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ENGLISH FOR EVERYONE

PARTS OF SPEECH PREAMBLE When we talk or write we use words in many different ways. We have one class of words to give us the names of the things we speak about. We have another class of words to say what those things do or suffer (i.e. what is done to those things). We also have a third class of words which describe those things, that is, which say what those things are like; and so on. For example, let us look into the words in the Sentence, That black pen writes well. The word pen gives the name of the thing we are speaking about. The word writes tells what the thing does. The word black tells what the thing looks like. The word well tells how it writes and the word That points out the thing. Words can therefore be divided into classes, according to the kind of work they do in Sentences. These different classes of words are called Parts of Speech. The same word may be several different Parts of Speech, according to how it is used in a Sentence. Words are divided into eight classes or Parts of Speech. These are nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections. NOUNS A Noun is a name; as a pencil, Robert, London and beauty. PRONOUNS A Pronoun is a used for or instead of a Noun; it shows the person or thing without actually giving the name of the person or thing; as in he, she, it and this. ADJECTIVES An Adjective is a word which adds to the meaning of a Noun, that is, it tells something more about the Noun; as black cat, good boy, beautiful house. VERBS A verb is a word which tells us something about a person or thing. It is a telling word or a saying word. It tells us what a person or thing does. It also tells us what a person or thing is or suffers (i.e. has done to it). EXAMPLES: Andrea writes. John is good. Dogs bark. The cat is loved by the girl.

The Verb is the most important word in a sentence.

ADVERBS An Adverb is a word which adds something to the meaning of a Verb, and Adjective or another Adverb. EXAMPLE: He speaks loudly. (speaks = Verb. Speaks how?) She is very good. (good = Verb. How good?) He talks too loudly. (loudly = Adverb. How loudly?)

PREPOSITIONS A Preposition is a word which joins Nouns and Pronouns to other words; as EXAMPLES: The book is on the table. The cat is under the chair. He is in the room. CONJUNCTIONS A Conjunction is a word used to join words or groups of words together; as, EXAMPLES: Two and two makes four. He is bad but you are good.

INTERJECTIONS An Interjection is only a cry. It is a sound or a noise a person makes when he is excited or to express some strong feeling. It is not an important Part of Speech: Oh! Hello! Hurrah! We have to have some knowledge of the Parts of Speech, if we wish to improve our English quickly or master the language. The Parts of Speech explain the various functions of words in the language.

EXERCISE 1

Point out the Nouns among these words: Beautiful, poor, sat, beauty, fought, poverty, agreement, strength, carry, song, poorly, happy, believe, cat, please, pleasure, baby, delight, grandfather, faith, destruction, destroy, village, book, motorcar, fell, blue, flower, cow, yellow, quickly, sing, grass, tree, weakness, tragic, tragedy, knowledge, freedom, breeze, wind, sorrow, gladness, misery, depth, deep, high, height, music, division, divide, contempt, condemn, agony, distress, respectable, respectability, honourable, joy, depart, departure, idea, ideal, lovely, joyful, joyous, courage, see, sight, weight, heavy, long, leave, death, low, bottom, white, whiteness, thank, help, gratitude, stone, arrow, intelligent, whisper, never, ever, new, daily, always, soon, clever, clarity, vivid, vividness, temper, temperature, novelty, ambitious, ambition, aspiration, teeth, foot, glass, guess, fitness, faithful, disappointment, have, honest, honesty, true, loyal, loyalty, desperate, desperation, musical, nervous, shame, shameful.

EXERCISE 2 Point out the Verbs among these words: Soon, today, eat, drink, go, there, fight, table, fish, dog, proceed, shoe, drive, disappear, fought, cried, happiness, enjoy, broke, took, know, town, travel, spoke, loudly, warmth, prosper, disagree, disappointment, destroy, free, wise, wisdom, clever, hungry, speak, cry, cut, share, divide, call, lose, loose, must, silent, open, have, has, go, leave, write, written, push, ever, die, just, quickly, quick, disturb, make, whisper, dead, death, rise, conspire, killing, kill, kick, let, drop, anger, angry, dislike, hate, hatred, sell, sale, ride, drive, cat, house, animal, fish, tree, speech, silent, silence, table, grip, catch, hit, beat, draw, fight, killed, laughed, called, threw, wrote, spoke, fear, courageous, encourage.

