in oil price in international market has forced them to do so. And, expenditure in electricity production has made possible more investment in all sectors in the economy and facilitated job creation.

2 As the population growth slows and more people enter into labour force, an opportunity arises for a country to achieve faster economic growth. Empirical evidence shows that only countries with high quality of labour have capitalized this opportunity for long-term economic development.

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Nevertheless, this argument discriminates against marginalized child and deprives them from good health care and education and exacerbates child poverty. And, declining share in budget allocation in child-related sectors will only bring more serious problem in the future and violates the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Figure 4.2: Collective share of six child-related ministries from FY2009-10 to FY2012-13

Share in National Budget

Share in National Budget

22.84 22.19 25.00 18.50 17.92 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 Revised
22.84
22.19
25.00
18.50
17.92
20.00
15.00
10.00
5.00
0.00
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
Revised Budget
Budget
Source: Ministry of Finance

Another distressing finding is that the share of development expenditure in the collective six ministries has declined from FY2009-10 to FY2011-12, while the SFYP strongly argued in favour of higher development expenditure to ensure child development and rights. In its policy targets, SFYP envisages an increasing allocation both in terms of absolute value and share from FY2011-12 to FY2015-16. This is reflected on the increased allocation in FY2012-13 that breaks the trend of earlier years.

Figure 4.3: Share of development and non-development expenditure in the collective six child- related ministries from FY2009-10 to FY2012-13

80.00 73.68 70.00 72.84 66.98 70.87 60.00 50.00 40.00 Non-Development 33.02 30.00 Development 29.13 26.32
80.00
73.68
70.00
72.84
66.98
70.87
60.00
50.00
40.00
Non-Development
33.02
30.00
Development
29.13
26.32
20.00
27.16
10.00
0.00
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
Revised Budget
Budget
Source: Ministry of Finance
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5. Tracking Education Sector Expenditure

5.1 Achievements in the last three years (from FY2009-10 to FY2011-12)

In the budget speech, finance minister has presented a chronicle of GoB’s achievements in education sector in the last 3 years (from FY2009-10 to FY2011-12).

Education Sector

Formulated an Education Policy 2010 that envisions quality education (both creativity enhancing and job-oriented) for all.

In a bid to eliminate disparity in the education sector, Government has started to distribute books at free of cost to all the students of primary, secondary, dakhil, vocational and ebtedai levels.

Distribution of stipends (primary, secondary and tertiary level) is ongoing and has been widened both in terms of amount and no. of beneficiary.

Currently the male-female student ratio is 47:53, which is the 2 nd highest in South Asia.

Formulated a Creative Talent Hunt Policy 2012 in an attempt to search creative talents throughout the country and support them.

To ensure ‘Education for all’, an initiative is taken to establish a Trust Fund for the poor and underprivileged meritorious students. A law titled ‘Prime Minister’s Education Assistance Trust Act, 2011’ has already been enacted.

Primary Education

Pilot-based pre-primary education program for the children of 3-5 years age group has been started and will be multiplied in the next years.

From 2011, examination on completion of primary education has started taking place throughout the country under a uniform system.

To enhance the quality of primary education, teacher-student ratio has been brought down to 1:47 from 1:50 and plans to bring it down further to 1:40.

A comprehensive sector wide program (Third Primary Education Development Program, PEDP-3) is taken for implementation at a cost of Tk 58,359 crore. A total of 47,680 teachers will be recruited under this program.

Establishment of 1500 new primary schools is underway of which 780 primary schools are at the completion stage.

Reform is initiated in primary education management by establishing Primary Teacher Training Institute (PTI) in 12 district headquarters, formulating a manual

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on inclusive education, organising training for the teachers on the manual and restructuring school management committees.

School Feeding Program is scaled up to increase the rate of enrolment and retain the students at school.

Secondary and Higher Secondary Education

Construction work of academic buildings of 1,500 colleges has been initiated. In order to reduce urban-rural disparity in education, as many as 306 model high schools have been established in upazilas (where there was no government high school). Construction and other physical infrastructure works are underway to build another 164 model high schools.

Emphasis is given on teachers’ training, particularly on subjects like Mathematics and English, to enhance the quality of education.

Tertiary Education

Four universities have been established in last three years: Bangladesh University of Professionals in Dhaka, Begum Rokeya University at Rangpur, Barishal University at Barisal, and Science and Technology University at Pabna. Also, steps are ongoing to establish four more universities at Rangamati, Rabindra University at Kushtia, Digital University at Gazipur and Bangabadhu Science and Technology University at Gopalgonj.

Vocational and Non-formal Education

A policy on non-formal education has been formulated to eradicate illiteracy among child labour and adult population.

Vocational and technical training scope has been expanded to develop appropriate skilled manpower for export to the overseas markets.

ICT and Education

GoB planned to introduce e-Learning in all the educational institutions across the country. Already, multimedia classrooms have been set up in each model primary school. ICT labs have been installed in 3,172 secondary and higher secondary schools.

5.2 Trends in Education Sector Spending by GoB

Budget in education sector (under ‘Education and Technology’ heading in budget document) has more than tripled (3.4 times) in the last decade from Tk 6,519 crores (actual expenditure) in FY2003-04 to Tk 22,145 crores (budgeted expenditure) in FY2012- 13. The allocation in current fiscal year, FY2012-13, is 18.09 percent higher than revised education expenditure of the previous year, FY2011-12. However, this growth figure needs

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to be seen with cautious. In last fiscal year, FY2011-12, the budget allocation was 9.53 percent higher than the revised allocation of preceding year, FY2010-11. However, in the end of financial year, it is found that the actual expenditure registered a negative growth of 0.27 percent in FY2011-12 in compared to preceding year. This is a disappointment as the school population and teacher population both are increasing.

Figure 5.1: Actual Government Expenditure in Education by GoB from FY2003-04 to FY12-13

Expenditure in Education by GoB from FY2003-04 to FY12-13 Source: Ministry of Finance Poor Implementation Performance

Source: Ministry of Finance

Poor Implementation Performance in FY2011-12 Table 5.1 demonstrates the percentage of allocation in FY2011-12 that has not been materialized in actual expenditure. The Ministry of Mass and Primary Education can be seen as the chief cause of this poor implementation performance with about 30 percent of allocation in its development program remained unutilized.

