Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 39


In April May 2011 "ALTEA & GEOSTUDIO 2000" L.t.d. performed the geotechnical geological survey of the area where will be built the Qafa Buallit tunnel, part of the road Arberit during construction time request by GJOKA KONSTRUKSION . In order to clarify the geological and geotechnical conditions of the area where this tunnel will pass, we made the following works: Preliminary design: 1. A detailed geological survey in the zone where passes the tunnel. 2. A study of all previous works performed from the geological and mine enterprises at the zone of tunnel, at both sides of tunnel, Plani Bardhe and Bulqiza. Detailed design: 1. Two boring hole depth 35-60.00m 2. Laboratory testing 3. Detailed geological survey at apruved axis of the tunnel 4. Geological section During construction time: 1. Four borehole depth 27.00-60.00m 2. Geological section 3. Borehole logs 4. Laboratory testing

1.2 Purpose of Investigation

The destination of this investigation is the determination of the physical and mechanical properties of the rocks encountered in the area where the new Qafa Bualli Tunnel passes. The data taken from the field and laboratory works will be useful to the designers to choose the best coating of tunnel with an optimal cost and a long resistance. For the realization of this investigation there were exploited previous works prepared by the authors of this investigation, such as: 1. Geological, engineering and geotechnical investigation performed by the Department of Geology and Geodesy for the crom factory in Bulqiza 1960 1980. 2. Geological study for the ultrabasic massive of Bulqiza region made by geological enterprise Bulqiza1969-1980. 3. Geological and geotechnical study for the Bulqiza zone by ALTEA & GEOSTUDIO 2000 1996-2011 4. Geological and geotechnical investigations for rural roads performed by ALTEA & GEOSTUDIO 2000 at Bulqiza Zone1997-2011. 5. Geological and geotechnical investigation performed by ALTEA & GEOSTUDIO 2000 for Bulqiza Ura Cerenecit road 2005.

Page 1 of 39

6. Geological and geotechnical investigation performed by ALTEA & GEOSTUDIO 2000 for Bulqiza Ura Vashes road 2008. 7. Geological and geotechnical invesgtigation performed by ALTEA & GEOSTUDIO 2000 FOR Qafa Buallit tunnel during design time 2008

In this chapter we will discuss the description of the area where Qaf Bualli Tunnel is located; the shapes of today and earlier relief, the geological conditions of the formation of this relief. The description of the geological and geodynamical phenomena will be discussed. - The mountain of Qaf Bualli (the summit called Qafa e Buallit) represents a big Mountain. This mountain has been created following a volcanic and tectonic activity. It is composed of ultra basic rock (peridotite ,pyraxenes, dunite and olivinite). The biggest part of this mountain is deforested of the plants, but there are also parts covered with plants and high forest. - The valley of Plani I Bardhe stream. It is composed of two branches and close to their point of intersection, in the middle of them there is the Western face of tunnel. These streams form deep valleys with sharp slopes. At the entrance of tunnel the rocks are covered with a colluvium deposits. There in both sides of the valley is developed the village of Plani I Bardhe, away from the entry of tunnel. - The valley of Bulqiza stream. This valley is very narrow under the shape of the V letter. It has very tilted slopes which, to the most elevated quotas, become soft. The slopes of the valley are deforested, but in their tops they are covered with wood. In the two sides of the valley, the geological physical phenomena are very developed, but there are not massive slips of land that could threaten the stability of the body of the Eastern face. 2.2 Physical, geological and geodynamical processes For the investigation of the geological phenomena of this area we are based on the existing investigations and on the new information taken from the actual investigation. Based on these data we are making the description of the geological phenomena that are present in the geological formations that are seen in this area. The most visible geological and geodynamical phenomena observed in this area are: 1. Erosion 2. Weathering phenomenon 3. Debris flow of the superficial part of rocks 4. Tectonic fault zones(geodynamic phenomenon) These phenomena are explained one by one below:

Page 2 of 39

1. Erosion phenomenon is visible in the hilly part of the area, starting from Plani I Bardhe Village up to Bulqiza, close to the end of the tunnel section project. The currents of the surface water, which gather during heavy rainfall, erode the weathered part of the core formation and transport the material to the lowest points of the relief. The body of the entrance of the tunnel is in the middle part of the valley. It is exposed to this phenomenon. Regarding this, attention must be paid to the protection of the road track being under excavation and filling from the danger of erosion. For this we recommend the removal of the water in its both sides by means of ditches. During excavations the entrance of tunnel must be protected in the upper part in order not to allow the surface water create currents and erode the material of the slopes. 2. Weathering phenomenon is visible at the core formations that are composed of upper part of rock. The water penetrates the fissures of the rock and during melting or frostiness the rock become destroyed because of increasing and decreasing its volume. Weathering phenomenon is happening also because of the passage of the hydrothermal waters that come from the depths with high temperatures. These waters pass through the fissures of the rocks and alter them chemically and physically. When hydrothermal waters pass through the fissures of ultra basic rocks (peridotite and olivinite) alter the rock into serpentinite which has weak physical mechanical characteristics. In the zone of ultra basic rocks are encountered such zones of 8-14m thick. 3. Debris flow of the superficial part of rocks. In the deep valleys of the torrents of the zone, especially in the valleys of the torrent of Plani I Bardhe, the debris (parts parceled out of the rocky formations) are detached and fall quickly of the most elevated quotas in the lowest quotas. To protect the entrance of the tunnel by the debris flow, we recommend taking protective measures with metallic mesh. 4. Tectonic fault zones (geodynamic phenomenon). In Albania there is a developed regional tectonic activity which is mainly horizontal with a low angle overthrust. From the studies of the Albanian and foreign authorities it has been noticed that all the eastern areas have moved with a low angle overthrust towards west. This phenomenon has caused the complete destruction of the rock masses. This big regional tectonic activity is associated with with a lot of other regional tectonics which are present in the area where the tunnel of Qafe Bualli passes. From the structural point of view, all different petrographic kinds are in a structural continuity with a general orientation North East-South West. Generally, the deep of the structures are 45-50o towards North and North West. Tectonic Fault is very developed at the massive rock, mainly at the part of ultra basic rocks. It is represented by two kinds: Tectonic zone of a thickness 20-25m. In the studied area is encountered a fault that pass at Qafa e Buallit which is oriented West East South West. The deep is almost vertical. The zone was transformed from a strong rock into a clayey mass with pieces of rock because of the movement of rock

Page 3 of 39

massive. It has weak physical mechanical characteristics. We recommend paying attention to the tunnel project especially for that interval. Tectonic zone of a thickness 5-8.00m. During tunnel opening is foreseen to encounter small tectonic faults of 5-8.00m which have different orientations. In these intervals, the rock is altered; it is changed into clayey mass with pieces of rocks. In this fault is foreseen flow of underground waters, but not in big quantity. The tectonic zones in surface are identified in the geological map but also the streams of the zone are developed mainly in the tectonic zones. 2.3 Seismic hazard 2.3.1 Seismic activity in Albania The complex structural environment of Albania belongs to the central Mediterranean Region. Here African and Eurasian plates collide, giving origin to some seismically active belts. In particular Albania is at the junction between the Adriatic micro plate and the Eurasian plate and is characterized by intense micro-earthquake activity and small and medium-sited earthquakes and only seldom by large events. These are concentrated mostly along active faults. Some historic data are: Durres city was struck by strong earthquakes at 177 year (B.C.), 334, 506, 1273, 1869, years (A.C.). The earthquake of March 1273 totally destroyed the city with 25 000 inhabitants. The ancient city of Apollonia was struck by strong earthquakes in the II III century B.C. The ancient town of Butrint was struck by a strong earthquake in 1153 that destroyed it. Vlora town was struck by some strong earthquakes with the intensity IX degree (MSK 1964) during the XIX century, years 1833 1866. In the chronicle are given some data about Vlora city, which was struck in 1601 by strong earthquakes. Berati Town was struck by strong earthquakes in March 1551 and December 1851. Tepelena town was struck by strong earthquakes in March 1701 and April 1868. Elbasan town was struck by strong earthquakes in 1380 and September 1842. Konispol town was struck by strong earthquakes in July 1823 and February 1872. Himara town was struck by strong earthquakes in October 1858, August 1869 and July 1893.

Page 4 of 39

Delvina town was struck by strong earthquakes in June 1854 and January 1897. Shkodra town was struck by a strong earthquake in June 1855. Shkodra town July, 1 1905, M = 6.6, Io = IX degree (MSK 64). Ohrid Lake February, 8 1911, M = 6.7, Io = IX degree (MSK 64). Tepelena town November, 26 1920, M = 6.4, Io = IX degree (MSK 64). Durres town December, 17 1926, M = 6.2, Io = IX degree (MSK 64). Llogara Zone November, 21 1930, M = 6.0, Io = IX degree (MSK 64). Lushnja town September 1, 1959, M = 6.2, Io = VIII IX degree (MSK 64). Korca town May 20, 1960 M = 6.4, Io = IX degree (MSK 64). Dibra region November 30, 1967 M = 6.6, Io = IX degree (MSK 64). Boundary zone Montenegro Albania April 15, 1979, Ms = 6.9, Io = IX degree (MSK 64). Based on historical and instrumental records the Map of Seismic Zoning of the country (scale 1: 500000) has been compiled by Sul Starova et al. (1980). This map (Fig.2) represents the expected intensities for average soil conditions for the next 100 years, with a 70% probability rate. 2.3.2 Seismic design parameters in the project area. The current and official documents concerning seismic design parameters of Albania are the Seismic Regionalization Map of Albania by the Seismologic Institute in Tirana and the Design Seismic Norm KPT No. 2 89, edited in 1989 by the Seismological Institute of Tirana and Construction Ministry. The Seismic Regionalization Map shows that all the project area is evaluated with an oscillation intensity of VII degree. Seismic Zonation Map of Albania

