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Cylinder and Cylinder Head Cylinder of an internal combustion engine should be designed to withstand the high pressure and

temperature conditions ; it should be able to transfer the unused heat efficiently so that metal temperature does not approach the dangerous limit, and it should be economical to repair it in the event of wear and tear. For this reason, it is usual to use cylinder liners or sleeves in all the big engines became of the following advantages : (i) These are more economical because of ease of replacement after wear and tear. (ii) Instead of making the whole of the cylinder of best grade of material, only the liner can be made of better grade, wear resistant cast iron and the jacket made of cheaper grade. (iii) It's, use also allows for longitudinal expansion. In big engines the various parts, viz., cylinder, water jacket, frame etc. are manufactured separately, whereas in small engines these are all made as one piece. The cylinder liner should be made of such material which is strong enough to withstand high gas pressure and at the same time sufficiently hard enough to resist wear due to piston movement. It should also be corrosion resistant and produce good bearing surface to guide the piston movement. It should also be capable of resisting thermal stresses due to heat flow through the liner wall. The various materials commonly used and satisfying the above requirements in the order of preference are: Grey cast iron with homogeneous and close grained structure (pearlitic cast iron); which is usually cast centrifugally; nickel cast iron and nickel; chromium cast iron ; nickel-chromium cast steel (with molybdenum, in some cases). The aeroplane engine cylinders are made of forged alloy steel. The cylinders are usually made of cast steel. The inner surface of the liners is usually heat-treated properly in order to obtain hard surface to reduce wear. Sometimes it is chromium electroplated to obtain very hard and porous surface such that an oil film is formed and retained thereby reducing th wear appreciably.

Two types of liners (wet, a ad dry type) are commonly used. The dry liner is press fit into tha cylinder and the cooling water (to remove the unused heat) does not come in contact with the liner but contacts only the cylinder outer surface. This arrangement is adopted for smaller cylinder below 125 mm bore, above which wet liners are used in which case the cooling water in the jacket comes in direct contact with outside layers of the liner. In the case of wet liner, a heavy flange has to be provided at the top which means that centre distance between two cylinders in case of multi cylinder engine will be more and the cooling of the top of liner will not be proper. However it permits easy supporting of heavy internal cores of cylinder bore. The dry liner is" easier to replace and the wet liner is difficult. The heat flow through dry liner is poor, but is uniform throughout including the top. In the case of dry wet liner such a risk exists if the liner casting is defective. The stresses in the cylinder liner are of two typespressure stress which is tensile throughout, and thermal stresses which result In compressive stress in the inner fibres and tensile stress in the outer fibres. From past experience it is observed that cylinder liners rarely fail due to pressure and thermal stresses, but the failure is generally due to distortion and wear. The cylinder wall is subjected to gas pressure and the piston side thrust. Piston side thurst tends to bend the wall but the stress in the wall due to side thrust is very small and can be neglected. The gas pressure produces two types of stresses : longitudinal and circumferential which act at right angle to each other and so the net stress in each direction is reduced. sl = longitudinal stress = Force Area liner there is no possibility of water leakage into crank case or combustion chamber ; whereas in

2 D Xpmax = 4 2 ( D0 D) 2 4
Where D = cylinder inside dia,

D0 and pmax sc

= cylinder outside dia. = max. gas pressure = circumferential stress = Pmax xD 2t so m sl m

Net s l = s l and Net s o = s o 1 m

= Poisson's ratio.


p max .D +k 2 so

Where t so

= wall thickness in cm. = maximum hoop stress. It varies from 350 (for small bore) to

1000 kg/cm 2 for larger bores) depending on the size an material. k = reboring factor. 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

