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Business Communication & Soft Skills

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BUSINESS COMMUNICATION & SOFT SKILLS


(M.B.A.)

P.RAJA RAO
M.A.(Eng), M.Phil, M.B.A., (M.Sc Psy, Ph.D.)

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I UNIT FEATURES OF INDIAN ENGLISH

INTRODUCTION:
Indian English is the group of English dialects spoken primarily in the Indian Subcontinent. As a result of British colonial rule until Indian independence in 1947, English is an official language of India and is widely used in both spoken and literary contexts. The rapid growth of India's economy towards the end of the 20th century led to large-scale population migration between regions of the Indian subcontinent and the establishment of English as a common lingua franca between those speaking diverse mother tongues. As far as pronunciation of English goes Standard British English and Standard American English, are the two chief varieties of English and are mostly adopted as models elsewhere for learning English. Neutralisation of English Accent Accent is defined as the pronunciation characteristic of a particular group of people relative to another group. It is different from a dialect which is a variety of a language differing in grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation. When we talk of a neutral accent we do not mean any particular accent. A neutral English accent in the context of India is pronunciation of English without any negative influence of a mother tongue or of a regional accent. For historical reasons India has been following the British RP as a model. The American accent is beginning to make its presence felt in India also, especially at the individual level. DISTINGUISHING FEATURES OF INDIAN ENGLISH The English which is spoken in India is different from that spoken in other regions of the world, and it is regarded as the unique variety which is called Indian English. Indian English is a distinct variety of the English language. The reasons for these variations are: The presence of many vernacular languages People learn their mother Language first By the time they start learning English, they find it difficult to follow that pronunciation

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They have in them very strongly formed linguistic habits that interface with their learning English The phonological system of the mother tongue will have an influence on the phonology of their English Because of these reasons, Indian English has emerged as another variety of English just like the American, South African,etc,with its own distinctive features. Basing on these varieties, the features of Indian English can be grouped under: PHONOLOGY: Indian accents vary greatly. Some Indians speak English with an accent very close to a Standard British (Received Pronunciation) accent (though not the same); others lean toward a more 'vernacular', native-tinted, accent for their English speech. Indian languages, unlike English, have a nearly phonetic pronunciation with respect to their script, so the spelling of a word is a highly reliable guide to its modern pronunciation. Indians' tendency to pronounce English phonetically as well can cause divergence from Western English. Indian English tends to have a reduced vowel system; /r/ tends to become a flap or retroflex flap; the consonants /p/, /t/, and /k/ tend to be unaspirated; and in some regions, /v/ and /w/ are not distinguished (volleyball is the same as wallyball), while in others, /p/ and /f/, /t/ and //, /d/ and //, and /s/ and // are not. They also note that "Indian English tends to be syllable rather than stress-timed. Also, syllables that would be unstressed in other varieties of English receive some stress in Indian English and thus do not have reduced vowels. Suffixes tend to be stressed, and function words which are weak in other varieties of English (of, to, etc.) tend not to be reduced in Indian English". MORPHOLOGY: Indian English morphology is very creative and it is filled with new terms and usages. Indian English uses compound formation extensively, as in English-speaking classes or convent-going. The compounds cousin-brother and cousin-sister allow the Indian English speaker to designate whether their cousin is male or female -- a function which is inherent in the terminology of most Indian languages. Others include chalk-piece, key-bunch, meeting notice, age barred, and pindrop silence. Indians also shorten many words to create commonly used terms. Enthusiasm is called enthu; as such, it can be used in new ways. The same applies for fundamentals, which is shortened as fundas. Rajarao pagidialli Phonology Morphology Lexicon Influence of Hindi Grammar Phrases & Idiomatic Distortions

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When bringing Indian words into English, terms such as roti (bread), which are already plural, will be pluralized for English by the addition of -s (rotis). English suffixes are also appended to Indian terms. Other suffixes such as -ic (Upanishadic), -dom (cooliedom), and ism (goondaism) are used to create new usages for Indian terms. Prefixes can also be used in new ways. In Indian English, pre- is substituted for post- in postpone to create prepone, which indicates, for example, that a meeting has been moved to a sooner time. LEXICON: The Indian English lexicon has many distinct terms which are commonly used by its speakers. Some arise through the use of old and new morphological features, as discussed above. Others come from acronyms and abbreviations. Many terms from Indian languages are utilized and new usages for English words are created. It must be noted that many of these terms and usages are specific to the population of Indian English speakers who are currently between twenty and thirty years of age. Examples of the use of acronyms include the following: FOC = Free Of Charge ILU = (from a song; pronounced ee-lu) ABCD = American Born Confused Deshi (native of India) Jan = January Feb = February HINDI-INFLUENCED EXPRESSIONS: Some items are directly related to characteristics of Indian languages. Indians will often ask, "What is your good name?" which is a somewhat literal translation of "Aapka shubh naam kya hai?" Shubh means auspicious or good, and it is basically used as a polite way of asking for someone's full name. Also, Indians commonly use you people when they want to address more than one person. They do not realize the belittling, racial connotations that it carries with it -- for them it is a simple translation of aap log or tum log. Some expressions such as general mai (in general), awesome mausum, yaar, masala, array, achchaa, lakh, ek minute (one minute) etc, are prevalent in general usage. GRAMMAR: Indian English speakers often use reduplication as a way of emphasizing an action -- I have been told before to "Come come! Sit sit!" Reduplication can also replace very for intensifying or extending something, as in hot, hot water and long, long hair. Such usage is common in spoken Hindi. Keep is used for put. One of the most indicative signs of Indian English grammar is the use of the progressive aspect with habitual actions, completed actions, and stative verbs. This produces sentences such as "I am doing it often" rather than Rajarao pagidialli supli = supplementary soopi = superintendent princi = principle Gen. Sec.= General Secretary lab ass = laboratory assistant ass wardi = assistant warden

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"I do it often"; "Where are you coming from?" instead of "Where have you come from?"; "and "She was having many sarees" rather than "She had many sarees". The progressive tense in stative verbs I am understanding it,she is knowing it instead of I understand She knows.This is influence of Hindi grammar.It is common in Northern States. The usage of isnt it, no, na, as tag questions;like you are going,isnt it?,I am going,no?,she likes it,na? instead of you are going,arent you,I am going and does she like it? Use of yaar, ma ,cha, aray, in english conversation by many of native hindi speakers. The use of the word da,dai,re,ra are commonly found in the speakers of south India Use of the word ki to mean, loosely that such as in what I mean is ki she is going to adopt her Use off off it or on it instead of switch it on or switch it off Use of current went and current came instead of power came back and power went out Use of the word wallah to denote occupation as in the taxi wallah over charged me the grocery wallah sold me good grains Over use of the words generally,basically,actually,obviously at the beginning of the sentence,like actually, I am not feeling well today,generally india will win the match today Use of he is older to me instead of he is older than me PHRASES & IDIOMATIC DISTORTIONS Indians continue to use phrases from British English that other English speakers now consider antiquated. abuse - To swear or insult (usually coaching classes and tutorials refers to swear). cooling glasses - Sunglasses bunk a class - To skip class without cover - Plastic bag permission dearness allowance - Payment bus stand - A bus station or bus given to employees to compensate stop. for the effects of inflation. cantonment - Permanent military doubt - Question or query installation. Eve teasing - 'Verbal sexual carrying - To be pregnant, as in harassment of women' "She is carrying". expire - To die, especially in cent per cent - "100 per cent" as in reference to one's family member. "He got cent per cent in maths". hill station - Mountain resort chargesheet - Formal charges filed loose motion - diarrhoea in a court (also in BrE, with a marketing - Shopping has gone to space) the market to buy groceries) club - To merge or put two things mess - A dining hall, especially together. "'Just club it together'" used by students at a dormitory. Rajarao pagidialli

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Business Communication & Soft Skills mostly - "Most probably" or "possibly". out of - 100 percent out of station - "Out of town". pant - 'Trousers' pass out - Graduating, as in "I passed out of the university in 1995". pindrop silence - Extreme silence (quiet enough to hear a pin drop). prepone - To bring something forward in time. As opposed to postpone. railway station - Invariably used, whereas "train station" is more popular in BrE. shift - To relocate ("Prince shifted from Manuguru to Khammam".) stepney - Spare tyre (originated from the Stepney Spare Motor Wheel) Tell me - A phrase to start the main conversation after initial greetings time-pass - 'Doing something for leisure time-waste - Presumably not even useful for leisure. wheatish (complexion) - Light, creamy brown Where are you put up? - 'Where are you currently staying?' . Divergent usage as - inserted (in non-mainstream usage) before a designation: "Mahatma Gandhi is called as the father of the nation". back - ago, ("Gandhi died sixty years back.") damn - used as an intensifier, especially a negative one, as in "that was a damn good meal." dialogue - a line of dialogue in a movie. ("That was a great dialogue!" means "That was a great line!") Rajarao pagidialli

PRINCE Strangers or anyone meriting respect as "ji"/"jee" (Hindi) Use of prefixes "Shree/Shrimati" (Mr/Mrs In Telugu, either "Sree"-as a prefix or "Garu"-as a suffix are used in formal contexts. Use of suffixes "Saahib/Shab" (Mr) and "Begum" (Mrs) (Urdu) The suffix "sir" is used for male teachers, professors, instructors and coaches and they are often addressed simply as "sir" (For e.g. Suryam sir). The female equivalents are "miss", "madam" or "teacher" Use of the English words 'uncle' and 'aunty' as suffixes when addressing people such as distant relatives, neighbours, acquaintances, even total strangers (like shopkeepers) who are significantly older than oneself. In stereotypical depictions of gang culture, especially the Mumbai underworld, gangsters are frequently addressed to with the suffix 'bhai'

disco - nightclub, and "to disco" meaning to dance at a nightclub. dress - (noun) is used to refer to clothing for men, women, and children alike, whereas in international varieties of English a dress is a woman's outer clothing. Young girls in India invariably wear a dress, which is commonly referred to as a frock in Indian English. elder - used as a comparative adjective in the sense of older. For

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Business Communication & Soft Skills example, "I am elder to you", instead of "I am older than you." equipments - plural for equipment: "Go to the place to define equipments" where typically "equipment" is used as the plural form. goggle or goggles - sunglasses hero - a male actor, especially of a movie; Thus, "he looks like a hero", meaning "he is as handsome as a movie star." Heroine is the female counterpart. itself - often used for more general emphasis in the sense of Western English "even", as in "they were playing cricket at night itself." kindly - please: "Kindly disregard the previous message." metro - large city. This can be confusing for Europeans, who tend to use the word to describe underground urban rail networks. music director - a music composer for movies. mutton - goat meat instead of sheep meat (lamb). TERMS UNIQUE AND POPULAR IN INDIA: batchmate or batch-mate (not classmate, but a schoolmate of the same grade) BHK is real-estate terminology for "Bedroom, Hall and Kitchen", boss is a term used to refer to a male stranger. It is mildly respectful and friendly. compass box for a box holding mathematical instruments like compasses, divider, scale, protractor etc. Also widely referred to as a "geometry box". co-brother indicates relationship between two men who are Rajarao pagidialli

PRINCE only is used to emphasize a part of speech preceding it. For example "He is coming only" instead of "He is coming", "He was at the meeting only" to emphasize that he was nowhere else but the meeting, "She only is not coming" to mean that everyone is coming except her. see instead of watch ("He is seeing TV right now"). SMS - a single SMS message, "I am going to send him an SMS to remind him." Similarly, to SMS: "Let me SMS him the address." solid - great or exceptional ("What a solid idea!" means "What a great idea!"). timings - hours of operation; scheduled time, such as office timings or train timings, as opposed to the standard usage such as "The timing of his ball delivery is very good." trainings - to indicate multiple training programmes. what say - As in "What do you think?"

married to sisters, as in "He is my co-brother". Similarly co-sister. co-inlaws indicates relationship between two sets of parents whose son and daughter are married, as in "Our co-inlaws live in Delhi." cousin-brother (male first cousin), cousin-sister (female first cousin) "eggitarian" for a person who eats vegetarian food, milk and eggs but not meat foot overbridge (bridge meant for pedestrians)

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Business Communication & Soft Skills flyover (as in BrE, overpass or an over-bridge over a section of road or train tracks) godown (warehouse) English Grammar:

PRINCE godman a person who claims to be divine or who claims to have supernatural powers

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II UNIT COMMUNICATIONS

INTRODUCTION The word communication is derived from the Latin word, communis, which means common or to share. Communication, therefore, is an act by which a person shares knowledge, feelings, ideas and information, in ways such that each gains a common understanding of the meaning, intent and use of the message. Sociologists, educationists and psychologists have defined communication according to the disciplines to which they belong. Some definitions are given below: It is a process by which two or more people exchange ideas, facts, feelings or impressions in ways that each gains a common understanding of the message. In essence, it is the act of getting a sender and a receiver tuned together for a particular message or series of message. Leagans It is a process by which information, decisions and directions pass through a social system, and the ways in which knowledge, opinions and attitudes are formed or modified. Loomis and Beegle HOW COMMUNICATION TAKES PLACE: Communication can occur without words. Our four senses, audio, visual, touch and smell, communicate. The ring of the alarm tells us its time to wake up, the eyes gaze at the window and check for the time of day or weather, the touch of the wind on our skin tells us if it is hot or cold and the smell from the kitchen tells us what is cooking. When a message is sent from a source to a receiver, a specific mental or physical response (communication) occurs. The medium can be a face-to-face conversation, telephone call, e-mail, or written report. The receiver decodes the received message into meaningful information. Noise is anything that distorts the message. Different perceptions of the message, language barriers, interruptions, emotions, and attitudes are examples of noise. Finally, feedback occurs when the receiver responds to the sender's message and returns the message to the sender. Feedback allows the sender to determine whether the message has been received and understood. For written media, an administrator or other organization member may choose from memos, letters, reports, bulletin boards, handbooks, newsletters, and the like. For verbal media, choices include face-to-face conversations, telephone, computer, public address systems, closed-circuit television, tape-recorded messages, sound/slide shows, e-mail, and Rajarao pagidialli

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Business Communication & Soft Skills so on. Nonverbal gestures, facial expressions, body position, and even transmit messages. People decode information selectively. COMMUNICATION IS A TWO-WAY PROCESS:

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It has a transmitter and a receiver. Therefore, it is essential for facts to be transmitted in such a manner that the meaning intended is conveyed and the receiver understands the use of the message. It becomes a two-way process. There are many different types and methods of communication. For example, in India, people fold their hands in greeting. In Japan, people bow from the waist. Simple gestures are an effective means of communication. An effective and culturally sensitive communicator is able to read feelings and reactions through these gestures. BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION: There are many barriers to communication. These barriers can distort communication, therefore, attention must be paid to overcome these barriers. Communication barriers can be classified into three main groups: Judgmental attitude may be reflected through excessive analysis, bossiness, name calling, ridiculing, making value-based comments and judgments, moralizing or ignoring. This is often the single most powerful barrier in communicating with. Know it all attitude may be reflected through advising, moralizing, ordering, patronizing, threatening or lecturing. This form of behaviour often inhibits people from sharing their concerns and experiences. When communicating with youth, this kind of behaviour/communication should be avoided. Unconcerned attitude may be reflected through voicing platitudes, diverting the issue, using excessive logic, offhanded assurances, half-listening, not making eye contact or being flippant. Concern, empathy and confidentiality are valued components of communication on sensitive subjects. BARRIERS TO RECEIVING MESSAGES: Human beings can receive messages subject to certain limitations. These limitations are called filters. Anything below or above the range of these filters is usually left out: Physical filters: The inherent structure of our senses limits our capacity to perceive. For example, we can only see certain colours from a spectrum of colours. We can only hear between certain frequencies 20Hz to 20,000 Hz. All frequencies higher or lower are filtered out. Psychological filters enable people to look/view the same things differently. Our attributes, expectations, past experiences, and knowledge influence what we perceive and Rajarao pagidialli

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how we perceive it. These perceptions change during the course of life and greatly influence the way we communicate. DISTORTIONS IN EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION Communication can be blocked or result in undesired impacts. This may happen because of many reasons that are known as distortions. Distortions can occur because of the following: A very long transmission chain (message is passed from one person to another and goes through a long chain of receivers and senders). A very long message. A complicated and poorly organized message. Non-availability of feedback at appropriate time. The sender and the receiver have different mindsets. Inappropriate use of media and medium (i.e., method and language). Lack of common perceptions between the sender and the receiver. Hurried and uninsured transmission (you send the message without checking if it has actually reached the intended person). Physical Barriers: Any number of physical distractions can interfere with the effectiveness of communication, including a telephone call, drop-in visitors, distances between people, walls, and static on the radio. People often take physical barriers for granted, but sometimes they can be removed. For example, an inconveniently positioned wall can be removed. Interruptions such as telephone calls and drop-in visitors can be removed by issuing instructions to a secretary. An appropriate choice of media can overcome distance barriers between people. Semantic Barriers: The words we choose, how we use them, and the meaning we attach to them cause many communication barriers. The problem is semantic, or the meaning of the words we use. The same word may mean different things to different people. Words and phrases such as efficiency, increased productivity, management prerogatives, and just cause may mean one thing to an administrator, and something entirely different to a staff member. Psychosocial Barriers: Three important concepts are associated with psychological and social barriers: fields of experience, filtering, and psychological distance. Fields of experience include people's backgrounds, perceptions, values, biases, needs, and expectations. Senders can encode and receivers decode messages only in the context of their fields of experience. When the sender's field of experience overlaps very little with the receiver's, communication becomes difficult. Filtering means that more often than not we see and hear what we are emotionally tuned in to see and hear. Filtering is caused by our own needs and interests, which guide our listening. Psychosocial barriers often involve a psychological distance between people that is similar to actual physical distance.