Page 5 of 39

In the Design Seismic Norms KPT-No.2-89, the influence of local ground conditions on the seismic action shall be accounted for by three subsoil categories I, II, III, (as described in Table 1) Table 1 Soil Classification Soil category Description - All kinds of rock (excluding weathered rocks) - Compact gravel - Marl (not weathered)

Page 6 of 39


- Weathered rocks and marls - Gravel sands, coarse and medium grained sands compact and semi compact - Fine grained sand-compact - Clayey sand and sandy clay-stiff, semi-stiff and stiff plastic - Stiff plastic clay - Fine grained sand semi-compact - Silty sand compact and semi-compact - Clayey sand and sandy clay from medium stiff to soft plastic - Clay from medium stiff to soft plastic


Based on this table, the construction ground of the Bulqiza zone is classified as follows: - is included in category I, For slope stability estimations the maximum value of design ground acceleration a = 0.15 g is adopted. This is based on the studies carried out by Enterprise GeologyEngineer, Seismic Center and Geology-Engineering Department in the Bulqiza region. 2.3.3 Design Response Spectrum For calculation of buildings and different structures with spectral method, in the case of horizontal seismic forces, the spectral acceleration design values Sa are defined by the following (based on Design Seismic Norms KPT-No.2-89): Sa = kE x kr x y x x g where: kE : seismicity coefficient depending on seismic intensity and soil category (see Table 2) kr : building importance coefficient (see Table 3) y : structural coefficient (see Table 4) : dynamic coefficient, the value of which are dependent on the free vibration period (see Fig.2 ); g : gravity acceleration Table 2 Seismicity Coefficient kE

Page 7 of 39

Category of soil I II III

Seismic intensity (MSK-64) VII 0.08 0.11 0.14 VIII 0.16 0.22 0.26 IX 0.27 0.36 0.42

Table 3

Building Importance Coefficient kr Importance coefficient kr 4 1.75 1.5

Category Description of building and structures Buildings and Structures of Extraordinary Importance a) Buildings and structures where small damage may cause catastrophic damage like: poisoning of the population, fire explosions, etc. b) Buildings and Structures of a very big economic or strategic importance. c) Buildings and Structures where the interruption of the technological process is allowed. Buildings and Structures of Special Importance a) Buildings and Structures, which have a special importance for post earthquake recovery, like: telecommunication network, fire station, big hospitals, big flour factories etc. b) Buildings and Structures whose damage may cause big causalities, like: schools, nursery schools, kindergarten, cinema, stadiums, hotels, and other objects like these where there are big concentration of peoples. c) Buildings and Structures whose damage may cause losses for the economy. d) Buildings and Structures of special cultural and monumental value.

1.5 1.3 1.2 1.2



Buildings and Structures of Ordinary Importance 1.0 Buildings and Structures that are not included in other categories, like: residential buildings, different institutions, like: museums, libraries, hotels, schools, cinemas, etc., different factories and

Page 8 of 39

plants, big warehouses, engineering structures like: retaining walls, water towers and others. IV Buildings and Structures of Secondary Importance Buildings and Structures whose damage does not cause big losses 0.5 of human life or interruption of technological process. Temporary Buildings and Structures Buildings and Structures whose collapse does not risk the peoples life. No calculation is needed

Transport structures Category Description of building and structures Importance coefficient kr

Railway or road bridges with special importance and all other bridges with light bay HD: 1.5 HD >= 50m. Railway or road bridges with light bay (HD): a) 30m < HD < 50m b) 18m < HD <= 30m c) HD <= 18m Railway or road tunnels with length (L): a) L >= 500m b) 100 <= L < 500m c) L < 100m 1.5 1.3 1.0 1.3 1.2 1.0




Retaining walls.