Cylinder bore 75 mm k, mm

1.5 2.25 3.75 6

7.5 9

10.5 12


The thickness of the cylinder walls usually varies from aboi 4.5 mm to 25 mm or more depending upon the cylinder size. For liners of oil engines, thickness of liner and that of cylinder is greater than fifteenth part of cylinder bore. The thickness of the dry liner is given as t' = 0'0 30 D to 0035 D The thickness of the inner walls of the automobile engine cylinders is usually given empirically as

t = 0'045 D + 0'16 cm. The thickness of jacket wall is given as for bigger cylinder, or = 0.032 D + 0'16 cm. The water space between the outer cylinder wall and the inn jacket wall is 9 mm for a 75 mm cylinder to about 75 mm f 750 mm cylinder, or =0'08 D+0'65 cm. ' The cylinder is usually attached to the upper half of the crai 0 ase with the help of flanges, studs and nuts. The cylinder flange is made thicker than the wall of tl cylinder, the usual value of flange thickness being taken as 1'20 1-4 t, or = 1-25 to 1'50 d tZ=bolt diameter. The distance of the end of the flange from the centre of the stud or bolt should not be less than d+6 mm, and not more than 1-5 d. The diameter of the bolt or stud can be calculated by equating gas load to the area of all the studs at the root of the threads multiplied by the allowable fibre stress. t.e. n=no. of studs and lies toO'2D+4 where between O'l D+4 s(=allowable fibre stress, 300 to 600 kg/cma for nickel steel bolts. <io=core diameter. Nominal bolt dia. 'd' usually lies between 0'75 tf and tf (tf =flange thickness) but d should never be less than 16 mm. Pitch of the bolts may be taken as 6^d to 9*{d , where d is in cm. Usually a separate cylinder cover or head is provided with most of the engines. The cylinder head is usually made of box type section having considerable depth 3 1 t for smaller cylinder to t 4 3

to accommodate the ports for air and gas passages, and to accommodate valves and also accommodate the atomiser at the centre of the cover in the case of diesel engines. If the cylinder head is approximately a flat circular plate, then its thickness-can'be determined by the relation : st where ^ (7=constant, in this case equal to O'l. s=allowable stress, (300 to 500 kg/cm2) Problem 36'1. A four stroke 1.0. engine has the following specifications : BHP=10 EPM=UOO Indicated mean effective pressure p=3'5 kg/cm2 Max. gas pressure pmax. =.35 kg/cm2. 968 Net and net \ MACHINE DESK 9'85-53'25 43'40 kg/cma (compressive) 213-2-46 210-54 kg/cma. 37 Pistons 37 '1. Introduction Piston is an important part of an I.C. engine which receives impulse from the expanding gases in the cylinder and transmits the energy to the crankshaft through the connecting rod. It also disperses a large amount of heat from the combustion chamber to the cylinder walls. I.C. engines employ trunk type pistons which are

open at one end and consist of (i) head or crown to carry the cylinder pressure, (it) skirt to act as a bearing for connecting rod side thrust, (iii) piston pin to connect the piston to the connecting rod, and (iv) piston rings to seal the cylinder. The various important design considerations for a piston are : The piston is subjected to highly rigorous conditions and must therefore have enormous strength and heat resistant properties to withstand high gas pressures. Its construction should be rigid enough to withstand thermal and mechanical distortion. As high speeds up to 15 mpm may be attained in high speed engines the weight of piston should be minimum possible to minimise the inertia forces. To maintain the piston temperature within limits, the heat from the crown of piston must be dissipated quickly and efficiently to-the rings and bearing area and then to the cylinder walls. , The profile of piston head is dependent on the design of combuston chamber. The thickness of piston head is determined by the criterion of strength and the heat to be dissipated. From strength considerations, it may become necessary to, use different material for head, like-cast steel. The bearing area of piston should be sufficient to prevent undue wear and it should form an effective seal to avoid gases from leaking to oil side or oil to gas side. The number and type of piston rings is influenced by many factors including the balancing weight of crank. It should have least friction and have noiseless operation. Material of the piston must possess good wearing qualities, so that the piston is able to maintain the surface hardness up to the operating temperatures and there should be little or no tendency towards corrosion. The most commonly used materials for the pistons of .internal combustion engines are : cast iron, cast aluminium, forged 969 Aluminiurn , cast steel, and forged steel. Cast iron pistons ma used for moderately rated engines with piston speeds below 6J and aluminium alloy pistons are used for highly rated engines running at higher piston speeds, || 37'2. Thickness of Piston Head '|

