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British 21 inch torpedo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_21_inch_torpedo

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

There have been several British 21-inch (53 cm) diameter torpedoes used by the Royal Navy since their first development just before the First World War. They were the largest size of torpedo in common use in the RN. They were used by surface ships and submarines rather than aircraft which used smaller 18 inch torpedoes.

1 21 inch Mark I 2 21 inch Mark II 3 21 inch Mark IV 4 21 inch Mark V 5 21 inch Mark VII 6 21 inch Mark VIII 7 21 inch Mark X 8 21 inch Mark XI 9 21 inch Mark 12 10 21 inch Mark 20 Bidder 11 21 inch Mark 21 Pentane 12 21 inch Mark 22 13 21 inch Mark 23 Grog 14 Mark 24 Tigerfish 15 Spearfish 16 See also 17 Notes 18 References 19 External links

The first British 21 inch torpedo came in two lengths "Short" at 17 ft 10.5 in (5.45 m), and "Long" at 23 ft 1.25 in (7.04 m). The explosive charge was 200 lb of gun cotton increased later to 225 lb.

The Mark II, chiefly used by destroyers, entered service in 1914. Apart from some older British ships, it was used with the old US (destroyers for bases agreement) destroyers provided to the UK during the early part of the Second World War. The running speed was reduced from 45 knots (over 3,000 yards) for better reliability. The Mark II*, an improved Mark II was used by battleships and battlecruisers. A wet heater design, it could run for 4.1 km (4,500 yd) at 45 knots (83 km/h)

21 inch Mark II
Type Place of origin heavy torpedo United Kingdom

Service history
In service Used by Wars c. 1914- Second World War RN First World war, Second World War

Production history

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British 21 inch torpedo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_21_inch_torpedo

Designed

c. 1910

Specifications
Diameter Warhead Warhead weight Engine Operational range Speed 21 inch TNT 400-515 lb wet heater 8,000 yards max depending on model 29 to 35 knots

From 1912, used by destroyers and other surface ships and was an important weapon in the first World War. In the Second World War they were carried on HMS Hood.

21 inch Mark IV
Type Place of origin torpedo United Kingdom

Service history
In service c. 1916-

Production history
Designed c. 1912

Specifications
Weight Length Diameter Warhead Warhead weight Engine Operational range Speed 3,206 lb (1,454 kg) 22 ft 7.5 in (6.896 m) 21 inch (533 mm) TNT 515 lb (234 kg) Burner cycle 8,000 - 13,500 yards 25 - 35 knots

The Mark V was used by the A and B destroyers and, with modification, by the Kent-class heavy cruisers.
Type Place of origin

21 inch Mark V
torpedo United Kingdom 1917

Production history
Designed

Specifications

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British 21 inch torpedo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_21_inch_torpedo

Length Diameter Engine Operational range Speed

7.1 m (23 ft 4 in) 21 inch wet heater 4.6 km (5,000 yd) to 12.4 km (13,600 yd) 40 knots (74 km/h) to 25 knots (46 km/h)

The Mark VII was issued for use on the British heavy cruisers; i.e. cruisers with 8-inch guns. Designed in the mid 1920s the County-class cruisers were built at the same time in the post Washington Naval Treaty period. The power came from the use of oxygen enriched air, though torpedo stocks were converted to run on normal air at the start of the Second World War.

21 inch Mark VII


Type Place of origin heavy torpedo United Kingdom

Service history
In service Used by Second World War RN

Production history
Designed 1920s

Specifications
Length Diameter Warhead Warhead weight Engine Operational range Speed 25 ft 6 in (7.77 m) 21 inch TNT 740 lb (336 kg) oxygen enriched air 5,700 yards (5,200 m) 35 knots

Specifications:[1] Mark VIII Entered Service: 1927 Weight: 3,452 lb (1,566 kg) Length: 259 inches (21.6 ft) (6.58 m) Explosive Charge: 750 lb (340 kg) TNT Range & Speed: 5,000 yards (4,570 m) / 40 knots Early Mark VIII** Range & Speed: 5,000 yards (4,570 m) / 45.6 knots

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British 21 inch torpedo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_21_inch_torpedo

Explosive Charge: 722 lb (327 kg) Torpex Late Mark VIII** Range & Speed: 7,000 yards (6,400 m) / 41 knots Explosive Charge: 805 lb (365 kg) Torpex

