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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the research Education holds the important role to improve Indonesian human resources, especially the younger generation, and to equip their knowledge and skills to face more competitive world and to anticipate faster science development and technology in modern era. In order to achieve an objective, teaching learning process takes very important role to achieve successful education, because teaching it self is the process of educating. We cannot educate without teaching. Makmun (2003: 156) explain that teaching learning process is a combination of interaction between student and teacher to achieve an objective. Teachers are one of the factors who determine whether the teaching will be successful or unsuccessful. Therefore, the teachers must have competence in teaching learning process. Learning by doing, for example, can be used to develop teachers competence. Besides it, to make successful teaching learning process, the teachers need a curriculum as a teaching plan and also as learning experience to help them. Romine as quoted by Oemar Hamalik (2001: 65) says that curriculum is interpreted to mean all of the organized courses, activities, and experience which pupils have under direction of the school, whether in the classroom or not. In educational institution, curriculum plays a very important role. According to Nugraha in Sulamah (2003) there are some reasons showing that curriculum is

very important in any educational institution. First, curriculums propose to unification of learning. It means that if a curriculum is well organized, the teacher can avoid teaching the same material again and again. Second, curriculum provides continuity in the development of the necessary learning experience in reaching the desired result. Third, curriculum helps to establish to compatibility relationship among the elements in the curriculum materials and the proper attention or the weighting that each element should be received. Fourth, curriculum helps to establish, to coordinate and to integrate materials and teamwork among the teachers involved in the curriculum process. After seeing the importance of the curriculum in educational institution, the government established a new policy on the national education program by changing the 1994 curriculum into Competence Based Curriculum or 2004 curriculum. Competence Based Curriculum (CBC) that concern to the students potential must be done at all of formal education institution soon, if it is believed it can increase qualities of nation educational program. At 2004, government has tried to apply it in many formal education institutions. Based on teachers statements in Republika online (8/12/2004), most of them still confuse about the reality of CBC it self, so they have difficulties to apply it. Therefore, it is possible if the implementation of CBC faced misinterpretation in the application at education institution. The effect of it is that it will bring out a big influence to the CBC purpose basically. So, the main purpose will be not achieved. This curriculum will be more effective in teaching learning process and can fulfill the need of society because Competence Based Curriculum has some

possible strengths. First, the learners are in the process of sequential development of their personal aspect. Competence Based Curriculum becomes continuous development of the students potential in line with the learning opportunity available given by their surrounding. Second, both government and society decentralize the development of competence based curriculum. They determine the standard of education devoted in the curriculum. Third, the school side has the opportunity to arrange and develop the syllabus of material given to the students. Thereby, competence based curriculum can accommodate the potential of school, the needs of the students, and also the needs of society. Fourth, a teacher is a facilitator who helps the learning activity of the students. Fifth, the teaching and learning activity conducted may establish a solid teamwork between school, society, and work market in developing the students competence. Sixth, classroom based evaluation is emphasizing the process and result of learning activity. From the advantages of Competence Based Curriculum, it is expected that the implementation of CBC can increase the education qualities and solve the educational condition that is apprehensive. According to Mulyasa (2002: 8) Competence Based Curriculum is expected can overcome many kinds of nation problems, especially about the education program, which preparing student with the more effective, efficiency system to get the success. In the implementation of Competence Based Curriculum, it is expected to be able to reach students competence in which it needs an educational approach that will create an active class easily. According to Anthony as quoted by Richard (1986: 15), approach was a set of assumptions dealing with the nature of

language, learning, and teaching. Meanwhile, the approach is Contextual Teaching Learning (CTL) based on the purpose to make the class be active. According to Nurhady (2003: 100), the active class is the class that maximizes students with all of their activities to get the competence they want to be reached. On the other hand, CBC contains of the draft of competency that must be reached by the students to all educational levels. Clearly, the relationship between both Competence Based Curriculum (CBC) and Contextual Teaching Learning (CTL) is that CBC is a standard competency, and CTL is a strategy to achieve the main purpose of educational aim. It is known that CBC is the new curriculum development, it has not been proved whether the CBC is appropriate with teaching learning activities. Thus, the researcher is interested to investigate the compatibility of CTL and its implementation in teaching English at SMPN 5 Malang which is one of the junior high schools that has good educational quality, and has implemented CBC program in the teaching English activity by using CTL approach. 1.2 Statement of problem Based on the background above, the researcher has stated the following problems: 1. How is the implementation of Contextual Teaching Learning approach in the teaching of English at SMPN 5 Malang? 2. Is there any compatibility of Contextual Teaching Learning approach and its implementation in teaching English at SMPN 5 Malang?

