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101 Section B - Design Criteria

Presented by Al Bernstorf IEEE Chairman, Insulator Working Group


Presented to the IEEE T & D Conference New Orleans April 20th, 2010
IEEE T&D Insulators 101

Insulators

Design Criteria - Mechanical


An insulator is a mechanical support! Its primary function is to support the line mechanically Electrical Characteristics are an afterthought. Will the insulator support your line? Determine The Maximum Load the Insulator Will Ever See Including NESC Overload Factors.

IEEE T&D Insulators 101

Design Criteria - Mechanical


Suspension Insulators
Porcelain
M&E (Mechanical & Electrical) Rating
Represents a mechanical test of the unit while energized. When the porcelain begins to crack, it electrically punctures. Average ultimate strength will exceed the M&E Rating when new.

Never Exceed 50% of the M&E Rating

NCIs (Polymer Insulators)


S.M.L. Specified Mechanical Load
Guaranteed minimum ultimate strength when new. R.T.L. Routine Test Load Proof test applied to each NCI.

Never Load beyond the R.T.L.

IEEE T&D Insulators 101

Design Criteria - Mechanical


Line Post insulators
Porcelain
Cantilever Rating
Represents the Average Ultimate Strength in Cantilever when new. Minimum Ultimate Cantilever of a single unit may be as low as 85%.

Never Exceed 40% of the Cantilever Rating Proof Test Load

NCIs (Polymer Insulators)


S.C.L. (Specified Cantilever Load)
Not based upon lot testing Based upon manufacturer testing

R.C.L. (Rated Cantilever Load) or MDC or MDCL (Maximum Design Cantilever Load) or MCWL or WCL (Working Cantilever Load) Never Exceed RCL or MDC or MDCL or MCWL or WCL S.T.L. (Specified Tensile Load) Tensile Proof Test=(STL/2)

IEEE T&D Insulators 101

Design Criteria - Mechanical


Other Considerations
Suspensions and Deadends Only apply tension loads Line Posts
Cantilever is only one load Transverse (tension or compression) on line post loading transverse to the direction of the line. Longitudinal in the direction of travel of the line Combined Loading Curve
Contour curves representing various Longitudinal loads Available Vertical load as a function of Transverse loading Manufacturers have different safety factors!!!

IEEE T&D Insulators 101

Design Criteria - Mechanical


69 kV Post - 2.5" Rod
V E R T IC A L L O A D , L B F 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 -2000 -1000 0 1000 2000
Compression

0 Longitudinal 500 Longitudinal 1000 Longitudinal 1500 Longitudinal 2000 Longitudinal 3000 LINE POST APPLICATION CURVES 9-12-05

-3000

TRANSVERSE LOAD, LBF


IEEE T&D Insulators 101

Ten sion

Design Criteria - Electrical

An Insulator is a mechanical support! Air imparts Electrical Characteristics Strike Distance (Dry Arcing Distance) is the principal constituent to electrical values.
Dry 60 Hz F/O and Impulse F/O based on strike distance. Wet 60 Hz F/O
Some would argue leakage distance as a principal factor. At the extremes that argument fails although it does play a role. Leakage distance helps to maintain the surface resistance of the strike distance.

Leakage Requirements do play a role!!!

IEEE T&D Insulators 101

Design Criteria - Electrical


Dry Arcing Distance (Strike Distance) The shortest distance through the surrounding medium between terminal electrodes. 1

IEEE Std 100 - 1992

IEEE T&D Insulators 101

Design Criteria - Electrical


PICKING A SUITABLE INSULATOR
ELECTRICAL PARAMETERS A. NOMINAL SYSTEM LINE-TO-LINE VOLTAGE B. MAXIMUM SYSTEM LINE-TO-GROUND VOLTAGE (line A/1.732)*1.05 C. MAXIMUM PEAK LINE-TO-GROUND VOLTAGE (e) e=(line B * 1.414) LEAKAGE DISTANCE REQUIREMENTS CONTAMINATION LEVEL (typical values) D. ZERO E. LIGHT F. MODERATE G. HEAVY Enter inches/kV SUGGESTED LEAKAGE (inches/(kV line-to-ground)) UP TO 1.00 1.00 - 1.25 1.50 - 1.75 2.00 - 2.50 1 69 kV (rms) 41.8 kV (rms) 59.1 kV (peak)