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VERBAL COMMUNICATION
The basis of communication is the interaction between people. Verbal communication is one way for people to communicate face-to-face. Some of the key components of verbal communication are sound, words, speaking, and language. At birth, most people have vocal cords, which produce sounds. As a child grows it learns how to form these sounds into words. Some words may be imitative of natural sounds, but others may come from expressions of emotion, such as laughter or crying. Words alone have no meaning. Only people can put meaning into words. As meaning is assigned to words, language develops, which leads to the development of speaking. Over 3,000 languages and major dialects are spoken in the world today. Interpersonal communication and public speaking are the two basic types of verbal communication. Whereas public speaking involves one or more people delivering a message to a group, interpersonal communication generally refers to a two-way exchange that involves both talking and listening. Since the majority of speaking is an interpersonal process, to communicate effectively we must not simply clean up our language, but learn to relate to people. In interpersonal speaking, etiquette is very important. To be an effective communicator one must speak in a manner that is not offending to the receiver. Etiquette also plays an important role in an area that has developed in most all business settings: hierarchical communication. In business today, hierarchical communication is of utmost importance to all members involved. The other major area of speaking is public speaking. From the origin of time, it has been obvious that some people are just better public speakers than others. Because of this, today a good speaker can earn a living by speaking to people in a public setting. Some of the major areas of public speaking are speaking to persuade, speaking to inform, and speaking to inspire or motivate. Verbal communication refers to the use of sounds and language to relay a message. It serves as a vehicle for expressing desires, ideas and concepts and is vital to the processes of learning and teaching. In combination with nonverbal forms of communication, verbal communication acts as the primary tool for expression between two or more people. Purpose: Verbal communication has many purposes, but its main function is relaying a message to one or more recipients. It encompasses everything from simple one-syllable sounds to complex discussions and relies on both language and emotion to produce the desired effect. Verbal communication can be used to inform, inquire, argue and discuss topics of all kinds. It is vital to teaching and learning, as well as forming bonds and building relationships with other people. Challenges: A variety of challenges may arise when using verbal communication to express oneself. Misunderstandings can arise because of poor word choice, differing perspectives

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and faulty communication techniques, and subjective opinions regarding acceptable language may result in breakdowns in communication. Language barriers are a major cause of confusion when attempting to communicate verbally. Prevention: Although difficulties with verbal communication can't be completely avoided, it is possible to increase your chances of communicating successfully. Consider the message you wish to communicate before speaking and communicate with respect for the recipient's point of view Pay attention to what you say and how you say it. Speak clearly and enunciate your words and be conscious nonverbal aspects such as eye contact, posture and facial expressions. Considerations: Everyone has a unique style of communicating and perceiving messages. Although verbal communication is a primary means of expression, nonverbal actions such as body language can greatly affect the way a message is perceived.

NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION


Communication without using words called non-verbal communication. In this type of communication there is no use of either words or written message. Here message conveyed through body movements, paralanguage or by facial expressions. In the words of Thill and Bovee, Non verbal communication is the process of communicating without words. Lesikar and Pettit said that, Non verbal communication means all communication that occours without words Non verbal communication can be divided into four categories: aesthetic, physical, signs, and symbols. Aesthetic communication occurs through creative expression. This would include all the arts: music, dance, theatre, crafts, art, painting, and sculpture. Ballet is a great example of this, as there is dance and music, but no spoken or sung words. Even in an opera, where there are words, there are still facial expressions, costumes, posture, and gestures. Physical communication covers the personal kind of communication, and includes a smile or frown, wink, touch, smell, salute, gesture, and other bodily movements. Social conversation uses a lot of these physical signals along with the spoken words. Signs are a more mechanical kind of non verbal communication, which includes signal flags or lights, a 21 gun salute, a display of airplanes in formation, horns, and sirens. Symbols of communication are used for religious or personal status reasons, as well as to build self esteem. This includes jewelry, cars, clothing, and other things to communicate social status, financial means, influence, or religion. IMPORTANCE OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION:

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According to A. Barbour, author of Louder Than Words: Nonverbal Communication, the total impact of a message breaks down like this:
7 percent verbal (words) 38 percent vocal (volume, pitch, rhythm, etc) 55 percent body movements (mostly facial expressions)

Functions of Non-Verbal Communication:


Used to repeat the verbal message Often used to accent a verbal message Often complement the verbal message but also may contradict. Regulate interactions May substitute for the verbal message

Different Types of Non Verbal Communication We can express our feelings by our facial expression, eye movement, body movement or simply by touching others. So it can be observed that there are different types of non verbal communication.

1.Facial Expression: Face is the index of mind. It tells us what is happening within a man. Facial expression especially movements of eyes have different meanings. Happiness, Sorrow, Fear and all types of emotion can be expressed through our face and eyes. Some see animated expressions as a sign of a lack of control. Too much smiling is viewed in as a sign of shallowness. 2.Tone and volume of voice (Paralanguage): Different tone of voice can create different meanings of same word. In the world of Leisker and Pettit, Paralanguage involves how we say something. Thus our interest or boredom, happiness or sorrow or any other attitudes can be expressed through pattern of voice. Vocal characterizers (laugh, cry, yell, moan, whine, belch, yawn). These send different messages in different cultures (Japan giggling indicates embarrassment; India belch indicates satisfaction). Gender based as well:

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women tend to speak higher and more softly than men. Vocal segregates (un-huh, shh, uh, ooh, mmmh, humm, eh, mah, lah) indicate formality, acceptance, assent, uncertainty. 3.Body Language: One of the major types of non-verbal communication is body language or Kinesics. We can also communicate our inner feeling through body movements. Not only by face and eyes but can also convey message by moving our hands, by shaking our shoulders or by nodding our head. We send information on attitude toward person (facing or leaning towards another), emotional statue (tapping fingers, jiggling coins), and desire to control the environment (moving towards or away from a person). More than 700,000 possible motions we can make so impossible to categorize them all. But just need to be aware the body movement and position is a key ingredient in sending messages. 4.Gestures: A gesture is also a body movement but is a deliberate body movement to convey a specific message. Gestures include movements of the arms, legs, hands and head. Example- By weaving our hands we express good-bye, by shaking our head from side to side we express we do not know 5.Personal appearance: It includes our clothing, our grooming and our consciousness to styles. It projects our self images to others. A persons social status and attitude expressed through his or her personal appearance. General Appearance and Dress. All cultures are concerned for how they look and make judgements based on looks and dress. Americans, for instance, appear almost obsessed with dress and personal attractiveness 6.Touching Behavior: Touching is an effective non-verbal communication tool. Different touch bear different meanings, for example.

USA handshake is common (even for strangers), hugs, kisses for those of opposite gender on an increasingly more intimate basis. Most African Americans touch on greeting but are annoyed if touched on the head. For us, typically shouldnt touch with the left hand. To do so is a social insult. Left hand is for toilet functions. Mannerly in India to break your bread only with your right hand (sometimes difficult for non-Indians) 7.Time Language: There are an old saying, Time is Money- in modern business culture time is already important. By using our own attitude towards time we can convey specific massage. For example, in our country sometimes some high officials show their importance by making other people wait for them. We can also demonstrate our eagerness or positive attitude by arriving at time

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8.Space and Distance: Space and distance are also meaningful non-verbal communication technique. Two colleagues of same rank can sit side by side in an office or even can walk keeping hand but a subordinate has to maintain a specific distance from his boss. Thus space end distance between different individuals indicates their position and relationship among them. 9.Silence: Like other types of non-verbal communication a complete silence also can transmit out inner view of mind. Both positive and negative attitude can be expressed through silence. Other art forms as examples of nonverbal communication
The art forms can express so much more clearly what you truly think and feel. Photography Painting Music Sculpture Even flower arranging Sign language for the deaf Sign language for babies - a most fabulous way to understand and communicate with your hearing baby, before he/she can speak! Sign language for communicating with animals: dogs and dolphins for example

STEPS TO EFFECTIVE MESSAGES Know your target audience who are they, what do they need, how can you reach them? Set clear objectives what do you expect from the message, how will you measure it, when will it happen? Work for approval your audience should chose your message over the others that are also coming its way Be strategic use words, images and sounds that are acceptable to your audience, because your main purpose is to make them listen. Work for acceptance is your message credible, do people believe your message and the communicator, who and what will people believe? Work for recall the message should remain with the audience, make it catchy, make it funny, repeat if necessary, use different types of media Review and re-plan are you reaching the intended audience, are you achieving the objectives, do you need to change, do you need a new message?
Formal and Informal English There are two basic types of English input: formal and informal. Formal English is used in serious texts and situations for example, in official documents, books, news reports, articles, business letters or official speeches. Informal English is used in everyday conversations and in personal letters.

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Here is an example of formal English that you might come across in a book: As the price of five dollars was reasonable, I decided to make the purchase without further thought. The same thought would be expressed quite differently in informal English: It was, like, five bucks, so I was like okay. We need to know formal English because you want to be able to read a book, give a business presentation or write an official letter. You also need informal English because you want to be able to understand and communicate with English speakers in everyday situations. Differences between formal and informal English Formal English Informal English

Used in official, literary, academic, etc. Used in everyday, personal conversations. content. Typically used in careful, edited writing Typically used in improvised speech when the when the writer has a lot of time to polish his speaker is speaking without preparation, as in a text. Formal English also occurs in speech, conversation (in real life or over the phone). usually when the speaker is saying something Informal English also occurs in writing, usually that was prepared beforehand (for example, whenever the writer is writing quickly and without reading the news or delivering an official editing (for example, in an Internet chatroom or in speech). quick, personal e-mails). Sentences are longer and more complicated, for example: Toyotas US sales bounced back Sentences are simpler and shorter, for example: Did in March as substantial discounts helped to you see Toyotas sales figures? Looks like the win back customers who had been shaken by discounts have actually worked. the firms mass safety recalls. The standard of correctness is higher. Some phrases are considered correct (or at least acceptable) in informal English, but wrong in formal English. For example:

Words and phrases are sometimes pronounced in a I have made less mistakes. (formal: I have shortened and simplified way, e.g. Lemme go!, Im doin fine, Whassup?, Whatcha gonna do? made fewer mistakes.) Shes liking it. (formal: She likes it.) I feel real good. (formal: I feel really good.) Informal English contains useful everyday phrases, for example: Here you are. There you go. (when giving something to someone) Excuse me?, Come again? (to ask someone to repeat something)

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What do you mean? (to ask for explanation) So, youre saying that...? (to ask for confirmation) Exactly!, I couldnt agree with you more. (to agree with someone) By the way..., Anyway... (to change the topic) See you. Take care. (to say goodbye) A huge number of words and phrases are used mainly in formal English. For example: A huge number of words and phrases are used nevertheless, to disclose, to constitute, to mainly in informal English. For example: dude, undertake, daunting, impervious, anew, truly, freaking, uh-huh, nope (= no), to puke, trashy, solace, to enchant, frantically, sizeable, to grownup, awesome, to chill out, stuff, hard-up, to tick clutch, heyday, as it happens, upsurge, somebody off, to sell like crazy. retrieval Phrasal verbs are used frequently. For example, in informal situations, people usually say found out Many (but not all) phrasal verbs are avoided. instead of discovered, came across instead of encountered and got away instead of escaped.

Conversation: Conversation in plain context means the use of speech for informal exchange of views or ideas or information, or the spoken exchange of thoughts, opinions and feelings. It needs at least two persons to carry out a conversation because it is interactive and participants take turns to exchange messages. Therefore, conversation is fundamentally a sequential activity. Strong conversation skills benefit both the speaker and the listener in several ways. Starting a Conversation - General Tips:

Speak with clarity and purpose. Show interest in the conversation. Reflect before speaking if it's your turn to talk and allow silence to also have its rightful place in your conversation. Don't be afraid of pauses use them to change topics, re-energize the conversation, or to take a short breather even. It will help if you watch some TV, listen to radio shows, and/or read a lot newspapers, magazines, and/or books. Doing this will ensure that you have some idea of what's going on in the world. Follow the lead that your listener is expressing. If he or she appears interested, then continue. If he or she is looking at a clock or watch, or worse, looking for an escape strategy, then you've been going on for too long. Interesting and funny quotes or facts can lighten things up, and make way for things to talk about Practice better non-verbal skills that are friendly and confident.

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Remember, whoever you are talking to, you always have something in common. We all experience the weather, like good food, and enjoy a good laugh. When in doubt, just talk to them about what they are there for. For example, if you meet them at a bus stop, ask them where they are going. If they are from out of town, ask them about their life at home. To break the ice, a compliment is always nice. Make sure what you say is relevant to others. You can't make a connection with someone without commonality. It's just human nature. Additionally, you can always resort to fun but obvious conversation applications. Look at the person or people you are talking to If you havent met before, introduce yourself and ask their name Use a persons name when talking to them Ask questions when you dont understand something Stick to the subject Say nice things about people and praise those who deserve it Its fine to disagree, but disagree politely

Starting & Responding a Conversation: Conversation Starters: How are you getting on? just another way of saying how are you? You doing OK? asked when the person has had some tough experience recently and you want to ask politely if theyre OK. Hi, ! Whats new? this is a very informal way of greeting a close friend or anyone who you see on a regular basis and you want to ask has anything happened since you last met. Hi, ! Whats up? the same as above with a difference that youre probably not that interested in what news the other person might have. Hi, ! Long time no see! used when you havent seen the person for a long period of time and you want to state that fact in the greeting. Hi, ! Have you been keeping busy? just a standard enquiry with little or no direct meaning. Do you mind me asking? a typical way of asking something that might be a slightly personal question. OK, heres the thing a very handy way to start making your point if youre not sure how to begin the sentence. Responding to a Conversation:

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Thanks, Ive been keeping busy just a standard response to a standard greeting with little or no direct meaning. Thanks for asking, Im fine, how are you? a typical response and counter-question to a greeting phrase how are you? Hi, how youre doing! Its good to see you! a typical response to a greeting from someone you havent seen for a while. Cant complain a response to a standard greeting like How are you? Its not as exciting phrase as Thanks, Im great! but it doesnt mean youre having some problems in your life. Can you say it again, please? a request to repeat the question if you didnt understand what was said. A more direct question: Can you slow it down a bit, please? And how about you? a typical response when youre not sure what to ask next so youre asking the other person the same think they asked you. You can respond with this counter-greeting on nearly all standard greetings. To the best of my knowledge when youre 99% sure about the statement youre making. Also a good start of a response you want to take a bit more time to consider what youre going to say. As far as I know the same as above. Good for you! a response to someone telling you about their success in something or some good news that theyre happy about. Cant argue with that used when you agree with the statement of the other person. How do you know? a counter-question you can ask when someone surprises you with a question about something theyre not really expected to know. Thats a good one! a surprise response to funny or surprising news from your chat partner. Really? Tell me more about it! used when you want your chat partner to tell me about what he/she just said. Frankly speaking just a way to start your response. It indicates that youre about to open up and be very honest with your chat partner. Well, to be honest with you, the same as above. No problem a typical response to a small request youre happy to do. Never mind, its fine! - this phrase is used when the person offers to do a favour for you but its not really necessary.

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Never mind, forget what I just said You can use this phrase if you feel that he/she might be slightly annoyed or offended by your question or comment so you want to end it there. You got me there this can be said instead of I dont know it will sound more casual and not as defensive as the old I dont know! Youve got to be kidding me! said when someone tells you something that borders on the unbelievable and you want to express your surprise. Thats a good question. a phrase used when you want to take your time to think over the question. This is an ideal phrase to use when youre stuck but instead of remaining silent you can start your response with this phrase. Well, how to put it in the right words. the same as above. That would be great! a response to an offer that youre really happy about. you know what I mean? when you want to emphasize what you just said. You see, the thing is that this is how you begin a sentence when youre asked to explain something. Departure Phrases: Id better be going followed by a simple phrase like its too late, or have lots to do and indicator youd like to walk off and finish the conversation. OK, Im sorry but I have to leave now! used when your chat partner has clear intentions of continuing the conversation but you just need to go so youre making it clear that you need to go. See you later! used when you know that youll be seeing each other again sometime. See you around! the same as above Keep in touch! a good-bye phrase meaning you want the other person to get in touch with you every now and then and that youve the same intentions. It was nice seeing you, take care! a good-bye phrase used when you know that you wont see the person for a while. Its been good talking to you! the same as above phrase. Hope to see you again! you can use this phrase when finishing a conversation with someone youve just met. Say hello to ! a short and handy way of saying to remind someone from you.

