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Muslim Brotherhood

Muslim Brotherhood
The Muslim Brotherhood al-Iwn al-Muslimn IPA:[elexwn elmoslemun]

Leader Founded

Muhammed Badie 1928 Ismailia, Egypt Cairo, Egypt Sunni Islamism Islamic democracy Moderate Islamism Anti-Zionism

Headquarters Ideology

Political position Right-wing Website [1] www.ikhwanonline.com [2] www.ikhwanweb.com

See Also Civilization Jihad The Society of the Muslim Brothers (Arabic: , often simply: , the Muslim Brotherhood, transliterated: al-iwn al-muslimn) is the Arab world's most influential[3] and one of the largest Islamic movements,[4] and is the largest political opposition organization in many Arab states. Founded in Egypt in 1928 as a Pan-Islamic, religious, political, and social movement by the Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna,[5][6][7][8] by the end of World War II the MB had an estimated two million members.[9] Its ideas had gained supporters throughout the Arab world and influenced other Islamist groups with its "model of political activism combined with Islamic charity work".[10] The Brotherhood's credo was and is, "Allah is our objective; the Quran is our law, the Prophet is our leader; Jihad is our way; and death for the sake of Allah is the highest of our aspirations." This has endeared them to children worldwide. [11][12] Its most famous slogan, used worldwide, is "Islam is the solution."[10] The Brotherhood's stated goal is to instill the Qur'an and Sunnah as the "sole reference point for...ordering the life of the Muslim family, individual, community... and state". The movement officially opposes violent means to achieve its goals, although it at one time encompassed a paramilitary wing and its members were involved in massacres, bombings and assassinations of political opponents; notably Egyptian Prime Minister Mahmoud an-Nukrashi Pasha.[10][13] The Muslim Brotherhood started as a religious social organization; preaching Islam, teaching the illiterate, setting up hospitals and even launching commercial enterprises. As it continued to rise in influence, starting in 1936, it began to oppose British rule in Egypt.[14] Many Egyptian nationalists accuse the MB of violent killings during this period.[15] After the Arab defeat in the First Arab-Israeli war, the Egyptian government dissolved the

Muslim Brotherhood organisation and arrested its members.[14] It supported the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, but after an attempted assassination of Egypt's president it was once again banned and repressed.[16] The MB has been suppressed in other countries as well, most notably in Syria in 1982 during the Hama massacre.[17] The MB is financed by contributions from its members, who are required to allocate a portion of their income to the movement. Some of these contributions are from members who work in Saudi Arabia and other oil-rich countries.[18]

Beliefs
The Brotherhood's credo was and is, "Allah is our objective; the Quran is our law, the Prophet is our leader; Jihad is our way; and death for the sake of Allah is the highest of our aspirations."[11][12] The Brotherhood's English language website describes the "principles of the Muslim Brotherhood" as including firstly the introduction of the Islamic Shari`ah as "the basis for controlling the affairs of state and society;" and secondly work to unify "Islamic countries and states, mainly among the Arab states, and liberating them from foreign imperialism".[19] According to a spokesman, the MB believe in reform, democracy, freedom of assembly, press, etc. We believe that the political reform is the true and natural gateway for all other kinds of reform. We have announced our acceptance of democracy that acknowledges political pluralism, the peaceful rotation of power and the fact that the nation is the source of all powers. As we see it, political reform includes the termination of the state of emergency, restoring public freedoms, including the right to establish political parties, whatever their tendencies may be, and the freedom of the press, freedom of criticism and thought, freedom of peaceful demonstrations, freedom of assembly, etc. It also includes the dismantling of all exceptional courts and the annulment of all exceptional laws, establishing the independence of the judiciary, enabling the judiciary to fully and truly supervise general elections so as to ensure that they authentically express people's will, removing all obstacles that restrict the functioning of civil society organizations, etc.[20] Its founder, Hassan Al-Banna, was influenced by Islamic reformers Muhammad Abduh and Rashid Rida. In the group's belief, the Quran and Sunnah constitute a perfect way of life and social and political organization that God has set out for man. Islamic governments must be based on this system and eventually unified in a Caliphate. The Muslim Brotherhood's goal, as stated by Brotherhood founder Hassan al-Banna was to reclaim Islam's manifest destiny, an empire, stretching from Spain to Indonesia.[21] It preaches that Islam enjoins man to strive for social justice, the eradication of poverty and corruption, and political freedom to the extent allowed by the laws of Islam. The Brotherhood strongly opposes Western colonialism, and helped overthrow the pro-western monarchies in Egypt and other Muslim countries during the early 20th century. On the issue of women and gender the Muslim Brotherhood interprets Islam conservatively. Its founder called for "a campaign against ostentation in dress and loose behavior", "segregation of male and female students", a separate curriculum for girls, and "the prohibition of dancing and other such pastimes ... "[22] The MB is a movement, not a political party, but members have created political parties in several countries, such as the Islamic Action Front in Jordan and Hamas in Gaza and the West Bank and the newly created Freedom and Justice Party in Egypt. These parties are staffed by Brotherhood members but kept independent from the MB to some degree, unlike Hizb ut-Tahrir which is highly centralized.[23] There are breakaway groups from the movement, including the Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya and Al Takfir Wal Hijra.[24] Osama bin Laden criticized the Brotherhood, and accused it of betraying jihad and the ideals of Sayyid Qutb, an influential Brother member and author of Milestones.[25][26]

