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1947. Photograph. Adolphe Menjou Testifying. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. Bettmann. Bettmann. Web. 18 Oct. 2012. <http://http://www.corbisimages.com/stock-photo/rightsmanaged/U851436ACME/adolphe-menjou-testifying?popup=1>.

This is a picture of Adolphe Menjou testifying before the HUAC. He was considered a "friendly" witness and provided a testimony in order to reveal alleged communists. 1947. Photograph. Hollywood Filmmakers Gathered for HUAC Inquiry. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. Bettmann. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <http://http://www.corbisimages.com/stock-photo/rightsmanaged/BE034683/hollywood-filmmakers-gathered-for-huac-inquiry?popup=1>. This shows all accused Hollywood filmmakers in front of the HUAC, waiting to be processed and interrogated. These men were believed to be communists and subjugators of the American way of life. This photo will be useful in showing audiences what the Hollywood ten look like. 1980 Strike Button. N.d. Photograph. SAG-AFTRA Online Museum, Los Angeles, California. Sag.org. SAF-AFTRA. Web. <http://www.sagaftra.org/content/online-museum>. This photograph is the most common symbol for the Screen Actors Guild. It is very interesting that the symbols changed throughout time but that one stayed consistent. Many of the other symbols are on the same page but are also documents and medals. This website is very resourceful and provides detailed information on the Screen Actors Guild. Actor Ronald Reagan Testifying Before House Committee. 1947. Photograph. Bettmann, Washington, D.C. Www.corbisimages.com. Bettmann/CORBIS. Web. <http://www.corbisimages.com/stock-photo/rights-managed/BE028812/actor-ronaldreagan-testifying-before-house-committee?popup=1>. This image shows actor Ronald Regan testifying against the HUAC during one of the many court cases that occurred in

1947. This image provides another aspect of many people who were testified during the 1947 court cases. This website provides many historical images as well as videos. Actors Standing Together in Huddle. 1947. Photograph. Bettmann, Washington, D.C. Www.corbisimages.com. Bettmann/CORBIS. Web. <http://www.corbisimages.com/stock-photo/rights-managed/U851908AACME/actorsstanding-together-in-huddle?popup=1>. This image shows a group of Hollywood celebrities are shown as they arrived in Washington D.C. to protest the tactics of the House Un-American Activities Committee's Investigation into alleged Hollywood Communism. Ten of which celebrities, pictured, protested of these unfair treatments. This image helps show only few of the many people acknowledged who helped end the Hollywood Blacklist. Albertin, Walter. House Committee on Un-American Activities. 1947. Photograph. New York World-Telegram and Sun Newspaper Photograph Collection, New York. Hope for America. Library of Congress. Web. 27 Sept. 2012. <http://myloc.gov/exhibitions/hopeforamerica/causesandcontroversies/climateoffear/page s/objectlist.aspx>. This is a photo of Gary Cooper (a conservative screenwriter) testifying against communist screenwriters and left-wing script makers The Associated Press. "Movie Stars Defer Action On Walkout." Reading Eagle [Reading, Pennsylvania] 3 May 1937: 1-20. Print. As more workers in the film industry continued to riot, this would consequentially lead to the HUAC's development of the Hollywood Blacklist. At first, it was simply because workers wanted more pay for their labor. Eventually, they were questioned for being communists and were later imprisoned. This article describes the actions of protestors and the meeting followers attended.