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III UNIT TYPES OF COMMUNICATION


Introduction: People communicate with each other in a number of ways that depend upon the message and its context in which it is being sent. Choice of communication channel and your style of communicating also affects communication. So, there are variety of types of communication. Verbal communication refers to form of communication in which message is transmitted verbally; communication is done by word of mouth and a piece of writing. Objective of every communication is to have people understand what we are trying to convey. When we talk to others, we assume that others understand what we are saying because we know what we are saying. But this is not the case, usually people bring their own attitude, perception, emotions and thoughts about the topic and hence creates barrier in delivering the right meaning. Verbal Communication is further divided into:
Oral Communication (Speaking) Written Communication Aural Communication (Listening) Reading

ORAL COMMUNICATION: In oral communication, Spoken words are used. It includes face-to-face conversations, speech, telephonic conversation, video, radio, television, voice over internet. In oral communication, communication is influence by pitch, volume, speed and clarity of speaking. Advantages of Oral communication are: It brings quick feedback. In a face-to-face conversation, by reading facial expression and body language one can guess whether he/she should trust whats being said or not. WRITTEN COMMUNICATION: In written communication, written signs or symbols are used to communicate. A written message may be printed or hand written. In written communication message can be transmitted via email, letter, report, memo etc. Message, in written communication, is influenced by the vocabulary & grammar used, writing style, precision and clarity of the language used. Written Communication is most common form of communication being used in business. So, it is considered core among business skills. Memos, reports, bulletins, job descriptions, employee manuals, and e-mail are the types of written communication used for internal communication.

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Advantages of written communication includes: Messages can be edited and revised many time before it is actually sent. Written communication provide record for every message sent and can be saved for later study. A written message enables receiver to fully understand it and send appropriate feedback. Types of Communication Based on Purpose and Style Based on style and purpose, there are two main categories of communication and they both bears their own characteristics. Communication types based on style and purpose are:
Formal Communication Informal Communication

Formal Communication: In formal communication, certain rules, conventions and principles are followed while communicating message. Formal communication occurs in formal and official style. Usually professional settings, corporate meetings, conferences undergoes in formal pattern. In formal communication, use of slang and foul language is avoided and correct pronunciation is required. Authority lines are needed to be followed in formal communication. Informal Communication: Informal communication is done using channels that are in contrast with formal communication channels. Its just a casual talk. It is established for societal affiliations of members in an organization and face-to-face discussions. It happens among friends and family. In informal communication use of slang words, language is not restricted. Usually, informal communication is done orally and using gestures. Informal communication, unlike formal communication, doesnt follow authority lines. In an organization, it helps in finding out staff grievances as people express more when talking informally. Informal communication helps in building relationships. AURAL COMMUNICATION - LISTENING Listening is the highest form of communication. When consider communication, people tend to think more of speaking and less of listening. We rarely receive any training on how to listen but reading, writing and speaking are taught in abundance. Always remember that the responsibility for ensuring that the listener gets the message lies with the sender. To introduce new material to an audience we must tap into known material. The new material should be linked to what they already know or have experienced.

There are 5 main forms of listening Ignoring listening occurs when the listener is not attentive to the message, as s/he is otherwise preoccupied and unwilling to receive a message. Pretending listening occurs when the speaker is in a higher position and the listener cannot ignore him/her. S/he pretends to listen, even when the message is boring or irrelevant.

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Selective listening occurs when the listener picks up only those parts of the message that interest him/her and ignores the rest of the message. Attentive listening occurs when the listener not only listens and is able to answer questions, but also understands the significance of the message. Empathic listening occurs when the listener does not necessarily agree with the speaker, but deeply understands that person emotionally and intellectually. This is the highest form of listening and is often referred to as being in someones shoes.

READING COMPREHENSION:
Identifying words on a page does not make someone a successful reader. When the words are understood and transcend the pages to become thoughts and ideas then you are truly reading. Comprehension therefore is the capacity for understanding those thoughts and ideas. Applying what you have read and understood becomes the successful conclusion. Good readers are flexible readers. Once they determine their purpose for reading, they adjust their rate to fit the type of material they are reading. Five Categories of Reading Rates

Careful - used to master content including details, evaluate material, outline, summarize, paraphrase, analyze, solve problems, memorize, evaluate literary value or read poetry. Normal - used to answer a specific question, note details, solve problems, read material of average difficulty, understand relationship of details to main ideas, appreciate beauty or literary style, keep up with current events, or read with the intention of later retelling what you have read. Rapid - used to review familiar material, get the main idea or central thought, retrieve information for short-term use, read light material for relaxation or pleasure or comprehend the basic plot. Scanning - the method by which you read the newspaper - used to get an overview of the content or to preview. Skimming - done a little more quickly. It is what you do when you are searching for something particular in the text - the way you might read a phone book or dictionary. Used to find a specific reference, locate new material, locate the answer to a specific question, get the main idea of a selection, or review.

Knowing how to use all five reading styles is a great advantage because it gives us a wide variety of ways to handle reading. It also gives choices, and the more choices you have, the more power you have to arrange your life in satisfying ways. Ambiguity of words/phrases

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Words sounding the same but having different meaning can convey a different meaning altogether. Hence the communicator must ensure that the receiver receives the same meaning. It is better if such words are avoided by using alternatives whenever possible. Cultural Differences in Business Communication There is no better arena for observing a culture in action than business. Cultures tend to reveal themselves in situations where much is as stake, because it is here that their resources are most needed. Marriage, family obligations, and such stressful experiences bring out much of what is distinctive and fundamental in a culture. The same is true of business, because economic survival is at stake. Business practices are shaped by deeplyheld cultural attitudes toward work, power, trust, wealthand communication. Communication is fundamental in business, because business is a collaborative activity. Goods and services are created and exchanged through the close coordination of many persons, sometimes within a single village, and sometimes across global distances. Coordination of this kind requires intense communication. Complex product specifications and production schedules must be mutually understood, and intricate deals between trading partners must be negotiated. Communication styles vary enormously around the world, and these contribute to a staggering variety of business styles. Probably the single most useful concept for understanding cultural differences in business communication is Edward T. Halls distinction of low-context and high-context cultures. It explains much about how negotiation proceeds, how agreements are specified, and how workers are managed. Yet this distinction, insightful as it is, is derivative. It is best understood as reflecting a more fundamental distinction between rule-based and relationship-based cultures, which is in turn grounded in different conceptions of human nature. The discussion here begins by showing how business practices reflect low-context and high-context characteristics, but it subsequently moves to the deeper levels to explore how communication styles are integrally related to other characteristics of the culture.

TELEPHONE COMMUNICATION:
Conversation is the most common form of communication involving two participants. It links people together, be it in social or professional life. Conversation may be defined as oral and usually informal or friendly exchange of views, ideas. In a conversation the participant has to play the role of a speaker or listener interchangeably. One form of dyadic conversation is interaction between two persons on the telephone. In this form of communication the fear of facing or seeing the other person is not there since there is no display of body language or maintenance of eye contact. It is one of the fastest, easiest and most economical means of communication. With the proliferation of telephones and mobile phone services, many business transactions (such as product enquiries, sales enquiries, follow up calls, complaints, feedback, product and technical support, organizing official meetings, client interactions) take place via the telephone. Many organizations recognized the need to define call

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handling procedures to ensure that they fulfill customer expectations and create a favourable impression for the organisation. Call handling procedures are designed to maintain a defined standard and quality of interaction during telephonic conversations. TELEPHONE ETIQUETTE Telephone etiquette is a set of polite manners we observe while conversing with a person on the phone. Proper phone etiquette is important for personal or professional calls. Being polite on the telephone is just as important as when speaking with someone in person. Here are a few guidelines that can help:
When taking a call (for yourself or for someone else), ask the name of the person you are speaking to, without sounding impolite. Smile! It makes your voice brighter and more pleasant. Speak naturally - When you sound rehearsed, you come across as insincere. Use simple, uncomplicated language. Never make an anonymous call. Always identify yourself first before you continue further. When making a call, always know and state the purpose of your communication. Listen actively - your time on the phone is limited. Make notes if necessary. Learn to listen to others without interrupting them. No matter how busy you are, answer the call courteously. Make use of words such as 'thank you' and 'please'.

Wrong Numbers If you have interrupted someone's day, it is your mistake. Apologise before disconnecting.

Speaker phone etiquette Always ask for permission of the other person before putting him on the speaker phone, and be sure to identify the other people present in the room.

Answering MachineAlways anticipate that you may have to leave a message. Prepare what you want to say. Do not ramble on. It is important to include: Your name, telephone number and company. Spell an unusual name and repeat your name and number at the end of the message. Specify the purpose of the call rather than saying, "Please give me a call". That way, they will know the urgency. Let them know the best time to return your call.

Voice Mail EtiquetteKeep your outgoing message current. If you are going to be out of the office, your message should say so. It should include:

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When you will not be available. Date and Time when you will be back. Whom to contact in your absence.

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A well-modulated voice always energizes a phone conversation. The voice you project is determined by the following factors, which can be controlled. Energy: The energy in your voice reflects your attitude and enthusiasm. Rate of Speech: A normal rate is 125 words per minute. Speaking faster may create problems. Speak in a relaxed mood without stressing yourself. Pitch: You should avoid a monotonous voice. Cultivate variation in tone and inflection while speaking. Put a smile into your voice: A smile adds a zing of friendliness to your voice while answering a call. Soft skills: A combination of excellent communication skills with a positive attitude is the right way to exude confidence over phone. You should avoid jargons and complex sentences that might confuse the other person or create a negative impression. Familiarity: You should demonstrate a keen sense of familiarity with the communication process by handling the phone conversation effectively. Even if you are not aware of some facts and figures, do not let embarrassment mar your conversation. If you fumble while talking, it will reveal how low in confidence you are. Rapport building: Try and build a rapport with the person you are speaking to. This helps you to gain the confidence of the other party and also lets him of her know that you can understand their point of view which in turn would help you to make your conversation useful and overcome the disadvantages of not being there physically. Words and Vocabulary to Use
Yes Of course You are right Thank you Certainly I can do that It would be great if you can I made a mistake I understand I will That is great Definitely My pleasure You are welcome I will make sure I am going to I will follow this through Thank you for your time

Words and Vocabulary to Avoid


Ok Yes Right All I can do is I can only do We do not do that Bear with me It should Obviously I am afraid Unfortunately I'm sorry but It is company policy You have to I need (want) to

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What is your problem I can not / You can not Maybe

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Stress: A sentence may consist of words having only one syllable (monosyllabic) and words having more than one syllable (polysyllabic). The words having more than one syllable need to be stressed in a more or less fixed way and we cannot take much liberty with them. It may be noted that English sentences are uttered in a rhythmic way and word stress and sentence stress help a speaker of English to speak English rhythmically. Please note in connection with sentence stress that- Function words (personal pronouns, auxiliary verbs, prepositions, articles, conjunctions, verb' be' together with its different forms) are generally not stressed in a sentence unless you have a special meaning in mind as in the example before. For example, in the sentence you may utter the sentence "How could you say such a big lie?" with stress on "you" as well if you want to emphasize it. Content words (nouns, adjectives, verbs (except 'be'), demonstratives, question words, yes /no/not) are generally stressed. But again it is not obligatory. Depending on the meaning a monosyllabic content word may remain unstressed in a sentence. For instance you may not choose to stress tell in the above sentence, particularly if you choose to stress the word you. Intonation: When we speak a language, using different kinds of sentences the pitch of our voice may sometimes rise and sometimes fall. It is such changes in the pitch of our voice that give rise to the phenomenon called intonation. There should be proper practice with a good speaker who can be a model or by listening carefully to dialogues in films and other audio/visual media or to good audio/visual materials specially designed for this purpose.

Vocabulary Word Power:


Words are a very powerful means of expressing ideas and thoughts. How successful you are in using words effectively will affect your communication skills. Using words effectively does not mean using vague, high-sounding and obscure words in your speech or writing. It means using the right word in the right context and getting the desired result. We have divided the words into different categories with suitable examples so that you get an idea of how words are used in different contexts. It will also give you information about the meaning relationship between words, which will help you in using words appropriately. We have also included a number of activities to help you practice vocabulary building and in the process increase your vocabulary. In order to express your ideas and thoughts clearly you need a good and appropriate vocabulary. It is indeed very frustrating when you want to say something but cannot express it properly because you do not have enough vocabulary. In such a situation, a low vocabulary is a handicap. Again there are times when you say something but are not aware of the implications of your words. Using the appropriate word is important to get the desired result. You may also end up offending someone if you do not know the proper use of a word. Remember, you cannot build a good repertoire of words for a second language Rajarao pagidialli

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such as English in a day. It takes time. Read good books, listen to interesting conversations and interviews with famous personalities and practice using new words in the right context. Gradually you will pick up words as you use English more frequently for everyday communication. Increasing your vocabulary will help you use words properly, appropriately and intelligently. Apart from developing the four language skills, grammar, vocabulary building and pronunciation practice will mean an all-round development of English skills. You cannot speak with a natural flow if you have to stop in between or fumble while trying to think of the right words. Starting with simple words you can slowly increase your vocabulary. With the knowledge of the relationship between words- similar words, opposite words- you will be able to systematize and organize your thoughts in a better way. Often learners fail to use phrases and idioms appropriately in sentences which limit their expression. With a proper knowledge of the usage of idioms and phrases you can be more effective in expressing your thoughts.

Introduction of Jargon Generally speaking, jargon, in its most positive light, can be seen as professional, efficient shorthand. The original meaning was to make a twittering noise or sound, but by modern standards, it has three derivations. One current or modern definition of jargon is an outlandish, technical language of a particular profession, group, or trade. Another meaning is unintelligible writing or talk. Yet another definition is specific dialects resulting from a mixture of several languages. Since the reoccurring problem with jargon is that only a few people may understand the actual terminology used by different groups, this may explain its origin from twittering which, of course, would be misunderstood by most people. However, a jargonaut, one who studies jargon, may claim that jargon was invented simply as a professional shorthand, developed out of convenience rather than intentional trickiness. Who Uses Jargon? Jargon is commonly used by groups that have a similar interest, like trades and/or professions. However, it can be used by people involved in sports or other casual groups. Most people associate jargon with the medical or law professions rather than everyday conversations. People may use jargon to leave an impression of intelligence or to confuse a person. An example of jargon in the medical profession: agonal- used to describe a major negative change in a persons condition, usually preceding immediate death. Some medical slang can be misinterpreted as jargon: scoop and run - used by EMTs and ER personnel for a situation where no treatment is possible. All they can do is scoop the victim up and run with them to the ER. Jargon Examples Medical Jargon: The following are some examples of commonly used medical abbreviations and terminology.

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Business Communication & Soft Skills STAT: Immediately ABG: Arterial Blood Gas Vitals: Vital signs C-Section: Cesarean Section Claudication -limping caused by a reduction in blood supply to the legs CAT Scan/CT Scan: Computerized Axial Tomography MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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Computer Jargon: Most of these examples are abbreviations, which can be likened to a shorthand code for the computer literate and the Internet savvy. Take a look at some common instances. BRB: Be right back Gr8: Great FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions Lol: Laugh out Loud CYA: See you around RAM: Random Access Memory GB: Gigabyte ROM: Read-only Memory Backup: Duplicate a file

Military Jargon: The following are some military jargon examples, that you may have heard. AWOL: Away without official leave BOHICA: Bend over, here it comes again SOP: Standard Operating Procedure AAA: Anti Aircraft UAV: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle 11 Bravo: Infantry WHOA: War Heroes of America Fatigues: Camouflage uniforms

Law Enforcement Jargon: Most of us are aware of police jargon examples, because of their widespread use in TV shows and movies. The following are some examples. APB: All Points Bulletin B&E: Breaking and Entering DUI: Driving Under the Influence CSI: Crime Scene Investigation Clean Skin: A person without a police record Miranda: Warning given during an arrest, advising about constitutional rights to remain silent and the right to legal aid. Perp: Perpetrator Slammer: Jail Rajarao pagidialli

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Common Jargon Examples: These are some jargon words examples which have been around for long enough to be widely recognized and uniformly understood. UFO: Unidentified Flying Object Poker face: A blank expression Back burner: Something low in priority, putting something off till a later date On Cloud nine: Very happy Sweet tooth: A great love of all things sweet Ballpark figure: A numerical estimated value Gumshoe/Private Eye: Detective Shrink: Psychiatrist

Commonly we may use jargon terms from NASA such as: "countdown," "all systems go" and "lift off." Jargon can be used by anyone, but for someone to understand what you talking about, they must also know the jargon terms.

