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Casting Alloys, wrought Alloys, and solders

Dr.Mohammed.M.Heskul,DDS,MSc Dental materials

Casting Alloys.wrought Alloys,and solders


Metals have been used in dentistry for thousands of years to replace missing tooth structure. Early efforts primarily used pure gold because it was easy to melt, purify, and manipulate.

Casting Alloys.wrought Alloys,and solders


Gold in foil form probably was used first as dental restorative material several thousand years ago.

Casting Alloys.wrought Alloys,and solders


Gold had the unique property that it could be placed, piece by piece, and would weld to itself under hand pressure into a solid mass at mouth temperature. The process is not common today in clinical practice.

Casting Alloys.wrought Alloys,and solders


Some pure metals such platinum are still used in dentistry today, but pure metals, (including gold platinum) generally lack appropriate properties to be used for dental rest. For this reason, metals and nonmetals are mixed together to form alloys.

Casting Alloys.wrought Alloys,and solders


Alloys have physical and chemical properties more appropriate to dental applications and are used in a number of roles in Dentistry. Some alloys are formed into restorations by casting.

Casting Alloys.wrought Alloys,and solders


A wax model of the restoration is made, and an alloy is melted and cast into the shape of the wax. Thus, these alloys often are referred to as dental casting alloys, and the restorations made from these alloys are called castings.

Casting Alloys.wrought Alloys,and solders


For anterior restorations, ceramic is bonded to the alloy to provide an esthetic result. Alloys used for this purpose are called ceramicbonding alloys or ceramic-fused to-metal alloys.

Casting Alloys.wrought Alloys,and solders


Other alloys are first cast ,but are then shaped by mechanical force into their final forms. These alloys are referred to as wrought alloys. wires, and dental implants generally are wrought alloys

Casting Alloys.wrought Alloys,and solders


Still other alloys are used to join alloys together. These types of alloys are referred to as solders, and they be melted without distorting the substrate alloys they join.

Casting Alloys.wrought Alloys,and solders


Finally, alloy composites comprise a new class of alloys that are formed by sintering and are as metal substructures for ceramic-alloy restorations

fundamental Concepts about Metals and Alloys


Metals and nonmetals: Most elements used in dental alloys or solders are metals, nonmetals sometimes also play important roles Metals are subdivided into ups: Noble metals Base metals

fundamental Concepts about Metals and Alloys


Metals and nonmetals: Noble metals : Are defined by their resistance to corrosion even under extreme conditions and are therefore good candidates for use in the mouth. Most common in dental fields : Gold - palladium - platinum

fundamental Concepts about Metals and Alloys


Metals and nonmetals: Noble metals : Some metallurgists consider silver (Ag) a noble metal, but because of its tendency to corrode in the oral environment, dentistry does not include silver among the noble metals

fundamental Concepts about Metals and Alloys


Metals and nonmetals: Base metals : Include all metals that are not noble metals . Ti. Ni. Cu. Ag. Zn

fundamental Concepts about Metals and Alloys


Elements in dental alloys: Gold: is used because of its excellent resistance to corrosion, good malleability (ability to be mechanically formed), yllow color, and relatively low melting point. The amount of gold in an alloy can be described several ways besides by percentage. Most common CARAT.

fundamental Concepts about Metals and Alloys


Elements in dental alloys: Palladium :Its corrosion resistance is excellent, but it has a much higher melting point and is much harder than gold . Thus, palladium is not practical to use in pure form, but often is mixed with gold-based alloys to increase their hardness or increase the liquidus.

fundamental Concepts about Metals and Alloys


Elements in dental alloys: Copper : is reddish and significantly hardens goldor palladium-based alloys. Silver: is used to harden gold-based alloys. Zinc : is a low-melting element used to prevent oxidation of the alloy during the casting process, and it also has been used as a hardener for goldplatinum alloys.

Dental Casting Alloys


Describing Casting Alloys : The nobility of an alloy usually is expressed as a sum of the weight percentages of the noble metals in the alloy.