Table 5.1: Percentage of allocation remained unutilized in education sector in FY2011-12

(*Budget allocation is used for 2012-13)

 

Development

Non-Development

Total

Ministry of Primary and Mass Education

29.99

3.22

13.72

Ministry of Education – Education Division

7.79

0.57

2.00

Source: Ministry of Finance

The following figure, however, shows that poor performance of MOPME to implement development budget in FY2011-12 was exceptional. In the earlier two years, MOPME registered above 95 percent implementation of its development budget. An intriguing

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finding is that MOE expenditure performance has also significantly decreased over the years. In FY2011-12, MOPME development budget expenditure performance was only around 92 percent, while this was above 100 percent in the earlier two years.

Figure 5.2: Expenditure Performance of MOPME and MOE from FY2009-10 to FY2011-12

 

MOPME Expenditure Performance (in relation to allocation)

 

120

107.38 101.91 96.81 98.64 95.31 70.01
107.38
101.91
96.81
98.64
95.31
70.01

100

in Percentage

80

60

40

20

 

0

 

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

Non- Development Development

Non- Development

Non- Development Development

Development

 

MOE Expenditure Performance (in relation to allocation)

 

140

120

119.81 103.33 99.62 129.95 102.25 92.20
119.81
103.33
99.62
129.95
102.25
92.20

in Percentage

100

80

60

40

20

 

0

 

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

Non- Development Development

Non- Development

Non- Development Development

Development

Source: Ministry of Finance

5.3 Trends in Education Sector Expenditure as Share of National Budget

While the SFYP has envisioned an outsized growth in education sector expenditure in national budget from FY2011-12 to FY2015-16, Table 5.2 delineates an opposite trend in the share of education sector in national budget which has declined both previous and this fiscal year. This challenges the proposition of GoB’s commitment in improving quality of education and incorporating the hard-to-reach in the education system as both requires large amount of resources.

This declining trend can only be justifiable with concomitant increase in private investment in education and shifting of public education expenditure from higher income segment students to low income segment students. However, as GoB does not provide such statistics the observation cannot be conclusively drawn from the table. Nevertheless, the population

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growth of Bangladesh which still lies above the fertility replacement level resulting higher number of students entering the education sector in each succeeding year – is sufficient rationale to advocate for increase in education sector’s share in national budget.

Table 5.2: Education expenditure as Share of Total Budget from FY2000-01 to FY12-13

Year

GoB expenditure in Education Sector

GoB Expenditure in National Budget

Education as Share of National Budget

 

2007-08

10,890

90,692

12.01

Change

2008-09

12,098

89,319

13.54

1.54

2009-10

15,904

101,603

15.65

2.11

2010-11

18,803

128,267

14.66

-0.99

2011-12

       

(Revised)

18,753

161,213

11.63

-3.03

2012-13

       

(Allocation)

22,145

191,738

11.55

-0.08

Source: Ministry of Finance

5.4 Trends in Public Investment in Education as Share of GDP

Bangladesh has achieved on average more than 5 percent GDP growth rate since 2000 which has been the highest since the country’s independence (World Bank, 2011). How much of this increased wealth has been invested in education? In FY2007-08, public expenditure in education was 2.0 percent of GDP at market prices. Figure 5.3 shows that this ratio was surged to 2.36 in FY2010-11 but again precipitated to 2.05 in FY2011-12.

Figure 5.3: Public Expenditure in Education as Share of GDP from FY2007-08 to FY2012-13

in Education as Share of GDP from FY2007-08 to FY2012-13 Source: Ministry of Finance 27 (*Budget

Source: Ministry of Finance

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Though the projection portrays that this share will increase to 2.12 in FY2012-13 (based on budgeted education expenditure and projected GDP growth in Bangladesh Economic Review), the real scenario would be known after the end of implementation year. Even assuming full implementation, the share still lies far behind the planned allocation by SFYP which is 4 percent of GDP by FY2014. The large gap in SFYP funding target and allocation in national budget suggest major policy targets in education will remain underachieved and therefore would hamper GoB’s commitment to ensure children’s rights in education.

5.5 Trends in MOPME and MOE Budgets

The education sector in Bangladesh is comprised of four ministries: Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MOPME), Ministry of Education (MOE), Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) and Ministry of Information and Communication Technology (MOICT). MOPME is responsible for imparting pre-primary and primary education for children and non-formal education to adults. The primary education in Bangladesh now consists 5 years of schooling for children aged from 6 years to 10 years. The length of primary education will increase by 3 years according to the Education Policy 2010. MOE is the apex authority in administering and providing post-primary education – 3 year junior secondary (this will be shifted to the MOPME), 2 year secondary, 2 year higher secondary and 5-6 year university level education. MOST and MOICT are involved in providing resources and training on modern technology and science to all education levels. 3

Figure 5.4: Expenditure in MOPME and MOE from FY2007-08 to FY2012-13

12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 In Crore
12,000
10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
2,000
0
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
In Crore Taka

MOPME12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 In Crore Taka

MOE12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 In Crore Taka

Source: Ministry of Finance

(*Budget allocation is used for FY2012-13)

In current fiscal year, FY2012-13, Tk 9,825 crore was allocated in MOPME which is 18.64 percent higher than previous year’s revised budget and 2.08 times in compared to five year

3 The report will not discuss further about MOST and MOICT allocation as they in aggregate covers only 3.32 percent of education sector budget.

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earlier actual budget, FY2007-08. This reflects that MOPME attracted significant expansion in expenditure in terms of compounded annual growth rate.

In case of MOE, it has received Tk 11,583 crore as FY2012-13 allocation. This figure is 12.32 percent higher than previous year’s revised budget and 1.94 times of five years earlier actual budget, FY2007-08. This comparatively slower compounded annual growth rate, in compared to MOPME, has decreased the ratio between MOE and MOPME (MOE/MOPME) from 1.26 to 1.18. This is an encouraging trend as higher allocation in primary level positively affects the attainment of universal primary education. This is also a good strategy from economic perspective as World Bank pointed that Bangladesh has comparative advantage in primary education in terms of private and social rate of return.