Ayn Rand Testifying Before House Committee. 1947. Photograph. Bettmann, Washington, D.C.Www.corbisimages.com. Bettmann/CORBIS. Web. <http://www.corbisimages.com/stock-photo/rights-managed/BE028793/ayn-randtestifying-before-house-committee?popup=1>.In this photograph, writer Ayn Rand testifies against the House Un-American Activities Committee on October 20, 1947. She said that on the request of a committee investigator, she reviewed the movie Song of Russia. She said that one line in the film comparing Russian fighters to those that fell at Lexington was "blasphemy." Barzman, Norma. The Red and the Blacklist: Intimate Memoir of a Hollywood Expatriate. New York: Thunder's Mouth/Nation, 2003. Print. This book is a recollection of a woman's exile to France due to the Hollywood blacklist. She had to give up her career as a screenwriter in America and escape. This shows how unfair the blacklist was, and how it affected some of the victims. Bernstein, Walter. Inside Out: A Memoir of the Blacklist. [New York]: Da Capo, 2000. Print. This book is a Memoir of an American WWII vet who became a communist screenwriter after the war, and found himself blacklisted. This recollects the details and struggles of being on the blacklist, as well as the personal prejudices of Joe McCarthy. Bernstein, Walter, and Vincent Dowd. "Witness: The Hollywood Blacklist." Interview. Audio blog post. BBC Podcasts. BBC, 4 Jan. 2012. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. In this interview, Dowd interviews Walter Bernstein, an American screenwriter and producer who was interrogated by the HUAC in the 1950's. Bernstein talks about his experiences with the HUAC and his testimony, specifically about the informants among the accused, and the hardships of being a writer and finding employment after the trial.

Bettmann, Corbis. HW10 "Office" 1947. Photograph. Ucla, LA. Mediascape. UCLA. Web. 27 Sept. 2012. <http://www.tft.ucla.edu/mediascape/images/HW10office.jpg>. this picture depicts the "Hollywood Ten" waiting to be fingerprinted in Washington D.C. (from left to right) Robert Scott, Edward Dmytryk, Samuel Ornitz, Lester Cole, Herbert Biberman, Albert Waltz, Alvah Bessie, John Lawson, and Ring Lardner, Jr. Block, Herbert. "It's Okay- We're Hunting Communists." Cartoon. Washington Post [Washington D.C.] 31 Oct. 1947: n. pag. Print. In Herbert Block's political cartoon, he depicts HUAC members J. Parnell Thomas and Robert E. Stripling driving on the sidewalk and showing no concern over civilians. The label on the back of the car reads "Committee on Un American Activities", their organization. Block, the cartoonist, is suggesting that the HUAC thought that they were protecting the United States from any Communist influence, while also infringing on citizens rights and ruining lives, which was also brought up in the court case Watkins v. United States. This cartoon was published a week after HUAC interrogations had begun.

Bogart, Humphrey. "I'm No Communist." Photoplay Mar. 1948: n. pag. Google Documents. Web. 24 Sept. 2012. <https://docs.google.com/a/rusdlearns.net/document/pub?id=1khEGRvkO_nTSne4jDqCd tJ9aCXcPjhQaxVMExAVE_pk>. In Humphrey Bogart's article, he explains his reasoning behind joining the Committee for the First Amendment, which was a response to the Hollywood 10 being put in jail. He describes a conversation he had with Ed Sullivan in which he was accused of being a "red." Bogart denies that he has ever taken

part in Communist activities and explains that he had joined the Committee in support of the First Amendment and to take a stance against censorship, but he had never intended to stand for Communism. This revealed an interesting perspective- many of the people involved in the HUAC or protests against it may not have fully understood what the public would assume of them. Bosworth, Patricia. "Receiving Credit Where Credit Is Long Overdue." New York Times 13 May 1997: n. pag. Print. In this article, Patricia Bosworth shares her experiences during the HUAC investigations and the impact it had on her family. Her father, Bartley Crum, was a prominent lawyer who fought for the Hollywood 10 against the HUAC. Because of this, Crum was harassed and watched closely by the FBI. They ended up ruining his reputation, and when Crum couldn't deal with the pressure, he committed suicide in 1959. Her insights into her fathers life helped us understand the impact and the length that the HUAC was willing to go to prove they were right. Brecht HUAC Hearing (1947) (testimony of Bertolt Brecht). Print. In Bertolt Brecht's testimony, he is questioned by the HUAC about his life and affiliations with the Communist party. He states that he is not in any way affiliated with the Communist party, nor has he ever been. He was considered an unfriendly witness by the HUAC because of his refusal to name names. Chaplin, Charlie. My Autobiography. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1964. Print. Charlie Chaplin's autobiography tells the story of his life, and explains his process of moving out of America in order to escape the pressure and harassment of the HUAC and FBI because of his suspected Communist activities. Chaplin's case was one of the most severe.