Dental Casting Alloys


Describing Casting Alloys : Noble alloys have noble metals as the majority of their components. Non-noble alloys have a greater percentage of base metals.

Dental Casting Alloys


Describing Casting Alloys : The nobility of an alloy usually is expressed as a sum of the weight percentages of the noble metals in the alloy. For example, if an alloy contains 60% gold, 10% palladium, 5% platinum, and 25% copper, the nobility would be 75% .

Dental Casting Alloys


Describing Casting Alloys : Alloys also are described on the basis of their most common metal. For example, an alloy with 75% gold often is described as gold based. Alloys also can be classified as those for restorations or those for solders

Dental Casting Alloys


Describing Casting Alloys : Color is often used to describe an alloy. Gold , silver (White).

Dental Casting Alloys


Important Properties of Casting Alloys: Melting : Unlike pure compounds, alloys do not melt at a single temperature, but have a melting range. Because they are composed of several different elements, the melting range reflects to some degree the melting points of the constituents of the alloy.

Dental Casting Alloys


Important Properties of Casting Alloys: Density : The amount of mass in grams that occupies a volume of one cubic centimeter (g/cm3).

Dental Casting Alloys


Important Properties of Casting Alloys: Density : The density of an alloy is important in the casting of the alloy and its final cost. High-density alloys are generally easier to cast because gravity can accelerate the molten metal more easily into the casting mold.

Dental Casting Alloys


Important Properties of Casting Alloys: Density : because alloys are generally sold by mass, highdensity alloys cost more because more mass is present in any given volume of restoration.

Dental Casting Alloys


Important Properties of Casting Alloys: Strength : The strength of alloys is important to their success as a restorative material. An alloy must have sufficient strength to resist any permanent change in shape because crowns and fixed partial dentures are not successful if they distort.

Dental Casting Alloys


Important Properties of Casting Alloys: Strength : Strength may be cited in tension or compression, but tensile strength is used most often. The yield strength of an alloy is the most common strength value used to compare alloys. Yield strength is the force per unit area (stress) required to permanently distort an alloy

Dental Casting Alloys


Important Properties of Casting Alloys: hardness : The hardness of an alloy is an indication of how easy the alloy is to indent and polish. The hardness of an alloy is related to its yield strength, so an alloy with high yield strength will have high hardness and generally will be more difficult to polish.

Dental Casting Alloys


Important Properties of Casting Alloys: hardness : The base-metal alloys are generally the hardest of the alloys.

Dental Casting Alloys


Important Properties of Casting Alloys:

hardness :
Some are even harder than enamel If an alloy is harder than enamel, it may wear the opposing enamel during chewing or other jaw movements.

Common Casting Alloys


1- High-noble alloys expensive high densities Copper and silver often are added to the noble elements to increase hardness or strength. low corrosion properties .

Common Casting Alloys


1- High-noble alloys If these alloys contain higher amounts of palladium or platinum, then the liquidus of the alloys will be proportionally high. because palladium and platinum have high melting points

Common Casting Alloys


2- noble alloys: have at least 25% noble metal content Gold-based alloys in this class contain about 40% gold but contain higher amounts of copper or silver than the high-noble alloys.

Common Casting Alloys


2- noble alloys: Palladium-based alloys in this class may contain 77% palladium and almost no gold. yield strengths and hardness of these alloys are equal to or greater than those of the high-noble alloys.

Common Casting Alloys


2- noble alloys: Noble alloys may be used for crowns or fixed partial dentures with or without ceramic coverings.

Common Casting Alloys


3- base-metal alloys : The predominately base-metal alloys may have minor amounts of noble dements, but their primary constituents are nickel, cobalt, or titanium.

Ceramic-bonding Casting Alloys


Properties Important to Ceramic-Alloy Bonding: The most fundamental property of ceramic-bonding alloys is their ability to durably join ceramic and alloy. For most alloys, an oxide on the alloy surface mediates a chemical bond with the ceramic, although some evidence exists that mechanical bonding also plays a role

Ceramic-bonding Casting Alloys


Properties Important to Ceramic-Alloy Bonding: The composition and thickness of this metal oxide are crucial to successful long-term bonding of ceramic. For many base-metal alloys, an oxide layer forms naturally on the surface of the metal and may even be too thick. The oxide films on these alloys must be reduced in thickness before application of the ceramic.