1.3 Purpose of the research The purpose of this research is to describe the implementation of CTL approach in teaching English at SMPN 5 Malang and to know the compatibility of Contextual Teaching Learning approaches and its implementation in teaching English at SMPN 5 Malang based on CBC. 1.4 Scope and limitation of the research In this research, the researchers scope is just on the compatibility of CBC and its implementation in teaching English at SMPN 5 Malang by which it is especially on the approach of teaching English activity. Furthermore, due to the limited time, she just takes the teachers of second grade of SMPN 5 Malang as the respondent. 1.5 Significance of the research The researcher tries to present the importance of this research theoretically and practically. Theoretically, this research is expected to give contribution for our education system. From this research, we will find that conventional teaching learning approach is not enough and need more changing, especially the result of this research prove that teaching learning process has to be developed by optimize the students potential, in order to increase the result of education. Practically, it is expected that this research will give useful contribution for the teachers in order to be able to provide the important information in the form of description of the students need in teaching English activity. Besides, to the

students, the result of this research will help them to improve their competence in English by recognizing their own needs in teaching learning process. 1.6 The Definition of Key Terms To avoid misunderstanding, the researcher would like to give some definitions of key terms used in this research. The researcher provides some definitions which can help the reader understand the real case research. They are defined as follows: Curriculum : is interpreted to mean all of the organized courses, activities, and experience which pupils have under direction of the school, whether in the classroom or not. Romine as quoted by Oemar Hamalik (2001: 65) Competence : is knowledge, skills, and abilities or capabilities that a person achieves, which become a part of his or her being to the extent he or she can satisfactorily perform particular cognitive, affective, and psychomotor behaviors. Mc Assan (1981: 41) as quoted by Mulyasa (2002: 38) Competence Based Curriculum (CBC) : is a concept of curriculum that

stressing at development of doing task ability (competence) with specific performance standard, so the result can be implemented by the student in an achievement of certain competence form. Mulyasa (2002: 39) Compatibility : is capability of existing or performing in harmonious or congenial combination. (dictionary online) Teaching : is transfer knowledge to the student. Oemar Hamalik (2001: 44)

Learning

: is the processing of information we encounter, which leads to changes or an increase in our knowledge and abilities. (ShakespeareHamlet: http://www.webenglishteacher.com/hamlet.html)

Approach

: is a theory about the nature of language and language learning that serve as the source of practice and principles in language teaching. Anthony as quoted by Richards (1986: 15)

Contextual Teaching Learning (CTL): is an educational process that aims to help students see meaning in the academic material they are researching by connecting academic subjects with the context of their daily lives that is, with the context of their personal, social and cultural circumstances. Johnson (2005: 25) as quoted by Nurhady (2003: 12)

CHAPTER II RIVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Teaching Learning English in Junior High School English is a communication tool by oral and written. Definition of communication to understand and express the information, though, feeling, and developing science, technology and culture by using that language. According to National education curriculum (2004; 103) learning English in Junior High School is learning in the context of using language that serious. The target is getting English skill that can be gotten on the international level. From the explanation above, it is understandable that teaching English in Junior High School focuses on using language context by giving English skill that be able to be given. By use English text that grammatical and good arrangements. 2.1.1 Function and Objective of Teaching English in Junior High School From the prior knowledge, the researcher thinks that it seems we have to go back to the life philosophy; it is said that everything has goals, and there must be away to achieve it. Teaching English in Junior High School has many function and objective as included in National Educational curriculum (2004; 105). The function of teaching English in National Education Curriculum (2004: 105) are: 1. as tools to communication in order to access the information, on the other hand, at daily life, 2. English is used for create interpersonal relationship.

3. Change information. 4. enjoy language esthetic in England culture. The objective of teaching English in Junior High School, which is still based on, the same source with the function above, as follows: 1. Create communication ability in English, such as listening, speaking, reading, and writing. 2. Realized the urgently of English as a main tool for learning. 3. Develop deep understanding about interrelationship between language and culture. The objectives of teaching English in Junior High School to develop students skill in reading, scrutinize, speaking, and writing in English, by stressing in reading skill. The English skill is needed to support of the objective that more strategies, such as help the students in order to give participation in absorbs and developing science and technology, culture, and increasing of the international relationship. So, the student will have intercultural overview and involved at various culture. 2.1.2 Strategy of Teaching Learning English in Junior High School Strategy is the term that important in educational area. A good concept of all curriculums will not be able to be received well by student without using strategy on giving the concept in teaching learning. By using strategy, teacher will easier to teach the material.