5.6 Trends in Development, Non-development, Revenue and Capital Budgets

This year’s budget has disaggregated the total budget in two new categories: revenue (expenditures covering operating cost) and capital (expenditure that accrues assets). The budget also retains the earlier two disaggregated categories: Non-Development budget (covers largely the part of budget which pays the salaries and allowances to employees (teachers and administrators), cost of services (books, materials, etc.), and repairing/ refurbishment/improvement cost of existing services) and Development budget (investment projects to build new schools, technical assistance projects in terms of infrastructure and material support, and jointly (GoB and donor) funded projects to improve the accessibility of students and teaching quality of teachers).

Figure 5.5: Trends of disaggregated categories in education from FY2009-10 to FY2012-13

20,000 18,000 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13
20,000
18,000
16,000
14,000
12,000
10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
2,000
0
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
In Crore Taka

Non-Development10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 In Crore Taka Development Revenue Capital

Development10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 In Crore Taka Non-Development Revenue Capital

Revenue8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 In Crore Taka Non-Development Development Capital

Capital8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 In Crore Taka Non-Development Development Revenue

Source: Ministry of Finance

Figure 5.5 delineates capital budget (new category) in each year has been less than development budget (previous category) suggesting a significant part of development projects was not about asset/infrastructure development. This denotes a sizable part of development budgets involves teacher training and support to poor students. In the four

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years from FY2009-10 to FY2012-13, both revenue budget and capital budget has increased with capital budget increasing at faster rate.

The re-categorization has naturally bloated the revenue budget (expenditures covering operating cost) which now encompasses almost the entire non-development budget and part of development budget not related to asset development. This is reflected in figure 5.4 expressing revenue budget is higher than non-development budget in all the years. The increasing trend in revenue budget throughout the four year period is a commendable effort which signifies GoB’s commitment to operate more schools, more teaches and support to more students at all levels.

5.7 Growth Trends within MOPME Budget

MOPME budget has substantially increased allocation in development (78.1 percent) and capital budget (108.7 percent) in FY2012-13 in compared to previous years. This will bring speediness in GoB’s plan to transform community schools into full-fledged government primary schools. In addition, the new education policy plans to increase primary education duration by 3 years within 2014 which demands enlargement of infrastructure in all primary schools. However, success of this large allocation will depend on improvement in MOPME’s implementation performance toward earlier years (FY2009-10 FY2010-11).

Figure 5.6: Growth of disaggregated categories in MOPME from FY2010-11 to FY2012-13

Growth Rate (in Percentage)

108.7 120.0 100.0 78.1 80.0 60.0 40.0 27.2 22.9 16.9 21.1 11.6 20.0 3.4 8.3
108.7
120.0
100.0
78.1
80.0
60.0
40.0
27.2
22.9
16.9
21.1 11.6
20.0
3.4 8.3
0.0
-0.4
-20.0
-40.0
2010-11 (Revised Budget)
2011-12 (Revised Budget)
2012-13

Source: Ministry of Finance

5.8 Growth Trends within MOE Budget

Growth rate in disaggregated budget of MOE shows similar trends of MOPME with considerable increase in development and capital budget. In FY2012-13, development and capital budget of MOE has increased by 29.3 and 75.7 percent respectively. The slower growth rate in non-development, in compared to revenue budget, implies that part of non- development is also shifted into capital budget. MOE’s emphasis on improving the quality

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of education is seen as the chief reason for this sizeable increase in its development and revenue budget.

Figure 5.7: Growth of disaggregated categories in MOE from FY2010-11 to FY2012-13

Growth Rate (in Percentage)

75.7 80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 29.3 30.0 20.5 13.4 14.5 20.0 12.1 8.9 4.3
75.7
80.0
70.0
60.0
50.0
40.0
29.3
30.0
20.5
13.4
14.5
20.0
12.1
8.9
4.3
2.4
10.0
1.8
0.0
2010-11 (Revised Budget)
2011-12 (Revised Budget)
2012-13

Source: Ministry of Finance

5.9 Trend in allocation in primary, secondary and tertiary sector in ADP

Figure 5.7 shows component-wise allocation in ADP in FY2011-12 and FY2012-13. Primary education received the highest allocation both in quantity and growth in ADP in these two years. The next two largest components are Secondary and Higher Secondary (secondary sector), and University Grants Commission (tertiary sector). Higher allocation in Education Engineering Department demonstrates rise in infrastructural renovation and enlargement in both primary and secondary sector.

Figure 5.8: Component-wise ADP allocation in education sector from FY2011-12 to FY2012-13

4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 Primary Informal Secondary Education Vocational
4,500
4,000
3,500
3,000
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
500
0
Primary
Informal
Secondary
Education
Vocational
University
Education
Education
and Higher
Engineering
Education
Grants
Secondary
Department
Commission
Education
Incrore taka

2011-12 (Revised)Education and Higher Engineering Education Grants Secondary Department Commission Education Incrore taka 2012-13

2012-13and Higher Engineering Education Grants Secondary Department Commission Education Incrore taka 2011-12 (Revised)

Source: Ministry of Finance

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ADP allocation in Informal education has decreased over the years in align with declining school dropout rates. Growth in vocational education manifests GoB’s strategy to provide productive employment related education for poor.

5.10 Coverage in public examinations

Primary Terminal Examination (PTE) The no. of students appeared in Primary Terminal Examination increased by 0.36 million students from 2009 to 2011 (Table 5.3). The pass rate also significantly increased in 2011 in compared to the previous years.

Table 5.3: No. of students appeared in Primary Terminal Examination from 2009 to 2011

Year

2009

2010

2011

Appeared (in millions)

1.82

1.94

2.18

Pass rate (%)

88.84

92.34

97.28

Source: the Daily Star and Education Boards of Bangladesh

Junior School Certificate (JSC) Junior School Certificate and Junior Dakhil Examination have started one year after the introduction of Primary Terminal Examination. No. of students appeared in this exam

increased by 0.1 million (7.2 percent) in just one year. The pass rate has also surged to

82.67

percent from 71.34 percent for Junior School Certificate and to 88.71 percent from

81.03

percent for Junior Dakhil Examination.