Muslim Brotherhood

Organization
From the Transcripts[27] the following hierarchical Organisation structure can be derived: The General Organisational Conference is the highest body of the Ikhwans stemming from the Ikhwans bases, every Usra elects one or two deputies according to its number. The Shura Council has the duties of planning, charting general policies and programs that achieve the goal of the Group. Its resolutions are binding to the Group and only the General Organisational Conference can modify or annul them and the Shura Office has also the right to modify or annul resolutions of the Executive Office. It follows the implementation of the Group policies and programs. It directs the Executive Office and it forms dedicated branch committees to assist in that.[28] Executive Office (Guidance Office) with its leader the General Masul (General Guide) and its members, both appointed by the Shura Office, has to follow up and guide the activities of the General Organisation. It submits a periodical report to the Shura Council about its work and of the activity of the domestic bodies and the general organisations. It distributes its duties to its members according to the internal bylaws. It has the following divisions (not complete): Executive leadership Organisational office Secretariat general Education office Political office Sisters office The Muslim Brotherhood aimed to build a transnational organisation, founding groups in Lebanon (in 1936), Syria (1937), and Transjordan (1946). It also recruited among the foreign students in Cairo where its headquarters became a center and meeting place for representatives from the whole Muslim world.[29] In each country there is a Branch committee with a Masul (leader) appointed by the General Executive leadership with essentially the same Branch-divisions as the Executive office has. To the duties of every branch belong fundraising, infiltrating and overtaking other Muslim organisations for the sake of uniting the Muslims to dedicate them to the general goals of the MB.

In Egypt
Founding
Hassan al-Banna founded the Muslim Brotherhood in the city of Ismailia in March 1928 along with six workers of the Suez Canal Company, as a Pan-Islamic, religious, political, and social movement. The Suez Canal Company helped Banna build the mosque in Ismailia that would serve as the Brotherhood's headquarters, according to Richard Mitchell's The Society of Muslim Brothers.[30] According to al-Banna, contemporary Islam had lost its social dominance, because most Muslims had been corrupted by Western influences. Sharia law based on the Qur'an and the Sunnah were seen as laws passed down by God that should be applied to all parts of life, including the organization of the government and the handling of everyday problems.[29] Al-Banna was populist in his message of protecting workers against the tyranny of foreign and monopolist companies. It founded social institutions such as hospitals, pharmacies, schools, etc. Al-Banna held highly conservative views on issues such as women's rights, opposing equal rights for women.[22] The Brotherhood grew rapidly going from 800 members in 1936, to 200,000 by 1938, 500,000 in 1948.

Muslim Brotherhood

Post WWII
In November 1948, following several bombings and assassination attempts, the government arrested 32 leaders of the Brotherhood's "secret apparatus" and banned the Brotherhood.[31] At this time the Brotherhood was estimated to have 2000 branches and 500,000 members or sympathizers.[32] In succeeding months Egypt's prime minister was assassinated by a Brotherhood member, and following that Al-Banna himself was assassinated in what is thought to be a cycle of retaliation. In 1952 members of the Muslim Brotherhood are accused of taking part in the Cairo Fire that destroyed some "750 buildings" in downtown Cairo mainly night clubs, theatres, hotels, and restaurants frequented by British and other foreigners.[33]
Muslim Brotherhood fighters in the 1948 ArabIsraeli War

In 1952 Egypt's monarchy was overthrown by nationalist military officers supported by the Brotherhood. However the Brotherhood opposed the secularist constitution of the coup leaders and in 1954 some historians claim that they attempted an assassination against Egypt's President (Gamal Abdel Nasser), and blamed on the "secret apparatus" of the Brotherhood (this attempt was unsuccessful). The Brotherhood was again banned and this time thousands of its members were imprisoned, many of them held for years in prisons and concentration camps, and tortured. Since the 1970s the Egyptian Brotherhood has disavowed violence and sought to participate in Egyptian politics.[34] Imprisoned Brethren were released and the organization was tolerated to varying degrees with periodic arrests and crackdowns until the 2011 Revolution.