The thickness of piston head can be calculated by assui the head to be a flat plate of uniform thickness and fixed at edges and assuming the gas load to be uniformly distributed, f where <=piston head thickness, cm. D cylinder bore, cm. p=max. gas pressure, kg/cm3. 5(=allowable stress in bending, kg (360 for Gil. and 600 for nickel C.I aluminium alloy, and 875 for ft steel). r: The piston head thickness must also be sufficient to diss; the heat generated, in addition to withstanding the gas pres This can be checked by the following formula. '_'$ ""$ (This assumes the head to be flat, which if convex or cqii will be able to withstand higher temperature). | Head thickness, =. H where


I'"'1 &=Heat conductivity factok- in kcal/cg

o *** "-The value of 'k' can be taken as . ;1 &=0'4 for grey cast iron. :;.|j = 1*5 for aluminium alloys. :& =0-44 for steet. '1

at the centre of pistonf if=heat ,.:J ' ;A where W=weight of fuel used, kg per

and y2=temperature near the edge of pisfcft and flowing through the head BHPpjj =(? X W X HGV X BHP kcal/hr.

The average consumption of fuel oil for an average/^ engine is from 0'18 to 0'22 kg per BHP per hour. ;':! HGV=Higher calorific value of the fuel, k|j

Higher calorific value for diesel fuel may be taken as 10,500 teal/kg. BHP=brake horse power cylinder. (7 constant (usually =0 '05), represents the portion of the heat supplied to the engine which is absorbed by the piston. 37'3. Piston Rings These impart the necessary radial pressure to maintain the seal between the piston and the cylinder bore. The piston rings inserted at the top function as compression rings or pressure rings, and may be 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 in number. These also transfer heat from piston to cylinder liner and absorb part of piston fluctuation due to side thrust. The rings inserted at bottom serve as oil scraper or oil control rings. These provide proper lubrication by allowing sufficient oil to move up during upward stroke and at the same time also minimise oil flow to combustion chamber. In the oil rings, either the bottom outer edge is stepped or upper edge bevelled, or slot cut in the centre of the ring all around the periphery and the lower edge of the groove of the piston is bevelled and small holes drilled towards the inside of the piston so that the excess oil scrapped by the ring flows through these holes into {he piston and falls into the sump. The compression rings are usually made of rectangular cross-section and the diameter of the rings is made slightly larger than the cylinder bore. A part of the ring is cut-off in order to permit it go into cylinder against the liner wall. This also produces pressure on rings,. The gap between the ends should be sufficiently large so that even at the highet temperature the ends will not touch each other, otherwise there might be buckling of the ring, The square cut ends are most commonly used. Sometimes angular cut, or square step cut ends are also used. The ring joints of various rings should be spaced equally round the piston and should not come one below the other. The rings are sometimes, therefore, located by pins, so that all the gaps do not come in one line due to the rotation of the rings. of engine per

Piston rings are usually made of cast iron and alloy cast iron due to their good wearing qualities and also their retaining the spring characteristics even at high temperatures. To avoid the Wear, the rings are chrome plated. The radial width (wr) of the ring is selected so as to limit the the wall pressure to 0'25 to 0'42 kg/cm2. ' where w, =radial width of ring, cm. #to=wall pressure, kg/cm2. st =allowable stress in bending, kg/cm2. },.. =850- 1100 for G.I. rings.