Define peak l-g kV Determine Leakage Distance Required Switching Over-voltage Requirements Impulse Over-voltage

H. INSULATOR LEAKAGE (MIN.) (line B)*(inches/kV) =

41.8 inches

SWITCHING OVERVOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS I. SSV = (line B) * 3.0 IMPULSE OVERVOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS J. PEAK IMPULSE WITHSTAND = (I(t) * R(f))+e I(t) = 20 kA (typical value = 50 kA) R(f) = 15 ohm (typical value = 10 - 20 ohm) e= 59.1 (line C) K. IMPULSE WITHSTAND = SELECT INSULATOR BASED ON REQUIREMENTS: SYSTEM REQUIREMENT H. LEAKAGE DISTANCE I. SWITCHING SURGE VOLTAGE K. IMPULSE WITHSTAND T. SELECT INSULATOR VALUE FROM PAGE 1 41.8 125 359 NUMBER OF POLYMER VALUES PORCELAIN BELLS 359 kV 125 kV (peak)

Chart Courtesy of Ohio Brass/HPS EU1429-H

IEEE T&D Insulators 101

Design Criteria Leakage Distance

What is Leakage Distance? The sum of the shortest distances measured along the insulating surfaces between the conductive parts, as arranged for dry flashover test. 1

IEEE Std 100 - 1992

IEEE T&D Insulators 101

Design Criteria - Electrical


Whats an appropriate Leakage Distance?
Empirical Determination
Whats been used successfully? If Flashovers occur add more leak?

ESDD (Equivalent Salt Deposit Density) Determination


Measure ESDD
Pollution Monitors Dummy Insulators Remove in-service insulators

Evaluate ESDD and select appropriate Leakage Distance

IEEE T&D Insulators 101

Design Criteria - Electrical


Application Guide for Insulators in a Contaminated Environment by K. C. Holte et al F77 639-8 ESDD (mg/cm2) Site Severity Leakage Distance I-string/V-string (/kV l-g) 0.94/0.8 1.18/0.97 1.34/1.05 1.59/1.19

0 0.03 0.03 0.06 0.06 0.1 >0.1

Very Light Light Moderate Heavy


IEEE T&D Insulators 101

Design Criteria - Electrical


IEC 60815 Standards ESDD (mg/cm2) <0.01 0.01 0.04 0.04 0.15 0.15 0.40 >0.40 Site Severity Very Light Light Medium Heavy Very Heavy Leakage Distance (/kV l-g) 0.87 1.09 1.37 1.70 2.11

IEEE T&D Insulators 101

Design Criteria - Electrical


Leakage Distance Recommendations
2.5

2 IEEE V Leak ("/kV l-g) 1.5 IEEE I IEC 1 Poly. (IEC) Poly. (IEEE V) Poly. (IEEE I) 0.5

0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 ESDD (mg/cm^2)

IEEE T&D Insulators 101

Improved Contamination Performance


Flashover Vs ESDD
300

250

Flashover Voltage

200 Porcelain New EPDM 150 Aged EPDM New SR Aged SR 100 CEA 280 T 621 SR units - leakage equal to porcelain EPDM Units - leakage 1.3 X Porcelain 50

0 0.01 0.1

ESDD (mg/cm^2)

IEEE T&D Insulators 101

Improved Contamination Performance


Polymer insulators offer better contamination flashover performance than porcelain? Smaller core and weathershed diameter increase leakage current density. Higher leakage current density means more Ohmic Heating. Ohmic Heating helps to dry the contaminant layer and reduce leakage currents. In addition, hydrophobicity helps to minimize filming
IEEE T&D Insulators 101