Table 5.4: No. of students appeared in Junior Certificate Examinations from 2010 to 2011

 

Year

2010

2011

Appeared (in millions)

1.39

1.49

Pass rate (%)

Junior School Certificate

71.34

82.67

Junior Dakhil Examination

81.03

88.71

Source: the Daily Star and Education Boards of Bangladesh

Secondary School Certificate (SSC) In 2012, 1.4 million students appeared in SSC examination which is around 8 percent higher than 2011. The pass rate in 2012 also increased significantly to 86.32 percent – a 4.16 percent increase from previous year. Figure 4.7 reveals a remarkable achievement of GoB with no. of students passed SSC examination more than doubled in just three years (from 2009 to 2012). Better achievement of students in English and Mathematics has been attributed the reason for higher pass rate. Significant improvement also took place in other indicators such as no. of highest grade achievers and no. of schools with 100 percent pass rate. ‘Education board officials and teachers attributed introduction of creative question method in 21 subjects and initiating more teachers' training on creative question, special care on English and mathematics and students' reliance on textbooks to this success’ (The Daily Star, dated May 8, 2012).

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Figure 5.9: No. of students appeared and passed in SSC examination from 2002 to 2012

appeared and passed in SSC examination from 2002 to 2012 Source: Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information

Source: Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information (BANBEIS)

Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC) HSC examination appearance and pass rate also increased considerably in the last three years from 4.89 lakh in 2009 to 9.17 lakh in 2012 and from 70.43 percent in 2009 to 76.5 percent in 2012, respectively. This implies no. of students passed HSC has more than doubled in this period which is a remarkable achievement.

Figure 5.10: No. of students appeared and passed in HSC examination from 2002 to 2012

appeared and passed in HSC examination from 2002 to 2012 Source: Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information

Source: Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics (BANBEIS)

5.11 Ratio of boys and girls in public examinations

In 2011, gender parity was achieved at primary and junior secondary level. It is remarkable to note that gender parity has been achieved in 2012 at SSC examination, two years before the forecasted year of gender parity (BANBEIS forecasted to achieve gender parity in SSC

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and HSC in 2014 and 2016 respectively). The gender gap has also been noticeably reduced in 2012 HSC examination. This strongly hints that gender parity in HSC would also be achieved before the forecasted year.

Figure 5.11: Share of boys and girls passed in four public examinations in 2011 100
Figure 5.11: Share of boys and girls passed in four public examinations in 2011
100
90
80
47.42
45.87
46.50
54.11
52.56
51.87
70
60
50
Girls
40
Boys
30
52.58
54.13
53.50
45.89
47.44
48.13
20
10
0
PTE (2011)
JSC (2011)
SSC (2011)
SSC (2012)
HSC (2011)
HSC (2012)

Source: Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics and the Daily Star

5.12 Key Activities of MOPME and MOE

In FY2012-13, MOPME will implement following major projects/programs:

Service Delivery Programs

Distribution of free text book at primary level

School Feeding Program in Poverty-Prone Areas

Primary Education Stipend Project (2nd phase)

EC assisted School Feeding Program

Post Literacy and Continuing Education Project for Human Development-2

Basic Education to Hard to Reach Urban Working Children (2nd phase)

Reaching Out of School Children Project (ROSC) (2nd phase)

English in Action Project

Basic Literacy Program for Deprived Children of 64 Districts

Bangabondhu and Bangamata Goldcup Football Tournament for social mobilization

Arrangement of Primary School Certificate examination;

Human Resource and Infrastructure Development Projects

Third Primary Education Development Program (PEDP-3)

Reconstruction and Renovation of Govt. Primary School (2nd phase)

Registered Non-Govt. Primary School Development Project (3rd phase)

Establishment of 1500 Schools in Areas Where there is No School

Primary Education of Development Project (IDB assisted)

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China Aided Construction of 2 Rural Model Primary School Project

MOE’s activity list of major projects/programs in FY2012-13 is as follows:

Planning Activity

Formulation and implementation of projects/programs to meet the goals of Vision- 2021, MDG, and Sixth Five Year Plan in relation to education sector;

Service Delivery Programs

Printing of text books at primary and secondary level and distribution of those free of cost, hosting the soft version in the website to facilitate easy access;

Providing stipend for female students at secondary, higher secondary and degree levels and stipends for boys at secondary level for poor families and giving stipends to meritorious boys and girls by creating Prime Minister's Trust Fund;

Introduction of general science, technology, applied and technical science, business administration and IT course in higher education;

Conducting Ebtedai Certificate, Junior Dakhil Certificate (JDC) and Junior School Certificate (JSC) examination; and

Distribution of documents on liberation war to education institutions and updating and amendment of textbooks.

Human Resource and Infrastructure Development Projects

Payment of 100% salary subvention to the teachers and employees of the non- government educational institutions and selection of new educational institutions for MPO;

Facilitating sustainable development of quality education at secondary level by expansion of 3000 schools and establishment of 20500 multimedia class rooms all over the country and establish 11 government secondary schools and 6 government colleges at the periphery of Dhaka city;

Undertaking program for improvement of skill in English, Mathematics and Science education to world standard, developing physical facilities of government and non- government educational institutions, bringing reforms in recruitment of teachers and overall development of education systems;

Establishment of new polytechnic institutes at selected districts and technical schools in upazilas for improving the quality of technical education and initiate on-line admission procedure through digital system in 49 polytechnic institutes;

Establishment of academic building for 1000 government madrashas to improve and modernize madrasha education;

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6. Tracking Health Sector Expenditure

The Vision is to see the people healthier, happier and economically productive to make Bangladesh a middle income country by 2021.

The Mission is to create conditions whereby the people of Bangladesh have the opportunity to reach and maintain the highest attainable level of health.

The Goal is to ensure quality and equitable health care for all citizens in Bangladesh by improving access to and utilization of health, population and nutrition services.

Reference: Health, Population and Nutrition Sector Development Program (HPNSDP), July 2011 - June 2016: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, February 2012.