Teacher is the main factors that determine whether the teaching will be successful in teaching learning process or unsuccessful. Therefore, to make successful in teaching learning process, the teacher has to choose appropriate teaching and learning strategy. According to Welton (1981: 179) teaching strategy is the continuum of several teaching techniques. In this case, the researcher gives illustration about the relationship between teaching techniques and teaching strategies to avoid misinterpretation. Short-range techniques Various combinations of Discussion Role-playing Lectures Projects Reports Case studies Simulations Decision-making Mapping Etc. While the term of learning strategy according to Wenden and Rubin (1987: 19) in http://iteslj.org/Articles/Hismanoglu.Strategies.html, learning strategies as any sets of operations, steps, plans, routines, used by the learner to facilitate the obtaining, storage, retrieval, and use of information. Yield a teaching strategy

All language learners use language learning strategies either consciously or unconsciously when processing new information and performing tasks in the language classroom. The distinction between teaching and learning strategies is probably most apparent in the stereotypical college class where the professors teaching strategy consist of a single technique-lecturing-repeated over and over again. Welton (1981: 178). 2.2 Competence Based Curriculum Competence Based Curriculum (CBC) also called curriculum 2004 is a group of planning and managing about competence and learning output that has to be achieved by the students. Depdiknas (2003: 13) The pressing of CBC is mastering of competence, consist of unification of knowledge, skill, attitude, and value that will be implemented at thinking and doing behavior, which is done consistently. Depdiknas (2003: 7) Competences concept consists of several aspects, as follows: The first is knowledge, which is realizing at cognitive aspect. For example, teacher knows how to identification the learning needs. The second, understanding, which is the depth of cognitive. The third is skill, which is something belongs to individual to do the task that has to be done. The fourth is value, it is standard that has been believed and psychologically has united inside individual. For example is teachers attitude in teaching learning process (honesty, democratic). The fifth is attitude, it is about feeling. For example, is about salary, and economic crisis. The

sixth is interest; it is about someones tendency to do something. Gordon (1988: 109) as quoted by Mulyasa (2002: 38). Competence Based Curriculum is a set of plan and arranging about competence and learning outcome that must be reached by students that are scoring, teaching learning activity, and empowering education resources in the school curriculum developing. Nurhadi (2003: 80). Competence Based Curriculum is an approach to instruction that aims to teach each student from the basic knowledge, skill, attitudes and values essential to the competence. Kay (1997) as quoted by Mulyasa (2002: 40) 2.2.1 The Principals of Competence Based Curriculum According Fatimah (2003: 15) in Ruciana (2004) CBC uses competence approach that give attention to the understanding, ability or certain competency in a school related to the job area in society. Besides, standard competence in this curriculum considers to the students differences psychologically, so the students enjoy the class. In this curriculum students do not only transfer knowledge but also experience and education process from personality to the talent potency and appropriate to the learning opportunities that have been given by environment. 2.2.2 Function of Competency Based Curriculum In the academic years 2004/2005 Indonesia has applied CBC, this is as a proof that Indonesia tries to increase the educational quality through Gerakan Peningkatan Mutu Pendidikan by Mendiknas May,2nd 2002.

Soetopo and Soemanto (1982: 15-16) in Ruciana (2004) state that curriculum has an important role in learning process, because an educational program has been planned and applied based on the curriculum. Here, curriculum has some functions; first, it is as an equipment to reach the education aim. So, if the aim cannot be reached, people like to observe once more about the equipment. Second, for the students curriculum is prepared as one of their educational consumption. With this, the students are hoped to get some new experiences for their life. Third, for the teacher curriculum is work guidance to arrange and organize students learning experience, which becomes a guidance to arrange teaching and educational activities, and to evaluate students developments in acquiring the materials. Fourth, for the Head Master, curriculum is guidance in repairing learning situation, creating good learning situation and in developing curriculum. 2.2.3 Characteristic of Competence Based Curriculum The entire curriculum has each characteristic that makes them different from another. Here the characteristics of the CBC according to Depdiknas (2002) as quoted by Mulyasa (2002: 42) 1. Stressing to the reaching students competence either individually and classical 2. Oriented to the learning outcomes and variety. 3. Teaching learning process uses various approach and method. 4. Teachers are not only one learning source but also another source that has educative factors.

5. The assessment based on the process and learning outcomes. 2.2.4 The Component of Competence Based Curriculum Competence Based Curriculum is the substantial frame that has four components: a) Curriculum and learning outcome, b) Teaching and learning activity, c) management of school based curriculum, d) Classroom based assessment 2.2.4.1 Curriculum and learning outcome Curriculum and learning outcome contain a plan of developing students competence that needs to receive all, since they were born up to 18 years old. It involves basic competence, learning outcomes, and indicators of learning outcomes. Basic competence is minimal or available knowledge, skill, and attitude in finishing such aspect sub-aspect of certain material. In brief, it is a general description of everything that is done by students. Then learning outcome that have relation with competence are the description about something that should be studied, understood, and one by students. It is reflected in clear and can be measured by certain technique of assessment. Forward, indicators of learning outcomes as the following process of learning outcome can be used as the foundation of assessment to students in achieving learning and activity desired. It is the description of students ability in communication specifically. Besides, it can be the measurements to assess learning outcomes that are achieved by students.

