Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 20

Hydrodynamic Bearings -


Lecture 25

Engineering 473
Machine Design
Lubrication Zones
Boundary Mixed-film Hydrodynamic
Boundary Lubrication Lubrication Lubrication Lubrication

Coefficient of Friction
Contact between
journal and bearing

Mixed-film Lubrication
Intermittent contact

Hydrodynamic Lubrication Bearing Parameter

Journal rides on a fluid Bearing Parameter ≡
film. Film is created by the p
motion of the journal.
µ ≡ dynamic viscosity, lb - sec/in 2
n ≡ rotational speed, rev/sec
p ≡ pressure (force/projected area), psi
Stable/Unstable Lubrication
Hydrodynamic Lubrication
is often referred to as stable
Coefficient of Friction

If the lubrication temperature

increases, the viscosity
drops. This results in a
lower coefficient of friction,
µn that causes the lubrication
Bearing Parameter
p temperature to drop. => Self

Mixed-film lubrication is unstable – an increase in lubrication

temperature causes further increases in lubrication temperature.
Newtonian Fluid
A Newtonian fluid is any fluid whose shear stress and
transverse rate of deformation are related through the
Dynamic Viscosity


ips SI
lbf N
lbf − sec m2 N − sec
in 2 = = reyn =
in 2 m m2
sec sec
in m

Other common units are discussed in the text.

Pumping Action
When dry, friction will cause the
journal to try to climb bearing
inner wall.

When lubricant is introduced, the

“climbing action” and the viscosity of
the fluid will cause lubricant to be
drawn around the journal creating a
film between the journal and bearing.
The lubricant pressure will push the
journal to the side.
Journal Bearing Nomenclature

β is equal to 2π for a
full bearing

If β is less than 2π, it is

known as a partial

We will only be
considering the full
bearing case.
Analysis Assumptions

1. Lubricant is a Newtonian fluid

2. Inertia forces of the lubricant are
3. Incompressible
4. Constant viscosity
5. Zero pressure gradient along the
length of the bearing
6. The radius of the journal is large
compared to the film thickness
Analysis Geometry

Actual Geometry Unrolled Geometry

From boundary layer theory, the pressure

gradient in the y direction is constant.
X-Momentum Equation

æ dp ö æ ∂τ ö
å Fx = 0 = çè p + dx dx ÷ødydz + τdxdz − çç τ + ∂y dy ÷÷dxdz − pdydz
è ø

dp ∂τ ∂u dp ∂ 2u
= τ=µ =µ 2
dx ∂y ∂y dx ∂y
X-Momentum Equation
X-Momentum Eq.
dp ∂ 2u
=µ 2
dx ∂y

General Solution

∂ 2 u 1 dp
∂y 2
µ dx
∂u 1 dp Boundary Conditions
= y + C1 (x )
∂y µ dx y = 0, u = 0
1 dp 2 y = h(x), u = -U
u= y + C1 (x )y + C2 (x )
2µ dx
X-Momentum Equation

1 dp 2
u= y + C1 (x )y + C2 (x )
2µ dx

y = 0, u = 0 C2 (x ) = 0

U h (x ) dp
y = h(x), u = -U C1 (x ) = − −
h (x ) 2µ dx

1 dp 2
2µ dx
y − h (x )y −
h (x )
Note that h(x) and
dp/dx are not known
at this point.
Mass Flow Rate

h (x )
 = ρ ò udy
h (x )
m ò
æ 1 dp 2
çç ( )
y − h (x )y −
U ö
y ÷÷dy
h (x ) ø
0 è 2µ dx
é h (x )3 dp Uh (x )ù
 = ρ ê−
m − ú
ë 12µ dx 2 û
Conservation of Mass
é h (x )3 dp Uh (x ) ù
 = ρ ê−
m − ú
ë 12µ dx 2 û

Conservation of Mass Requires

dm d h (x ) dp ö U dh
æ 3
=0 − çç ÷− =0
dx ÷
dx è 12µ dx ø 2 dx

d h (x ) dp ö
æ 3
ç ÷ = −6 U
dx è µ dx ÷ø
ç dx Reynold’s Equation
h(x) Relationship

cr = radial clearance
h (θ ) = c r (1 + ε ⋅ cos θ )

e h min = c r (1 − ε )
h max = c r (1 + ε )

æ æ 2x ö ö
h (x ) = c r çç1 + ε ⋅ cos ç ÷ ÷÷
è è D øø
Sommerfeld Solution
A. Sommerfeld solved these
d h (x ) dp ö
æ equations in 1904 to find the
ç ÷ = −6 U pressure distribution around the
dx è µ dx ÷ø
ç dx bearing.

æ æ 2x ö ö It is known as a “long bearing”

h (x ) = c r çç1 + ε ⋅ cos ç ÷ ÷÷ solution because there is no flow
è è D øø in the axial direction.

µUr é 6ε ⋅ sin θ ⋅ (2 + ε cos θ )ù

p= 2 ê + po 0 ≤ θ ≤ π
( )
c r ë 2 + ε (1 + ε cos θ ) û
2 2 ú

r is the journal radius, ε is a chosen design parameter.

Ocvirk Short-Bearing Solution
A “short bearing” allows lubricant flow in the longitudinal
direction, z, as well as in the circumferential direction, x.

∂ æ h (x ) dp ö ∂ æ h (x ) dp ö
3 3
∂h Governing
ç ÷− ç ÷ = −6U
∂x çè µ dx ÷ø ∂z çè µ dz ÷ø ∂x Equation

The Ocvirk solution (1955) neglects the first term

as being small compared to the axial flow.

µU æ l2 2ö 3ε ⋅ sinθ
p = 2 çç − z ÷÷ 0≤θ≤π
rcr è 4 ø (1 + ε ⋅ cosθ )3
Short-Bearing Pressure Distributions

Norton Fig. 10-8 & 10-9

Short & Long Bearing


Use Matlab to plot the pressure distribution predicted by the

Sommerfeld equation for a journal bearing having a
clearance ratio of 0.0017, journal radius of 0.75 in, ε of 0.6,
µ=2.2µreyn, shaft rotational speed=20 rev/sec, and po=o.

First, generate the plot only for the range θ equals 0 to π.

Second, generate the plot for the range θ equals 0 to 2π.

What happens to the pressure distribution from π to 2π. Is
this physically possible? Discuss what would happen to the
lubricant if this pressure distribution occurred.