The axial thickness of the rings may he taken more. The thickness between the ring grooves i.e. the land ,i$ taken as equal to or slightly less than the axial thickness -:W ring. ' .. ;.|| The width of the top land is made larger than the otlierj! lands (about 0'2 to 0'3 Z>) to protect the top ring from;. thel| temperature conditions existing at the top of the piston. || 37'4. Piston Skirt . . Its length should be such The portion of the piston barrel below the ring sectiojp the open end is known as "skirt" and it takes the side thrust', { connecting rod. for high speed engines. Side thrust y. 75 T '.* /Lt=co-efficient of friction, between skrit (0'03 to O'lO). Z>=piston diameter, cm ; p=gas pressure Z=skirt length, cm, ptside thrust pressure, kg/cm2 .*. Length of piston, L*=l+length of ring section+toprlaj It usually varies between D and 1*5 D. that the side pressure does not exceed 2'5 kg/cm a for low speed engines kg/cm2

Solved Problems :" Problem. 37'1. What are the purposes piston. ' Solution. Generally 4 to 6 ribs of 0'3 to 0-5 times the$ ness of piston head are general provide the provided radially in the head of t>-~ ~ and these in and thej loads.

stiffening effect and th make the head rigid and ' capable oi withstanding gas These also assist in transferring heat from the piston hej the .- ^ piston rings and then to the cylinder liner. .

A stiffening rib which is provided at the centre line of *! " and extends around the skirt, helps in properly transmitting ^utt; thrust from the connecting rod to the skirt through the pist<jj|| boss and thus avoid the distortion of the skirt. Problem 37'2. Solution. Would you prefer more nujnber ofnarrowti or a few wide shallow rings and why ? Using a more number of narrow rings';^ following advantages : (a) Heat transfer from piston head to liner is better ;

973 t ; (&) better sealing action is provided ; (d) less wear of the glands ; (c) friction losses are less ; (e) rings occupy less piston length. Problem. 37'3. Discuss the suitability of cast iron and aluminum alloys as materials for construction of pistons, Solution. Cast iron is the most popular material for construc-;ion of piston, because it has high strength and low thermal expan-iioh. It has good wearing qualities even at high temperatures and thus t becomes sciost suitable as the wearing surface of a piston. Tin plat-ng of G.I. 'piston reduces the cylinder wear appreciably. Usually :lose grained pearlite cast iron is used for pistons. It has however the lisadvantage of higher weight, which with proper design may be ) vercome. It has low thermal conductivity.

Aluminium pistons are very light and due to high thermal Conductivity these dissipate heat in a better way. At high tempera-:ures it loses strength, (50% loss above 320C). It has high expansion about 2'5 times that of G.I.). It has low abrasion resistance at high temperature. ' All these disadvantages are easily overcome by alloying alumi-lium with other materials. Cast aluminium alloy has nearly the iame strength as C.I. fir Proble-in. 37'4. Why clearance is provided between the piston ind cylinder liner, and how much ? p Solution. The clearance between the piston and the cylinder ijiier is provided to account for the thermal expansion of piston and stortion under load. Its magnitude depends upon the engine igEign and the piston size. It may be mentioned that whereas the gcessive clearance will lead to piston slap, the less clearance would [fad to seizure of piston. The top dia. of piston is kept as 0'974 to 96 D and bottom dia. as 0 9993 to 0'9996 D. llfr To account for thermal expansion, the piston on top portion is |||de tapered, the amount of taper being dependent upon the opera-pjjg temperature of the piston, the relative expansion between the |ljton, and liner, and the running clearance adopted. $P;' Problem 37'5. Design a cast iron piston for a four-stroke,


semidiesel engine running at 600 r.p.m. about 7'5 kg/sq cm.

The maximum ^osion pressure on the

cylinder head is to be near about 40 kg/sq. cm, |B;mean effective pressure is The fuel consump. p is 0'20 kg per B H.P. per hour. The Diameter and stroke of the ||Q/I is 25 cm and 30 cm respectively.

connecting rod length is The piston is to have at least 3 sealing rings and 2 oil rings. pressure of the rings should be between 0'35 to 0^42 kg/sq Permissible bending stress for the piston ring materiat is to be 974 MACHINE D about 800 kg/sg cm< Heat conducted through the piston cro approximately 4\ to 5% of the total heat produced. Beat coneLui of G.I. is about 0'4 kcal/cm hr G.