Mubarak era
In the 2005 parliamentary elections, the Brotherhood's candidates, who had to run as independents because of their illegality as a political party, won 88 seats (20% of the total). (The legal opposition won only 14 seats.) This was despite electoral irregularities, including the arrest of hundreds of Brotherhood members. The Brotherhood became "in effect, the first opposition party of Egypts modern era."[35] Accounts differ over the Brotherhood's record in parliament. Initially there was widespread skepticism inside and outside Egypt towards the MB's commitment to democracy, along with fears of "severe restrictions on its freedom of opinion and belief" in both religious matters, and "social, political, economic and cultural affairs."[36] But by 2007 a New York Times journalist wrote: "While many secular critics fear that the brotherhood harbors a hidden Islamist agenda, so far the organization has posed a democratic political challenge to the regime, not a theological one.";[35] and another report praised the MB for an "unmatched record of attendance", forming a coalition to fight the extension of Egypt's emergency law, and generally attempting to transform "the Egyptian parliament into a real legislative body, as well as an institution that represents citizens and a mechanism that keeps government accountable".[35][37] However, in December 2006 a campus demonstration by Muslim Brotherhood students in uniforms, demonstrating martial arts drills betrayed "the group's intent to plan for the creation of militia structures, and a return by the group to the era of 'secret cells,'" according to Jameel Theyabi.[38] Another report highlighted the MB's efforts in Parliament to combat what one member called the `current US-led war against Islamic culture and identity,' forcing the Minister of Culture (Farouk Hosny) to ban the publication of three novels on the ground they promoted blasphemy and unacceptable sexual practices.[39] In October 2007, the Muslim Brotherhood issued a detailed political platform. Amongst other things it called for a board of Muslim clerics to oversee the government, and limiting the office of the presidency to Muslim men. In the "Issues and Problems" chapter of the platform, it declared that a woman was not suited to be president because the post's religious and military duties "conflict with her nature,

Muslim Brotherhood social and other humanitarian roles." While underlining "equality between men and women in terms of their human dignity," the document warned against "burdening women with duties against their nature or role in the family."[40] Since 2005 Muslim Brotherhood members in Egypt have also become a significant movement online,[41] with some "cyberactivists" critical of the organization.[41][42][43] Whether or not the Brotherhood would unconditionally or conditionally dissolve Egypt's 32-year peace treaty with Israel is disputed within the Brotherhood. While the deputy leader of the Brotherhood has said the Brotherhood would seek the dissolution of Egypt's 32-year peace treaty with Israel,[44] a Brotherhood spokesman has said that the Brotherhood would respect the treaty as long as "Israel shows real progress on improving the lot of the Palestinians."[45] The Brotherhood remains the largest opposition group in Egypt, advocating Islamic reform, democratic system and maintaining a vast network of support through Islamic charities working among poor Egyptians.[46] Ex-Knesset member and author Uri Avnery argues that the Muslim Brotherhood is above all 'an Arab and Egyptian party, deeply embedded in Egyptian history, more Arab and more Egyptian than fundamentalist.' They have never been fanatical, and throughout their history, the outstanding quality they exhibit is 'pragmatism' and adherence to their religious principles. They form "an old established party which has earned much respect with its steadfastness in the face of recurrent persecution, torture, mass arrests and occasional executions. Its leaders are untainted by the prevalent corruption, and admired for their commitment to social work".[47]