COMMON SLANG TERMS As in every part of the world, Americans have developed certain oddities or slang terms in their everyday language. Regardless of how long you have studied English, you will hear and see words with which you are not familiar. Listed below are some of the most common slang terms.

awesome: very good, interesting, or appealing big deal: important event; may be used sarcastically to refer to something that is not important blast or Its going to be a blast! Its going to be a lot of fun bomb: to be unsuccessful blow it off: to ignore or avoid someone or something blue or have the blues: feel depressed bogus: 1) nonexistent, fake 2) bad, awful, unsatisfactory to book: 1) to hurry up or do something very quickly 2) to reserve a ticket to an event or on transportation born again: to hold strong, fundamentalist, Christian beliefs

bounce a check: to overdraw a checking account broke: having no money buddy: friend bum a cigarette: to borrow a cigarette bummed out: depressed bummer: unpleasant experience burned: rejected, insulted, or otherwise negatively treated burned out: 1) exhausted 2) dull or lifeless as a result of excessive work or drug use busted: 1) to be caught by anyone in authority while misbehaving, or by the police while using drugs 2) to be broke or out of money

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Business Communication & Soft Skills check out: 1) to sign out materials from a library 2) to try to find out something check it out: to look over a situation chill out or cool it: a command to stop what you are doing, relax cop out: to not face the issue couch potato: a lazy person who spends a large amount of time (perhaps on a couch) watching television cram: To study frantically the night before a test crash: 1) to stay overnight in someone elses dwelling, usually without notice or formal arrangement 2) to go to sleep after becoming extremely tired cruising: Driving around for pleasure with no particular destination to have a crush on someone: To be extremely infatuated with someone cut it out! Stop it! dead: 1) very tired 2) not living dork: an unfashionable and awkward male dorm: dormitory dough money down in the dumps depressed drop in to visit unexpectedly dude a fashionable man fire up to get excited about something; to motivate fix up to arrange a date for a friend fed up or sick of disgusted with; tired of freak out to lose control of oneself fuzz buster device used by some motorists to determine when police are using radar to detect drivers who are speeding geek unattractive, unstylish, socially inept person get a kick out of someone/something find someone or something amusing or enjoyable get on someones case to annoy get off someones case to stop annoying a Rajarao pagidialli

PRINCE person give someone a break to stop criticizing or teasing Give me a break! Expresses disbelief Give someone a buzz, a ring to call someone on the telephone goofing off acting silly; doing something that has no particular purpose give up to quit go bananas to be so excited that one loses control of oneself gross something crude, usually unpleasant hang in there keep trying; do not be discouraged hang out 1) to waste time 2) a regular meeting place for friends hang-up fear; phobia or worry hassle 1) a problem or inconvenience 2) cause another person to have a problem or inconvenience head another name for the bathroom or toilet facilities hick someone from a small town or rural area (usually uncomplimentary meaning unsophisticated) hit the road to leave a place hit the sack or turn in to go to bed hitch a ride to get a ride from another person hung up to be in conflict over a problem ID identification card in a nutshell very briefly and concisely jerk person who cannot do things correctly; a mildly derogatory term jock an athlete or athletic person, or one who is not very intelligent john another name for the toilet or bathroom facilities; head Knock it off! Stop doing that! Usually expressed when

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Business Communication & Soft Skills you are doing something annoying Lighten up! Relax, dont be so serious loaded someone who has had too much to drink; someone who has a lot of money Loosen up! Relax lose it to lose control of oneself luck out or get lucky to have something good happen due to luck or chance Dont mess with me! Leave me alone Mind your own business! Do not ask questions or make statements about this matter; it is my concern and not yours mooch to borrow frequently and/or take things from others, usually without the intention of returning or repaying nerd a strange or socially inept person on the house free, no cost Oops! An exclamation used when a small mistake is made to be open to be accepting of something or someone; to speak frankly about oneself out of ones mind (head) 1) crazy 2) doing something ridiculous out of it tired and not concentrating pal friend pig out overeat pop, soda pop, soda, or soft drink carbonated beverage (Coke, Pepsi, Sprite, et al) psych up prepare oneself mentally or emotionally for something psyched up enthusiastic pull someones leg to tease

PRINCE put someone on to tease or try to fool take a raincheck postpone; accept the same invitation but for a later date raunchy vulgar, crude relationship a close affiliation with someone; usually romantic right-hand an important and reliable assistant rip off 1) steal 2) anything too expensive and not worth the price rowdy noisy, loud, obnoxious scoop gossip, recent news see eye-to-eye having the same opinion show television program, movie, film, or theater performance shush! Be quiet, dont make so much noise slam insult a person slob 1) a lazy, fat person 2) a person who is not dressed neatly 3) an untidy person spaced out unable to concentrate split to leave stood up to be left waiting for someone who never arrives tacky in poor taste unreal unbelievable uptight worried, tense Way to go! Thats very good! Sometimes used sarcastically Whats up? Whats happening? Whats going on? What event is taking place? What are you doing?

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IV UNIT MANAGEMENT PRESENTATIONS


As a professional, the demands on your time and job are many. You may be prepared for some of the demands and you may be given short notice for other requirements such as conducting a seminar, speaking at meeting, making a presentation or engaging in a group discussion or interview. All such situations require you to communicate your thoughts or opinion or idea to you. HOW TO MAKE A PRESENTATION: Presentation is the process of presenting the content of a topic to an audience. It is the ability to speak effectively on a particular subject within a given time slot to create an impact on the listeners. Presentations take place all the time in organizations. Generally, presenters take ample time to prepare a presentation. Yet, there are times when a presenter has to make a presentation on the spot. A presentation may or may not be supported by visual aids depending on the nature of presentation. People give presentations in all kinds of ways and situations and for all sorts of reasons. The audience might be just one person, a group of hundreds or anything in between. For making a presentation successful, gathering a lot of information is not enough to ensure its success. It requires lot of behind the scenes preparation and good deal of concentration and hard work while actually giving the talk. In order to make a good presentation one has to start with three Ps-Preparations, Planning and Practice.

The act of giving a presentation is a skill that calls for clarity of thought, concept, logic and expression. A presentation that lacks clarity becomes a dull and boring lecture without serving any purpose. Clarity depends on these three factors:
Appropriateness Relevance Confidence

APPROPRIATENESS: It suggests that the presenter must be familiar with the audience he is going to interact with while giving the presentation. It is important to know the type and the profile of the audience before getting started. The speaker has to show a genuine enthusiasm for the subject, understanding clearly its inherent thought process as well as its concepts. Accordingly, a thorough preparation of the subject is the right way to get started for a presentation. In the preparation process itself, the presenter should be ready to invest a considerable amount of energy to shape up the presentation with immense clarity of thought and concept.

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RELEVANCE: While working on the relevance of a presentation, a number of details need to be included. The relevance determines the importance of the subject matter, the depth of treatment of the topic within a limited framework and the usefulness of the content to the audience. While concentrating on the planning of the topic, a logical progression has to be made from one sub topic to another sub topic. This will keep the speaker focused on what he has to speak at the time of actual presentation without losing track of his points. While preparing the topic, the speaker should also prepare some footnotes and references for effective handling of questions that would come from the audience. Relevance of the topic boosts up the clarity of logic and also helps you to decide what to throw out or retain when writing the presentation. CONFIDENCE: For a presentation to be really good, the speaker should present the topic with full Confidence. After adequate preparation and planning, the most important thing to do is to practice the presentation. As the saying goes, practice makes one perfect. In giving a presentation it is practice that makes the presentation sound and perfect. Proper practice is nothing but rehearsing the sequence of the presentation, thereby making the speaker confident. The clarity of expression or how the presentation is given depends upon the confidence level of the speaker. The speakers body language, manner and tone, use of voice, his ability to build rapport with the audience, his capacity to manage properly the audio-visual aids and at the same time his ability to give satisfactory answers to the audiences questions, reveal his clarity of expression. How effective the presentation is depends to a large extent on the following factors:
The presenters subject knowledge Logical thinking (according to a sequence or structure) Exposure and experience of public speaking Ability to handle questions and answer them satisfactorily Ability to build a rapport with the audience Ability to clearly articulate a thought or give an opinion without being judgmental

PUBLIC SPEAKING: Prepare with good research and mentally organize your thoughts in a structured and cohesive manner. Articulate clearly as you will be speaking to an audience when people may have difficulty understanding your accent. Use audio-visual aids to support what you want to say. Make eye contact with different members of the audience but do not stay focused on one person for too long or it will make them uncomfortable. Avoid long winded sentences. If reading out from a prepared speech, practice to get the right pause and modulate your voice accordingly. Underline the key points and emphasize them when you

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read them out. You must being a certain amount of passion into your speech or you will lose the attention of the audience. While taking questions, keep your responses brief and to the point. Do not show impatience even if the audience asks simple questions to issues that you may have discussed in your speech. Treat the audience with respect. GROUP DISCUSSION: In a group discussion, a small group of people interact face-to-face to exchange information or attempt to find a solution to a problem. No one is assigned the role of a leader but as the discussion proceeds one person may emerge as the leader. For a group discussion to be an effective exercise it must have people with diversity of opinion, knowledge and skill, but with a shared, common agenda. To participate in a group discussion you must be sensitive to the group dynamics. Each participant must get a fair chance to speak and articulate their thoughts and opinions. Because of the semi-formal nature of such discussions, such discussions enable people to clearly articulate and express their opinions. If you have to intervene, do so without annoying the speaker. You may make notes but remain attentive to what is being said. Your body language should show interest and openness to discussing things. A defensive posture will create a negative impression and may not take the discussion further. MEETINGS: Whether you are chairing a meeting or participating in it, follow certain protocol to ensure that the meeting achieves its objective. First you must clearly understand the objective of the meeting. If chairing, it is your responsibility to ensure that the objective is clearly articulated. Use simple language (The purpose of this meeting is to, We have called this meeting to). Explain why the participants are present and their role in the meeting. You will also have to act as a moderator and ensure that everyone gets a fair chance to speak. Know when to cut a discussion short or avoid heated arguments. As a participant, you must use active listening skills and demonstrate your interest in the topic with appropriate body language. Raise your hand or use appropriate gestures when you want to speak. Do not get too personal. Stick to the topic of discussion. Volunteer information, even if you think it is insignificant. Sometimes that may be of value to the group. If you are chairing the meeting, always remember to close the meeting with an appropriate summary and action points so that there is clarity about who does what and by what time. Thank everyone for attending.

Here are the steps to be followed when Chairing a Meeting: 1. Read documents from the previous meeting. 2. Prepare an agenda. 3. Prepare a progress report. 4. Collect the necessary documents in an e-mail. 5. Send the reminder e-mail with clear instructions and expectations the day before the meeting. 6. Politely decline demands to change the agenda once it has been circulated.

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Business Communication & Soft Skills 7. Arrive early and prepared. 8. Stick to the agenda and follow it in order. 9. Hold the agenda in your hand. 10. Allow one speaker at a time. 11. Ensure everyone is heard. 12. Give each person the spotlight, even if it is only briefly. 13. Focus on solutions to problems. 14. Thwart attempts to derail the meeting. 15. Ask questions. 16. Allow some humour. 17. Conclude by reviewing the details of the next meeting date. 18. Thank everyone for their attendance. 19. End on time. 20. Follow up right away on your action items. 21. Follow up with a group thank you note. Here are the steps to be followed when preparing for Management Presentation:

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Analyse the audience (gather information regarding their demographic profile, level of knowledge, their needs, and attitudes) Analyse the environment where you will make the presentation (if possible, find out about the location, the size of the room and whether you will get facilities such as a projector or computer for your audio-visual aids) State the purpose of the presentation (Why the need for the presentation, what is the topic of discussion, is any action (approval, funding, opinion, agreement, learning) being sought from the audience?) Brainstorm the main ideas (let the ideas flow as they come, then think of how to elaborate to illustrate them) Making the presentation: Make the sub points for each of the main ideas (examples, illustrations, key points for each main idea) Making the presentation: Develop the introduction and conclusion (The introduction should state the purpose of the presentation and give a preview of what you will present while the conclusion should summarise the key take-away points) Making the presentation: Develop slides of other visual aides (Snapshots, demonstrations, film clips, animations, pictures, graphics of bar charts and other diagrams should be prepared as per requirement). Edit the presentation Make speaker notes and handouts if required Rehearse, rehearse, and rehearse. MAKING A PRESENTATION INTERESTING:

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In any presentation, the introduction must have a tremendous impact to grasp the attention of the audience. There are many ways to do this. You can begin with an anecdote that demonstrates or highlights what you will present. You may also use quotations or statistics to highlight the significance of your topic. You may even use humour by starting with a joke, provided, of course, it is relevant and within appropriate and acceptable social norms. Many presenters play by the ear, so that they know when to modify what they say as they can feel how the audience is reacting. If you are inexperienced, you should stick to the conventional path and start with a formal introduction. As you gain in experience, you can get more creative. Many good presenters start with something that is attention grabbing and yet relevant to the topic. They may use the picture of a contemporary work of art, a photograph from a magazine or newspaper, a film clip or even an interactive game to let the audience warm up to the topic. BODY LANGUAGE: The effective delivery of a presentation is done not simply through words but also through the appropriate use of body language. It is very crucial to make a positive impact on the audience while giving a presentation. A presentation is all about verbal abilities, a visual and vocal impact. The following tips will help to enhance body language in a presentation. Stand straight, hold your head high and keep your shoulders straight and not drooping. A very normal standing posture will exude an aura of confidence about you, which is very necessary to keep your audiences attention glued to you. While giving the presentation, your tone of voice should be wellcontrolled, the pitch should be neither very high nor very low; the pacing between the key words should be about 3 seconds for the audience to grasp your talk. A slower and lower tone indicates confidence and expertise, which can only be attained with a lot of practice. Maintain eye contact with the audience but dont stare hard at them to the point of making them feel uncomfortable. Make use of the moving space that you get but that doesnt mean you will frequently show your back to the audience. Use hand gestures to emphasize your main points and integrate it with an open body language. SOME COMMON ERRORS THAT SHOULD BE AVOIDED: Dont put your face down. Avoid all awkward gestures (crossed arms, tilted body, eyes down and no smile). Avoid fidgeting. Stiff body (Give your body a bit of movement to add a little variety to your speech so that the audience feels like participating.) Talking too fast or too loud.

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Business Communication & Soft Skills PRESENTATIONS WITH VISUAL AIDS

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There are many different types of visual aids. The following advice will help you make the most of those most commonly used. PowerPoint: Microsoft PowerPoint is probably now the most commonly used form of visual aid. Used well, it can really help you in your presentation; used badly, however, it can have the opposite effect. Overhead Projector Slides: Overhead projector slides/transparencies are displayed on the overhead projector (OHP) - a very useful tool found in most lecture and seminar rooms. The OHP projects and enlarges your slides onto a screen or wall without requiring the lights to be dimmed. You can produce your slides in three ways:
pre-prepared slides : these can be words or images either hand written/drawn or produced on a computer; spontaneously produced slides: these can be written as you speak to illustrate your points or to record comments from the audience; a mixture of each: try adding to pre-prepared slides when making your presentation to show movement, highlight change or signal detailed interrelationships.

Make sure that the text on your slides is large enough to be read from the back of the room. A useful rule of thumb is to use 18 point text if you are producing slides with text on a computer. This should also help reduce the amount of information on each slide. Avoid giving your audience too much text or overly complicated diagrams to read as this limits their ability to listen. Try to avoid lists of abstract words as these can be misleading or uninformative. White or black board: White or black boards can be very useful to help explain the sequence of ideas or routines, particularly in the sciences. Use them to clarify your title or to record your key points as you introduce your presentation. Rather than expecting the audience to follow your spoken description of an experiment or process, write each stage on the board, including any complex terminology or precise references to help your audience take accurate notes. Paper handouts: Handouts are incredibly useful. Use a handout if your information is too detailed to fit on a slide or if you want your audience to have a full record of your findings. Consider the merits of passing round your handouts at the beginning, middle and end of a presentation. Flip chart: A flip chart is a large pad of paper on a stand. It is a very useful and flexible way of recording information during your presentation - you can even use pre-prepared sheets for key points. Record information as you go along, keeping one main idea to each sheet. Flip back through the pad to help you recap your main points. Use the turning of a page to show progression from point to point. Remember to make your writing clear and readable and your diagrams as simple as possible.