Temperatures at the centre and edges of the piston face may be assumed approximately 320C 150Gjespectivdy. BCV of fuel may be taken as 10,000 kcal/kg. t.,=25 All dimensions in mm I* Fig. 37-1 . Solution, Piston bead. The thickness of the piston head 'is prii found from its heat dissipation capacity. headfper hr in kcal. =( .Cf=a constant, representing portion of heat,mitted by the crown of the piston =0-045 to^'05 J| HGV=higber calorificwalue of the fuel :| ^=10,000 kcal/kg TF=weight of fuel used in kg per B.H.P. p Now, B.H.P. of the engine ;' pm.L.A.N SSTONS 975 lere, #m=mean effective pressure, kg per sq. cm i=length of the stroke, metres Aarea, of cylinder bore, sq. cm 2Vr=namber of explosions per minute r.p.m. BH.P.= 7'5 X 0-30 X 07854 X 25 X 25 X 600 X 0'8 4500X2 (taking >j=0'8) =59 #=10,000x0-05x0-20x59 = 5900 kcal/hr. Minimum thickness t of the crown or head necessary to dissi-fte the heat may be calculated from the equation : t= . :4500


Heat flow throng

; .'.% 'Vj

H K T .' T1=ten)perature at the centre =320C Ta=temperature at the edge , =150G ' &=heat conductivity factor ' =0-4 kcal/cm hrG I,, . ^ ______5900______ 16XO'4[320-150]07854 =6'9 cm, say 7 cm The strength of the piston head may now be checked by ing it as a circular plate carrying a uniformly distributed load xed at the edges. Grashof's formula for maximum stress for i case is at==fibre stress in kg/sq. cm =200 kg/cm2 p=maximum gas pressure in kg/sq. cm =40 D=diameter of piston face =25 cm

976 Hence

-v3X40X25X25 16XZOC =4'85cm .*. 7 3 If the piston be cooled by oil, then the valug|| be reduced considerably but not less than the ' calculat^ of4'85cm. Piston Rings The radial width of a G.I. cut ring can be calculated I -3 "*| following empirical relation, wr=D A/ ; where, ^i 7 cm may be taken as thickness of piston head,^ Radial ribs may be 4 in nos. and their thickness 7 ' ' 0'33 to 0'5 t. Here we will allow -75- to =2'5cm, sa

width ; pw=radial wall pressure : st=permissible ben|| in the ringspurposely taken very high from 770 toj cm. to avoid an excessive stress when slipping [-the :ri| piston. ' Hence, wv=$ Axial thickness of the ring may be taken between;(||||| or may be based on the number of-rings required ; i e. >lf"; '* ''iC Minimum _D_ ~~\Qn , '. where w=no. of rings. .*. Minimum thickness '-=0'5 cm. 25 ';-:<. ~ 10X5 =0'75 X 10=0g75 cm (say) In general, thinner piston rings have less wea better sealing action, decreased The lands friction especially at ;|j less piston length occupied by the rings. The first']' the top should be cut at a distance equal toj 8'4 cm (say 7'7 cm). between the ring


thickness W

Thickness according to 0'7 wr to wr rule

equal to or

slightly less than the ring axial thicknes|P||p| it ">.

equal to the axial thickness of the ring=0'75

PISTONS 977 The gap, when the ring is mounted into the piston and thrust into the cylinder, is 0-002 D to 0'004D; i.e., 0'002x25 to O'OvH iX 25=0'05 LtoO'10 ems'' .' I In almost all engines the rings should be located by pins to pre-|ent turning. The last ring is usually made as an oil scraper with a slight bevel. B evelling of the lower groove and ring edge and ^";i!ing small holes towards the inside of the piston assist the removal r.cess oil. Piston Cylindrical Portion (Piston Barrel) and the Skirt.