6.1 Achievements in the last three years (from FY2009-10 to FY2011-12)

Health Sector

To fulfill the election promise – ‘to ensure quality health services for all’, GoB has prepared the ‘National Health Policy, 2011’.

Maternal and Child Health

Bangladesh has earned enviable success among the SAARC countries in terms of reduction of maternal mortality, infant mortality and life expectancy. According to Bangladesh Demography and Health Survey 2011, the under-5 infant mortality rate has been reduced to 53 from 65 per thousand over the past four years. Likewise, the maternal mortality rate has also gone down to 1.94 from 3.5 per thousand.

Currently, around 33 percent women receive the assistance of the trained health workers during child birth. To increase this number, an initiative is taken to train 40,000 health workers of various tiers over the medium term.

There is an ongoing program titled ‘Maternal Health Voucher Scheme’ to improve maternal health of poor pregnant mothers in 46 upazilas. It will be expanded to another 27 upazilas.

Community Clinic

In the budget for FY2009-10, GoB had committed to establish 13,500 community clinics. As of now, 11,409 clinics have been commissioned. As many as 7.56 crore people have taken services from these clinics in the last three years. The remaining 2,091 clinics will hopefully be set up and made operational by FY2012-13.

Reproductive Health and Family Planning

To increase the rate of contraceptive use by 80 percent within 2021 (to address the population growth), adequate budget allocation has been made during the last three

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years. GoB has built up sufficient stock of contraceptives which can meet the demand up to 2013.

The rate of use of contraceptives has increased to 61 percent from 56 percent during the period from 2007 to 2011.

Public Hospital

The task of upgrading all upazila and district level hospitals to 50 bed and 250 bed hospitals respectively has been undergoing in phases. Till now, 251 upazila health complexes have been upgraded to 50-bed, 16 district hospitals to 100-bed and 8 district hospitals to 250-bed hospitals respectively.

Caregivers

In last three years, GoB has recruited 3,551 physicians and established five new public medical colleges.

Steps have been taken to increase the number of nurses and paramedics to improve the doctor, nurse and paramedics ratio to internationally accepted 1:3:5. For this purpose, five institutes of health technology have been established and there is a plan to establish ten more. In addition, a plan is underway to construct 5 new nursing colleges and upgrade 15 nursing institutes to nursing colleges.

In the last three years, 6,391 health assistants, 370 health technologists, 605 nurses and 856 family welfare visitors have been recruited.

ICT in Healthcare

In 482 hospitals at zila and upazila level, a program has been launched to provide health services through mobile phone.

Internet connectivity has been provided to 800 health organizations.

Telemedicine facility has been introduced in 8 hospitals through which patients can now take advice of medical specialists at upazila and zila level.

The ongoing ICT applications in health sector have received wide acclamation and the country has been honoured with ‘Digital Health for Digital Development’ award by the United Nations.

6.2 Trend in budget allocation for MoHFW

To build a healthy nation, the commitment and vision of the GoB is very lucid and noticeable through its National Health Policy, Sixth Five Year Plan, Strategy Paper on Vision 2021, and accelerated actions by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) to improve health service both in terms of coverage and quality. GoB’s emphasis on ensuring common people’s health care access is noticeable. Health issues of the children have been

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given special focus and importance in all of the aforementioned documents as the aggregate health of future generation depends on them. Government has initiated and on the process of implementing several programs and facilities sensitive for the children and obviously for the children who are disable, deprived, destitute, unprivileged in terms of age, race, gender and location.

Table 6.1 evidently reflects the purpose of GoB in health sector with increasing allocation in each year from FY2009-10 to FY2012-13. Actually each year’s budget is the part of GoB’s comprehensive plan on allocation and spending in health sector for the next five years. In FY2012-13, the national budget has allocated Tk 9,355 Crore (around 5 percent higher than previous year’s proposed budget) for MoHFW of which Tk 3,825 Crore is allocated in Development budget and Tk 5,529 is allocated in Non-development budget.

Table 6.1: Trend in Proposed Budget for MoHFW from FY2009-10 to FY 2012-13

Year

Development

Non Development

Total

2009-10

3075

3905

6980

2010-11

3473

4656

8129

2011-12

3562

5307

8869

2012-13

3825

5529

9355

Source: Ministry of Finance, GoB.

Figure 6.1: Trend in Proposed Budget for MoHFW from FY2009-10 to FY2012-13

10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 Development
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
Development

Non

Development

Total

2009-1010000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 Development Non Development T o t a l 2010-11 2011-12

2010-1110000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 Development Non Development T o t a l 2009-10 2011-12

2011-1210000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 Development Non Development T o t a l 2009-10 2010-11

2012-1310000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 Development Non Development T o t a l 2009-10 2010-11

Source: Ministry of Finance, GoB.

6.3 Trend in allocation in real-terms (constant prices)

A closer look into Table 6.1 on allocation in the development and non-development sector of MoHFW reveals that between FY2009-10 to FY2012-13 development budget has been increased by only 25 percent, while non-development budget swelled by much higher amount of 41 percent.

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When this growth figure is factored with population growth and inflation, then it is found that in real terms increment did not took place – increment happened only in nominal terms. As an example, between FY2011-12 and FY2012-13, development and non- development budget has increased by 4 percent and 7 percent respectively. While according to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS), the inflation was 9.15 percent (point to point basis) in May 2012. Just factoring with inflation uncovers that in real terms the amount allocated to MoHFW is lower than the previous year. The scenario turns into a disappointing one when population is factored as no. of population is increasing by 1.34 percent (BBS, 2011). This is a disappointing finding as MoHFW allocation is directly related with the MDG goals on health, population and nutrition.

6.4 Trends in Development, Non-development, Revenue and Capital Budgets

The growth in capital expenditure in MoHFW is the lowest among all categories. This implies a substantial part of development budget goes into service delivery of the project- based medical facilities. In addition, revenue budget registered the sharpest growth among all categories. This is anticipated as GoB hired large number of medical professionals and caregivers in the past two years. It would have been desirable that GoB concurrently increases allocation for capital budget as it would increase future capacity of delivering services. However, MoHFW defends the priority is to improve service at current facilities.