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Video: Video gives you a chance to show stimulating visual information. Use video to bring movement, pictures and sound into your presentation. Always make sure that the clip is directly relevant to your content. Tell your audience what to look for. Avoid showing any more film than you need. Artifacts or Props: Sometimes it can be very useful to use artifacts or props when making a presentation. If you bring an artifact with you, make sure that the object can be seen and be prepared to pass it round a small group or move to different areas of a large room to help your audience view it in detail. VIDEO CONFERENCING: Meeting Preparation

Arrive well before your videoconference starts to test the videoconferencing system and the interface to your laptop. Minimize distracting glare and uneven lighting by pulling the shades on windows and doors and covering glass-framed wall hangings. You should minimize combining outside light with indoor fluorescent lighting to prevent problems with the videoconference camera and the quality of your image. Make sure the room has adequate lighting, typically what would be used for standard office work. If it's too dark, the other sites won't be able to see you clearly. Try to set up a back channel for communication to the other site(s) such as with Instant Message client or email. This allows for communication without interrupting the discussion. Wear neutral, muted, or pastel solid colors. Avoid plaids, stripes, polka dots, very bright colors, and the colors white or redthey can cause distracting effects on screen.

Communicate Effectively
Do an audio check before the virtual meeting begins to ensure that everyone can hear you. Speak in a normal voice, you shouldn't have to shout. Talk directly into the microphone. Do not turn your head from side to side while talking or your voice will fade in and out at the remote site. Assume that everything is working fine. You will be interrupted if something is wrong. When possible, keep your microphone muted when you won't be speaking for several minutes or more. Un-muted microphones can be the single most important problem communicating during a videoconference meeting. Be natural, but limit excess movement to avoid looking jerky on screen. If you walk around while speaking, remain in a small area and walk slowly.

Videoconferencing Etiquette

When videoconferencing with many sites, start your comment by saying your name and location (for example, "This is Pat at Northwestern.") Doing so helps the video

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equipment switch to your site and also helps other sites identify who is speaking before the video monitor catches up. When your microphone is on, be careful with side conversations and do not rustle papers or make tapping sounds near the microphone. Any sounds you make will be heard by the other sites and can be distractive. Direct your questions to a specific site, and preferably a specific individual. Expect a few extra seconds of delay in getting an answer because of the technology and distance involved (at minimum, un-muting the microphone). Do not cause echo. If you are causing echo, it will disrupt the videoconference. If necessary, keep your microphone muted until you have to speak, and then quickly mute it when you are finished. Look directly at the camera as often as possible. This will give the remote site the impression that you are looking directly at them.

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V UNIT FORMAL & INFORMAL INTERVIEWS


INTRODUCTION: Life is full of challenges. To meet the challenges of professional life, one has to be familiar with many skills to grab the attention of an interviewer, out of which Interview skills are the basic necessities to meet up the future challenges with success. Either you are applying for a job or want to qualify an entrance examination for a professional degree; you should have to be prepared in advance for an interview. An interviewer always attempt to decide that why they should select you? If you can show your trust, your confidence, your commitment, and appropriate skills, then you could win a successful future. Interview is a form of oral communication. Its one to one, or one to group interaction, where an applicant proves themselves as a unique person to be the part of an organization. Remember that interview is always pre-planned and structured. Its a formal presentation between an interviewer and an interviewee. It deals with interviews as we have come to know them, i.e. the traditional format in which the candidate is interviewed by three or four people in a session lasting approximately 45 minutes to an hour. Questions can range from your application to your leisure interests and will certainly address your motivation for the job. This traditional format varies a great deal, however, and new interviewing practices have been adopted by employers in recent years. BEFORE THE INTERVIEW

Identify your strengths and weaknesses, goals, skills, etc Research the company Rehearse what you plan to say Practice answers to common questions Prepare questions to ask the employer

DURING THE INTERVIEW


Make sure you arrive a few minutes early Be aware of nonverbal communication. Sit up straight, look alert, speak clearly and forcefully, but stay relaxed. Make good eye contact, avoid nervous mannerisms, and try to be a good listener as well as a good talker. Smile! Follow the interviewer's lead, but try to get the interviewer to describe the position and duties to you fairly early in the interview so that you can then relate your background and skills in context

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Be specific, concrete, and detailed in your answers. The more information you volunteer, the better the employer gets to know you Offer examples of your work and references which will document your best qualities Answer questions as truthfully and as frankly as you can. Answer honestly, while trying not to say more than is necessary

AFTER THE INTERVIEW


Take notes on what you feel you could improve upon for your next interview Write a brief thank-you letter to the interviewer indicating your interest within 24 hours of your interview If offered the position, one to two weeks is a reasonable amount of time to make a decision. All employment offers deserve a written reply whether or not you accept them.

Go through the Process: Regardless of the type of interview, most will incorporate the following stages: establishing rapport, exchanging information, and closing the interview. ESTABLISHING RAPPORT This is a very important part of the interview because while establishing rapport, first impressions are made, and the tone of the interview is set. Some people suggest that the decision to hire is greatly influenced by the first five minutes of the interview. A good interviewer will introduce him/herself, and take the lead. Follow his or her lead - if they are chatty, be chatty; if they are formal, be formal. Some employers use what seems to be casual conversation to get to know you on a more personal level this may be crucial to a hiring decision. AMBIENCE: The ambience in which the interview takes place can have a great deal of influence on the results. A setting with the minimum distractions is generally the best. Frequent interruptions mar the flow of conservation and prevent both the interviewer and the respondent from being alert to each others verbal and non-verbal cues. The seating arrangements also have an impact on the interview. Any interview is much more than a question and answer session. For the candidate, it is actually the challenge of marketing oneself. The candidate makes the first impression on presentation of oneself. It is axiomatic that attire oft proclaims a man and a woman as well. Being well dressed for the interview gives the message that one is keen on creating the right impression. There is one more reason why a candidate should dress well for the interview. That is on account of the level of confidence it generates for the candidate. It is important to be self-confident. Feed your self-confidence.

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Business Communication & Soft Skills POLEMICS:

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Polemics in interview refer to the practice or skill of arguing strongly for or against. However during the interview it is important that one takes care ones mannerisms and behaviour patterns. The conduct of some candidates is not positive during an interview. The interviewee must behave formally and try to impress the interviewers with good manners and a positive behaviour pattern. Being polite, pleasant and courteous is the key to a successful job interview. The candidate should be flexible in approach, attitude and style. It is important to be very tactful and should avoid arguing with the interviewers. The interviewee must maintain eye contact to respond in a lively manner.
Exchange of Information: It is your opportunity to let the interviewer know what you have to offer, and your chance to learn more about the organization.

Closing the Interview: When the interviewer is done gathering the information that is needed, he or she will ask if you have anything to add, or if you have any questions. This is your opportunity to mentally review your inventory of skills and make sure that you have communicated everything that you wanted to. If any of your questions have not been addressed during the course of the interview, now is the time to ask them.

Don't be discouraged if no definite offer is made or if no specific salary is discussed If you get the impression that the interview is not going well and that you have already been rejected, do not let your discouragement show. Once in a while an interviewer who is genuinely interested may seem to discourage you to test your reaction A typical interviewer comment toward the close of an interview is to ask if you have any questions. Use those that you've prepared At the conclusion of your interview, ask when a hiring decision will be made. Then thank your interviewer for his or her time and express your interest in the position once again

INTERVIEW PREPARATION Research is a critical part of preparing for an interview. If you haven't done your homework, it is going to be obvious. Spend time researching and thinking about yourself, the occupation, the organization, and questions you might ask at the end of the interview. Know Yourself: The first step in preparing for an interview is to do a thorough selfassessment so that you will know what you have to offer an employer. It is very important to develop a complete inventory of skills, experience, and personal attributes that you can use to market yourself to employers at any time during the interview process. Following is a list of the ten most marketable skills. You will notice that they are all generic.

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Business Communication & Soft Skills Analytical/Problem Solving Flexibility/Versatility Interpersonal Oral/Written Communication Organization/Planning Time Management Motivation Leadership Self-Starter/Initiative Team Player

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Know the Occupation: The second step in preparing for an interview is to research the occupation. This is necessary because in order to present a convincing argument that you have the experience and skills required for that occupation, you must first know what those requirements and duties are. It is also in your best interest to identify the approximate starting salary for that position, or those similar. Re-read and become familiar with your application/resume before the interview a good application prompts many of the questions you are asked in the interview. Make sure you know the difference between wanting this job and wanting a job. If you want the job you will be nervous - that is only natural. Good preparation will make positive use of your adrenaline. Always be positive. Never criticise, complain or be derogatory about anybody or anything. Never offer negative information about yourself. Never offer excuses. People who do are very expensive to employ and we all have skeletons in the cupboard. If you don't understand a question, always ask for clarification. Nil desperandum - never give up. Keep your eyes on the interviewer. Don't respond to aggression Be aware of body language and verbal mannerisms Look in the mirror while you are talking smile and be animated. Take deep breaths minutes before the interview. Know the Organization: The more you know about an organization, the better prepared you will be to discuss how you can meet its needs. Some of the characteristics that you should know about an organization are:

Where is it located? How big is it? What are its products and who does it serve? How is the organization structured? What is its history? Have there been any recent changes, new developments?

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Business Communication & Soft Skills Ten Things That an Interviewer Looks in You:

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1. Family Background 2. Education 3. Experience 4. Stability 5. Initiative 6. General Ability 7. Interpersonal Skills 8. Confidence 9. Aptitude 10. Pleasant Looks

Interviews now come in different formats and as well as the traditional form there are three we need to take particular care with: INFORMAL INTERVIEWS: The most misleading words in the interview game are, Just come in for a friendly chat, It will be totally informal, Simply a chance to get to know each other. Be on your guard, because even if the interviewer genuinely believes that it is informal, he or she is nevertheless assessing your suitability for the job. Remember that the person interviewing is not your friend, is not a career adviser and is looking for somebody to add value to his or her organization. Although you yourself should act in a relaxed and informal way, the general rules about interviews still apply and you should prepare your answers in the usual way. STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS: Some companies feel that the traditional interview is haphazard and unscientific and can only be objective if a structured apportion is taken. In structured interviews all candidates are asked the same questions and are asked to give examples as evidence of the skills they claim to have. Such questions as, Give me an example of when you received positive feedback from a customer, are common. This direct approach can be a little off-putting but it certainly goes some way to making sure that equal opportunity issues are addressed. Again, the normal rules apply and you need to be well-prepared. TELEPHONE INTERVIEWS: These are very common in the sales sector and have spread to a wide variety of employers as they become more customer-focused. Telephone interviews are seen as a cost-effective way of screening out unsuitable candidates. You should be prepared for some questions even when you phone for an application form. Some companies will not send you an application form if you do not succeed at this stage. Although the rules for successful

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interviews are the same as for face-to-face interviews, the lack of eye contact means that your tone of voice is very important. A monotonous drone would be disastrous and you should remember to smile as this communicates to the interviewer. Although interviews of whatever kind have been shown to be rather hitand-miss affairs, being far less objective than was previously assumed, they are still an essential part of the selection process. JOB INTERVIEW TYPES: There are different types of job interviews you may participate in during the hiring process. Here are the major ones and tips on how to handle them. Screening Interview: A screening interview is meant to weed out unqualified candidates. Providing facts about your skills is more important than establishing rapport. Interviewers will work from an outline of points they want to cover, looking for inconsistencies in your resume and challenging your qualifications. Provide answers to Interviewers questions, and never volunteer any additional information. That information could work against you. One type of screening interview is the telephone interview. Second Interview: Second round interviews are often more difficult to prepare for because their purpose is more subtleto determine which candidates will best "fit" with the company. Second interviews may be comprised of behavioral and competency-based questions. Case Study Interview: Consulting firms and certain financial institutions may include a case study or word problem based on a real-life or simulated consulting situation as part of their interview process. In this instance, the interviewer will present you with a case study and ask how you would approach and solve the dilemma at hand. The interviewer is simply trying to determine your analytical abilities through this interview method. Behavioral Interview: In these interviews, the interviewer will ask you to talk about a real situation youve encountered and your response to that situation. A sample question could include, Tell me of an incident when you failed, instead of a hypothetical question such as How you would handle a mistake or failure? The employer assumes this will be a good indicator of how you would handle situations in the future. Stress Interview: Rajarao pagidialli

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The theory is to see how you react to stress. The interviewer may make the room physically uncomfortable by turning up the heat, make the candidate sit in an uncomfortable chair or sometimes even stand, ask off-the-wall questions that have nothing to do with the job and possibly refuse to answer your questions. Stress interviews are a deliberate attempt to see how you handle yourself. The interviewer may be sarcastic or argumentative, or may keep you waiting. Expect this to happen and, when it does, don't take it personally. Calmly answer each question as it comes. Ask for clarification if you need it and never rush into an answer. The interviewer may also lapse into silence at some point during the questioning. Recognize this as an attempt to unnerve you. Sit silently until the interviewer resumes the questions. If a minute goes by, ask if he or she needs clarification of your last comments. One-On-One Interview: In a one-on-one interview, it has been established that you have the skills and education necessary for the position. The interviewer wants to see if you will fit in with the company, and how your skills will complement the rest of the department. Your goal in a one-on-one interview is to establish rapport with the interviewer and show him or her that your qualifications will benefit the company. Lunch Interview: The same rules apply in lunch interviews as in those held at the office. The setting may be more casual, but remember it is a business lunch and you are being watched carefully. Use the lunch interview to develop common ground with your interviewer. Follow his or her lead in both selection of food and in etiquette. Committee Interview: Committee interviews are a common practice. You will face several members of the company who have a say in whether you are hired. When answering questions from several people, speak directly to the person asking the question; it is not necessary to answer to the group. In some committee interviews, you may be asked to demonstrate your problemsolving skills. The committee will outline a situation and ask you to formulate a plan that deals with the problem. You don't have to come up with the ultimate solution. The interviewers are looking for how you apply your knowledge and skills to a real-life situation. Group Interview:

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A group interview is usually designed to uncover the leadership potential of prospective managers and employees who will be dealing with the public. The frontrunner candidates are gathered together in an informal, discussion-type interview. A subject is introduced and the interviewer will start off the discussion. The goal of the group interview is to see how you interact with others and how you use your knowledge and reasoning powers to win others over. If you do well in the group interview, you can expect to be asked back for a more extensive interview. Panel Interviews: Sometimes the employer will have a selection committee or for some other reason there will be multiple people involved in conducting interviews. They may want to conduct a panel interview in which you will be interviewed by several people at the same time. Panel interviews are very efficient from the employers perspective because it allows them, in effect, to do many interviews all at once. Remember that in a panel interview you must connect with and engage every member of the panel, not just the person asking the question. Make sure you get a business card from every panel member and send each a thank you note afterwards. Always bring extra resumes and offer one to each member of the panel at the beginning of the interview. Serial Interviews: In a serial interview you will meet with several people throughout the day, usually back-to-back. One person will interview you, then pass you to the next person, and so on throughout the day. Serial interviews are physically and mentally tiring because they can often take the entire day. Remember that each time you are passed onward your chances of being hired improve. Serial interviews are typically used for senior-level positions, but there are exceptions. VIDEO CONFERENCING INTERVIEW: In the interest of time and money, more and more companies are using video-conferencing interviews to recruit candidates. Following are some preparation tips: Find a quiet area. Some microphones are sensitive to background noise. Make sure there isnt a bright light behind you. It will darken your face. When answering a question, look directly into the camera. This will ensure eye contact. Be aware of whats behind you. Make sure the area is clean and neat. Framing: sit tall but not too close to the camera. The first three buttons on your shirt should be visible. Practice with friends to check your sound and facial expressions. Have your resume ready as an email attachment. Dress professionally. Rajarao pagidialli

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Recruiting Interviewees: Send a written invitation by letter or email. Personalize the invitations and explain the purpose of the interview and why you want his/her opinions. Specify the place, date and time, including the length of the interview. Make follow-up phone calls to confirm the time and location and inquire about special Needs like sending a reminder email the day before the interview. Recruiting Resources can be used to locate, identify, and attract qualified applicants:
a. Newspaper ads are the most common resource; they generate a huge number of

applicants.
b. Specialized journals and publications are an effective way of attracting qualified

applicants; they are primarily used for professional or upper-level positions in an organization. positions or those that require a higher education. and alumni.

c. Professional organizations would be a good resource for highly specialized d. Educational institutions have placement services that are used by current students e. Public employment services provide a free or low-cost way to recruit. f.

Private employment agencies can be effective for finding high-caliber applicants because of the specialization; however, it may be very costly. skilled jobs.

g. Labor unions and trade associations provide referrals for both skilled and nonh. Walk-ins and mail-ins include individuals who are seeking job openings. i. j.

The Internet is a new resource, but it is gaining in popularity VERY quickly. Job fairs are used to recruit employees from similar industries in times of high need or hard-to-fill jobs.

Conducting the Interview Ensure that the interviewee is comfortable. Explain the purpose of the interview. Explain that participation in the interview is voluntary and that the interviewees privacy will be protected. Explain the format of the interview and how long you expect it to take. Ask if the interviewee has any questions before beginning the interview. Ask for permission to record the interview. Begin asking your interview questions, one question at a time. Encourage responses with occasional nods of the head.