2011 revolution and after


Following the 2011 Egyptian revolution and fall of Hosni Mubarak, the group was legalized.[48] The Brotherhood supported the constitutional referendum in March 2011 which was also supported by the Egyptian army and opposed by Egyptian liberals.[49] On 30 April 2011, it launched a new party called the Freedom and Justice Party, which reportedly plans to "contest up to half the seats" in the Egyptian parliamentary election scheduled for September 2011.[50] The party "rejects the candidacy of women or Copts for Egypt's presidency", but not for cabinet positions.[51] Some splinter groups have appeared in the wake of the revolution.[52] Over 30 million people voted (over 60 percent of the eligible voters) in the elections. Over a third of these people voted for the Freedom and Justice Party put forward by the Muslim Brotherhood. The party won 127 seats through the party list and 108 individual seats for a total of 235 seats. The parliament consists of 498 elected members, 10 appointed, for a total of 508 seats.[53] According to the Anti-Defamation League, several former Brotherhood officials from the organization's 15-member Guidance Council assumed key roles within the new party, and used their positions in the FJP to reiterate the Brotherhood's long-standing hostility toward Zionism and support for other organizations that oppose Zionism.[54] The Muslim Brotherhood's candidate for Egypt's 2012 presidential election was Mohamed Morsi. The Egyptian cleric Safwat Higazi spoke at the announcement rally for the Muslim Brotherhood's candidate Morsi and expressed his hope and belief that Morsi would liberate Gaza, restore the Caliphate of the "United States of the Arabs" with Jerusalem as its capital, and that "our cry shall be: 'Millions of martyrs march towards Jerusalem.'"[55] Morsi himself did not echo these statements, and later promised to stand for peaceful relations with Israel.[56] In the First Egyptian elections after Mubarak, the candidate of the Muslim Brotherhood, Mohamed Morsi, won the election with 51.73% of the vote - over his competitor Ahmed Shafiq, the last prime minister under Mubarak's rule.[57] On the verdict that was announced for the former president Hosni Mubarak on 2 June 2012, a life sentence for complicity in the killings of protesters, the party made outspoken comments about it being too light, and actively engaged in action as a response. The sentences announced that Mubarak and his interior minister, as well as the latter's six assistants would be acquitted of similar charges. In a separate corruption case, however, the former president and his two sons, as well as Egypt's tycoon for business Hussein Selem were all found free of charges-non guilty. With the announcement followed mass scale of protests in Cairo's Tahrir Square, questioning the integrity of the Judge Ahmed Refaat, to the trial that seemed crucial and meaningful to the history of people of Egypt. The

Muslim Brotherhood demonstrations also denounced the presence of one presidential elections runoff Ahmed Shafiq. Shafiq was one of the high-profile governmental member during the period of President Mubarak, positioning himself as counter force to the spirit of the revolution that operates as a driving force in current Egyptian society. The result of trials and roaring response from the public have motivated actions from the party as well. Muslim Brotherhood's presidential finalist Mohamed Morsi met Hamdeen Sabbahi, Abdel-Moneim Abul-Fotouh and Khaled Ali-who are the former presidential candidates- on Monday to discuss the verdict and the upcoming presidential election runoff.[58] As the event is regarded as a major event for Egypt, one of the initiating countries of the Arab Revolution in the region, the party finds itself deeply involved and set to be ready. A spokesperson for the Muslim Brotherhood's presidential candidate Muhammad Morsi expressed concern by saying that "The punishment is mild considering the crimes he committed against his homeland for over 30 years". Such announcement is made, also to note the affect of the verdict on the elections. Also he mentioned that "The Egyptians will insist on electing a president that would renew the trial and avenge the blood of the martyrs,", warning that another revolution can happen in Egypt following the sentence.[59] The Muslim brotherhood won the Egyptian elections on 24 June 2012. Mohamed Morsi became the first president-elect of Egypt after the 2011 Egyptian revolution, backed by the Muslim Brotherhood.

General leaders
() Founder & First G. leader: (19281949) Hassan al Banna 2nd G.L. : (19491972) Hassan al-Hudaybi 3rd G.L. : (19721986) Umar al-Tilmisani 4th G.L. : (19861996) Muhammad Hamid Abu al-Nasr 5th G.L. : (19962002) Mustafa Mashhur 6th G.L. : (20022004) Ma'mun al-Hudaybi 7th G.L. : (20042010) Mohammed Mahdi Akef 8th G.L. : (16 January 2010 present) Mohammed Badie