Ceramic-bonding Casting Alloys


Properties Important to Ceramic-Alloy Bonding: because of their nonreactive nature, high-noble and some noble alloys do not form a sufficient oxide layer to ensure good ceramic bonding. For these alloys, elements such as iron, gallium, indium, or tin must be added in small quantities to form a surface oxide layer.

Ceramic-bonding Casting Alloys


Problems Encountered with Ceramic-Alloy Bonding The color of oxides varies from light yellow on highnoble alloys and some noble alloys to very dark gray or even black oxides on some base-metal alloys.

Ceramic-bonding Casting Alloys


Problems Encountered with Ceramic-Alloy Bonding 1- Opaquing ceramics are used to mask the oxide color, but gray and black oxides are much more difficult to mask than the light yellow oxides. For this reason, base-metal alloys are more difficult to use in ceramic-alloy restorations.

Ceramic-bonding Casting Alloys


Problems Encountered with Ceramic-Alloy Bonding 2- Greening : During the application of the ceramic, some of the metals in the alloy may be vaporized and discolor the ceramic by reacting with the ceramic matrix

Ceramic-bonding Casting Alloys


Problems Encountered with Ceramic-Alloy Bonding 3-debonding of the ceramic after cementation in the mouth

Sintered Alloy Composites


It is sintered onto a special heat-resistant die called a refractory die .

Sintered Alloy Composites


High-noble gold- palladium-platinum particles are embeded into casting wax. Firing. (wax burns away. leaving the alloy particles free to sinter together to form a sponge). The temperature in the firing oven is kept below the solidus of the alloy, so the alloy does not melt.

Sintered Alloy Composites


the fused alloy cools. a second wax, containing a gold- silver alloy, is applied to the sintered alloy sponge. refiring at a lower temperature. The high melting points of the palladium and platinum in the first alloy prevent it from melting during the second firing

Sintered Alloy Composites


but the lower-fusing gold-silver alloy melts and is absorbed into the sponge by capillary action. The result is a composite of the gold-platinumpalladium alloy sponge infused with the gold-silver alloy. Ceramic is then applied via application of a third alloy that mediates ceramic-alloy bonding.

Wrought Alloys
It is shaped into another form by mechanical force. Wrought alloys are made by first casting the alloy into a block, then rolling, drawing, or cutting the alloy into shapes that are used for dental applications.

Wrought Alloys
Wrought alloys have a grain structure often described as fibrous . The fibrous structure is responsible for the increased yield strength and hardness compared with the cast form of the alloys.

Solders
Solders are special alloys used to join other metals and alloys. The alloys to be joined are generally called the substrate alloys.

Solders
Solders may be used to join an orthodontic wire to a band in the construction of a space maintainer

Solders
Joining a clasp wire to a partial denture framework

Solders
Flux : Flux cleans the substrates and dissolves any surface oxides. It is nearly always used during the soldering process. The type of flux required depends on the metallurgy and chemistry of the substrate alloy and its oxide layer.

Solders
Flux : The risk of corrosion in the mouth is higher than if only one metal were present. As with wetting, the composition of the solder and soldered alloys determines the corrosion properties of the combination.

Biocompatibility of Alloys and Solders


The biocompatibility of dental alloys is related primarily to their corrosion. If an alloy corrodes more, it releases more of its elements into the mouth and increases the risk for unwanted reactions in the oral tissues. These unwanted reactions include unpleasant tastes, irritation, allergy, or other inflammatory reactions.

Biocompatibility of Alloys and Solders


Although a wide range of release of elements from these alloys occurs, little evidence suggests that the released elements cause significant problems for most people.

Biocompatibility of Alloys and Solders


The one exception is for people who are allergic to released metals. Nickel is by far the most common; 8% to 15% of the population is allergic to nickel

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