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Be careful when you are taking notes. Provide transition between major topics. Redirect the interviewee if he/she begins to stray to another topic. At the conclusion of the interview, thank the interviewee and tell them how they can get in touch with you later if they want to.

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Performance appraisal is a universal phenomenon in which the organization is making judgment about one is working with and about oneself. It serves as a basic element of effective work performance. Performance appraisal is essential for the effective management and evaluation of staff. It aims to improve the organizational performance as well as individual development. Annual performance appraisals evaluate the role of the employee in the organizational development and also monitoring the standard, expectations, objectives, efficiency in handling task and responsibilities in a period of time. Appraisal also helps to analyze the individual training needs of the employee and planning of future job allocation. It also help to adopt appropriate strategy based on organizational training needs. Performance appraisal analyzes employees performance and which utilize to review the grades and modify the annual pay. It generally reviews each individual performance against the objectives and standard of the organization. Performance management creating a work environment and it is enabling the employees to perform best of their abilities. Through performance management companies are hiring efficient people. Graphic rating scales are used to assess attitude, skill, or performance. A checklist allows for yes-no answers to a range of questions. Production standards approach is most frequently used in production environments; performance is compared to a standard. Essay appraisals should be used along with another method due to the subjectivity and differences in writing capabilities. Critical incident approach records noteworthy incidents of behavior (good and bad). Forced-choice ratings force the evaluator to select between sets of statements. Ranking systems compare employees to one another. Management by objectives (MBO) requires extensive cooperation between the manager and employee. Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) are difficult to set up, but they are becoming popular. 360-degree feedback utilizes feedback from supervisors, employees, co-workers, suppliers, and customers.

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Business Communication & Soft Skills General HR Interview Questions with Possible Answers:

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1. How would you describe yourself? My background to date has been centered around preparing myself to become the very best engineer I can become. I was born and raised in . Ive graduated from the JNT University with a MBA degree in... I have worked for 2 years as a junior manager in LaQshya International Inc. I enjoy playing cricket in my free time and learning languages. 2. What specific goals, including those related to your occupation, have you established for your life? I want to be working for an excellent company like yours. I plan to contribute my leadership, interpersonal, and technical skills. My long-range career goal is to be the best engineer I can for the company I work for. 3. How has your college experience prepared you for this career? I have prepared myself to transition into the work force through real-world experience involving travel abroad, internship, and entrepreneurial opportunities which were given to me at our college. As you can see from my academic, extracurricular and experiential background, I have unconditionally committed myself to success as an engineering professional. 4. Please describe the ideal job for you following graduation. My ideal job is one that incorporates both my education and practical work skills to be the best I can be. Namely combining my education in engineering with my working knowledge, entrepreneurial abilities, computer skills, and administrative skills. 5. What influenced you to choose this career? I like engineering because my potential for success is limited only by how much of myself I dedicate toward my goal. If any profession is founded on self-determinism, it surely must be engineering. 6. Do you have the qualifications and personal characteristics necessary for success in your chosen career? I believe I have a combination of qualities to be successful in this career. First, I have a strong interest, backed by a solid, well-rounded, state-of-the-art education, especially in a career that is technically oriented. I am convinced that I possess these characteristics and am ready to be a successful team member for your firm. 7. Are you more energized by working with data or by collaborating with other individuals? I like the validity of information and also like the energy that comes with working with people. The best thing about working in a group is combining the great minds from different perspectives and coming up with something extremely great, compared with when youre working alone. At the same time, information can generate vitality in the project youre working on.

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8. How would you describe yourself in terms of your ability to work as a member of a team? I have had many opportunities in both athletics and academics to develop my skills as a team player. My experience as a project research team leader also helped me to learn the role of team player. I ensured that everyone in the group had equal opportunity to contribute, maintained excellent communication among group members, and coordinated their energies toward reaching our teams goal. 9. What motivates you to put forth you greatest effort? Although monetary rewards are important, I am driven to succeed internally more than anything, I want to be respected by my friends and coworkers for being the best at what I do. I want to be recognized as the best. 10. Would you describe yourself as goal-driven? Yes, and I demonstrated my goal orientation as president of the local community service organization. I am very proud of the fact that I set a goal of signing 50 new members by the end of the year, and I accomplished that. 11. Can you describe your long-range goals and objectives? My primary objectives are to learn as much as possible about your company, organizational structure, and professional techniques so that I may become the most productive member of your team. 12. What do you expect to be doing in five years? Although it is hard to predict the future, I sincerely believe that I will become a very good engineer. I believe that my abilities will allow me to excel to the point that I can seek other opportunities as a chief engineer and possibly even higher. 13. What do you see yourself doing in ten years? Ten years from now I see myself as a successful CEO for a world-class firm like yours. I want to have developed a wonderful bond with my employer. 14. How would you evaluate your ability to deal with conflict? I believe I am quite good at handling conflict. I would always make sure that I fully explained the situation, the policies behind my decision, and why those policies exist. Usually by the end of the conversation, the person could see the other side of the situation. 15. Would you say that you can easily deal with high-pressure situations? Yes. My past experience as an Administrative Coordinator required me to deal with many serious situations since I held emergency on-call duties as a supervisor. 16. What quality or attribute do you feel will most contribute to your career success? My greatest strength is my flexibility. I have learned that work conditions change from day to day and throughout the day, as well, no matter where I have worked in the past. My flexibility to adapt to the different demands of the job has allowed me to surpass my employers expectations. Rajarao pagidialli

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17. What were your reasons for selecting your college? My college LaQshya Institute of Technology & Sciences, Khammam has always had a reputation as having an excellent infrastructure, so I knew that if I enrolled there, I would achieve first-class preparation for my chosen career field. 18. Which college classes did you like best? Why? My favorite classes have been the ones pertaining to my major, which is.. These classes have laid the groundwork for my career in engineering. 19. Do you think that your grades are an indication of your academic achievement? I have focused much of my energy on work and obtaining real-world experience. Sometimes my heavy load has not allowed me to keep up with some of my studies, but I have learned an enormous amount that I can apply in my future industry. 20. What plans do you have for continued study? An advanced degree? I plan to continue my education for the rest of my life. In my technology-related field, keeping up to date through continuing education is of the utmost importance. 21. Describe the characteristics of a successful leader. A successful leader should have the vision and capabilities to formulate strategies to reach his or her objectives and communicate these ideas to his or her team members. 22. Why did you decide to seek a position in this field? I want to work in the MNCs because ever since I took my first course in college, I have felt very passionate toward the MNCs and cannot imagine myself doing anything else. 23. Tell me what you know about our company. Youre respected worldwide. Over the last 15 to 20 years youve produced award-winning products. 24. Why did you decide to seek a position in this company? I am convinced that there would be no better place to work than in yours. You are the top technical firm in India. You provide your employees with the tools they need to stay competitive and sharpen their skills while working in an open, team-based environment. 25. Which is more important to you, the job itself or your salary? A salary commensurate with my experience and skills is important, but its only one piece of the package. But more importantly, to enjoy what Im doing. 26. What level of compensation would it take to make you happy? I am not depending on money to make me happy. What makes me happy is having a satisfying job that provides challenge and new situations daily. 27. Tell me about the salary range youre seeking. If you feel that I am the candidate you are looking for, that Im sure your offer will be fair and commensurate with the value I can bring to the company. Rajarao pagidialli

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28. Give me an example of an important goal which you had set in the past and tell me about your success in reaching it. As a senior in college, my goal was to play college cricket tournaments. So over that summer I worked on my cricket to the point where I won almost every tournament I entered. 29. What steps do you follow to study a problem before making a decision? Define the problem to be solved and decision to be made. Gather the necessary information. List all possible choices. Consider possible outcomes for each choice. Choose one, from the possible alternatives. 30. Describe some times when you were not very satisfied with your performance. I failed my first year M1 subject, which made me very unhappy. I wasnt going to let this incident set the trend for the rest of my B.Tech. My lecturers helped me out incredibly and my grades soon improved. 31. How do you determine priorities in scheduling your time? I took a time-management course in which I learned to prioritize all tasks on A, B, or C lists. I always try to tackle the A list first. In every working situation, co-workers have always complimented me on how well I manage my time. 32. What has been your experience in giving presentations? I have grown to be a confident presenter. My most successful presentation took place at my university when I was responsible for presenting a leadership-development program. Each student successfully understood my presentation. 33. Tell me about a time you had to handle multiple responsibilities. While attending college, I also worked at a firm. I was successful because I practiced good time-management skills and I made a to-do list every day. As I completed each task, I checked it off the list. 34. What suggestions do you have for our organization? After examining several sources, including your companys annual report and Web site, as well as some of your competitors sources, I see that you have a strong product line with good demographic segments, in a growing industry. I think you have a great opportunity to expand your target market and increase your market share by marketing your product line. 35. What is the most significant contribution you made to the company during a past job or internship? My organization was undergoing an accreditation process. I developed two detailed accreditation self-evaluation reports that documented how the organization met accreditation standards. These self-evaluations served as basis for accreditation site visits and enabled all eligible programs to be accredited in record time. 36. What type of position are you looking for? Im interested in an entry level position and Im looking for a position in which I can utilize my experience. Rajarao pagidialli

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37. Are you interested in a full-time or part-time position? I am more interested in a full-time position. However, I would also consider a part-time position. 38. Can you tell me about your responsibilities at your last job? I collaborated with colleagues to prepare the best possible package for the client. The clients were then presented with a summarized report on their financial activities that I formulated on a quarterly basis. 39. What is your greatest strength? I work well under pressure. When there is a deadline, I can focus on the task at hand and structure my work schedule well. I am an excellent communicator. People trust me and come to me for advice. 40. What is your greatest weakness? I work too hard and become nervous. I tend to spend too much time making sure the client is satisfied. However, I began setting time-limits for myself. 41. Why do you want to work for LQ-soft? After following your firms progress for the last 3 years, I am convinced that LQ-soft is becoming one of the market leaders and I would like to be part of the team. 42. When can you begin? As soon as you would like me to begin. 43. What is your attitude to authority? I do what I am told with respect to the job I am employed to do. 44. How would you deal with a difficult person? I would first keep an open mind and listen to them, which in itself calms most people anyway. 45. What motivates you? Recognition and promotion prospects. 46. What is your definition of success? Achieving what we set out to achieve and never giving up. 47.You may have to tell the occasional lie in this position, are you Okay with that? I can be diplomatic tactful and sensitive to people but I do not deliberately lie and deceive people. 48. Why should I choose you? Because I am the best and most appropriate for the job. 49. If we did offer you the job, how would you react? I would take it, thank you very much, when can I start? Rajarao pagidialli

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VI UNIT WRITTEN COMMUNICATION

INTRODUCTION: Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium through the use of a set of signs or symbols (known as a writing system). It is distinguished from illustration, such as drawing and painting, and non-symbolic preservation of language via non-textual media, such as magnetic tape audio. Writing most likely began as a consequence of political expansion in ancient cultures, which needed reliable means for transmitting information, maintaining financial accounts, keeping historical records, and similar activities. Around the 4th millennium BC, the complexity of trade and administration in Mesopotamia outgrew human memory, and writing became a more dependable method of recording and presenting transactions in a permanent form. The differences between spoken and written interaction The basic difference is in transmission of the message, speech is transmitted by means of voice and sounds, while writing is transmitted by graphic means - letters (spelling and grammar, of course, play a big role). Spoken language is sparse, written language is dense, yet both kinds of interaction are organized, but follow different rules. Spoken language is a process, speech is produced and received almost instantaneously and is an on-line process, the recipients can follow its production from the beginning to the end. With written language more times is needed to produce a message, needs to be polished, the receiver does not know how long it took for the message to be written, the speaker can forget parts of the message s/he wished to convey written message can be revised. Speech is gone immediately after we have stopped speaking/listening, it is stored in short-term memory for a very short time (a few seconds), which is why we can tolerate false starts, pauses, gaps and the like - we forget them quickly. Only a very small portion of an instance of spoken interaction is stored into long-term memory. (We only become aware of the false starts, pauses etc. when we transcribe speech for the purpose of analysis.) In speech we use everyday words, written language uses complex lexicon. The choice of some lexical items (synonyms, antonyms) are usually repeated in speech but they vary in writing. In speech sentences are longer. Speech includes verbal and non-verbal fillers, which are used to avoid silence, which in speech usually means that one has finished talking.

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Lexical density (the ratio between the words that carry message and words that carry no semantic meaning) is usually much higher in writing than in speech. Lexical density varies from language to language. In writing, punctuation is used to separate the message into units, in speech pauses and prosody performs this function (this also varies from language to language Slovene punctuation is governed by strict rules, English punctuation is governed by what we wish to say - the rules are more lax). EFFECTIVE WRITTEN LANGUAGE is ORAL LANGUAGE is Precise and direct. A dynamic transfer of information. Chosen with greater deliberation Everyday spoken language, including and thought.. some cultural expressions, such as go crazy. More sophisticated, and developed. Able to engage the audience Less personal. psychologically and to use complex Driven by logic, organization, and forms of non-verbal communication. explicitness Retractable (one can apologize for a Achieved through sentence length, mistake or offer clarification) complex language style. Highly subjective Validated by authors credibility. Spontaneous Objective. Dependent upon orientation signals Non-retractable (its forever and (for example, Well, in the first place), so are mistakes and flaws). and projection terms (for example, It Planned and deliberate. seems to me) to soften the tone Conversational and indirect

WRITTEN COMMUNICATION Vocabulary: Here it is pertinent to mention the concept of jargon to you. Jargons are special words and phrases which are used by particular groups of people, especially in their work For example, sue motto, ipso facto, etc. are legal jargons. Jargons when used in a business report cannot be avoided as they form an integral part of the report. So in order to understand such a report you are required to know a few commonly used jargons. However, while writing a business letter the use of jargons and clichs excessively should be avoided, as these will make your letter very technical and dull. The vocabulary used should be simple, concise and easily comprehensible. Use the word that is most effective to get the desired result. Instead of saying, "The project may not be completed on due date." "The project may be delayed." is a more concise expression.

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Grammar: At the level of grammar one of the most important things to remember is the voice of the sentences. Do not use passive voice. You will not be projected as a strong human being if you avoid active voice and use passive voice all the time. For example, instead of saying, "The meeting has been cancelled" say, " We have cancelled the meeting." Another aspect of grammar to be remembered is the use of complex sentences. A better idea will be to use simple and short sentences. The next point is the use of verbs that indicate actions you want to take and the actions you expect the receiver (of your message) to take instead of rehashing the same with long sentences. For example, instead of saying, "As your last date for bill payment is approaching, you are requested to pay your bill by 283-06" you can say, "We request you to pay your bill by 28-3-06. Your last date for bill payment is 28.3.06."

Style: The style followed in writing a business letter or report may vary from country to country. The style may also vary according to the rapport you have with the recipient of your message. However, adopting a formal style without being impersonal is a good idea in business communication.

BUSINESS COMMUNICATION A business can flourish when all objectives of the organization are achieved effectively. For efficiency in an organization, all the people of the organization must be able to convey their message properly. Business Communication is goal oriented. The rules, regulations and policies of a company have to be communicated to people within and outside the organization. Business Communication is regulated by certain rules and norms. Everyone knows that poor communication skills waste time, talent and money. Yet most business communications remains confusing, ungrammatical, unfocused or unnecessary. That is often because the principles of good business writing and speaking have rarely been taught. These principles are not hard to learn but applying them takes practice and discipline. Our business communication program emphasizes on practical skills and handson, participatory training sessions that make learning relevant and engaging. Our goal is to teach strategies that make sense and imbibe skills that can be applied immediately. Ineffective communication is a major, yet avoidable, obstacle to business productivity. With sufficient effort, it can be turned around for the better. Management must face the challenge of formulating strategies to encourage personnel to communicate effectively. On the other hand, managers themselves have to set the example. They need to realize that successful communication is no one-way process.

Reciprocity is the essence of communication, i.e. its a two-way process involved either in oral or written communication. Managers are human beings involved with other human beings. They are more than givers of information or instructions. To communicate

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successfully, managers and supervisors have to understand the other person, and have to make an effort to get the other person to understand them.

FOUR STEPS TO EFFECTIVE BUSINESS COMMUNICATION Attention: Winning the attention of the person with whom we wish to communicate is an obvious first step. In order to achieve this goal, we must first try to eliminate noise. This includes everything that distracts, be it noise in the literal sense, physical or emotional discomfort, personal problems, negative attitudes, or distracting mannerisms or dress. Respect for the other person is an important prerequisite for attention getting. The human greeting, or inquiry about the other person's health or personal circumstances, is an effective catalyst in this process. To be sure, if such introductions are false or stereotyped they might serve little purpose. Understanding: Achieving apprehension is a critical part of the communication process, but it is a very subtle one. Managers sometimes defend their inability to communicate by asking, "Do you understand?" This is usually an unfair question, and even the somewhat improved "What do you understand?" is often perceived as a threat. On the other hand, if there is the right relationship between the transmitter and the receiver of a message, indirect ways of establishing the degree of understanding will present themselves. Assimilation: Often, a person has understood a message perfectly, but he or she has not accepted it. Alternatively, it is accepted in a half-hearted manner, without any conviction. Communication is still incomplete if he has not assimilated the information into his own being. The initiator has achieved an ideal result if the recipient has assimilated the message to the extent that he becomes one with the sender. Assimilation of a concept presented by management, or by another worker, goes a long way towards ensuring active participation, and harmonious cooperation, in the workplace.