Mark VIIIs loading to Polish Navy submarine ORP Sok

The Mark VIII was designed around 1925 and was the first British burner-cycle design torpedo. It was used from 1927 on submarines of O class onwards and motor torpedo boats. The principal World War II version was the improved Mark VIII**, 3,732 being fired by September 1944 (56.4% of the total number). The torpedo was still in service with the Royal navy as late as 1983, and with the Royal Norwegian Navy (Coastal Artillery: Kaholmen torpedobattery at Oscarsborg fortress) until 1993. The Mark VIII** was used in two incidents:On 9 February 1945 the Royal Navy submarine HMS Venturer (P68) sank the German U-boat U-864 with four Mark VIII** torpedoes. This is the only intentional wartime sinking of one submarine by another while both were submerged. On 2 May 1982 the Royal Navy submarine HMS Conqueror (S48) sank the Argentine cruiser ARA General Belgrano with three Mark VIII** torpedoes during the Falklands War.[2] This is the only sinking of a surface ship by a nuclear powered submarine in wartime (And only the second sinking of a surface ship by any submarine since the end of WWII).

From 1939, used by submarines, motor torpedo boats and destroyers.

Electric battery powered torpedo with a 322 kg (710 lb) TNT warhead. Entering service during the Second World War it was used by destroyers.

Codenamed first "Ferry" then "Fancy", the Mark 12 never reached production. From 1952, a warhead of 340 kg (750 lb) Torpex. Powered by high test peroxide, giving it a speed of 28 knots (52 km/h) for 5 km (5,500 yd). There were accidents during testing caused by the unstable nature of HTP. One such engine explosion, after loading on the submarine HMS Sidon, caused enough damage to have the submarine taken permanently out of service. Mark 12 torpedoes were out of service in 1959 and the programme was cancelled.[3]

Developed under the codename "Bidder", the Mark 20 was a passive-seeker battery-powered torpedo for use by surface ships (the Mark 20E - for "Escort") and submarines (Mark 20S). The E variant was not long in service due to problems with its programming. This led to several of frigates intended to use them (Rothesay and Whitby classes) never being fitted with torpedo tubes or having them removed.

21 inch Mark 20
Type Place of origin torpedo United Kingdom

Service history
In service 1955-1980s

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British 21 inch torpedo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_21_inch_torpedo

It was replaced in the submarine service in the 1980s by Tigerfish.


Designed

Production history
c. 1950

Specifications
Weight Length Diameter Warhead weight Engine Propellant Operational range Speed Guidance system 1,810 lb (821 kg) 6.46 m 21 inches 196 lb (89 kg) electric battery 12,000 yards (11,000 m) 20 knots passive sonar

A project for an autonomous active/passive sonar torpedo to be carried by the Short Sturgeon anti-submarine aircraft.[4] It was cancelled after protracted work but the seeker development was used in Tigerfish.

A wireguided version of the Mark 20 produced by Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering (VSEL) as a private venture

A wireguided version of the Mark 20. Entered service in the 1971 although already obsolescent, serving only as an interim before Tigerfish entered service.

Main article: Mark 24 Tigerfish The first Tigerfish (Mod 0) entered service in 1980. Tigerfish was removed from service in 2004. There were several models of Tigerfish due to the modifications made to tackle deficiencies. Mark 24 Mod 0 Tigerfish Mark 24 Mod 1 Tigerfish Mark 24(N) Tigerfish Mark 24 Mod 2 Tigerfish

Main article: Spearfish torpedo

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British 21 inch torpedo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_21_inch_torpedo

British 18 inch torpedo List of torpedoes

1. ^ http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WTBR_WWII.htm</ref|Title=Navweaps 2. ^ Brown, Colin; Kim Sengupta (2012-04-03). "Sinking the Belgrano: the Pinochet connection" (http://www.webcitation.org/67MXXmil5) . The Independent (London). Archived from the original (http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/world-history/sinking-the-belgrano-the-pinochet-connection7609047.html?origin=internalSearch) on 2012-05-02. http://www.webcitation.org/67MXXmil5. Retrieved 2012-05-02. 3. ^ http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WTBR_PostWWII.htm 4. ^ http://www.skomer.u-net.com/projects/missiles.htm

Tony DiGiulian. "British torpedoes Pre World War II" (http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons /WTBR_PreWWII.htm) . http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WTBR_PreWWII.htm. Tony DiGiulian. "British Torpedoes of World War II" (http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons /WTBR_WWII.htm) . http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WTBR_WWII.htm. Tony DiGiulian. "British Torpedos post World War II" (http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons /WTBR_PostWWII.htm) . http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WTBR_PostWWII.htm. http://middle-watch.com/Torpedoes.htm

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=British_21_inch_torpedo&oldid=517588620" Categories: Torpedoes of the United Kingdom This page was last modified on 13 October 2012 at 15:51. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

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