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# Strength of Materials

Lecture 1

Design

To design is either
to

## Mechanical Engineering Design

mechanics

of solids and fluids, mass and momentum transport, Manufacturing processes, electrical and information theory

## Phases and Interactions of the Design Process

What is the design process? How does it begin? Does the engineer simply sit down at a desk with a blank sheet of paper and jot down some ideas? What happens next?

## Phases and Interactions of the Design Process

What factors influence or control the decisions that have to be made? Finally, how does the design process end?

## Phases and Interactions of the Design Process

The process begins with an identification of a need and a decision to do something about it. After many iterations, the process ends with the presentation of the plans for satisfying the need

## Phases and Interactions of the Design Process

Depending on the nature of the design task, several design phases may be repeated throughout the life of the product, from inception to termination

Design Considerations
Sometimes the strength required of an element in a system is an important factor in the determination of the geometry and the dimensions of the element. In such a situation we say that strength is an important design consideration.

## The Design Engineers Professional Responsibilities

Understand the problem. Problem definition is probably the most significant step in the engineering design process. Carefully read, understand, and refine the problem statement. Identify the known. From the refined problem statement, describe concisely what information is known and relevant.

## The Design Engineers Professional Responsibilities

Identify the unknown and formulate the solution strategy. State what must be determined, in what order, so as to arrive at a solution to the problem. Sketch the component or system under investigation, identifying known and unknown parameters. Create a flowchart of the steps necessary to reach the final solution.

## The Design Engineers Professional Responsibilities

State all assumptions and decisions. Real design problems generally do not have unique, ideal, closed-form solutions. Selections, such as choice of materials, and heat treatments, require decisions. Analyses require assumptions related to the modeling of the real components or system.

## The Design Engineers Professional Responsibilities

Analyze the problem. Using your solution strategy in conjunction with your decisions and assumptions, execute the analysis of the problem.

## The Design Engineers Professional Responsibilities

Evaluate your solution. Evaluate each step in the solution, noting how changes in strategy, decisions, assumptions, and execution might change the results, in positive or negative ways.

## The Design Engineers Professional Responsibilities

Present your solution. Here is where your communication skills are important. At this point, you are selling yourself and your technical abilities. If you cannot skillfully explain what you have done, some or all of your work may be misunderstood and unaccepted. Know your audience.

## Standards and Codes

A standard is a set of specifications for parts, materials, or processes intended to achieve uniformity, efficiency, and a specified quality A code is a set of specifications for the analysis, design, manufacture, and construction of something.

## Some organizations of interest to mechanical engineers are:

Aluminum

Association (AA) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) British Standards Institution (BSI) International Standards Organization (ISO) Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)

## Stress and Strength

The survival of many products depends on how the designer adjusts the maximum stresses in a component to be less than the components strength. The designer must allow the maximum stress to be less than the strength by a sufficient margin so that despite the uncertainties, failure is rare.

## Stress and Strength

In this book we shall use the capital letter S to denote strength, with appropriate subscripts to denote the type of strength. Thus, Ss is a shear strength, Sy a yield strength, and Su an ultimate strength. In accordance with accepted engineering practice, we shall employ the Greek letters (sigma) and (tau) to designate normal and shear stresses, respectively.

## Material Strength and Stiffness

The standard tensile test is used to obtain a variety of material characteristics and strengths that are used in design The original diameter d0 and the gauge length l0, are recorded before the test is begun.

## Material Strength and Stiffness

The specimen is then mounted in the test machine and slowly loaded in tension while the load P and deflection are observed. The load is converted to stress by the calculation

## Material Strength and Stiffness

The deflection, or extension of the gage length, is given by l l0 where l is the gauge length corresponding to the load P. The normal strain is calculated from

## Material Strength and Stiffness

In the linear range, the uniaxial stress-strain relation is given by Hookes law as constant of proportionality E, the slope of the linear part of the stress-strain curve, is called Youngs modulus or the modulus of elasticity

## Material Strength and Stiffness

Point el is called the elastic limit. If the specimen is loaded beyond this point, the deformation is said to be plastic and the material will take on a permanent set when the load is removed During the tension test, many materials reach a point at which the strain begins to increase very rapidly without a corresponding increase in stress. This point is called the yield point.

## Material Strength and Stiffness

Not all materials have an obvious yield point, especially for brittle materials. For this reason, yield strength Sy is often defined by an offset method , where line ay is drawn at slope E. Point a corresponds to a definite or stated amount of permanent set, usually 0.2 percent of the original gauge length although 0.01, 0.1, and 0.5 percent are sometimes used.

## Material Strength and Stiffness

The ultimate, or tensile, strength Su or Sut corresponds to point u and is the maximum stress reached on the stress-strain diagram This diagram is called engineering stress-strain diagrams because the stresses and strains calculated are not true values. The stress calculated is based on the original area before the load is applied. In reality, as the load is applied the area reduces so that the actual or true stress is larger than the engineering stress.