um thickness t^ of the cylindrical portion may be determined jrom the equation, <1=0'45+0'03 D+6 cm.; where b is the radial |jpp.th of the piston ring grooves and is about 0'4 mm more than me radial width of the ring when in position. ^=0-45+0-03x25+1-04 =0-45+0-75+1-04 =2'24 cm, say 2'5 cm Piston wall " V ' =0-25x2-5 to 0-35x2-5 =0'7 cm, say thickness should be decreased towards the open ^=0-25^0 0-35^ The length of the skirt may be determined from the conside-a that the side pressure resulting from the angularity of the lecting rod should not exceed 2" 1 kg./jq. cm. to 4"2 kg./sq. cm. slow or n/edium speed I.C. engines on the plain downward 'don projected area (not covering the ring grooves). The normal sure usually varies from 0"03 to O'l p, where p is the maximum pressure on the piston head. Now, P=-^-x25zX40 ' =19,600 kg. V. Side pressure=0'l X 19,600 area of the downward plain portion=i>xZ; where $|ifl'the length = 1960 kg. (max.) ||f|f; Projected of the downward plain portion ; i.e., the skirt. 1960=25XZX4'2 1960 1= '25X4-2 ^Overall length of the piston a 19 cm. =Skirt length+ring section+top land 973 MACHINEjf .*. Overall Jength of the piston ^S| = 19+(2x5xO-75)+7-7 ; ||

=:33*5 cm

"m will increase its own weight and thus the

The longer the piston is, the better is the bearing svrF"' affording quieter running of the engine, but unnecessary long, inertia forces in1 3 cation. ' ^;4i Gudgeon Pin. ?$$$ In order to obtain a uniform distributi

side pressure between the piston and the cylinder wall, the giic pin should be placed near about from the edge of the open ,e the piston. In fact, the skirt can be treated as a crosshead; ^ in order to reduce the weight of the gudgeon pin it can be;S hollow. The length l^ of the pin bearing in the small r connecting rod is limited by the piston diameter. Thereimx, diameter of the gudgeon pin has to be decided according t allowable bearing pressure on the projected area available. " For oil engines of the type in question, a maximum be pressure of 125 to 155 kg./sq. cm. is possible with a ratio of 1-5 to 2. Assuming li=l'5do (outside dia. of the pin) and p=140 kg./sq. cm., 19,600 = r5daXd0X 140 ; or 19.600 =9'74 cm, say 9'8 cm The dimensions, especially the diameter of the on the higher side for accommodating in a piston diameter of% and should therefore be reduced somehowsay 'by increasii intensity of bearing pressure to 200 kg/sq. cm. or nearaBp,i improving the heat-treatment and material. Si Try a 8'0-cm. diameter X 12'0 cm. long solid pin, Then, 19,600=8-0x12-0^ 19 600 P==8-Oxl2-Q =20 kS-/S(l' cm,.say*l8 or The bending stress in the pin is determined from the cpni tion that the pin is a beam uniformly loaded for a distance || freely supported at the bosses and making an effective span of? 25+12-0



979 Then, max. B.M. on the pin. ,, 8 Section modulus of the pin 71 = Xdia. of pin3 O"i =i50 61,300 8t=50 = 1225 kg./sq. cm. approx. I As the stress induced in the pin is on the higher side, the mate-| of the pin may be taken as 0'35 to 0'4% carbon steel. I If the pin be made a nice push fit in the piston, then the |ue of st will be reduced to some extent. As a matter of fact |"ding theory does not rigidly apply to cases where the ratio of |;span to beam .depth does not exceed 2, as in this case. Empirically, maximum diameter of gudgeon pin varies from fi&o 0'4 D for G.I. pistons of 20 cm. to 40 cm. diameter. According to this erntpirical rule, the maximum diameter of |geon pin will vary fromO'3x25 to 0-4x25=7'5 cm. to 10 cm. I We have provided 8'0 cm. (O.K.). |v}The pin must be located yyays in the piston to pre-'ijfepontact with the cylinder ' |t There are several methods he use of bronze buttons into the pins is unwise, pre is a tendency towards |fing 'the cylinder walls. 19,600x25 ,.. , -B.M. = =61,300 kg. cm.