2.2.4.2 Classroom Based Assessment It involves the principle, target and execution or more accurate and consistent continuous evaluation as public accountability through identifying the achieved competence and learning achievement clear achievement of the attained standard and the report of students progress in the learning. 2.2.4.3 Teaching Learning Activity Learning is students activity in building the mean and the comprehension. So, teachers need to support students to create ideas. Responsibility in learning is standing inside students self, but teachers should help them to create convenient situation, motivation, and students responsibility to have long life education. Teaching learning activity contains many ideas about teaching and learning to achieve the competence determined. 2.2.4.4 Management of School Based Curriculum Management of School Based Curriculum contains many design of the use of educated teacher and other resource to increase the quality of learning outcome. This design provided by the ideas of curriculum council forming, the development of curriculum means (i.e. syllabus), the training of professional educated teacher, and the development of curriculum information system. 2.3 Teaching Learning English Based on Competence Based Curriculum CBC has a big influence in teaching learning process result. Clearly, will be explained about scope of the English subject, and the activities of teaching learning English based on CBC.

2.3.1 Scope of The English Subject It is clearly states in Nasional Education Curiculum (2003: 6). English is an equipment to communicate in oral or written. Here, communication meant to express and understand the information, though, feeling, and also develop knowledge, technology, and culture, with using language. Further, the aspect of English includes: First is language skill such as listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Second is language aspect, such as structure, vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation. Third is cultural aspect that contains in oral or written text. Fourth is literature aspect, it can be in the form of appreciation. 2.3.2 The Activities of Teaching Learning English In this curriculum teacher should create a comfortable situation for their students to receive the material. Student are not only learning to know but also learning to do in teaching learning process, it means that student are involved in every activity. Tedjasuksmana (2003:10) in Ruciana (2004) states to upgrade the English ability, the English teacher must able becomes a models for learners, because there are many learners are good in English, but here not, because of they get that ability from school but from good English course that proliferate outside From the above condition, CBC tries to change that image. And for English subject this curriculum gives new formula that is teacher and school is given fully authority to develop syllabus, so it is appropriate to the school situation and students condition. Logically, if the material is connected with the main target of course the material will be received by the students easily.

According to Mulyasa (2002: 100) teaching learning process involves three things; pretest, process, and post test. The first, pretest is used to prepare students mind in order to receive the material; in order words it is named brainstorming or stimulus. The second is process, here the teacher should be creative to explain the material and does not forget to involve students in this activity, because the students are supposed to be active. The last is posttest, this session is to know how far the students receive and understand the material, if it is important, and the teacher should give remedial teaching. The new curriculum should followed by school support in English learning activities there is a point that should be paid attention by school, such as facilities. Tedjasuksmana (2003: 9-10) in Ruciana (2004) states facilities include language laboratory, module. School may have a multipurpose laboratory where the learners and the teachers can practice the material, having such laboratories, schools prepare their learners with practical mattes so that the learners become the outputs who are ready to work when they do not go to the higher level. To increase English ability, school should give another facility such as module, further teachers have to make kinds of module concerning the English language items in different level of difficulties. These modules must be able to lead the gradual progress of individual learners and to differentiate fast learners from slow learners.

2.4 Contextual Teaching Learning (CTL) In this term, will be discuss about definition of CTL, function of CTL in CBC, component of CTL and the explanation from the each of it. 2.4.1 Definition of CTL Johnson (2002: 25) as quoted by Nurhadi (2003: 12) state The CTL system is an educational process that aims to help students see meaning in the academic material they are researching by connecting academic subjects with the context of their daily lives, that is, with the context of their personal, social, and cultural circumstances. To achieve this aim, the system encompasses the following eight components: making meaningful connections, doing significant work, self-regulated learning, collaborating, critical and creative thinking, nurturing the individual, reaching high standards, using authentic assessment. Contextual teaching is teaching that enables students to reinforce, expand, and apply their academic knowledge and skills in a variety of in school and out of school settings in order to solve simulated or real world problems. Contextual occurs when students apply and experience what is being taught referencing real problems associated with their roles and responsibilities as family members, citizens, students, and workers. Contextual teaching and learning emphasizes higher-level thinking, knowledge transfer across academic disciplines, and collecting, analyzing and synthesizing information and data from multiple sources and viewpoints. The Washington State for Contextual Teaching and Learning (2001: 3-4) as quoted by Nurhadi (2003: 12).

According

to

the

definition

from

UGA

CTL

Project

(http://www.cew.wisc.edu/teachnet/ctl/) Contextual Teaching Learning (CTL) is an approach/perspective to teaching and learning that recognizes and addressees the situate nature of knowledge. Through connections both in and out of classroom, a CTL approach aims at making experience relevant and meaningful to students by building knowledge that will have applications to lifelong learning. In general, CTL aims to build collaboration between the university/school and community in ways, which are mutually beneficial. 2.4.2 The Function of CTL in Competence Based Curriculum Contextual is a learning approach that is based on the purpose to make the class be active. According to Nurhady (2003: 100), the active class is the class that maximizes students with all of their activities to get the competency they want to be reached, on the other hand, CBC contents of the draft of competency that must be reached by students to all educational levels. Clearly, the relationship between both Competency Based Curriculum (CBC) and Contextual Teaching Learning (CTL) is that CBC is a standard competency, and CTL is a strategy to achieve the main purpose of educational aim. Whereas, CBC is the standard that consist about the purposes of national education; the draft of competency, assessment system, and school arrangement. So, from the explanation above the function of CTL in CBC are: 1. to achieve the expectation of CBC that oriented by contextual teaching learning, that is learning by doing.