Cogley, John, and Merle Miller. Blacklisting: Two Key Documents. New York: Arno and the New York Times, 1971. Print. This is a report on the actual process of blacklisting, or "clearing" of individuals. rather than a report on the moral and ethical natures of the list itself. It includes interviews and journal entries. Cook, Fred J. The Nightmare Decade; the Life and times of Senator Joe McCarthy. New York: Random House, 1971. Print. This book gives insight to the life and history of Joe McCarthy, the senator who spearheaded the whole HUAC movement, as well as points to him as a cause for a weaker government. Because of his terror tactics, government officials were too afraid to make rash or seemingly left-wing judgments even if they would benefit America. Commitee on Un-American Activities. Dir. Robert C. Cohen. Perf. Earl Browder. Radical Films, 1962. Video. Radfilms.com. Radical Films. Web. 25 Oct. 2012. <http://www.radfilms.com/huac.html>. Because of the HUAC, House Un-American Activities Committee, many workers of the film industry were left jobless and suffered throughout their careers. In this film, the views of the House Un-American Activities Committee is portrayed politically against the alleged communist workers. Many known directors are quoted and this video contains clips of HUAC meetings, words spoken from blacklisted Hollywood artists, and ideas from both sides of the conflict. Dalton Trumbo at House Hearings. 1947. Photograph. Bettmann, Washington, D.C. Www.corbisimages.com. Comp. Bettmann/CORBIS. Corbis Corporation. Web. <http://www.corbisimages.com/stock-photo/rights-managed/BE036544/dalton-trumboat-house-hearings?popup=1>. This picture was taken of Dalton Trumbo when he was testifying against the HUAC. It shows the situation he is in and how he worked his best to

stand up for the film industry. The website this picture was derived from contains massive amounts of sources whether its files or photographs. This photograph shows a great visual perspective on the cases and what the majority of accused communists went through. "Disney Film Editors Return To Job." The Deseret News [Salt Lake City, Utah] 10 July 1941: 119. Print. This newspaper article informs readers about an even that many people claimed to result in the Hollywood Blacklist. In this article, reporters explain how workers of Walt Disney were on strike but Disney would not cooperate because he insisted on "cheap labor." He claimed the picketers as communists and opposed the ideas of his workers until the impact of Hollywood Blacklist created the Screen Actors Guild which protected workers rights. Du Bois Meeting with Mao Tse Tung in China, May, 1959. N.d. Photograph. University of Massachusetts Amhers Du Bois Collection, Amhers. UMass Amhers. University of Massachusetts, 22 Nov. 2011. Web. 21 Oct. 2012. This photograph portrays W.E.B Du Bois, a political activist, historian and sociologist, meeting with Mao Zedong. The HUAC blacklisted Du Bois because of his leftist beliefs. This photograph was used in the testimony against Du Bois, as it provides photographic evidence of him in Communist China. Dubois, William E. "On Stalin." Guardian [New York] 16 Mar. 1953: n. pag. Print. In W.E.B. Dubois's eulogy to Stalin, he praises the dictator for his calm and poise. Dubois's writings are part of the reason the HUAC targeted and blacklisted him. Articles like these contributed greatly to their testimony. From this, the HUAC inferred that he sympathized with Communist Ideals and that he idolized Stalin, which made him a target.