" plate of circular may shape j||ecessed in the piston wall dot touching the cylinder as |in Fig. 37'2. Clearances are necessary due to thermal jjsion or due to be employed

^Piston Clearances.

distortion under load. If excessive clearance is Button Type (not recommended) Fig. 37-2. Keep Plate Type (recommended) for pistons upto 25 cm. bore cylinder.

980 MACHINE 1 allowed, the phenomenon known as "piston slap" will result; phenomenon is not only an objectionable noise, but resu damage. Too little a clearance will cause seizing of the] For C.I. pistons, as in this case, clearance near the head is 0'87 near the bottom-most oil ring groove is 0'2 mm. approx., and. i bottom open end is 0'15 mm. approx. Thermal expansion may be counteracted Ly making the more or less tapered. The amount of the manufactured taper re will depend on(t) the operating temperature of the piston, (ii relative expansion between the piston and the cylinder wall () the running clearance adopted. Distortion due to load is caused by the bending of the gi: pin and bosses. This is aggravated by local heating due to fricl the top (small) end of the connecting rod. It is counteracted by grinding an additional clearance over an arc of 90 on eacl of the piston on the pin centre linewor by grinding the piston ,c shape as shown in Fig. 37'3. *-BEAR!NG ARA > O O

03D0 0

0 o o o OOOO0O|

33 033 p ADDITIONAL |

ofo^sjiM ;;;|

Fit. 37-3

Unsolved Problems r =1 37'1. What are the functions of a trunk type of piston ? What be kept in view in the design of I.C. engine pistons ? What is the dil between trunk piston and barrel piston ? 1: || 37'2. How would you proceed to design an I.C. engine pisfnn fi data supplied ? How would you calculate the maximum explosion p the size of the cylinder bore if this data is not supplied ? 37'3. What do you understand by composite pistons and wl... "advantages? . ~m 37'4. Name two suitable metals for I.C. engine pistons. Of WhaM piston rings be made and why ? Piston rings are sometimes seen plate some metal or alloy. Why it is so and what is the name of the platedM alloy? . ' .-''/Si! 37'5. It is always desired by the designers of I.C. engine, to;jj the finished weight of the piston and the connecting rod. Why it is so;?''|| 37'6. Explain the terms piston slap; piston seizure; scuffing.


37'7. How many minimum compression spring rings and how many oil scraping rings be there in an I.C. engine ? What is the use of allowing ribs inside the piston j'<st above the gudgeon pin? Can their use be avoided by careful design considerations ? If so, explain how ? . 37'8. Explain briefly the method of lubrication of the gudgeon pin and the spring rings of the piston. i 37'9. Show two efficient methods of preventing axial movement of a gpdgeon pin ? :'. 37'10. Why different piston clearances are allowed at the top, in the middle and at the open end of a piston ? I- 37 11. 'Sometimes gudgeon pins are made hollow (with tapered machining from the middle to the ends). Why it is so ? To reduce the diameter of the gudgeon pin, what precautions you will take in your design so that it is equally Strong as well as can withstand high bearing pressures ? i< 37'13. 37'12. What is a floating gudgeon pin ? Describe its working. In some pistons there is a groove at the extreme top of the head | Which

no"ring is fitted. What is the object of such a groove ? 37-14. How the piston head of an I.C. engine is usually cooled ? 37'IS. Why the diameter of a piston pin is always made smaller than ie crank pin .in the same engine ? 37-16. How you'will Bx the size of the piston rings ? 37'17. Explain the following piston troubles and under what conditions bey will be experienced : (a) Burning of piston crown, (b) Seizure of piston, (c) Cracking of pis ton crown and side walls, (d) Breaking of piston rings, (e) Sticking of piston rings, (/) Excessive lub oil consumption, (g) Scuffing of piston rings and cylinder liners. 37'18. How a piston is cooled and what are the advantages of cooling ?