2. to be able to easier found the students competence, that also is one of the CBC purpose. 2.4.3 Component of Contextual Teaching Learning There are seven components of CTL that are constructivism, questioning, inquiry, learning community, modeling, reflection, and authentic assessment. A classroom can be mentioned using CTL if the classroom applicants the whole components. Contextual Teaching Learning is flexible; we can apply CTL to whatever curriculum, subjects, and classroom without considering its situation. 2.4.3.1 Constructivism The philosophy of CTL is constructivism, and the essential of constructivism theory is a kind of idea where student must found and transform information to another situation, and it is needed the information may belong to them With those basic, learning have to be packaged become constructing process not only getting knowledge. In learning process, the students create their own knowledge by active at the teaching learning process. Students are a center of activity, not the teacher. According to Nurhadi (2003: 34) in constructivism, the most important thing is getting strategy move than how many knowledge that they can get or memorize. So, teachers have duty to facilitate those processes by: (1) Make the knowledge more relevant and meaningful for students (2) Give opportunities for students to find out and apply their own idea (3) Make the students, to apply their own strategy in learning

2.4.3.2 Questioning Questioning is the important thing from CTL strategy, it is the heart of knowledge, and important aspect in learning. People ask, because want to know, examine, confirm, clarification, and avoid misunderstanding. Questioning is a main strategy at learning by CTL. In learning, questioning is seen as the teachers activities to guide, and judge the students thinking ability. Questioning is a strategy which is used by students actively in order to analyzing and exploring ideas. The spontaneity question from students can be used to stimulate the students; thinking, discuss, speculate. According to Orlich (1980: 193) as quoted by Nurhadi (2002: 46), the importance of question in learning are: 1) Questioning is a general learning strategy and be able to applied to various learning 2) Using and developing systematic technique of question is believed tend to make students quality in learning better 3) By classification questions, teacher can determine the cognitive and affective levels, which have to be had by students. 4) By systematic technique of question, teacher can determine the first knowledge level of the student. 5) There are several variations of question for teacher to be given to the student.

Questioning strategy, which is used by teacher, be able to applied to all of leaving situation. 2.4.3.3 Inquiry Inquiry is asking, not normally questions. The questions must have relationship with something to be discussed. The question must be answered a part or whole. The question must be tested and investigated meaningfully. The key word of inquiry strategy is students find themselves. Actually, inquiry activities are sickles, which contents; 1) definite the problem, 2) collecting data by observation, 3) analyzing and presenting the data: writing, picture, report, scheme, tables, 4) communicating the data to readers, classmates, or another audiences. Nurhadi (2003: 43) 2.4.3.4 Learning Community In a learning community, the learning output is achieved by making cooperation with another. Learning output is reached by sharing among friend, groups, or between has known group to has not known group. In class which using CTL, learning activities is done at learning groups; clever students help less clever student. So, the meanings of learning community according to Nurhadi (2003: 47) are; 1) There are groups of learning with communicate each other in order to share knowledge and experience 2) There is a kind of cooperation to solve the problem 3) Commonly, output of works group is better than works individual 4) The members of the group have same responsibility.

5) Several efforts in helping less clever student to motivate them in learning. 6) Create better situation and condition, so child is able to learn with the others. 7) There are responsibility and cooperation felling between member of the group to take and give each other. 8) There is a teacher who guide learning process in group 9) It must be two side communications. 10) There is a will to receive better idea. 11) Respect to the other peoples argument 12) There is not only one truth. 13) Clever students domination need to be intentioned in order to give reinforcement at less clever student. 14) If a student asks to lees friends, it has the meaning of learning community. 2.4.3.5 Modeling Basically, modeling are expressing thought ideas demonstrating how the teachers ask their student to learn, doing what the teachers need their student to do. Modeling can be mentioned as how to research in CTL, teacher is not only one model. Model can be designed with students involvement. Model, can also came from out side. For example, in learning English using native speakers. They become model in the classroom, how to pronunciation, body language when talking, etc. The examples of modeling in the classroom are English teacher

demonstrate how to spell a word, Biology teacher show how to use thermometer, etc. 2.4.3.6 Reflection Reflection is the way to think about everything that has been learned. Reflection is done by teacher at the end of learning program, and could be; 1) direct statement, about everything that has been learned, 2) journal at students book, 3) impression and advise from student about the lesson that day, 4) discuss. Nurhadi (2003: 51) 2.4.3.7 Authentic Assessment Authentic assessment is an assessment procedure at CTL. Nurhadi (2003: 52) state, assessments principles and its characteristics are: 1) Have to measure all of learning aspects: process, framework, and product. 2) Be held during and after learning process. 3) Using various sources and ways. 4) Test is only a tool for collecting assessment data. 5) Assignments that given to the students must represented their real daily life. 6) Assessment must have stressing at knowledges depth and students skill, not the quality. Assessment is collecting data process that it can illustrate about the development of students. Those illustrations are needed done the learning process well.