Faulk, John Henry. Fear on Trial. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1964. Print. In this book, John Henry Faulk records his experiences with the HUAC and AWARE, both organizations out to stop Leftist ideas. Unlike other blacklisted people, Faulk was one of the first to strike back and win. He successfully sued AWARE, an organization supported by McCarthy, and won. AWARE was paying off radio stations not to hire Faulk, and his story was a major turning point in Hollywood regaining its independence. Film Stars Protesting Against Congressional Hearing. 1947. Photograph. Bettmann, Washington, D.C. Www.corbisimages.com. Bettmann/CORBIS. Web. <http://www.corbisimages.com/stock-photo/rights-managed/BE028769/film-starsprotesting-against-congressional-hearing?popup=1>. This image shows famous Hollywood actors and actresses walking towards the House Un-American Activities Committee. This image was taken of the same celebrities during their protest as well as when they left and when they arrived. The website the photo was retrieved from, has many photographs that are shown in the chronological order of dates they were taken. "Film Studio Actors Take Strike To Vote." St. Petersburg Times [St. Petersburg, Florida] 9 May 1937: 1-36. Print. This newspaper was written during the time the rights for the Screen Actors Guild were being passed. The author of the article is unknown but the newspaper was distributed in St. Petersburg, Florida May 9, 1937. This newspaper provides details as to the events occurring during that time period as well as quotes from many of the banned screen writers. As time progressed, the St. Petersburg Times were eventually renamed to the Tampa Bay Times. Gordon, Bernard. Hollywood Exile, Or, How I Learned to Love the Blacklist: A Memoir. Austin: University of Texas, 1999. Print. This book shows the struggle of a screenwriter who was

blacklisted and had to move to Europe to find success. This book is useful because it exposes how inaccurate the blacklist was and that many of the people blocked by it actually had pro-American intentions. Hellman, Lillian. "I Cannot and Will Not Cut My Conscience to Fit This Years Fashions." Letter to HUAC. 19 May 1952. MS. N.p. Lillian Hellman was an accomplished playwright and screenwriter in the 1940's and 1950's. In this letter, she explains to the HUAC (House Committee on Un-American Activities) that she will not be naming names or revealing any of her colleagues political beliefs to the committee. She states that she is not willing to claim the privilege of the Fifth Amendment unless the HUAC insists on asking her questions regarding either her colleagues or her own political stances. She was not the only member of the blacklisted artists who claimed this privilege. Herbert Biberman HUAC Testimony Excerpt, 1947. Perf. Herbert Bieberman. Youtube. Authentic History Online, 22 Nov. 2010. Web. 25 Oct. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=ds2SDTFXIgM#!>. This is a very interesting film of one of the alleged communists being harassed at his hearing by the overseer of the hearing. He is asked what his associations with the communist party are, and he is yelled at for not answering. this proves that the HUAC was blind and blatantly arrogant. Herbert J. Biberman Testifying. 1947. Photograph. Bettmann, Washington, D.C. Www.corbisimages.com. Bettmann/CORBIS. Web. <http://www.corbisimages.com/stock-photo/rights-managed/U1075729INP/herbert-jbiberman-testifying?popup=1>. Although Dalton Trumbo was on of the most well known

victims of the Hollywood Blacklist, Herbert J.Biberman also played a major role in his efforts to end Blacklisting in the Hollywood film industry. This image shows Biberman during his testimony against the House of Un-American Activities Committee. At the time this image was taken, HUAC declared Biberman as part of the Communist party. This website provides plenty of historical images that are from the time period. Hollywood Stars at La Guardia Airport. 1947. Photograph. Bettmann, Queens,New York City, New York. Www.corbisimages.com. Bettmann/CORBIS. Web. <http://www.corbisimages.com/stock-photo/rights-managed/U832086ACME/hollywoodstars-at-la-guardia-airport?popup=1>. This image gives an aspect as to only a few of Hollywood actors who were blacklisted. At the time they were returning to Hollywood after participation in a protest in Washington. There are about twenty-one film stars in the image and provide visuals needed to show how the Blacklisting affected the majority of workers in the film industry. House Un-American Activities Committee in Action. 1947. Photograph. Bettmann, Washington, D.C. Www.corbisimages.com. Bettmann/CORBIS. Web. <http://www.corbisimages.com/stock-photo/rights-managed/BE049325/houseunamerican-activities-committee-in-action?popup=1>. In this picture, a typical scene in the courtroom in 1947 is portrayed. The scene was photographed in the Caucus Room of the house office building as the House Un-American Activities Committee opened its investigation into alleged Communist activities in the movie industry. Jack L. Warner, Vice President of Warner Brothers studios, is first witness on stand beside him is Paul V. McNutt, counsel for producers. This photograph shows an idea of the court cases during the era of the Hollywood Blacklist.