37'19. Design and draw to scale a trunk type of piston for a single voider, four stroke cycle, diesel engine from the following data : B.H.P.-^ 10 Speed in gudgeon pin of carbon steel per sq. cm. of piston 4 In the drawing show(a) with method of its fixing. |;\Assume suitable values of mechanical efficiency, ratios of compression Mansion, indices of compression and expansion curves, explosion pressure, iin factor, ratio of the stroke to bore, etc. ,-$"'''>' 37'20. Design the cylinder size and the aluminium alloy piston dimensions ;ix cylinder automobile petrol engine or diesel engine to deliver 125 B.H.P. iO r.p.m. The following particulars are furnished : ;;! For Petrol Engine. Petrol air mixture has a heating value of 606'7 kilo-gligs per cubic metre of suction displacement. Suction pressure is 0'945 kg./ "a| the beginning of compression and 8'05 kg./cm2. at the end of compression. piston and scraper rings in position and (b) j?pn pin 1000 r.p.m. 560 kg./cm.1 Weight of reciprocating parts 0'14 kg. Ratio of connecting rod to Crank Allowable bearing pressure on gudjjeon pin 105 to 140 kg./cm1. Permissible stress


the compression curve being Pp-S2=C. The stroke bore ratio is 1'2 ai mechanical efficiency is 85%. For jpiesel Engine, Suction pressure and temperature is 0'945 kg and 49C. Pressure at the end of compression is 36'75 kg./em. z, the eq of .the compression curve being PK1-85i=C. Fuel consumption is 0'2 k B.H.P. per hour ; the calorific'value of the fuel being 10890 kilp-calprj kilogram of fuel. Mechanical efficiency and bore ratio are as per the engine. 37'21. data: Diameter of the cylinder , 10cm. Design a trunk type cast iron piston for "an I.C. engine fri .following


. 15 cm

Maximum explosion pressure 35 kg./sq. cm Maximum permissible tension for cast iron for the design ( thickness is 300*kg./sq. cm. and the flexural stress for the pin may be take 900 to 1200 kg./sq. cm. The gudgeon piri should be hardened and grpui should turn in phosphor bronze bushing. Bearing pressure should belimi 200 kg./sq. cm. Sketch the rpiston (cross-section) inserting important dimensions p istcn with piston pin, piston rings and scraper ring in position. Check the design from heat transfer view point. 38 Connecting Rods Connecting rod is used to transmit motion from the reciprocating piston to the rotating crank. It also conveys the lubricating oil from the crank pin to- the piston pin and provides splash or jef cooling of the piston crown. In the most

usual form it consists of an eye at the small end for the piston pin bearing, a long shank usually of I-section, and> big end opening which is usually split to take the crankpin bearing shells. Low speed large engines usually employ High speed engines employ Icircular section with flattened sides, or rectangular section, tv'ith the larger dimension being in the plane of rotation. section or H-section rods for lightness. I-

sectiori is most common for high

speed engine connecting rods because lightness is essential in order to keep the inertia forces as small as possible. strength required to withstand the cylinder. I-section also provides gas pressure ample in the momentary high

Thus I-section fulfills the most desirable conditions for connecting

rod, i.e. the adequate strength and stiffness with mini-num weight. The connecting rods of internal combustion engines are mostly nanufactured by drop forging with outer surfaces left unfinished, rhese are usually made of carbon steel with ultimate tensile strength 5500 to 6700 kg/cm2) for industrial engines, of manganese alloy teels having a strength (7800 to 9400 kg/cm2) for transport ingines, of nickel chrome steel having ultimate tensile strength 9400 to 13,500

kg/cm4) for aero engines, of duralumin and alumi-lium alloys for high speed engines. The length of connecting rod is usually made 4 to 5 times .crank The smaller length than this increases the Elarity which increases the side thrust of Jpn against liner and thus the wear. length would me,an liter height of engine and thus a compromise is essential. The lubrication of the two end bearings of the connecting rod {Every important; Two methods commonly used are : 1. Splash lubrication. 2. Pressure feed lubrication. ';'- In splash lubrication, at the big end of the connecting rod is |tached a spout which dips into the lubricating oil in the sump Siring downward motion of connecting rod, and a splash of oil is I' 983 radius. rod More of connecting