Page 9 of 39

Table 4 Structural coefficient Category Description of building and structures I Constructions with metallic frame. Constructions with reinforced concrete frames when is not consider frame-wall interaction: a) h/b <= 15 b) h/b >= 25 II c) 15 < h/b < 25 where: h - is columns height b - is columns dimension in the seismic force direction. Note: For the different storeys height value is determine on the average value of the rapport h/b. III Constructions with reinforced concrete frames when considering frame-wall interaction. Combined structures with reinforced concrete (frames combined with vertical structural walls). Constructions with reinforced concrete walls. 0.3 Structural coefficient 0.20

0.25 0.38 interpolated





Buildings with masonry walls not reinforced with concrete columns Buildings with masonry walls reinforced with concrete columns High constructions with small dimensions in plane, as chimney, antenna, water tower and other high constructions like them:





a) metallic b) concrete and reinforced concrete c) masonry

0.3 0.4 0.45

Page 10 of 39


Tanks, blockhouse and other constructions like them (supported directly on the ground or on the columns): a) metallic b) reinforced concrete Bridges :

0.2 0.25

a) with reinforced concrete understructure b) with concrete understructure Retaining walls:

0.25 0.28 0.25 0.28 0.25


a) with reinforced concrete b) with concrete and stone Underground structures.



Hydraulic structures as barriers and other structures like them: a) with site materials b) with concrete and reinforced concrete Other hydraulic structures as tower for water, tower for entering in tunnels, equilibrium tower etc.

0.25 0.35



: dynamic coefficient which is determined from the below formulas and from Fig.2: 1. For first soil category 0.65 = 0.7Ti 2.3 2. For second soil category 0.65 = 0.8Ti 2.0 3. For third soil category 0.65 = 1.1Ti 1.7 (4) (Seismic Norm) (5) (Seismic Norm) (6) (Seismic Norm)

where: T1: Fundamental period of free vibration which shall be carried out using the methods of structural dynamics, or by means of approximate formulae which are based on the principles of structural dynamics.

Page 11 of 39

Fig.3 Dynamic Coefficient

2.3.4 Base Shear Force The seismic base shear force Eki for each direction is determined as follows (based on Design Seismic Norms KPT-No.2-89): E ki = K E K r 1 ki Q k ki the coefficient of the seismic load distribution, which answer to the i forms of own oscillations of the construction at the k level; this coefficient is determined as per paragraph 2.6.5 or 2.6.6 of the Design Seismic Norms KPT-No.2-89. Qk is the weight of the engineering work, which is concentrated in the k level and is determined in base of calculating loads (permanent or temporary) reduced with combination coefficients of the table (3) (paragraph 2.3.2) in conformity with the point 2, 3, 4 of the Design Seismic Norms KPT-No.2-89. 3.0 Geological and Hydrogeological condition In this chapter we will treat the geological composition of the area making use of the existing studies and site works performed by ALTEA & GEOSTUDIO 2000 Sh.p.k. 3.1 Existing Investigations In Bulqiza region there are performed investigations for researches of useful minerals such as copper, chrome and other minerals. Regional investigations for the preparation of the geological map of Albania are performed. Geological investigations were carried out in the civil engineering field, when the hydropower of

Page 12 of 39

Fierza the construction materials that might be used for the construction of the dam were being investigated. Geological and engineering investigations have been performed for the railway bridges. Albania is a part of Alpine geosynclines with a tectonic movement development. The oldest structures are in Hercinian. These deposits are found at the tectonic zone of Korabi. Tectonic development of Balkan is as a result of an interaction between Euroasia plate and Africa plate. The geostructure that takes part in the Albanian territory is called Albanide and it is the continuation of Dinarides in the North and Helenides in the South. From the tectonic point of view, Albanides are divided into North Albanides and South Albanides. The divisive boundary between North and South Albanides is the deep Shkoder Peje tectonic deflection. North and South Albanides themselves are divided into indoor Albanides and outdoor Albanides as below:

Indoor North Albanides Outdoor

Indoor South Albanides Outdoor The Indoor North Albanides include only the region of Krasta Cukali. The Outdoor North Albanides include the region of Alps and Kruja region. The Indoor South Albanides include Korabi and Mirdita region. The Outdoor South Albanides include Krasta Cukali region, Kruja region, Ionian region and Sazan and Karaburun region. The structural geology of Albania is divided into big tectonic units, which have different characteristics from each other. These are: Albanian Alps, Korabi, Mirdita, Kraste Cukali,

Page 13 of 39

Kruja, Ionian, Sazani and Karaburuni. Albanian Alps Region This region continues from the territory of Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia. In this region there are present mostly calcareous rocks. There is a great advancement of the Carst phenomenon in these rocks. The geological advancement has started with the deposits of Permian (P) and it goes on with the geological deposits up to Oligocene (Pg3). This region is in contact with south regions through a deep tectonic line, which is called Shkodra-Peja disjunction. Through this valley with tectonic origin Drin River flows. Korabi Region This tectonic unit lays on the East of Albania at border with Kosovo and Macedonia. The majority part of this tectonic zone extends over the borders of Albania, in Macedonia and Greece. The Alpine geosynclinals during Triassic period has made large tectonic changes. Geological history of Korabi region has started in periods of Silurian and Devonian (S D) and has continued up to quaternary. This entire tectonic region is overlaying Mirdita region. At their contact area there are found tectonically destroyed rocks. Mirdita Region This region is called internal region. In this region we have an advancement of volcanism, and magmatic and volcanic -sedimentary rocks are found. In some parts of this region, during Neogene period there are created some hollows of tectonic and erosion origin such as Kukes hollow, Burreli hollow, Librazhd hollow, Pogradec hollow, Korca hollow and Kolonja hollow. In these hollows granular formations have been deposited. The other regions are not important for the road segment, for this reason we are not discussing them.