2.5 The Application of Contextual Teaching Learning According to Nurhadi (2003: 100) that CTL has been applied at CBC when; 1) Teachers teaches what should be taught, not only knowledge about X. 2) Teacher achieves basic competency, not only finish the subject 3) Knowledge and skill to be taught, close with students daily life. 4) Students find, and construct the knowledge and skill themselves. 5) The classroom becomes dynamic (student work and train) not only the teacher acts in a stage, but also students must be active. 6) Students feel happy when the material is going to begin, because they really needed it. 7) Teacher assesses what should be assessed, which contains of students knowledge and skill. 8) Teachers collect the students achievement from process, product, framework, and evaluation.

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

In this chapter, the researcher discusses research design, population and sample, research instrument, and the procedure of data collection and data analysis. 3.1 Research Design Research design is also called as structure of research. It is the glue that holds all the elements in a research project together. Trochim in Sulamah (2003). The research design that is used in this research is descriptive research design. According to Ary (1979) descriptive research studies are designed to obtain information concerning the current status of phenomena and directed toward determining the nature of situation as it exists at the time of the research. In this case, the current status of phenomena are the compatibility of Contextual Teaching Learning (CTL) and its implementation in teaching English at SMPN 5 malang based on Competence Based Curriculum (CBC). 3.2 Research Subject According to Budiharso in Sugiati (2004), research subject is the whole of our research from where we will take the data by conducting a measurement to the research subject. The research subject chosen in this research is an English teacher of class VIII D. She is chosen because of the following considerations; first, she has been applied CBC during these two years; second, she ever follow TOT (Training of

Trainee) for the implementation of CTL based on CBC done by Directorial PLP (Pendidikan Lanjutan Pertama) Jakarta and; third, she has been using CTL in her English teaching. 3.3 Research Instrument The research instrument used to collect the data of this research are observation, interview, and document analysis. This instrument is intended to find the compatibility of Contextual Teaching Learning (CTL) and its implementation in teaching English to Junior High School based on Curriculum Based Curriculum. 3.3.1 Observation Gay and Airasian (2003: 198), observation is clearly the most appropriate approach. There are two kinds of observation, participant and nonparticipant observation. Participant observation is who engages fully in the activities being studied but is known to the participants as a researcher. Nonparticipant observation is the activities of the group being studied that are one who watches but does not participant. In this research, the researcher uses nonparticipant observation to get the data. the data is some notes about the way of teaching which is done by the English teacher, Besides, the teacher also takes some pictures which contains of teaching learning activity which express the way of teachers teaching in the classroom. She takes the observation about one month in order to know the compatibility of CTL and its implementation in teaching English activity based on CBC.

3.3.2

Interview Interview is the technique of question and answer that is done by the

subject orally. One way of obtaining data is simply to ask question. Ary (1979: 174) states that there are two types of interviews: they are structured interview and unstructured interview. A structured interview is the interview that the question and the alternative answers are given to the subject that has been determined by the researcher. That is doing to all respondents. While, unstructured interview is more informal. The question of this instruments are about views, attitude, or about the other information that can be used as a subject freely. In this research, the researcher chooses unstructured interview to collect the data because by using unstructured interview the researcher will be able to know the data directly and deeply. This interview is given to the English teacher of class VIII D after the observation has been done. In this interview, the researcher will give seven questions related to the way of teaching which is done by this English teacher. 3.3.3 Document Analysis According to Arikunto (2002: 206), document analysis is a method of searching data that concern with some variables, such as: note, transcripts, books, newspapers, magazines, ancient inscriptions, journals, agenda, etc. In this research, the researcher uses some documents that contain of students activity, students evaluation assessment and students worksheet of class VIII D at SMPN 5 Malang as the document to be analyzed.

3.4 The Procedure of Data Collection and Analysis In conducting the research, the procedures of data collection and data analysis of this research are as follows: 1. Developing a research instrument. 2. Conducting the research activity by observes in the classroom while teaching. 3. Conducting the research activity by interviewing the teacher based on the result of observation. 4. Conducting the research activity by analyzing the student evaluation assessment and students worksheet as the documents. 5. Analyzing the data based on the research problem stated in chapter I. 6. Taking conclusion.

The Procedure of Data Collection and Analysis is presented in following diagram: Diagram 3.1 The procedure of data collection and analysis.