Hughes, Langston. I Wonder as I Wander: An Autobiographical Journey. New York: Hill and Wang, 1964. Print. During the height of the HUAC scare, Langston Hughes was accused of communist activities. Hughes was a famous poet who inspired the Harlem Renaissance and had a monumental impact on beat poetry and the Black Arts Movement. The HUAC accused him of communist activities because he had taken trips to the Soviet Union. Hughes denied any affiliation with the Communist party, and after questioning he regressed from politics for fear of being officially blacklisted. J. Edgar Hoover Talks About Communists. Perf. J. Edgar Hoover. Bettman/CORBIS, 1947. Online Video. Www.corbismotion.com. Bettmann/CORBIS. Web. <http://www.corbismotion.com/wicker/clip/1BK6045_0020.do?keywords=hollywood%2 Cblacklisting>. This is one of the very few available speeches recorded for scholarly use. The audio is great and it describes much of the emotion the FBI and House of UnAmerican Activities Committee was going through. In this clip, former FBI director, J. Edgar Hoover, speaks about Communist activity hitting the Hollywood film industry. This website is one of the few that provides reliable historical video clips. J. Parnell Thomas Talking with Robert Taylor. 1947. Photograph. Bettmann, Washington, D.C. Www.corbisimages.com. Bettmann/CORBIS. Web. <http://www.corbisimages.com/stock-photo/rights-managed/U1075243INP/j-parnellthomas-talking-with-robert-taylor?popup=1>. This image shows a member of the HUAC "talking" to one of the many Hollywood actors. It claims they were talking but the picture gives viewers the idea that verbal aggression might have occurred often in the HUAC courtrooms. This image provides a great historical visual of the events that might have occurred during court cases.

Jaffe, Sam. "An Actor Protests Blacklisting." Letter to Nate Spingold. 22 May 1953. MS. 137 Waverly Place, New York, New York. This is a letter from an actor who was blacklisted and also written into the pamphlet "Red Channels" which prevented certain actors and screenwriters from getting jobs in the film and radio industries. John Henry Faulk vs. AWARE. New York Supreme Court. N.d. Texas Archival Resources. University of Texas at Austin, n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2012. In this court case, John Henry Faulk sued AWARE for paying employers not to hire him. Faulk was accused of being a communist during the HUAC hearings, and his court case was a crucial first step in repealing the blacklist. Faulk sued for compensation and won upwards of $500,000. Kazam, Elia. Interview by Don Swain. Audio blog post. Wired for Books. Ohio University, n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2012. In Swain's interview with Elia Kazan, he talks extensively about his life story and experiences involving the HUAC. Kazan, writer and director, was one of the "cooperative" witnesses. He left the HUAC mostly unscathed because he agreed to reveal people he believed were Communists to the HUAC. He was denied various awards because other filmmakers still felt resentment over him during the 1991 Grammys. Kress, G. B. Celebrities Attending Film Probe Session. 1947. Photograph. Bettmann, Washington, D.C. Www.corbisimages.com. Bettmann/CORBIS. Web. <http://www.corbisimages.com/stock-photo/rights-managed/U1075928INP/celebritiesattending-film-probe-session?popup=1>. This image shows many of the celebrities who were at the HUAC trials in support of the alleged Communist directors, writers, and producers. It shows the faces of many past celebrities who were against the House of UnAmerican Activities Committee. This website provides many historical images of celebrities pictured in different areas of the United States while attending court cases.