Figure 6.2: Trends in component-wise budget allocation of MoHFW from FY2009-10 to FY2012-13

Trend in all types of Allocations

10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0

2009-10 Revised budget9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 2010-11 Revised budget 2011-12 Revised budget

2010-11 Revised budget8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 2009-10 Revised budget 2011-12 Revised budget 2012-13

2011-12 Revised budget8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 2009-10 Revised budget 2010-11 Revised budget 2012-13

2012-13 Proposed Budget8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 2009-10 Revised budget 2010-11 Revised budget 2011-12

Source: Ministry of Finance

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6.5 Trend in ADP allocation

In FY2012-13, health sector’s share in ADP allocation was only 6.9 percent and declining for the last three years (table 6.2). The share of health sector in ADP was peaked to 2007- 08 but since then largely following a declining trend. This statistics shows that GoB is prioritizing other sectors, especially power, energy and communications sector, in ADP allocation. As large no. of poor in the country depends on public sector health service, this contraction in share may compromise their right in receiving health service.

Table 6.2: Share of Health expenditure as % of ADP

Year

Health Expenditure as % of ADP

1999-2000

8.1

2000-01

7.3

2001-02

7.9

2002-03

6.7

2003-04

8.3

2004-05

8.2

2005-06

9.6

2006-07

10

2007-08

10.8

2008-09

9.8

2009-10

10.1

2010-11

9.0

2011-12

7.7

2012-13 (budgeted)

6.9

Source: Bangladesh Economic Review and Annual Development Program (ADP)

In FY2012-13, the no. of projects running under MoHFW has increased than previous year. This is also reflected in the increased allocation. However, the small amount of resource provisioned against 26 unapproved projects hardly makes any sense and implies that only a few of them would be finally approved for implementation.

Table 6.3: Running and proposed projects under ADP in MoHFW

 

No of running project

Allocated

No of New Projects (Unapproved)

Taka Allocated against these unapproved projects (in crore)

Year

(in crore)

2011-12

36

3,942.53

,31

1,151.35

2012-13

40

4,145.81

26

236.78

Source: ADP Book (various issues)

6.6 Trend in implementation performance of development budget

The average rate of non-implementation in MoHFW is evidently high in most of the years (Table 6.3). Between FY2000-2001 and FY2009-10, the average rate of development budget implementation was only 61.57 percent. This is a cautionary outlook. This demands that rather than asking for growth in allocation, MoHFW must focus on improving its

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implementation performance by increasing efficiency and enhancing capacity. Low implementation performance of development budget also creates uncertainty about future service deliveries and health-related targets.

Figure 6.3: Actual Implementation vis-à-vis proposed allocation in development budget of MoHFW from FY2000-01 to FY2009-10

Proposed Budget Actual Expenditure 3075 2606 2439 2468 2375 2177 2080 1960 1932 1702 1701
Proposed Budget
Actual Expenditure
3075
2606
2439
2468
2375
2177
2080
1960
1932
1702
1701
1577
1621
1512
1191
1137
1036
804
811
257

Source: Ministry of Finance

6.7 Children focused projects of MoHFW

In the budget of FY2012-13, GoB planned to undertake 4 projects that are solely for children. These projects focus child health, nutrition and immunization in larger extent and with greater coverage. They are:

Providing primary health care, health and nutrition services for mothers, children and rural people through 3500 community clinics

Providing expanded program of Immunization (EPI), Vitamin A campaign and polio campaign program

Introduction of woman and child friendly hospital initiative program in district hospitals and upazila health complexes project

Expansion of Dhaka Shisu (Children) Hospital

6.8 Status of Beneficiaries in Health Sector

Income Groups Studies have found that, in Bangladesh, on average 8.8 per cent of monthly household income was spent on illness treatment. However, when this figure is disaggregated with income group, it is found that the poorest households had to spend about 38 per cent of household income to meet the treatment cost of illness episodes. On the contrary, the richest households spent only 3.4 per cent of household income for treatment of illness

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episode. Thus, the burden of ill health and suffering is not proportionate rather biased towards poor.

Figure 6.4: Percent of Household Income spent on treatment by income group in 2003

Household Income spent on treatment by income group in 2003 Gender and Age Figure 6.5 demonstrates

Gender and Age Figure 6.5 demonstrates that gender deprivation exists except two age groups in terms of health facility utilization. Females only receive higher health facility utilization in the Reproductive age bracket (15-49 years). This implies that females generally do not get required medical attention during childhood and old age. In addition, there is considerable evidence that in rural Bangladesh females have less access to food, health care and other resources than males within the same household.

Figure 6.5: Utilization of Health and Facilities by age and gender in 2003

than males within the same household. Figure 6.5: Utilization of Health and Facilities by age and

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Studies have identified that within an income group, social and cultural factors are also important issues as it affects the participation of women in health service utilization. Women are less likely to utilize health services as Demographic and Health Survey shows that 44 percent of women reported difficulty in getting permission to go to a health provider.

6.9 Key projects/programs of MoHFW for FY2012-13

In FY2012-13, MoHFW is planned to undertake the following key programs/projects:

Service Delivery

Implementing Maternal Health Voucher Scheme at 73 upazila, 24/7 C-EOC activities at 96 upazila;

Supply machinery and equipment for Project of Establishment of 500 Bed Hospital at Khilgaon, Dhaka and 500 bed hospital at Kurmitola by MES;

Up-gradation of National Cancer Research Institute from 50 beds to 300 beds;

Expansion of Dhaka Shisu (Children) Hospital;

Establishment of third branch of Essential Drug Company (EDCL);

Extension of Sheikh Abu Naser Hospital in Khulna;

Conversion of Bangabandhu sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) into a “Centre of Excellence” and Establishment of “National centre for Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening and Training Unit”; and

Development of e-health as part of the overall program for establishing digital Bangladesh.

Reproductive Health and Family Planning

Providing short and long term family planning activities;

Recruitment of 842 FWV and 4294 staff members under the Directorate of Family Planning.