Bulqiza tunnel zone is part of Mirdita region. In this region there are present Basic and Ultra basic rocks, limestone deposits and granular deposits. But in the region where the road passes are present the deposits below: a) Ultra basic rock (Olivinite, Peridotite, Pyroxenite) c) Quaternary Deposits Q4 a. J 2-3 Ultra basic rocks; Olivinite, Peridotite and Pyroxenite with grey to olive color, having many cracks, form stable slopes. These rocks are sometimes serpentined and their physical and mechanical characteristics weaken a lot. In these cases the serpentined zones are encountered in the tectonic contacts. According to the studies done in this zone, there are not tectonic zones of big width, but only tectonic lines and the destroyed zone is maximally 5-10m in its two sides. The superficial part of these rocks is fissured intensively and

Page 14 of 39

therefore, in the valleys of the different torrents, there are always falls of stones of different size. These rocks are nearly met toward the middle of the tunnel until the Plani I Bardhe village and Bulqiza city. c) Quaternary Deposits According to the way of formation these deposits will be divided into torrent deposits and colluvium deposits. - Torrent Deposits are represented by the formations of some streams around the region such as Thirra up to Kolsh, and other smaller streams. In some cases these deposits intertwine with alluvial deposits. They are composed of silty clays, sands and silty sands; are moderate consolidated and are found at the beds of the streams. They have a thickness of 4.0-5.00 m. - Colluvium Deposits are represented by silty clays and gravelly silty clays. They are moderate consolidated and are found in the valley slopes. These deposits rest on the core formations and have a thickness of 1.0 2.50m. In some cases these deposits are unstable; they slide in the direction of relief downfall. Emphasizing that the road passes through stable zones and these deposits do not affect its stability. With the new alignment these areas will be completely eliminated. 3.2 Hydrogeological Conditions From the performed investigations in Bulqiza area (from the measurements taken at the boreholes and exploratory holes) it results that the underground water level. The authors of the investigation have made use of all existing and the new works. These works possess several meassurements made during the investigation period and it results that in the majority part of the region the underground water level is very deep during all seasons except the period when the surface is full of snow. From the performed tests it comes out that they are neutral waters and not aggressive against steel and concrete. 4.0 The geological conditions of the zone where will be constructed the tunnel. In accordance with the existing studies, boreholes and the materials accumulated of the site visits, we are making a general description of the geological engineering and geotechnical conditions of the zone where pass the tunnel. From the Entrance until the exit of the tunnel are met the ultra basic rocks that are composed of pyroxenes, peridotites and olivine. The main minerals of this zone are: Pyroxenes are represented by clino-pyroxenes, ortho-pyroxenes. The quantity of pyroxenes monocline and rhombic is different; in some cases it is noted the passage from pyroxenes to pyroxenes and olivine, in some other cases they contain plagioclase. Pyroxenes monocline is the main part of the rock having grains 1-3mm up to 5-6mm. Quantities of Pyroxenes rhombic are bigger than those of pyroxenes monocline. Olivine is gradually increased up to 15% and is serpentined.