Action: This is the final step in the communication process. It is that ingredient which propels abstract or theoretical knowledge into the world of reality. So often a good idea in business meets with acceptance or agreement, but is not translated into action.

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If assimilation has indeed taken place, action on the part of the receiver should follow inevitably. This two-way nature of communication applies here as well. The originator of the message must play his part, too, with much support and encouragement. Importance of Business English We have dealt extensively with the issue of using language effectively for different communicative purposes. Different situations demand of us to perform differently (in terms of language). So it is quite obvious that when we talk about the world of business we will find a kind of English that is used for business purposes. Though it is to be mentioned that English as a language is not different from Business English. The difference is only at the rate at which some language features of English in terms of sentence structure, grammar and style that suit the purpose in a business situation are used. This kind of English is known as Business English. For instance, in a business situation some English words, sentence structures and styles of English language are more common as they help in getting the desired result. It is to be, however, noted that Business English as such is not as much distinguishable in oral communication as in written communication. In oral communication it may be used to build interpersonal relations, to give presentations, for negotiations, in meetings, etc. In this chapter we will be discussing Business English for effective writing. Good business English is required for writing letters, reports, memos, minutes, etc. With India emerging as a global player in the world of business and trade and multinational companies investing heavily in India, we find corporate houses emerging in great numbers. Thus, we cannot ignore the skills one requires to be successful in the corporate world, as many of you may find yourself with jobs in corporate houses. Apart from the other skills soft skills, interpersonal skills, academic qualification, technical skills-from the language point of view, you should definitely be aware of the kind of English used in this sector. Awareness of Business English will make you a better communicator in the sense that you can use the kind of English that the (business) situation demands. A skillful communicator should be aware of how to use language for different purposes and achieve the desired goal. For instance, you may know how to write a letter but may not be aware of the principles of a good business letter, as you may not know the kind of vocabulary and sentence structures used in such letters. As a result you may not be able to perform at your peak, with misunderstandings and ambiguity hindering your communication process. WRITTEN COMMUNICATION: PURPOSE/AUDIENCE Who are your primary and secondary audiences? Primary audiences are those who receive the communication directly. Secondary, or hidden, audiences include anyone may indirectly receive a copy of the communication. These include anyone who will receive a copy, need to approve, will hear about, or be affected by your message. Knowing your purpose and who your audience is will determine your format and word choice.

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Business Letter: A formal business letter is preferred when presenting information to a professor, a superior, or when the communication will be seen by many. Memo: A memo (memorandum) is a less formal style that is used when the information being communicated is of less importance, does not leave the office, and when communicating with subordinates. E-mail: E-mail is the least formal of the styles presented here and should only be used for informal communication such as reminders, questions, or when preferred by the recipient. Word Choice: Overuse of jargon or acronyms in a communication make document hard to read, even if the primary audience is familiar with them. You should limit the use of jargon and acronyms in a communication to as few as possible, particularly if your primary or secondary audiences are not as well versed in their use. You must also watch for confusing or incorrect word choice in your document. Flow/Logic: It is important to know your audiences interests and biases because they will have a tremendous impact on your communication strategy. If your audience has a high interest level in your communication you can go directly to the point without taking much time to arouse their interest. Build a good, logical argument. If your audience has a low interest level, you should use more of a tell/sell style to motivate the readers interest. Keep your message as short as possible, long documents are intimidating and listeners tend to tune out what seems like rambling. The introduction is an important place to set up the underlying flow for the rest of the document. An effective introduction accomplishes three aims: It builds readers interest, explains your purpose for writing, and it provides a preview of the document. Build the readers interest: One method to build interest is to refer to an existing situation, to establish a context. For example: As we discussed yesterday, As you know, we are currently planning for the new fiscal year. Explain your purpose for writing: Let your readers know your reason or purpose for writing. That way they can read with that purpose in mind. Example: This report summarizes the results of our first-quarter sales. I am writing to solicit your opinion on this proposal. Provide a preview: Include a brief table of contents, so your readers will be able to comprehend your writing more easily and to choose specific sections for reference, if they wish.

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Conclusion: The end of your document is another emphatic place in the document. One option if you are using the direct approach and if the document is long is to restate your main ideas. Obviously you dont need to restate your main points in a one page memo or letter. Or, if you are using the indirect approach, state your conclusions or recommendations. Perhaps the most typical closing is to end with an action step or feedback mechanism. Examples include: Ill call you next Thursday to discuss this matter. Please let me know if I can be of any further assistance. Once I have your approval, I will proceed with this plan. Spelling: Remember to always use spell-check before printing your document, but realize that spell-check is not foolproof. You must, or have someone else, proofread the document to ensure spelling and overall accuracy. Common mistakes include typing a correctly spelled word that is not exactly what you wanted. This can cause big problems and even change the entire meaning you are trying to get across. Style tips: Layout means the overall look of your page from the typefaces you choose, to your effective use of white space. The term white space refers to empty space on the page. White space shows your organization and section breaks visually, emphasizes important ideas, and presents your ideas in more manageable bits. Readers react favorably toward white space. The layout of your document can make all the difference. Here are some advantages of using good techniques of layout and white space: If your document looks good, people will be more likely to pick it up and read it. Good layout sets the right tone by making your document look professional. The right spacing, the right margins, and all the other seemingly small choices working together add up to a professional image. An effective layout helps readers know what the parts of a document are. Headings, for example, show where parts of your document begin and end serving as road signs for the reader. Paragraph Writing: Generalization and support: Each paragraph should begin with a generalization, and every sentence in the paragraph should support the generalization. You may start your generalization in either of two ways. For a standard paragraph use a topic sentence. Transitions: To ensure your document flows from one idea to another throughout its entirety, use appropriate transitions. This can be accomplished using traditional transitional words or phrases. The following example illustrates achieving coherence through the words first, second, and third.

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Business Communication & Soft Skills Prince Inc. Company should follow these recommendations to clear up its financial crisis: First, cut back on labor, outside services, and overhead expenses. Second, do not approach shareholders for more capital. Third, renegotiate short-term liabilities with the bank. Following are some frequently used transitions:

PRINCE

Addition or and, further, besides, next, moreover, in addition, again also amplification too, finally, similarly, second, subsequently, last Contrast but, or, nor, yet, still, however, nevertheless, on the contrary, on the other hand, conversely, although, Example, for example, for instance, such as, thus, that is, Sequence first, second, third, next, then

SENTENCES Complete Sentences: A complete sentence contains both a subject and a verb. Do not make the mistake of breaking sentences into two. In other words, do not use periods in the place of commas. Wordiness: Use of extra or flowery words is irrational and uneconomical in business writing. You should use no more words than are necessary to convey your meaning. Grammatical: One common grammatical problem is that a verb must agree in number (singular or plural) with its subject despite intervening phrases that begin with such words as together, including, plus and as well as. Punctuation: In a series of three or more terms with a single conjunction, use a comma after each term except the last. Use a colon after an independent clause to introduce a list of particulars, an appositive, an amplification, or an illustrative quotation. A colon tells the reader that what follows is closely related to the preceding clause. A colon should not separate a verb from its complement or a preposition from its object. Use a semicolon if two or more clauses grammatically complete a compound sentence and are not joined by a conjunction. Use a dash to set off an abrupt break or interruption and to announce a long appositive or summary. A dash is a mark of separation stronger than a comma, less formal than a colon, and more relaxed than parentheses. Active/Passive word use: The best way to define passive voice is to give an example and then to convert it to active voice. Example of a sentence in passive voice: The car is washed by Fred. The same sentence in active voice: Fred washes the car. In the first sentence, the subject (car) is passive (that is, the car isnt doing anything). In the second sentence, the subject (Fred) is active. Fred is doing something (washing).

IMPROVING WRITING BREVITY & CLARITY

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Redundancy refers to saying the same thing twice. It is a needless repetition of a single item of information. The term redundancy in language includes (i) tautology i.e. repetition of an idea in different words, e.g. 7.30 p.m. in the evening; (ii) pleonasm i.e. overloading of idea. Pleonasm is a broader term. It is just the over elaboration of the idea through using more unnecessary words. Phrases may introduce only some variety. They dont improve the clarity of simple words. E.g. if (in the event of), usually (in the majority of cases), because (owing to the fact that), clearly (there can be no doubt that), except (with the exception of), efficiently (in an efficient manner), now (at the present time), agree (come to an agreement), for (for the purpose of). Simple single words should always be used. Short sentences and short words are always welcome. Clichs are so often used that they are no more interesting, effective or relevant and fail to produce any impact. Slangs are informal words that are more common in spoken language, such as cop for policeman, gasbag for talkative bore. Always avoid slangy style in writing. We dont need artistry in scientific writing. Overloaded sentences are boring to the reader. The use of few words conveys the meaning clearly. Jargon means words or expressions generally used by professionals like doctors. The word jargon has both a neutral and a negative sense.

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VII UNIT LETTER WRITING


INTRODUCTION Up until the introduction of cell phone calls to other cities and abroad, millions of people wrote letters to their friends, family members and loved ones in an attempt to keep in touch. This practice however was stopped in the late 70s as more and more people found that telephoning was a much better way to be in touch as it involves immediate response. Letter writing remained the standard form of correspondence in the field of business mainly because a letter is a legal document which can be used as evidence in court in the case of a dispute. Business letters and the letters we still must write to people we do not know in order to complete a transaction are quite formal. How formal they are depends on the receiver and our relationship with him or her. In any case, all letters keep to a basic format which is outlined below. Parts of a letter: Opening (reference to past communication) Main Message (presentation of the present situation and request for action) Close (reference to future communication) Modern formal letters tend to be short and to the point, rather than lengthy reports using very formal language. However, there are some simple rules that apply to all types of letters nowadays. 1. The layout: The main message, which is the reason for writing should not be too lengthy. Different paragraphs are used to show different subjects. The language used should be as clear as possible. 2. Conventions: Date: Before you start writing a the date in India and most of Europe 06/09/09 means the sixth of September 2009 but in the United States the same thing (06/09/09) means the ninth of June 2009. Because you can't be certain how the person you're corresponding with will read the date, it is better to write, 6 September 2009, and there will be no misunderstandings. Subject Heading: This is a very clear way of showing what the letter is about. The use, or not, of subject headings in real life usually depends on a companys or an organizations standard practice. Usually, subject headings help the person who receives the letter if the letter is about a particular order/invoice. Rajarao pagidialli

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Planning the paragraphs: Make a rough draft on your notebook/rough paper with what each paragraph should contain and the order in which it should go. At this stage you must be careful to include all the points asked by the task and in the correct order. Check that you know what action you are going to ask people to take as a result of your letter. The opening and the close: Salutation may depend on the relationship between the two people involved as this often changes the tone of the letter/email to a more personal one. When you open... Dear Sirs/Sir/Madam Dear Mr./Mrs./Ms. you should close ... Yours faithfully Yours sincerely When you open... Dear Ben, you should close ... Best wishes/Best regards/Kind regards The 1st sentence of paragraph 1: The opening of a formal letter depends on whether you are asking or giving information I am writing to enquire about your letter of 15 May regarding. Whether you had previous contact with the person you are writing to. I am writing in connection with your email message of today concerning I am writing with reference to our telephone conversation of 10 June about With reference to your letter of 6 June In connection with our telephone conversation earlier today Whether this is an answer letter. Thank you for your letter (enquiring) about... phone call of 10 May concerning... fax asking if... e-mail message enclosing... The 2nd sentence of paragraph 1: You have now set the tone of your letter. I am interested in .... and I would like to know .... We are a firm of we are examining the possibility We are in the process of buying are thinking of (-ing) I would like to receive/book/order/apply The close: The way you close a formal letter depends on the way you open it. Below, there are some examples of different ways to close a letter. I hope that the information will help you. Please, do not hesitate to contact me if you need any further information. Please, feel free to contact me if you have any questions. I look forward to receiving your reply/order. to hearing from you (Im) looking forward to hearing from you soon (INFORMAL) The main message: Here are some standard ways of saying things in modern correspondence: 1. Giving good news I am happy to tell you I am delighted to inform you that... Rajarao pagidialli

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Business Communication & Soft Skills I am pleased to announce 2. Giving bad news I am sorry to tell I regret to inform you that... 3. Requesting action Please could you give me some further details about ... I would be grateful if you could let me know about/if ... I would appreciate it if you could (possibly) inform me about I would like to know if I would be grateful if you could... I would appreciate it if you could 4. Giving the reason This has been/is because of ... as a result of ... due to ... (the fact that) ... owing to ... (only for bad news) This has been due to unforeseen circumstances. PRINCIPLES OF A WRITING A BUSINESS LETTER

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You will have to develop the art of writing good business letters to communicate effectively at the written level. Almost every one of us has written a letter at some point of our life. A business letter is slightly different from other letters. In today's age of technology, e-mail, a kind of letter sent via the electronic machine also comes under the purview of letter writing. However, we will not discuss letter writing in general but business letters only in this section. We will discuss some principles that are essential for writing a good business letter. Let us start with a quick look at the layout of a business letter. Layout: There is no fixed layout for writing a business letter as different organizations may have their own prescribed layouts to be used in business letters sent from their organization. However, we can discuss a common layout that is generally followed while writing a business letter. The following things are to be included in a business letter: Letterhead: The company's name and full address should be included in this section. Date: The date is written before the inside address of the recipient. Inside Address: This includes the address of the recipient. The address should include the name and the full address of the recipient. Salutation or Greeting: The way you write the salutation depends on the relationship you share with the recipient. If you do not know the gender and name of the recipient it is best to use a neutral, "Dear Sir/ Madame."

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Letter Body: The body of your letter should be clearly written with not more than three paragraphs. The purpose of every paragraph should be clear. Closing: The closing comes after the last paragraph of the letter. The closing again depends on the relationship you share with the recipient and hence the degree of formality. Signature: This comes after the closing. You will have to include your signature, printed name and position (strictly in that order) here. Reasons for writing business letters to persuade to recommend to accept/reject offers to apologize to inform to request to remind Here are some principles you should remember while writing a business letter: Start from the end. Figure out the purpose. Try to find out the goal you want to achieve through the letter. Make a list of the things you have to say and allot a paragraph each to the main points. Add an introductory paragraph and a concluding paragraph. Get to the point early. Do not beat around the bush! The reader is not interested in reading the plot of a story but the purpose of the letter. Be logical and coherent in your approach. This will reflect in the way you write the letter. Identify the reader and your relationship with him or her. You may address the reader with a simple Dear Mr./ Ms/ Miss X (the First and last name) if you are familiar with the person. However, if you are not familiar with him or her, Dear Sir/ Madam will be all right. You are also supposed to write Dear Sir/Madam if you do not know the gender or name of the reader. Avoid repetitions. Avoid camouflaged verbs. For example, "Announcement of the decision made him relieved" is using the noun form of the verb and lacks power. Instead, use "He was relieved to announce his decision." Use familiar words. Avoid using vague and abstract words. Always be precise and concrete. Instead of 'immense benefit in all respects' or 'significant gain', it would help if you use '25% gain' or 'benefit in terms of cost, production, performance'. Use adverbs and adjectives sparingly. Do not be too judgmental or passionate in your use of words. Words like 'breathtaking', 'absolutely', and 'fantastic' are best avoided. Avoid jargons and clichd sentences. That will make your letter natural. Use adjectives appropriately. Do not use them too much neither should you be too stingy in using them. Strike a balance. Rajarao pagidialli

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Use active voice as much as possible. Use simple and short sentences. You cannot waste your time by writing things that do not serve the real purpose but makes your letter long and complicated. End it with what should be the action taken by the reader or you. Try to be friendly. You should not appear rude in an attempt to be too straightforward. You can be straightforward and friendly at the same time. Close with a simple and plain closing phrase. "Yours sincerely" or "Sincerely" and your signature can be a good closing phrase. Take care of the layout and format of the letter. Never write a business letter in anger. You may regret it later. Always end it with an action step if required. Do not leave it vague or leave the reader wondering what you expect from him or her. E-mails: Formatting Business Email E-mails are more common nowadays than a letter sent by post. The principles to be followed here would remain the same as the ones for a regular business letter. However, you should keep in mind the following things while writing business e-mails: Use a simple subject line but one that stands out in the pile of incoming mails in the recipient's email box. If you are sending a status report, mention it in the subject line. If you are discussing a point, mention the point in the subject line. If possible, mark the urgency of the email so that the reader knows the urgency and responds accordingly. Always check your spelling before sending the email. When attaching a document, always mention the document name in the body of the letter so that the reader knows what to expect. Repeat the subject line in the body of the e-mail as it may be lost if the recipient takes out a printout of your e-mail. Avoid using hyperlinks within the body of the text as it distracts the reader. You may provide links at the end of the letter. Your typed name should come in place of your signature.