Human Resource and Infrastructure Development

Establishment of new medical colleges at of Satkhira, Kustia, Faridpur, Gopalgonj, Cox's bazar, Noakhali, Pabna and Jessore and upgrading the bed capacity of existing hospitals

Producing 1850 diploma holder nurses providing training for 1200 CSBA and 890 midwives;

Construction of health infrastructure at union, upazila, district, division and national level;

Construction of 20-storied Health Bhaban at Mohakhali;

Introduction of 4-year BSc course in nursing by converting nursing institutes into nursing colleges and establishment of 5 more nursing institutes;

Establishment of National Institutes of Neuroscience and National Institute of ENT in Dhaka.

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Table 6.4: The key elements of the health sector strategy in SFYP

Public Health

 

Strengthening Access to and Utilization of Public Health Services for the Poor and Needy

Service

Delivery

Strategy

Strategy for

Strengthening

Health Inputs

Strengthening Public Service Delivery Capacity and Accountability

Community

Promotion of public awareness

Health sector management/governance

Physical

Clinic

accessibility

     

Social and cultural context – utilization by age and gender

Upazila Health

Nursing, Drugs, Medical education

System

Improved management

   
 

Food quality,

 

Economic

Strengthening

accessibility

Urban Health

Better governance

research and

 
 

training

 
 

Emergency preparedness response, Climate change and health protection

 

Impact of treatment cost on household consumption

Maternal and

Transparency, accountability and stakeholder participation

Newborn

Health

     
 

Climate change and health protection

 

Disease burden on the poor

Antenatal Care

Sectoral reforms

Hard to reach populations and the disadvantaged:

Affordable health care services, Surveillance of diseases

Stewardship role of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

Ensuring Gender Equality

People with

     

disabilities

Medical waste

Strengthening human resources

(PWD)

management

 

Telemedicine and e- HPN

Improving supply management

 

Elderly People

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7. Tracking Social Protection Sector Expenditure

7.1 Ministry of Women and Child Affairs (MoWCA)

7.1.1. Share of Development and Non-Development Budget in FY 2012-13

The Ministry of Women and Child Affairs has been playing central role in safeguarding child rights, thus, undertaking several interventions to ensure social protection for the children in Bangladesh. According to the Allocation of Business of the Government of Bangladesh the ministry is mandated to deal with all policy and programs related to welfare and development of children, and legal and social rights of children.

Figure 7.1: Share of Development and Non-Development Budget in FY2012-13

Development 225 1080 Non-Development

Development

Development 225 1080 Non-Development
225 1080
225
1080

Non-Development

Source: Ministry of Finance

Figure 7.1 shows that in FY2012-13 the total budget for MoWCA is Tk 1306 crore. However, if it is compared between development and non-development we see the allocation for non-development components is about five-times higher than that of the development components. The amounts are Tk 225 crore and Tk 1080 crore respectively. The share of development allocation in the total MoWCA budget is only 20.83%.

7.1.2 Trend of Development Allocation in MoWCA

With regard to child welfare the Ministry of Women and Children Affairs is one of the most important government institutions, it has not been successful till this year to attract the attention of the policy makers to be considered for receiving large-sized budget allocation. From the graphs in the Figure 7.2 we can see that this ministry has been receiving funds at a modest rate of incremental increase since FY2000-01. Though the allocation was 60 crore Taka in FY2000-01 and started increasing at a slower rate till FY2003-04. The amount was Tk 105 crore. Suddenly the allocation went down in the FY2004-05 and the amount was Tk 83 crore. Again, it picked up to Tk 128 crore in the FY2005-06. In the following years since FY2007-08 the development allocation for the ministry went through an irregular pattern of ups and till 2012-13. In the FY2012-13 the total development allocation is 225 crore Taka. Nevertheless, it is interesting to see that the development allocation has increased

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26.67% within a decade. The allocation of development budget in the MoWCA was highest in the last FY2012-13 and the lowest in the FY2000-01 with figures Tk 60 crore and 225 crore respectively.

Figure 7.2: Trend in Development allocation of MoWCA, FY2000-01 to FY2012-13

Trend of allocation of Development Budget of MoWCA

250

200

150

100

50

0

225 215 209 183 161 140 128 105 96 94 83 68 60
225
215
209
183
161
140
128
105
96
94
83
68
60

2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13

Source: Ministry of Finance

7.1.3 Share of Development Budget of the MoWCA in national ADP

In order to understand the government commitment and contribution to the cause of children welfare, comparison between development budget of the ministry and national ADP could be considered as one of the indicators. The above Figure 7.3 shows that the share of the ministry’s development allocation in the total ADP of Bangladesh government for the FY 2012-13. This year total size of the national ADP of the Government of Bangladesh is 55 thousand crore Taka while the development budget for the MoWCA is only 225 crore Taka. The development allocation for the MoWCA is 0.41% of the total ADP of Bangladesh.

Figure 7.3: Share of MoWCA’s Development Budget in ADP of FY 2012-13

225 55000
225
55000

Total ADP

Source: Ministry of Finance

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It is well accepted that public investment is crucial for the promotion of child rights and development and for which government expenditure very instrumental. And more importantly, out of the total allocation, the development budget is the part that usually indicates new projects and expansions. But, in spite of continuous public outcry the government has not increased the development allocation for the MoWCA much this year.

Figure 7.4: Change in Development Budget of MoWCA in FY 2012-13

7.4: Change in Development Budget of MoWCA in FY 2012-13 53.57 60.00 48.94 42.97 39.75 40.00
53.57 60.00 48.94 42.97 39.75 40.00 20.00 -2.79 0.00 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
53.57
60.00
48.94
42.97
39.75
40.00
20.00
-2.79
0.00
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
-20.00
-22.97
-40.00
-48.63
-60.00
Source: Ministry of Finance

Figure 7.4 describes the change in the development budget allocation from FY 2006-07 to FY 2012-13. In the FY 2006-07 there was a 42.97% increase of development allocation from the previous year. However it has decreased -48.63% in the FY 2007-08. The ministry enjoyed increased budget allocations for next two consecutive years (FY 2008-09 and FY 2009-10) at 48.94% and 53.57% respectively. Again, in FY 2010-11 and FY 2011-12 the development budget allocation for the ministry went down by -2.79% and -22.97% simultaneously. The MoWCA in this FY 2012-13 again took an upward turn with 39.75% increase from the previous year. The line graph shows the irregular pattern of the changes in development budget allocation for the MoWCA.