Page 15 of 39

Peridotites are composed of serpentined olivine, pyroxenes rhombic, pyroxenes monocline and rarely plagioclase; as accessories minerals there are met chrome whereas as secondary minerals there are met magnetites, oxides of iron, carbonate.talk.serpentine. Olivine is replaced from serpentine and magnetite secondary, orthopyroxenes represent 35%, clino-pyroxenes represent 25-30%, whereas the rest is serpentined olivine. Quantity of olivine, pyroxenes rhombic and pyroxenes monocline increase and decrease in rapport with each-other. Ortho-pyroxenes is represented under grains 3mm very deformed (kind-band). They have a layer texture with a fall toward South up to South-West angle of falling 50-60o, with cracks and traversed by tectonic separating line. Dunite (olivinite) These rocks are scattered from the contact with gabbros until to the exit of tunnel. Their upper part is weathered. Their main mineral is olivine and they contain little pyroxenes. Chrome is met as an accessory mineral. Olivine in some cases is represented serpentined. In these rocks there are some minerals of chrome possibly displaced from each other because of tectonic movements. In dunite rock there are observed even layers or strata of pyroxenes falling towards South up to Southwest with an angle of fall 40-60o. Frequent interlacing of these kinds of rocks reduces much the stability of these rocks. Contacts between them are mostly tectonic. Tectonic lines serve also as channels for the passage of the underground waters. Another factor that reduces the stability of the rocks is the system of the primary cracks which in ultra basic rocks is very developed. From the contact with gabbros at the direction of North-East, in ultra basic rocks there are tectonic separating lines and zones having a thickness from some cm until 20m; those are present in torrents, small valleys and hillsides. 4.2 Physical mechanical characteristics of the rocks met in the zone of tunnel Based on several field works and laboratory tests performed for the rocks met in the zone of tunnel, we will show the two principal kinds of rocks as follows: For Ultra basic rocks Specific gravity Gs = 2.78- 2.85T/m3 Bulk density = 2.65-2.82 T/m3 Void ratio e = 0.10-0.06 Permeability k=5.10-2 5.10-6 cm/sec Velocity index (VF/VL) I= 0.45-0.52 Rock Quality Designation RQD = 35-45% Modulus deformation E = 2.4.102-2.6.103 MPa Poisons ratio = 0.10-0.20 Uniaxial compressive strength Rc = 60-70 MPa Growth of temperature with the advancing of the depth in the rock = 2.4-2.5o Celsius for 100m depth from the ground surface.

Page 16 of 39

For Tectonic fault Specific gravity Bulk density Void ratio Permeability Rock Quality Designation Modulus deformation Uniaxial compressive strength For Colluvium Deposits Specific gravity Bulk density Void ratio Modulus deformation Cohesion Shearing resistance

Gs = 2.68- 2.69T/m3 = 2.10-2.18 T/m3 e = 0.23-0.35 k=4.10-2 6.10-3 cm/sec RQD = 0-10% E = 20-30 MPa Rc = 3-4 MPa Gs = 2.62- 2.66T/m3 = 1.90-1.96 T/m3 e = 0.60-0.72 E = 7-8 MPa C = 0.010Mpa = 26o

4.3 Hydrogeological conditions of the zone of tunnel. From the surveys made in the zone of Qaf Bualli, like geological works for the discovery of the mines of chrome and cooper that are present in the basic and ultra basic rocks, (those works have been perforations up to 300-400m deep, different galleries of a few hundreds meters long), it has been noted that the underground water are mainly the waters of the cracks of the rocks gathered from the showers and the snow. The annual average of showers is 952-1523 mm/year. The snow thickness is 2.00m. The snow cover lasts 110 days / year. The coefficient of infiltration in those rocks is 0.15-0.20 of the precipitations quantity that penetrates mainly during tectonic detachments. The sources of waters are in the high quota or in the middle of the mountain sides. The quantity of water in those sources is 1-2 liter/sec. In the deep cuts of the torrent of Plani I bardhe are not met sources of water, which demonstrates that their permeability is very small. In those rocks are distinguished two kinds of aquiferous zones: 1. The upper zone: corresponds with the weathering zone, which have a big fissuring and goes until 50m deep. There are met waters without pressure and free fall. 2. The lower zone: is characterized by the gathering of water in tectonic detachments in depths 700-800m from the surface of ground. The observations done during several years for the purpose of the mineral works of the zone of tunnel have shown that the quantity of the waters is bigger in tectonic detachment, in serpentinite. The infiltration of water into mineral works during showers and snow goes from 30% to 130% in comparison with the annual average flow. As far the big depth, like the road tunnel, the quantities of water as a result of showers will come after some months.

Page 17 of 39

Based on the above mentioned data and on the Bieniawski classification the quantity of water in 10m long of tunnel will be 2-10 liter per minute. It is foreseen that the underground waters will be waters without pressure. 5.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 1. In the zone Qaf Bualli the new tunnel will pass through a hilly and mountainous relief. 2. From the hydrogeological point of view the zone of tunnel is poor in underground waters. In the studied area are encountered some sources with a flow 2-10l/hour. They surge in high quota 800-850m, which shows that the phenomenon of fissuring is reducing towards the depth expect the tectonic fault that must be considered at the tunnel project. Summarizing the hydrogeological material these rocks have a small permeability with a filtering coefficient of order 10 -4 cm/sec. The water is hydrocarbonate of magnesium. General mineralization less than 300-350mg/l and hardness smaller than 10o German grade. 3. From the geological point of view in the zone of tunnel are encountered the ultra basic rocks composed of peridotite, olivinite and Pyroxenes. 4. The rocks structure in the zone of tunnel has a continuity of a general orientation North East-South West. Deep South-South West 45-56o. Tectonic fault are present in the zone of tunnel. They have a general orientation North East South West. Thickness of the zone of breaking is 5-8.00m and rare 2025m. The quality of the Rock of the tunnel classified class 4-5 according

Engineering Rock Mass Classifications Z.T. Bieniawski.