1. Letter of Enquiry: Dear Sir, With reference to your advertisement in the DC dated December 5, 2012, I would like to have a copy your latest catalogue. I would appreciate it if you could send it at your earliest.

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Business Communication & Soft Skills Yours faithfully, 2. Acceptance of Proposal Dear Mr. Sundar, We are glad to inform you that your proposal for the project has been reviewed and accepted. We would like to arrange a meeting with you to sign the agreement.

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We are eagerly looking forward to this project and are happy to have the opportunity to work with you. Yours sincerely, 3. Thank you Letter Dear Ms. Nissy, Thank you for giving us the opportunity to serve you. We appreciate the confidence that you placed in us, and look forward to a continuing relationship which will prove beneficial to all concerned. Should you need any information, please do not hesitate to contact any of our staff. Yours truly,

4. Congratulating a new business and offering your services: Dear Sir, Congratulations on the opening of your new branch. We are very happy that your business is expanding and that your clientele is increasing. I understand that with the expansion of your business, you would be requiring more writers and book-keepers. As you are well aware we offer such services to new businesses, and offer the same to you. I am enclosing a list of our services and their corresponding prices. If you need clarifications on any of these, please do not hesitate to either call us or write to us. Yours faithfully, 5. Letter of Request

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Business Communication & Soft Skills Dear Mr. James

PRINCE

We would like to remind you about Mondays meeting. I am sure you understand the importance of this meeting, and thus request you to be at our office at 10 a.m. sharp. In case the time does not suit you, please call our office and fix a different time with my secretary. Please bear in mind the urgency of this meeting and try not to delay too much.

Yours sincerely,

MEMORANDUM
A memo, short for the word memorandum, comes from the Latin word memorandus, which means, "to be remembered." Once acted upon, a memo is often thrown away. Not so with business memos. Unlike letters, the external communications of a company, business memos are an internal form of communication and it is standard practice to save them. Their objective is to deliver information or instructions and their scope should be limited to a single topic so that the reader will "get the message" quickly and, if necessary, take an action. Confined to a single topic, each interoffice, interdepartmental and company wide memo becomes part of the institutional memory of an organization. They record daily activities and eliminate the need for time-consuming meetings. As historical documents they are often referred to when writing reports or resolving disputes regarding past activities. In short, they speed up the daily business of doing business. Structure of a Memo: A memo is a hard-copy (sent on paper) document used for communicating inside an organization usually short contains To, From, Date, Subject Headings and Message sections does not need to be signed, but sometimes has the sender's name at the bottom to be more friendly, or the sender's full name to be more formal. Memos should have the following sections and content:

A 'To' section containing the name of the receiver. A 'From' section containing the name of the sender. A 'Date' section. A Subject Heading. The message. Purpose Problem Solution/Action Politeness Signature

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VIII UNIT REPORT WRITING


Introduction: The purpose of a report is to inform someone about a particular subject. Reports are made up of facts and arguments on a specific subject. Reports allow information to be presented in an ordered way. We can write reports for business, psychology, health and safety. Reports present findings and make recommendations rather than a critique of a subject. TYPES OF REPORTS: Informal Reports: Memoranda, Brief Analysis, Trip Report, Laboratory Report, Field Report, Inspection Report etc. Formal Reports: Committee Reports, Institution Report, Reprints, Project Report, State-ofthe Art Report, Status Reports, Trend Reports, Progress Report, Annual Report, Project / Letter Report, Analytical Report, Feasibility Study, Position Paper, Damage Report, Maintenance Report , Project Proposal, Thesis, Synopsis etc. Extended Formal Report: Companies and governments use extended formal reports when reports are going to be seen by the public. The structure of an Extended Formal Report is as follows:
Title Page Contents Synopsis Terms of reference Procedure Detailed findings Conclusions Recommendations Appendices Bibliography

Short Formal Report: A Short Formal Report is for internal use in companies. The structure of a Short Formal Report is as follows:
Title Page Terms of reference Procedure Findings Conclusions

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Recommendations Appendices

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Informal Report: Informal reports are used for internal use, particularly within departments and for dealing with routine issues. The structure for an Informal Report is as follows:
Introduction Main Section- findings Final Section- conclusions and recommendations

Title Page: A title page is the front page of the report. The title page should include the authors name and the date. Contents Page: The contents page is a list of the sections in the report with the related page numbers.

Introduction: The introduction is where you give the reader of the task set and what you intend to cover. The introduction is a good time to include the statement of aims and objectives; this is when you say what you are planning to do and how you are going to do it.

The Terms of Reference: This is an introductory part of the report and should clearly say:
Who the report is for What the report is about When the report needs to being presented by & be presented to

Procedure: This is where you explain how the information was gathered. You also need to say exactly where you got your information from, and how you got the information. This is where you would also include your methodology if relevant.

Findings: This section of the report should contain the information that you found out as a result of your procedure. You will need to include the facts and figures that have been collected during your report. You can use tables, graphs and charts.

Conclusions: The conclusion is made up of the main findings. This is where you show what you think of the information you have found. Make sure that you clearly show how you came to your conclusions, and that they are based on your findings. Everything in this section is based on the findings and you should not introduce new points at this time.

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Recommendations: This is where you must say how the problem can be solved. This must be based on the findings of the report. You can have short term and long-term recommendations; you need to be aware of the implication of your recommendations (financial etc).

Appendices: An appendix is the additional information you refer to in the report and wish to conclude as evidence or demonstration of the full findings. Graphs, tables etc, should be within the findings section if they need to be looked at whilst reading the report. The appendices should only include information that may possibly be referred to out of interest or is needed as evidence.

Language and Style


Your writing must be clear and precise in meaning. The style of writing should be factual and objective. The language must be formal. Do not use slang. Do not use I, you or me in a formal report. Use third person language such as- The personnel committee requested a report on

Layout/ Headings
The main parts of your report should have headings. Important points inside these main areas should carry sub-headings. If you want to draw attention to a specific word or section, underline that word or heading. Numbers can be used to help list points of importance in order. You can use letters to distinguish between different parts of the report

Technical Report Writing Laws Four general requirements must be met to produce good reports: clarity, conciseness, continuity and objectivity. Clarity The purpose of a technical report is to transmit conclusions and their supporting evidence. To do this, your report must convey your exact meaning to the reader. The text must be clear and unambiguous, mathematical symbols must be fully defined, and the figures and tables must be easily understood. Conciseness Most of your intended readers are busy. Therefore your reports should be concisely written. That is, your story should be told with the fewest possible words and illustrations.

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Help your readers by omitting everything irrelevant to the results and conclusions. Do not be disappointed if a report that describes a lengthy program is only a few pages long: Report quality is often inversely related to report length. Your readers will be interested in your conclusions and the supporting evidence and will want to get these as quickly as possible. Include all details needed to understand the current report. In short, make your reports brief but comprehensible. Continuity Reports should tell a complete story as logically and interestingly as possible. This requires continuity between succeeding sentences, paragraphs, and sections and between the written text and the figures and tables. Transitional words, phrases, sentences, or even paragraphs may be needed to lead your readers through the story. But overusing transitions can slow the pace of your narrative. Carefully choose the places at which you refer to figures and tables to limit distraction. Making these references at the beginning or end of a discussion is usually preferable. Objectivity Technical reports should be objective and show restraint. They expect you to evaluate the data honestly. Do not try to hide deficiencies in your research. No technical report is better than the research on which it is based. Tell your readers frankly what your assumptions were, what your probable errors are, and what you may not understand about the results. In addition to being honest, be tactful. Your readers will be persuaded by facts, but they may become irritated if you attempt to impress them with your cleverness or to claim credit for accomplishments. Write to express, not to impress. PLANNING THE REPORT Main stages in Planning the Report; Collect your information. Sources include laboratory handouts and lecture notes, the University Library, the reference books and journals. Keep an accurate record of all the published references which you intend to use in your report, by noting down the following information; Journal article: author(s) title of article name of journal (italic or underlined) year of publication volume number (bold) issue number, if provided (in brackets) page numbers

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Business Communication & Soft Skills Book:

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author(s) title of book (italic or underlined) edition, if appropriate publisher year of publication

Creative phase of planning: Write down topics and ideas from your researched material in random order. Next arrange them into logical groups. Keep note of topics that do not fit into groups in case they come in useful later. Put the groups into a logical sequence which covers the topic of your report. Structuring the report: Using your logical sequence of grouped ideas, write out a rough outline of the report with headings and subheadings. Writing the first draft Who is going to read the report? For coursework assignments, the readers might be fellow students and/or faculty. In professional contexts, the readers might be managers, clients, project team members. The answer will affect the content and technical level, and is a major consideration in the level of detail required in the introduction. Begin writing with the main text, not the introduction. Follow your outline in terms of headings and subheadings. Let the ideas flow; do not worry at this stage about style, spelling or word processing. If you get stuck, go back to your outline plan and make more detailed preparatory notes to get the writing flowing again. Revising the first draft This is the stage at which your report will start to take shape as a professional, technical document. In revising what you have drafted you must bear in mind the following, important principle; the essence of a successful technical report lies in how accurately and concisely it conveys the intended information to the intended readership. Diagrams, graphs, tables and mathematics It is often the case that technical information is most concisely and clearly conveyed by means other than words. Imagine how you would describe an electrical circuit layout using words rather than a circuit diagram. The report layout The appearance of a report is no less important than its content. An attractive, clearly organised report stands a better chance of being read. Use a standard, 12pt, font, such as Times New Roman, for the main text. Use different font sizes, bold, italic and

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underline where appropriate but not to excess. Too many changes of type style can look very fussy. Headings Use heading and sub-headings to break up the text and to guide the reader. They should be based on the logical sequence which you identified at the planning stage but with enough sub-headings to break up the material into manageable chunks. The use of numbering and type size and style can clarify the structure. Styles This document mostly uses styles called Normal (used for default paragraphs), Caption (for captions), Headings (for paragraph heading), and Program (used for program code examples). There are a few others (used for footnotes, headers, and footers, as well). Try to limit the number of different styles you use, and above all, be consistent. Type: Any professional serif font (e.g., Times). Headings may employ a sans serif font (e.g. Arial). Size: Minimum 12pt., but use the same font size throughout, including title page and headings. Professional reports generally do not increase the font size for titles and headings. REPORT STYLE Length Write carefully and concisely; there is no extra credit for long reports, and short reports are preferred so long as they are complete. After a first draft, read through the report to eliminate unnecessary phrases and words Structure and Meaning Structure each paragraph so that it is easily readable. Each paragraph should contain one central idea, summarized in the first sentence of a paragraph. Check each sentence for accuracy. Read through the report a day after you write it and be sure that each sentence conveys the intended meaning and no other. Miscellaneous Use past tense when discussing results and methods. Use present tense for general background, significance, or theory. Make sure tenses agree within a sentence. Generally, the third person is most commonly used for technical reports. However, the first person is becoming more common and may be used if desired and appropriate to the content of the sentence. References to diagrams, graphs, tables and equations In the main text you must always refer to any diagram, graph or table which you use.

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Originality and plagiarism Whenever you make use of other peoples facts or ideas, you must indicate this in the text with a number which refers to an item in the list of references. Any phrases, sentences or paragraphs which are copied unaltered must be enclosed in quotation marks and referenced by a number. Material which is not reproduced unaltered should not be in quotation marks but must still be referenced. It is not sufficient to list the sources of information at the end of the report; you must indicate the sources of information individually within the report using the reference numbering system. Finalising the Report Your report should now be nearly complete with an introduction, main text in sections, conclusions, properly formatted references and bibliography and any appendices. Now you must add the page numbers, contents and title pages and write the summary. The Summary The summary, with the title, should indicate the scope of the report and give the main results and conclusions. It must be intelligible without the rest of the report. Many people may read, and refer to, a report summary but only a few may read the full report, as often happens in a professional organisation. Purpose a short version of the report and a guide to the report. Length short, typically not more than 100-300 words Content provide information, not just a description of the report. Proofreading This refers to the checking of every aspect of a piece of written work from the content to the layout and is an absolutely necessary part of the writing process. You should acquire the habit of never sending or submitting any piece of written work, from email to course work, without at least one and preferably several processes of proofreading. In addition, it is not possible for you, as the author of a long piece of writing, to proofread accurately yourself; you are too familiar with what you have written and will not spot all the mistakes. When you have finished your report, and before you staple it, you must check it very carefully yourself. You should then give it to someone else, e.g. one of your friends or colleagues, to read carefully and check for any errors in content, style, structure and layout. You should record the name of this person in your acknowledgements.

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Business Communication & Soft Skills Thesis Writing

PRINCE

A dissertation or thesis is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the authors research and findings. A thesis writing is a continuous task and may take several months depending upon the nature of thesis. A thesis contains several sections and each section should be paid due attention. A candidate should proceed steadily in a controlled manner to write a thesis. The section-wise tips for writing a thesis are provided below: The Cover Page: The cover page contains following information: title of the thesis as approved by the University, candidates name, supervisor and co-supervisors name and their affiliations, name of the University, year of submission, a statement that the thesis is submitted for the fulfillment of the requirements for a degree of doctor of philosophy in psychology. Each of these components should be 100% accurate. Check each alphabet for accuracy. Do not finalize the cover page in hurry. A supervisor may be referred to as Supervisor or a Guide by the University. The Declaration and Certificates: A declaration by the candidate that the thesis titled {Title of the thesis} embodies the genuine research work carried out by him under the supervision of {supervisors name}. This declaration should be signed by the candidate and his/her Ph.D registration number should appear below the name of the candidate. A guide is required to certify that the thesis titled {Title of the thesis} by {Candidates name} is an authentic work of the research work carried out under his/her supervision. A guide may also be required to testify the character and attendance of the candidate for Ph.D work. Content: A table of content must be given in the thesis.
This table contains Chapter No. Chapter Title and Page Nos. List of Tables List of Figures

Acknowledgement: This chapter has a very high emotional connotations and should be handled sensitively. You should try to acknowledge as many persons and institutions as possible who helped you in one or the other way in your research. Followings must be duly acknowledged: Supervisors, Director/Principal/HOD of the Departments/Facility where research was conducted, your teachers, your friends, family members, well wishers subjects, librarians, DTP operator. Introduction: It is recommend that this chapter be written at the end that is after writing summary and conclusion because by the time you would have sufficient knowledge and background of the concepts and theories involved in your thesis. This may extend to 15-25 pages. This chapter should be organized into various sections:
Review of Literature Need for the Present Study

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Aims & Objectives/Hypotheses Statistical Analysis

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Discussion: A discussion is one of the most vital part of the thesis. This chapter should be written slowly and steadily. A solid cognitive framework should be made by the candidate for writing this chapter. This chapter should be organized into various sections defined by objectives of your theses. Take one objective at a time and finish the discussion of this objective and then take up next objective and complete the cycles. First extract your salient and central results and make a list, then discuss all the central results one by one and organize them according to your objectives. A discussion usually flows in following manner:
Report a central result Compare this result with existing literature and mention which studies support and which studies contradict this result Develop and provide some logical explanation for this result Explain this result based upon some theories Bring out implications and future directions of this result. This chapter may extend to 15-25 pages.

Summary and Conclusion: You should present a brief summary of the thesis here and it contains following information.
A brief background of the research work extracted from need for the present study chapter Statement of all aims, objectives, hypotheses All sections of Method chapter in brief; i.e. sample, name of tools, procedure, statistical tests All salient results

Implications: The practical and applied utility of the research outcomes should be mentioned in detail suggestions for future research. You should enlist as many related areas that can be researched by future researchers to further extend the area of research References:
Sufficient attention should be paid to reference section. You would have to add following forms of references. Get familiar with the system adopted by your university for each form of reference An article published in a scientific journal single author, two authors, multiple authors A write up published in non-scientific journals like magazine A chapter in an Edited Book A book A personal communication Retrieval from World Wide Web

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Any other

PRINCE

Pay close attention to how following components of references are cited in the thesis: Last Name, Middle and Surnames, Year, Article or Book Chapter Title, Journal or Book name, Editors Name, Volume Number, Page Numbers, Publishers of Books, Year of Publication.

Guidelines for Synopsis writing: Read the Content carefully. Ask yourself: What am I required to summarise. Mark the first and last lines of the passage you are asked to refer to. Then select information that is relevant. To do this, underline the relevant lines or ideas as you read the text. Look through the lines/ideas you have underlined. Summarise these ideas, using condensation, reorganisation or paraphrasing skills. Write the synopsis.

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