Lee, Gypsy R. Gypsy: Memoirs of America's Most Celebrated Stripper. New York: Frog, 1957. Print. Gypsy Rose Lee was a famous Burlesque entertainer and writer. She was blacklisted by the HUAC for supporting Spanish Loyalists during Spain's Civil war. In her memoir, she describes her journey and experiences being targeted by the HUAC along with other entertainment icons. Library of Congress. Dalton Trumbo, Hollywood Screen Writer, Head-and-shoulders Portrait, Facing Left, Testifying before the House Un-American Activities Committee. 1947. Photograph. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. Loc.gov. Library of Congress. Web. <http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/97521048/>. This picture was taken of Dalton Trumbo when he was testifying against the HUAC. It shows the situation he is in and how he worked his best to stand up for the film industry. The website this picture was derived from contains massive amounts of sources whether its files or photographs. This photograph shows a great visual perspective on the cases and what the majority of accused communists went through. Miller, Arthur. Timebends: A Life. New York: Grove, 1987. Print. Arthur Miller's autobiography chronicles his run in with the HUAC. He was one of the most prominent figures who was questioned by the HUAC. In his book, he mentioned how he traveled to Salem, Massachusetts in order to research the Salem Witch Trials and used the situation as an allegory for the HUAC trials. The questioning affected him deeply and altered his outlook on life. Motion Picture Association of America. The Waldorf Declaration/Statement. New York. 1947. Print. The Waldorf Statement was a press release that stated that the MPAA would not be hiring, employing, or aiding any of the 10 screenwriters/actors/producers who had

refused to cooperate with Congress by pleading the 5th Amendment. They stated that they would have no further involvement with any of the "Hollywood 10" until they had either denounced the communist accusations or aided Congress by revealing other communists within Hollywood. Navasky, Victor S. Naming Names. New York: Viking, 1980. Print. This book is a definitive account of the HUAC hearings by a man who was in attendance, and this book also contains interviews with more than 150 of the accused communists. Extremely useful source. Nine Posing After Cited for Contempt. 1947. Photograph. Bettmann, Los Angeles,CA. Www.corbisimages.com. Bettmann/CORBIS. Web. <http://www.corbisimages.com/stock-photo/rights-managed/U858109ACME/nineposing-after-cited-for-contempt?popup=1>. This image shows nine of the ten Hollywood directors, producers, and writers after contempt of Congress. They were later jailed for not admitting whether or not they were associated with a Communist government. This image provides a visual as to some of the most well known jailed workers of the film industry who later came to be known as The Hollywood Ten. Page One of Executive Order 9835, Issued March 21, 1947. 1947. Photograph. General Records of the U.S. Government, RG 11, College Park, Maryland. The National Archives. Www.archives.gov. Web. <http://www.archives.gov/global-pages/largerimage.html?i=/publications/prologue/2006/fall/images/eo-p1l.jpg&c=/publications/prologue/2006/fall/images/eo-p1.caption.html>.This image was created in 1947 to promote Americanism and prevent Anti-American ideals from "polluting" the American society. The National Archives website provides plenty of

historical documents and information for various topics. This image provides the exact standards many Americans were expected to live up to and do nothing but obey laws like these. Red Channels: The Report of Communist Influence in Radio and Television. 1950. Photograph. General Collections. Blacklisting in Radio and Television. New York: Counterattack, 1950. 1. Library of Congress. Web. This photograph describes a report that was created in response to the alleged communist workers of the film industry. It was originally published in 1950 and it was created by three FBI agents to combat communism. Known as the Red Channels, listing all the names of the people who were thought to be communists or associated with communist ideas. The website has plenty of information on any event or idea that was a major part of history. Red Channels. New York: Counterattack, 1950. Print. This pamphlet was written by a right-wing newsletter called Counterattack in order to accuse certain screenwriters, actors, musicians, companies, etc. of being communist influences on the American media. Many of these people were written down in this book for simply associating with communists. Robert Montgomery At House Hearing. 1947. Photograph. Bettmann, Washington, D.C. Www.corbisimages.com. Bettmann/CORBIS. Web. <http://www.corbisimages.com/stock-photo/rights-managed/BE036543/robertmontgomery-at-house-hearing?popup=1>. Robert Montgomery, a Hollywood screen star, is shown on the witness stand at the House Un-American Activities committee hearing on communism in Hollywood. Montgomery, an officer and director of the Screen Actors' Guild since 1935, testified that the guild included a "very militant, small minority of