EXERCISE 3

Point out the Adjectives among these words. Hungry, speak, tell, charming, black, wheel, tall, lorry, truthful, musical, music, faithful, honesty, honest, spoon, hot, take, blow, happy, strong, brief, new, fall, milk, tea, green, jolly, talkative, throw, cry, ugly, weak, fly, delightful, wise, length, grow, water, low, fat, colour, colourful, move, movement, moving, advantageous, advantage, learned, visible, vivid, lively, live, life, deep, depth, deeply, prosperous, ambitious, glad, happily, long, straight, crooked, unending, eternal, prosperity, pleasurable, desperate, considerate, eager, knowledge, happy, joyous, hilarious, hilarity, healthful, healthy, health, disappear, survival, survive, vivify, enable, able, ability, efficient, inefficient, efficiency, patient, patience, patiently, narrow, wide, high, clever, early, last.

EXERCISE 4 Point out the Adverbs among these words. Fight, here, travel, everyday, write, there, clever, nearby, garden, everywhere, clean, sweep, today, quickly, never, break, hungrily, early, late, speed, ever, truly, trust, run, talk, cleverly, always, weakly, weekly, soon, seldom, rarely, eagerly, shadow, loosely, loss, lose, wild, wildly, shape, shapely, lively, earnestly, fight news, newly, very.

EXERCISE 5 Form Nouns from the Adjectives given below. Examples: True- truth beautiful- beauty

Wise, clever, kind, poor, long, cruel, deep, hungry, present, confident, abundant, delightful, desirous, faithful, dutiful, high, growing, careful, fearful, white, dark, clear, green, honest, free, low, musical, noisy, troublesome, painful, prosperous, new, glad, fat, short, tall, clever, stupid, worthy, funny, lazy, visible, intelligent, divisible, descriptive, argumentative, constructive, debatable, valuable, credible, believable, miserable, joyful, vivid, composed, pleased, angry, short, brief, collective, new, distant, remote, eager,

expectant, lovely, frightful, comical, hilarious, strange, bright, devilish, wicked, intelligent, special, happy.

EXERCISE 6 Form Nouns from the Verbs given below. Examples: die death sell sale

Know, think, see, arrive, close, describe, punish, fail, obey, defend, advise, marry, carry, try, depart, destroy, construct, write, sing, bury, live, speak, kill, drink, walk, talk, cut, hear, smell, read, fear, throw, run, fight, draw, play, cry, move, agree, divide, revise, realize, satisfy, deny, clarify, qualify, beautify, weaken, lengthen, travel, gather, crowd, free, widen, grow, trust, clear, trouble, disturb, worry, watch, choose, frighten.

EXERCISE 7 Write two sentences with each of the words given below; first as a Verb, then as a Noun. Examples: a. Word : Walk i. We walk to the town. (verb) ii. We were tired after the long walk. (Noun) b. Word : Talk i. Dont talk so much. (verb) ii. I had a talk with him. (Noun) pull, cry, talk, hurt, call, fall, drink, push, throw, speed, fight, play, kick, trick, fear, look, lift, kill, cut, watch, trust, trouble, crowd, worry, run, drive, smell, poke, spear, love, sound, crop, drop, urge, hope, shake, pencil, fish, book, break, storm, lock, sleep, beat, shape, form, brush, egg, crow, cow, worm, sport, eye, lick, stick, cradle, flow, drain, cloud, jump, study, judge, glow, swim.