Improved Contamination Performance


the contamination performance of composite insulators exceeds that of their porcelain counterparts the contamination flashover performance of silicone insulators exceeds that of EPDM units the V50 of polymer insulators increases in proportion to the leakage distance
CEA 280 T 621, Leakage Distance Requirements for Composite Insulators Designed for Transmission Lines

IEEE T&D Insulators 101

Insulator Selection
PICKING A SUITABLE INSULATOR

Select the 69 kV Insulator shown at right. I-string Mechanical


Worst Case 6,000 lbs Suspension: 12k min ultimate

ELECTRICAL PARAMETERS A. NOMINAL SYSTEM LINE-TO-LINE VOLTAGE B. MAXIMUM SYSTEM LINE-TO-GROUND VOLTAGE (line A/1.732)*1.05 C. MAXIMUM PEAK LINE-TO-GROUND VOLTAGE (e) e=(line B * 1.414) LEAKAGE DISTANCE REQUIREMENTS CONTAMINATION LEVEL (typical values) D. ZERO E. LIGHT F. MODERATE G. HEAVY Enter inches/kV SUGGESTED LEAKAGE (inches/(kV line-to-ground)) UP TO 1.00 1.00 - 1.25 1.50 - 1.75 2.00 - 2.50 1 69 kV (rms) 41.8 kV (rms) 59.1 kV (peak)

H. INSULATOR LEAKAGE (MIN.) (line B)*(inches/kV) =

41.8 inches

SWITCHING OVERVOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS I. SSV = (line B) * 3.0 IMPULSE OVERVOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS 125 kV (peak)

Leakage Distance 42 Switching Surge 125 kV Impulse Withstand 359 kV

J. PEAK IMPULSE WITHSTAND = (I(t) * R(f))+e I(t) = 20 kA (typical value = 50 kA) R(f) = 15 ohm (typical value = 10 - 20 ohm) e= 59.1 (line C) K. IMPULSE WITHSTAND = SELECT INSULATOR BASED ON REQUIREMENTS: SYSTEM REQUIREMENT H. LEAKAGE DISTANCE I. SWITCHING SURGE VOLTAGE K. IMPULSE WITHSTAND T. SELECT INSULATOR VALUE FROM PAGE 1 41.8 125 359 NUMBER OF POLYMER VALUES PORCELAIN BELLS 359 kV

IEEE T&D Insulators 101

Insulator Selection
Where do I get these values? Leakage Distance or Creepage Distance Manufacturers Catalog Switching Surge Wet W/S ((Wet Switching Surge W/S)/2) 60 Hz Wet Flashover (r.m.s.) Peak Wet 60 Hz value will be lower than Switching Surge Wet W/S Impulse Withstand Take Positive or Negative Polarity, whichever is lower If only Critical Impulse Flashover is available assume 90% (safe estimate for withstand)
IEEE T&D Insulators 101

Insulator Selection
Porcelain 5-3/4 X 10 bells X 4 units
Characteristic Leakage Distance Wet Switching Surge W/S Impulse W/S M&E Required 42 Available 46

125 kV

240 kV

359 kV 12,000 lbs

374 kV 15,000 lbs

IEEE T&D Insulators 101

Grading Rings
Simulate a larger, more spherical object Reduce the gradients associated with the shielded object Reduction in gradients helps to minimize RIV & TVI Porcelain or Glass Inorganic breaks down very slowly NCIs Polymers are more susceptible to scissioning due to corona UV short wavelength range attacks polymer bonds. Most short wavelength UV is filtered by the environment UV due to corona is not filtered
IEEE T&D Insulators 101

NCIs and Rings


Grading (Corona) Rings
Due to corona cutting and water droplet corona NCIs may require the application of rings to grade the field on the polymer material of the weathershed housing. Rings must be:
Properly positioned relative to the end fitting on which they are mounted. Oriented to provide grading to the polymer material.

Consult the manufacturer for appropriate instructions. As a general rule rings should be over the polymer brackets should be on the hardware.
IEEE T&D Insulators 101

Questions?

IEEE T&D Insulators 101