Draft for nonparticipant observation Developing the research instrument

7 questions for unstructured interview

The documents

Classroom Observation Conducting the research Interviewing the teacher

Analyzing the students evaluation assessment and students worksheet as the documents

Classifying the result of observation Analyzing the data

Classifying the respondents answer

Classifying the documents analysis Taking conclusion

CHAPTER IV RESULT AND DISCUSSION


The results and discussions about the compatibility of Contextual Teaching Learning (CTL) approach and its implementation in teaching English at SMPN 5 Malang based on Competence Based Curriculum (CBC) are presented in this chapter. 4.1 Results In this section, the researcher discusses the result of the data analysis about the implementation of CTL approach in teaching English at SMPN 5 Malang based on Competence Based Curriculum (CBC) 4.1.1 The Implementation of CTL Approach in Teaching English at SMPN 5 Malang Based on CBC. The implementation of CTL approach in teaching English can be seen from the components of constructivism, questioning, inquiry, learning community, modeling, reflection, and authentic assessment. The implementation of CTL approach describes as follows:

Table 4.1. The Implementation of CTL approach in Teaching English at SMPN 5 Malang Based on CBC. Components of CTL 1. Constructivism The Implementation of CTL in the Classroom Teachers Activity The teacher explained kinds of invitation and the examples: She asked the students to make an invitation the same with the examples given by the teacher, then presented in front of the class. Students Activity Student were able to do the teachers command. They could make an invitation the same with the example given by the teacher, then presented in front of the class.

She asked the students to make an invitation by using their own words. They had to choose the type of invitation by themself.

They could create an invitation by using their own words. They could choose the type and develop it by themself.

2. Questioning

The teacher motivated the students to give questions. It was done by giving questions to the students, so that, they

Students were motivated to ask to the teacher. Then, these questions became more complex and

gave some feedback.

developed because other students gave commands from those questions. These were done through both individually and groups. (see appendix 3)

3. Inquiry

Teacher asked the students to give a tittle of narrative text.

Students could make a tittle to the narrative text in a group.

Teacher asked the students to find another narrative story from some media

Students could find many narrative stories from the internet, magazine, or newspaper. (see appendix 4)

From the narrative story found by the students, then the teacher asked the students some questions to know their understanding toward

Students presented their findings in front of the class and answer the teachers questions by discussing with the group.

the story. For example about the actor, main problem, conclusion of the story, etc. 4. Learning Community Teacher grouped the students The students discussed the

when she started to teach about generic structure, main generic structure, main problem and plots of the text. problem and plots of text with their group. They shared and discussed it each other. (see appendix 3)

5. Modeling

Teacher asked the students to present their works both individually or group in front of the class.

Students presented their data in front of the class in groups or individually. They used a simple English to present their works. (see appendix 3)

6. Reflection

Teacher gave reflection at the end of the research. For example: She asked the student to mention kinds of text or kinds of invitation which had been Students could answer the teachers questions, by mentioning the kinds of text and

discussed during the research. She asked the students what they could find through the research on that day. e.g.:

invitation. Students could mention the new information which they found.

They could make an invitation They could make a narrative text. 7. Authentic Assessment Teacher took the evaluation during and after the class. Teacher took the evaluation from the students worksheet and block sheet. (see appendix 2)

The table above shows the implementation of CTL approach in teaching English. This implementation is seen from the components of constructivism, questioning, inquiry, learning community, modeling, reflection, and authentic assessment.

The component of CTL can be implemented as follows: Constructivism, Questioning, Inquiry that could be seen from the instructional activities between the teacher and the students. In this way, the teacher gave some explanation and the students gave feedback by doing homework or duties given by the teacher. Furthermore, the application of component learning community usually done by the teacher by grouping the students in order to discuss the specific subject. The next component is modeling, shown when the students presented their data or work in front of the class in groups or individually by using a simple English. Then, the component of reflection applied by asking to the students about the subject which they have learned at that day. It was done by the teacher at the end of teaching learning process. The last component is the authentic assessment, it could be seen from the teachers activities which gave evaluation during the teaching learning process, the students worksheet, and block sheet. 4.1.2. The Compatibility of CTL Approach and Its Implementation in Teaching English at SMPN 5 Malang Based on CBC. Based on the result of the observation in this school, there is any compatibility of CTL approach and its implementation. It is because the teacher has taught what should be taught, achieved basic competency, had knowledge and skill, assessed what should be assessed and collected the students achievement from process, product, framework and evaluation. (see appendix 4). Besides, students can construct the knowledge and skill by themselves. Moreover, every student felt happy when the material was going to began because they really

need the material. Therefore, the classroom becomes dynamic. Further explanation about this compatibility is presented as follows: Diagram 4.2. The Compatibility of CTL Approach and Its Implementation in teaching English.