5. According to the Seismic Regionalization Map the area where will be built the tunnel is evaluated with an oscillation intensity of VII degree scale MSK-64 6. From the data of boreholes opened for the research of minerals of the zone of tunnel at the summit of Runje, it results that the geometric scale various from 2.40-2.50o Celsius in 100m depth. 7. Disponible data show that during the excavation of the tunnel nearly 60% (of the work) will be in fractured rock and 40% will be in tectonic zones or weakened as a result of the process of chlorination or serpentinisation of the primary rocks.

Page 18 of 39

6.0 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Principi di geomeccanica. Autori Prof.Ing. Otello DEL GRECO, Prof.Ing. Mauro FORNARO. 2. Geotechnical Engineering. Author Renato Lancellota Department of structural Engineering, tachnical University of Turin 2006. 3. Handbook of Geotechnical Investigation and Design Tables Author Burt Look Consulting Geotechnical Engineer Teulor & Francis 2006 4. Geological Hazards Author Fred G. Bell Consulting Geotechnical Engineer Teulor & Francis 2006 5. The Slop of Stability 2nd Edition Author E.N. Bromhead Geotechnical Engineer Teulor & Francis 2006 Consulting

6. Debris Flow Mechanis, Prediction and Countermeassures Author Tamotsu Takahashi Consulting Geotechnical Engineer Teulor & Francis 2006 7. Foundation Design Codes and Soil Investigation Authors Yusuke Honjo; Osamu Kusakabe; Kenji Matsui; Masayuki kouda Gyaneswor Pokharel Teulor & Francis 2006 8. Foundation Engineering Handbook Design and Construction with the 2006 International Building Code edited 2006 by Robert W. Day. 9. Engineering Geology edited by F.G. Bell Second Edition 2007 10. Engineering Geology (Principles and Practice) Edited and Compiled

by M.H. de Freitas 2007 11. 2006 12. Deep Excavation Theory and practice Chang Yu Ou National Taiwan Principles of Geotechnical Engineering Fifth Edition by Braja M,Das

University of Science and Technology Taipei Taiwan 2009

Page 19 of 39


Experimental Rock Mechanics Kiyoo Mogi Profesor of university of

Tokio 2009 14. Expansive Soils Recent advances in characterization and Treatment

edited by Amer Ali Al-Rawas & Mattheus F.A. Goosen University of Turabo,Puerto Rico USA 2009 15. Geotechnical Engineering of Dams; Robin Fell (University of New

South Wales Australia), Patrick MacGregor Geologis, David Stapledon Geologist, Graeme Bell Consulting Dams Engineer 2009 16. Soil Sampling and Method of analysis Edited by M.R. Carter & E.G.

Gregorich Canadian Society of Soil Scence. Taylor & Francis Group. 2009 17. Geotechnical and Environmental Aspects of Waste Disposal Sites

R.W.Sarby (University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom) & A.J.Felton (University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom) 2009 18. Rock Slope Engineering Civil and Mining Duncan C. Wyllie and

Christopher W.Mah. Taylor & Francis 2009 19. Foundation on rock Duncan C. Wyllie Principal ,Golder Associates,

Consulting Engineers Vancouver, Canada Tay;or and Francis 2009 20. 21. Inxhinieria Sizmike Prof Doctor Niko Pojani Botimet Toena 2003 Soil Improvement By Preloading Aris C. Stamatopoulos ,Panaghiotis

C. Kotzias 1985 A Wiley Interscience Publication 22. Geotechnics of soft soil Focus on ground Improvement Minna

Karstunen (University of Strathclyde,Gloagow,Scotland,UK) Martino Leoni (University of Stuttgart Stuttgart Germany ) 2009

Page 20 of 39

23. Associazione Geotecnica Italiana (raccomandazioni programmazione ed esecuzione delle indagini geotecniche).


24. Les essais in situ en mcanique des sols (Ralisation et interprtation) Maurice CASSAN Eyrolles Paris 1978. 25. MECANIQUE DES SOLS APLIQUEE aux travaux publics et au btiment. K Terzaghi, R.B. PECK. Dunod Paris 1961. 26. Prove geotecniche in sito. Cestari FERRUCIO 1990. J.VERDEYEN. V.ROISIN, J.NUYENS