The analysis of the change or growth rate in the development allocation for the MoWCA alone does not tell us the complete story. We need to understand the change in relation to change in the overall ADP; thus, we need to analyze the trend in comparison with the rate of growth the national ADP.

In the Figure 7.5, the black line shows the change in the annual development budget of the Bangladesh government and the gray line shows the change in the development budget for the Ministry of Women and Children Affairs. The two lines show the different growth pattern at two different levels. However, it is clear that there is a natural association between the national development allocation and the allocation for the MOWCA. In FY 2006-07 the development budget for MoWCA has increased 42.97% while the ADP has

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increased only 5.69%. In the very next financial year, 2007-08, the development budget for the ministry and the national development budget both decreased by -48.63% and -3.63% respectively. In the FY 2008-09 and FY 2009-10 the allocations at both national and ministry levels have increased. While in FY 2010-11 the national development budget has increased by 26.23%, the development budget for MoWCA has decreased by -2.79%. However, in FY 2011-12 the allocation for the ADP decreased by 19.48% and the development budget allocation for the ministry decreased by -22.97%. For the current FY 2012-13, the allocation increased both in ADP and development budget of MoWCA by 19.57% and 39.75% respectively.

Figure 7.5: Comparison between national ADP and MoWCA’s development budget

Change (ADP) Change (MoWCA) 53.57 60.00 48.94 42.97 39.75 40.00 26.23 19.14 19.48 19.57 20.00
Change (ADP)
Change (MoWCA)
53.57
60.00
48.94
42.97
39.75
40.00
26.23
19.14
19.48
19.57
20.00
5.69
2.40
-3.85
-2.79
0.00
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
-22.97
-20.00
-48.63
-40.00
-60.00
Source: Ministry of Finance

7.1.4 Share of Revenue and Capital Budget

GoB from the current fiscal year has introduced a new category of financial classification:

revenue budget and capital budget. This new classification will help to see how much of the total allocation is being spent on what purpose. The Figure 6 describes the percentage of the revenue and capital budget of the ministry in the FY 2012-13. While the revenue budget was the 95% of the total budget and capital budget was just only 5% of the total budget of the ministry in the FY 2012-13. The very uneven distribution between revenue and capital investment clearly shows that large part of the total budget of the MoWCA will be spent on the revenue means, salaries, house-rents, etc while a very small part will be devoted to items that may generate growth.

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Figure 7.6: Share of MoWCA’s Revenue and Capital Expenditure in FY 2012-13

5% Capital 95% Revenue
5% Capital 95%
5%
Capital
95%

Revenue

Source: Ministry of Finance

7.1.5 Projects targeted for Children

The major function of MoWCA is to formulation and implementation of policies and projects for women and child development and welfare. In FY2012-13, MoWCA will undertake the following important projects focusing on child development and welfare:

Empowerment and Protection of Children Project

Capacity Building for Monitoring Child Rights in Bangladesh Project

Establishment of Ahsania Mission Children City for Comprehensive of Distressed Children Project

Food and Livelihood Security for poor children Project

Daycare Program of the Children of Lower and Middle Income Working Women Project

Early Learning for Children Development Project

Sisimpur Outreach Project

Establishment of Pediatric and Women Cardiac Unit in National Heart Foundation of Bangladesh Project.

7.2 Ministry of Social Welfare

7.2.1. Trend in allocation of MoSW

The main aim of Ministry of Social Welfare (MoSW) is to implement and regulate activities related to welfare of the entire population of the country with a special focus on the destitute, marginalized groups. The objectives of the MoSW are to create employment for the ultra poor and reduction of poverty through productive employment and human resource development by social safety net programs and other income generating activities. Children are not as such an exclusive focus of the ministry; however, it does provide few services to the children. Analysis of the budget allocation and performance of

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MoSW will help us understand government’s role in relation to child welfare issues, and protection and promotion of social safety net programs for children in Bangladesh.

Figure 7.7 shows the trends of development budget of the Ministry of Social Welfare. The highest development budget for the ministry was in the FY 2011-12 and the lowest one was in the FY 2007-08 with 262 crore Taka and 62 crore Taka respectively. If we see from the FY 2000-01 to 2012-13 there was ups and downs in the development budget allocation for MoSW.

From FY 2000-01 to FY 2009-10, there was little increase and decrease in the development budget, but in FY 2010-11 the budget has increased to a huge amount from the previous year. In FY 2009-10 the development budget for MoSW was 109 crore Taka but in FY 2010- 11 the budget has increased by 68.32%, which in absolute number was 225 crore Taka. In the FY 2011-12 there was a highest allocation in last 11 financial years, the allocation went up to 262 crore Taka. However, in FY 2012-13 the development allocation fell a little from the last year to 227 crore Taka.

Figure 7.7: Trend of Development Budget of MoSW

300 262 235 250 227 200 150 106 109 100 97 89 90 100 83
300
262
235
250
227
200
150
106
109
100
97
89
90
100
83
79
74
62
50
0

Source: Ministry of Finance

Figure 7.8 shows the trend of the non-development, development and total allocation for the Ministry of Social Welfare from the FY 2000-01 to FY 2012-13. On the other hand, the total allocation for the ministry has increased gradually from FY 2000-01 to FY 2007-08 and from FY 2008-09 to FY 2010-11 has increased sharply. Again, from FY 2010-11 to FY 2012-13 the total budget has increased steadily. It is seen that in the FY 2000-01 the total budget was only 224 crore Taka which increased by 817.87% and reached to 2056 crore Taka in the FY 2012-13.

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Figure 7.8: Trend in allocations for the MoSW 2001-01 to 2012-13

Non-development budget (Crore Taka)Development Budget (Crore Taka)

Non-development budget (Crore Taka) Development Budget (Crore Taka)

Development Budget (Crore Taka)

Total Allocation 2500 2039 2056 1920 2000 1829 1777 1685 1500 1300 993 1191 1000
Total Allocation
2500
2039 2056
1920
2000
1829
1777