EXERCISE 8 Give the Abstract Nouns of the words in the brackets and then write the sentences correctly. Example: (Poor) causes (hard). Poverty causes hardship. 1. 2. 3. 4. (Child) shows the man, as morning shows the day. (Friend) binds people together. He was praised for his (brave). The (arrive) of the rains after a long period of drought brought (cheerful) to the people. 5. I thank you for you (kind) towards me. 6. They were treated with much (cruel). 7. Her (live) is a tale of (sorry). 8. There is no (true) in his (state). 9. (Die) is better than dishonour. 10. The (useful) of food and money is known to all. 11. (Angry) creates (bitter). 12. (Suspicious) destroys (friend). 13. Everybody seeks comfort and (please). 14. I love you from the (deep) of my heart. 15. (Beautiful) is hard to describe but easy to recognize. 16. (Free) gives (happy). 17. (Successful) comes from effort. 18. (Lazy) and progress seldom go together. 19. (Happy) and (honest) are two sides of the same coin. 20. (Patient) often assures victory. EXERCISE 9 Point out the Nouns in the Common Gender. Father, mother, friend, boy, relative, cousin, baby, son, daughter, principal, headmaster, supervisor, teacher, child, table, gun, manager, clerk, assistant, helper, doctor, student, worker, rival, player, actor, learner, driver, policeman, dog, cow, servant, mate, captain, officer, nurse, companion, associate, mistress, runner, pilot, person, woman, man, jumper, spectator, professor, thief, robber, watchman, inspector, lady.

EXERCISE 10 Underline the Adjectives in the following sentences. 1. Long illness made the child irritable. 2. It is a miserable thing to live in suspense. 3. She was a great lady. 4. He has a bald head. 5. Heroic deeds deserve our admiration. 6. Much has been said about mountain scenery. 7. He is a tall man. 8. She wants medical advice. 9. He lives a colourful life. 10. It is a black car. 11. His father knows my brother. 12. Her clothes are expensive. 13. Each on of the two cows gives five bottles of milk every morning. 14. I dont know whose book it is. 15. A poor man is a humble man. 16. Your answer is better than his. 17. Many people live in poor circumstances in this country. 18. These letters require my immediate attention. 19. A respectable person does no shameful deed. 20. This country is famous for its wonderful climate.

EXERCISE 11 Make a sentence with each of the Adverbs given in brackets. 1. (only).... 2. (quickly)..... 3. (ever)....... 4. (correctly)....... 5. (never)...... 6. (much)...... 7. (scarcely)......... 8. (well)....... 9. (seldom)....... 10. (badly)..... 11. (hardly)....... 12. (little)........

EXERCISE 12 Fill in the blanks with the proper words. Follow the example given. Example: A careful man does his work........... A careful man does his work carefully. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Careless drivers always drive.......... The hungry dog ate his food.......... The stupid boy answered the question.......... Mary is a polite lady. She always speaks......... She was weak with illness. She spoke ........... The old man was angry. He shouted .......... He is a reckless driver. He drives........... She is a happy girl. She sings........ He is a clever boy. He behaves.........

EXERCISE 13 Make your own sentences with the words given. Example: Behave rudely / politely / stupidly. a. Mary behaved rudely towards her mother. b. Joy behaves politely. c. Even a clever man sometimes behaves stupidly. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. speak softly/ loudly/ rudely. answer cleverly/ quickly/ slowly. explain - clearly / correctly / slowly. eat greedily/ hungrily/ quickly. fight fiercely/ weakly / strongly.

EXERCISE 14 Change the position of the words in bold. Example: It began to rain suddenly. It suddenly began to rain. OR Suddenly it began to rain. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. He threw the stones at me purposely. He ran out of the room quickly. He ate his breakfast hurriedly. She did her work dutifully. The thief entered the room quietly. The tiger entered the house silently.

EXERCISE 15 Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Even, yet, still, almost, nearly

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The cat was .............. killed by a car. I will help him ............ if he tries to cheat me. I have ............to meet a man like him. It was raining heavily and ..........they continued to play. Your answer is .............the same as mine.