27. La mcanique des sols. Dunod. Paris 1980.

28. Soil Mechanics: Concepts and Applications William powrie Profesor of geotechnical Engineering ,Unuversity of Southampton,Hinfield.Southampton SO17 1BJ E & SPON London 1996 29. Fondation et Ouvrages en Terre Gerard PHILIPONNAT Editiond Eyrolles 61 Boulevard Saint-Germain,7005 Paris 1979. 30. Rock Characterization Testing and Monitoring ISRM Suggested Methods Editor ETBROWN 31. Report on a Ground Investigation at Jaguar Racing Wind Tunnel, Gaydon, Warwickshire. Norwst Holst Soil Engineering L.t.d. 2001 32. Ground Engineering the Magazine of the British Geotechical Associations February 2002. 33. Geological, engineering and geotechnical investigation performed by the Department of Geology and Geodesy for the crom factory in Bulqiza 1960 1980. 34. Geological study for the ultrabasic massive of Bulqiza region made by geological enterprise Bulqiza1969-1980. 35. Geological and geotechnical study for the Bulqiza zone by ALTEA & GEOSTUDIO 2000 1996-2011 36. Geological and geotechnical investigations for rural roads performed by ALTEA & GEOSTUDIO 2000 at Bulqiza Zone1997-2011. 37. Geological and geotechnical investigation performed GEOSTUDIO 2000 for Bulqiza Ura Cerenecit road 2005. by ALTEA &

Page 21 of 39

38. Geological and geotechnical investigation performed GEOSTUDIO 2000 for Bulqiza Ura Vashes road 2008.




39. Geological and geotechnical invesgtigation performed by ALTEA & GEOSTUDIO 2000 FOR Qafa Buallit tunnel during design time 2008 40. 41. 42. viti 1983 43. Vetite fiziko mekanike te dherave dhe shkembinjve Autore Foundation Design and Construction. M J Tomlison, Fourth Edition. Engineering Rock Mass Classifikations Z.T. Bieniawski June 1989 Mekanika e dherave dhe e shkembit Autore Luljeta Bozo,Neo GORO

N.KONOMI viti 1989 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. British Standard (BS1377) 1990. Code Of Practice For Site Investigations (BS 5930:1999) Astm Standard 2003. Aashto Standard 2006. Kushtet teknike te projektimit KTP-78 Libri I 1 KTP-5-78 International Building Code 2006

Page 22 of 39

Photo No.1: The place where is done the borehole

Photo No.2: The sample from BH-1 depth 0.00-5.00 m

Page 23 of 39

Photo No.3: The sample from BH-1 depth 5.00-10.00 m

Photo No.4: The sample from BH-1 depth 10.00-15.00 m

Page 24 of 39

Photo No.5: The sample from BH-1 depth 20.00-25.00 m

Photo Nr.6: The sample from BH-1 depth 25.0-27.0 m

Page 25 of 39

Photo No.7: The place where is done the borehole

Photo Nr.8: The sample from BH-2 depth 0.00-5.00 m

Page 26 of 39

Photo Nr.9: The sample from BH-2 depth 10.0-15.0 m

Photo Nr.10: The sample from BH-2 depth 15.0-20.0 m

Page 27 of 39

Photo Nr.11: The sample from BH-2 depth 20.0-25.0 m

Photo Nr.12: The sample from BH-2 depth 25.0-30.0 m

Page 28 of 39

Photo Nr.13: The place where is done the borehole

Photo Nr.14: The sample from BH-3 depth 5.0-10.0 m

Page 29 of 39

Photo Nr.15: The sample from BH-3 depth 10.0-15.0 m

Photo Nr.16: The sample from BH-3 depth 15.0-20.0 m

Page 30 of 39

Photo Nr.17: The sample from BH-3 depth 20.0-25.0 m

Photo Nr.18: The sample from BH-3 depth 25.0-30.0 m

Page 31 of 39

Photo Nr.19: The sample from BH-3 depth 30.0-35.0 m

Photo Nr.20: The sample from BH-3 depth 35.0-40.0 m

Page 32 of 39

Photo Nr.21: The sample from BH-3 depth 40.0-45.0 m

Photo Nr.22: Pamje nga sheshi i punimit

Page 33 of 39

Photo Nr.23: The sample from BH-3 depth 0.0-5.0 m

Photo Nr.24: The sample from BH-3 depth 5.0-10.0 m

Page 34 of 39

Photo Nr.25: The sample from BH-3 depth 10.015.0 m

Photo Nr.26: The sample from BH-3 depth 15.0-20.0 m

Page 35 of 39

Photo Nr.27: The sample from BH-3 depth 20.0-25.0 m

Photo Nr.28: The sample from BH-3 depth 25.0-30.0 m

Page 36 of 39

Photo Nr.29: The sample from BH-3 depth 30.0-35.0 m

Photo Nr.30: The sample from BH-3 depth 35.0-40.0 m

Page 37 of 39

Photo Nr.31: The sample from BH-3 depth 40.0-45.0 m

Photo Nr.32: The sample from BH-3 depth 45.0-50.0 m

Page 38 of 39

Photo Nr.33: The sample from BH-3 depth 50.0-55.0 m

Photo Nr.34: The sample from BH-3 depth 55.0-60.0 m

Page 39 of 39