INPUT

OUTPUT

TEACHER + SUBJECT - Teaching what should be taught - Understanding text - Achieving basic competency - Understanding structure - Having knowledge and skill - Understanding the use of sentences - Assessing what should be assessed - Collecting the students value from process, product, frame work, and evaluation.

STUDENT Constructing their knowledge by themselves Constructing their skill by themselves. Expressing that they need evaluation subject.

CLASSROOM The Classroom becomes dynamic

The compatibility which is shown on the diagram above is in line with the theory of Nurhadi (2003). He said that CTL has been applied at CBC when: 1) Teacher teaches what should be taught, not only knowledge about X. 2) Teacher achieves basic competency, not only finish the subject 3) Knowledge and skill to be taught, close with the students daily life. 4) Students find, and construct the knowledge and skill by themselves.

5) The classroom becomes dynamic (student work and train) not only the teacher acts in a stage, but also students must be active. 6) Students feel happy when the material is going to begin, because they really needed it. 7) Teacher assesses what should be assessed, which contains of students knowledge and skill. 8) Teacher collects the students achievement from process, product, framework, and evaluation. 4.2. Discussion. In this research, the researcher found that the implementation of CTL approach in this school involves seven components. They are constructivism, questioning, inquiry, learning community, modeling, reflection, and authentic assessment. The finding above is in line with the theory about the components of CTL approach stated by Nurhadi (2003). In this research, the researcher also found that CTL approach has been compatible with the implementation in teaching English at SMPN 5 Malang based on CBC. It was caused by the teacher who has already taught what should be taught, achieved basic competency, had knowledge and skill, assessed what should be and collected the students achievement from process, product, framework and evaluation. (see appendix 2). Moreover, students can construct the knowledge and skill by themselves, and students feel happy when the material is going to be begun, because students really needed it. Therefore, the classroom becomes dynamic. This findings is in line with the theory about the

implementation of CTL approach based on CBC which is stated by Nurhadi (2003). Although CBC has been implemented about two years, the used of CTL approach based on CBC in this school has been compatible with the implementation. It is very surprising because CTL is a strategy to achieve the main purpose of educational aim. Besides, CTL is one of the most important approaches in CBC which can be implemented to achieve the aim of CBC. The researcher agrees if CTL approach to be implemented as a strategy of CBC, because those can give the classroom becomes fun and active for the students. Besides, those ways show the teachers professionalism to teach English based on CBC. It is in line with the principals of CBC which are stated by Fatimah (2003; 15) in Ruciana (2004) that is CBC uses competence approach that give attention to the understanding, ability or certain competence in a school related to the job area in society, and standard competence in this curriculum consider to the students differences psychologically, so the students enjoy the class. The compatibility of CTL approach and its implementation based on CBC is very important to be considered by the teachers because it can give some improvements for them. The improvements are in the teaching learning process.

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

This chapter presents the conclusion and the suggestion of the present research. 5.1 Conclusion

Based on the research findings, some conclusions are drawn dealing with the compatibility of the Contextual Teaching Learning (CTL) approach and its implementation in teaching English at SMPN 5 Malang based on Competence Based Curriculum (CBC). The implementation of CTL approach in teaching English based on CBC are seen from the seven components. Those are constructivism, questioning, inquiry, learning community, modeling, reflection, and authentic assessment. The constructivism, questioning, and inquiry could be seen from the instructional activity between the teacher and the students. Furthermore, the application of component learning community usually done by the teacher by grouping the students. Modeling, is shown when the students presented their data or work in front of the class in groups or individually. Then, the component of reflection applicated by asking to the students about the subject which they have learned at that day. The last component is the authentic assessment, it could be seen from the teachers activities which gave evaluation during the teaching learning process, the students worksheet, and block sheet.

The CTL approach and its implementation has been compatible in this school. It is because the teacher has taught what should be taught, achieved basic competence, had knowledge and skill, assessed what should be assessed and collected the students achievement from process, product, framework, and evaluation. Besides, student felt happy when the material was going to begin because they really need the material. Therefore, the classroom become dynamic. 5.2 Suggestion After perceiving the compatibility of CTL components used in teaching English based on CBC conducted by the researcher, some suggestions can be considered by the association and subject matter teacher (MGMP), English teacher, and further researcher. Association and Subject Matter Teacher (MGMP) The MGMP has to give additional trainings and workshops about the CTL approach based on CBC because the English teachers still need it in order to broaden their knowledge and understand the implementation of CTL approach in CBC. For English Teachers Teachers must be able to create various methods of teaching and select the best material that is appropriate with the real condition of society. Besides, they have to make good preparation before starting to teach. Teachers are the only factor who know what and how the classroom will be, so that, they have to express their creativity, which is shown to their students.

For Further Researchers Because of some limitations in doing this research, the researcher realizes that this thesis has not been complete yet. Therefore, it is hoped that there will be other researchers who will conduct similar studies. For example investigating the compatibility of teaching strategy to the CTL approach based on the implantation of CBC,