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# Hydrodynamic Bearings -

Theory

Lecture 25

Engineering 473
Machine Design
Lubrication Zones
Boundary Mixed-film Hydrodynamic
Boundary Lubrication Lubrication Lubrication Lubrication

Coefficient of Friction
Contact between
journal and bearing

Mixed-film Lubrication
Intermittent contact

## Hydrodynamic Lubrication Bearing Parameter

µn
Journal rides on a fluid Bearing Parameter ≡
film. Film is created by the p
motion of the journal.
µ ≡ dynamic viscosity, lb - sec/in 2
n ≡ rotational speed, rev/sec
p ≡ pressure (force/projected area), psi
Stable/Unstable Lubrication
Hydrodynamic Lubrication
Boundary
Lubrication
Mixed-film
Lubrication
Hydrodynamic
Lubrication
is often referred to as stable
lubrication.
Coefficient of Friction

## If the lubrication temperature

increases, the viscosity
drops. This results in a
lower coefficient of friction,
µn that causes the lubrication
Bearing Parameter
p temperature to drop. => Self
Correcting.

## Mixed-film lubrication is unstable – an increase in lubrication

temperature causes further increases in lubrication temperature.
Newtonian Fluid
A Newtonian fluid is any fluid whose shear stress and
transverse rate of deformation are related through the
equation.
du
τ=µ
dy
Dynamic Viscosity

du
µ=τ
dy

Units
ips SI
lbf N
lbf − sec m2 N − sec
in 2 = = reyn =
in 2 m m2
in
sec sec
in m

## Other common units are discussed in the text.

Pumping Action
When dry, friction will cause the
journal to try to climb bearing
inner wall.

## When lubricant is introduced, the

“climbing action” and the viscosity of
the fluid will cause lubricant to be
drawn around the journal creating a
film between the journal and bearing.
The lubricant pressure will push the
journal to the side.
Journal Bearing Nomenclature

β is equal to 2π for a
full bearing

## If β is less than 2π, it is

known as a partial
bearing.

We will only be
considering the full
bearing case.
Analysis Assumptions

## 1. Lubricant is a Newtonian fluid

2. Inertia forces of the lubricant are
negligible
3. Incompressible
4. Constant viscosity
5. Zero pressure gradient along the
length of the bearing
6. The radius of the journal is large
compared to the film thickness
Analysis Geometry

## From boundary layer theory, the pressure

gradient in the y direction is constant.
X-Momentum Equation

æ dp ö æ ∂τ ö
å Fx = 0 = çè p + dx dx ÷ødydz + τdxdz − çç τ + ∂y dy ÷÷dxdz − pdydz
è ø

dp ∂τ ∂u dp ∂ 2u
= τ=µ =µ 2
dx ∂y ∂y dx ∂y
X-Momentum Equation
(Continued)
X-Momentum Eq.
dp ∂ 2u
=µ 2
dx ∂y

General Solution

∂ 2 u 1 dp
=
∂y 2
µ dx
∂u 1 dp Boundary Conditions
= y + C1 (x )
∂y µ dx y = 0, u = 0
1 dp 2 y = h(x), u = -U
u= y + C1 (x )y + C2 (x )
2µ dx
X-Momentum Equation
(Continued)

1 dp 2
u= y + C1 (x )y + C2 (x )
2µ dx

y = 0, u = 0 C2 (x ) = 0

U h (x ) dp
y = h(x), u = -U C1 (x ) = − −
h (x ) 2µ dx

u=
1 dp 2
2µ dx
(
y − h (x )y −
U
)
h (x )
y
Note that h(x) and
dp/dx are not known
at this point.
Mass Flow Rate

h (x )
 = ρ ò udy
m
0
h (x )
 =ρ
m ò
æ 1 dp 2
çç ( )
y − h (x )y −
U ö
y ÷÷dy
h (x ) ø
0 è 2µ dx
é h (x )3 dp Uh (x )ù
 = ρ ê−
m − ú
ë 12µ dx 2 û
Conservation of Mass
é h (x )3 dp Uh (x ) ù
 = ρ ê−
m − ú
ë 12µ dx 2 û

## Conservation of Mass Requires


dm d h (x ) dp ö U dh
æ 3
=0 − çç ÷− =0
dx ÷
dx è 12µ dx ø 2 dx

d h (x ) dp ö
æ 3
dh
ç ÷ = −6 U
dx è µ dx ÷ø
ç dx Reynold’s Equation
h(x) Relationship

θ
e
ε=
cr
h (θ ) = c r (1 + ε ⋅ cos θ )

e h min = c r (1 − ε )
h max = c r (1 + ε )

æ æ 2x ö ö
h (x ) = c r çç1 + ε ⋅ cos ç ÷ ÷÷
è è D øø
Sommerfeld Solution
A. Sommerfeld solved these
d h (x ) dp ö
æ equations in 1904 to find the
3
dh
ç ÷ = −6 U pressure distribution around the
dx è µ dx ÷ø
ç dx bearing.

## æ æ 2x ö ö It is known as a “long bearing”

h (x ) = c r çç1 + ε ⋅ cos ç ÷ ÷÷ solution because there is no flow
è è D øø in the axial direction.

## µUr é 6ε ⋅ sin θ ⋅ (2 + ε cos θ )ù

p= 2 ê + po 0 ≤ θ ≤ π
( )
c r ë 2 + ε (1 + ε cos θ ) û
2 2 ú

## r is the journal radius, ε is a chosen design parameter.

Ocvirk Short-Bearing Solution
A “short bearing” allows lubricant flow in the longitudinal
direction, z, as well as in the circumferential direction, x.

∂ æ h (x ) dp ö ∂ æ h (x ) dp ö
3 3
∂h Governing
ç ÷− ç ÷ = −6U
∂x çè µ dx ÷ø ∂z çè µ dz ÷ø ∂x Equation

## The Ocvirk solution (1955) neglects the first term

as being small compared to the axial flow.

µU æ l2 2ö 3ε ⋅ sinθ
p = 2 çç − z ÷÷ 0≤θ≤π
rcr è 4 ø (1 + ε ⋅ cosθ )3
Short-Bearing Pressure Distributions

## Norton Fig. 10-8 & 10-9

Short & Long Bearing
Comparisons

%
Assignment

## Use Matlab to plot the pressure distribution predicted by the

Sommerfeld equation for a journal bearing having a
clearance ratio of 0.0017, journal radius of 0.75 in, ε of 0.6,
µ=2.2µreyn, shaft rotational speed=20 rev/sec, and po=o.

## Second, generate the plot for the range θ equals 0 to 2π.

What happens to the pressure distribution from π to 2π. Is
this physically possible? Discuss what would happen to the
lubricant if this pressure distribution occurred.