Communists. Montgomery was not part of the Hollywood Ten however, he played a large role in defending the SAG and convicted Hollywood artists. Rouverol, Jean. Refugees from Hollywood: A Journal of the Blacklist Years. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico, 2000. Print. This is a journal that was kept during the years of the blacklist, and published only recently. It depicts the story of a screenwriter and her husband who is a director who are both blacklisted for being affiliated with communists, forcing them to evade capture by escaping to Mexico. Schuetze-Coburn, Marje. "Bertolt Brecht's Appearance Before the HUAC." Brecht's Appearance Before the HUAC. University of Southern California, n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2012. <http://www.usc.edu/libraries/archives/arc/libraries/feuchtwanger/exhibits/Brecht/HUAC .html>. This site shows/explains One of the Hollywood ten's testimonies before the HUAC and what they said. Brecht's testimony before the HUAC led him to be deported to his home country. Smith, Margaret C. "Declaration of Conscience." Speech. Margaret Chase Smith Library. University of Maine, Apr. 2012. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. In Senator Margaret Chase Smith's speech, she addresses the concept of "McCarthyism" and criticized the way it attacked Americans rights. She pointed out that America defended the right to have unpopular opinions, and the HUAC meetings were immoral. This was very important to people such as the Hollywood 10, to have a Senator speak up for them. Sokolsky, George E. "The Black List." The News and Courier [Charleston, South Carolina] 8 Feb. 1952: 1-25. Print. This newspaper article provides author, George Sokolsky's, perspective on the issues being caused because of the Blacklisting in Hollywood. It helps show different viewpoints on the Blacklisted Hollywood film industry considering many

newspaper authors opposed them for Communist beliefs. In this article however, Sokolsky directs attention to problems that have not been addressed like the combat Communist journal Red Channel. Sokolsky, George E. "Trouble Over Hollywood." The News and Courier [Charleston, South Carolina] 23 Jan. 1952: 1-20. Print. As the Hollywood Blacklisting case began to get more intense, the more famous, Hollywood Ten, were jailed in early 1950's. This document provides information on the political ideas that were being questioned resulting in the banishment of many popular directors and actors. From Sokolsky's perspective, the blacklisted workers were ignorant and believes that any support towards them is "UnAmerican." Testimony of Adolphe Menjou before the HUAC. Perf. Adolphe Menjou. YouTube. Authentic History Online, n.d. Web. 26 Oct. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded>. This video portrays a friendly actor named Adolphe Menjou as he provides his testimony. He comically says that if communists were to make their way to America that "The Texans would kill them on sight" Testimony of Ronald Reagan before HUAC, 80th Congress, 1st Session Cong. (1947) (testimony of Ronald Reagan). Print. This source is an immaculate because it shows a future president's viewpoint and action on this subject long before he became president. Ronald Reagan was the president of the screenwriter's guild and was heard in front of congress. This laid a very solid foundation for him to later become president. Trumbo, Dalton. "Dalton Trumbo HUAC Testimony Excerpt,1947." Interview. Authentichistory.com. Michael Shawn Barnes, 22 Nov. 2010. Web. 25 Oct. 2012.

<http://www.authentichistory.com/1946-1960/4-cwhomefront/1reactionism/Dalton_Trumbo.html>. Dalton Trumbo, was known for screenwriting for films that quickly became popular after being blacklisted from Hollywood. He supported banned artists of the film industry and this clip of his testimony portrays his defense at the HUAC meeting. Members of the HUAC specifically claimed him as an "unfriendly witness. Authentichistory.com provides original video clips of other testimonies during the HUAC meeting as well as plenty of other historian information. Zheutlin, Barbara, and David Talbot. Creative Differences: Profiles of Hollywood Dissidents. Boston: South End, 1978. Print. This book presents the differences between the works of blacklisted and pro-American writers and directors. It shows us what a "communist" writer would try to convey in a work compared to a normal artist.

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