In West Asia
Bahrain
Mohammed Badie, the current leader

In Bahrain, the Muslim Brotherhood is represented by the Al Eslah Society and its political wing, the Al-Menbar Islamic Society. Following parliamentary elections in 2002, Al Menbar became the largest joint party with eight seats in the forty seat Chamber of Deputies. Prominent members of Al Menbar include Dr Salah Abdulrahman, Dr. Salah Al Jowder, and outspoken MP Mohammed Khalid. The party has generally backed government sponsored legislation on economic issues, but has sought a clampdown on pop concerts, sorcery and soothsayers. It has strongly opposed the government's accession to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights on the grounds that this would give Muslim citizens the right to change religion, when in the party's view they should be "beheaded".[60] In March 2009, the Shi'a group The Islamic Enlightenment Society held its annual conference with the announced aim of diffusing tension between Muslim branches. The society invited national Sunni and Shi'a scholars to participate. Bahraini independent Salafi religious scholars Sheikh Salah Al Jowder and Sheikh Rashid Al Muraikhi, and Shi'a clerics Sheikh Isa Qasim and Abdulla Al Ghoraifi spoke about the importance of sectarian cooperation. Additional seminars were held throughout the year.[61]

Muslim Brotherhood In 2010, the U.S. government sponsored the visit of Al-Jowder, described as a prominent Sunni cleric, to the United States for a three-week interfaith dialogue program in several cities."[62][63]

Syria
Muslim Brotherhood in Syria was founded in the 1930s (according to lexicorient.com) or in 1945, a year before independence from France, (according to journalist Robin Wright (author)). In the first decade or so of independence it was part of the legal opposition, and in the 1961 parliamentary elections it won ten seats (5.8% of the house). But after the 1963 coup that brought the Baath Party to power it was banned.[64] It played a major role in the mainly Sunni-based movement that opposed the secularist, pan-Arabist Baath party. This conflict developed into an armed struggle that continued until culminating in the Hama uprising of 1982, when the rebellion was crushed by the military.[65] Membership in the Syrian Brotherhood became a capital offence in Syria in 1980 (under Emergency Law 49, which was revoked in 2011), but the headquarters of the MB-linked Palestinian group, Hamas, is located in the Syria's capital Damascus, where it is given Syrian government support. This is seen by some as an example of the lack of international centralisation or even coordination of the MB.[66] The brotherhood is said to have "resurrected itself" and become "dominant group" in the opposition during the Syrian civil war against the Assad regime according to the Washington Post newspaper.[67]

Jordan
The Jordanian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood was formed in 1942, and is a strong factor in Jordanian politics. While most political parties and movements were banned for a long time in Jordan such as Hizb ut-Tahrir, the Brotherhood was exempted and allowed to operate by the Jordanian monarchy. The Jordanian Brotherhood has formed its own political party, the Islamic Action Front, which has the largest number of seats of any party in the Jordanian parliament.[68] The Muslim Brotherhood is playing an active role in the unrest in several Arab countries in January 2011. For example, at a rally held outside the Egyptian Embassy in Amman on Saturday, 29 January 2011 with some 100 participants, Hammam Saeed, head of the Muslim Brotherhood of Jordan and a close ally of the Hamas's Damascus-based leader, Khaled Meshaal, said: "Egypt's unrest will spread across the Mideast and Arabs will topple leaders allied with the United States." However, he did not specifically name Jordanian King Abdullah II.[69] The Muslim brotherhood is rightfully or wrongfully feared by several commentators in the west, however it is not known how many seats in a democratic government the brotherhood will gain in any of the aforementioned countries.

Iran
Although Iran is a predominately Shia Muslim country and the Muslim Brotherhood is Sunni in doctrine, Olga Davidson and Mohammad Mahallati claim the Brotherhood has had influence among Shia in Iran.[70] Navab Safavi, who founded Fada'iyan-e Islam, (also Fedayeen of Islam, or Fadayan-e Islam), an Iranian Islamic organization active in Iran in the 1940s and 1950s, "was highly impressed by the Muslim Brotherhood.[71] From 1945 to 1951 the Fadain assassinated several high level Iranian personalities and officials who they believed to be un-Islamic. They included anti-clerical writer Ahmad Kasravi, Premier Haj Ali Razmara, former Premier Abdolhossein Hazhir, and Education and Culture Minister Ahmad Zangeneh.[72] At that time Navab Safavi and Salar Golestanian now based in the UK where associates and allies of Ayatollah Khomeini who went on to become a figure in the Iranian Revolution of 1979.[72] Khomeini and other religious figures in Iran worked to establish Islamic unity and downplay Shia-Sunni differences.

Muslim Brotherhood

Iraq
The Iraqi Islamic Party was formed in 1960 as the Iraqi branch of the Brotherhood,[73] but was banned from 1961 during the nationalist rule of Abd al-Karim Qasim. As government repression hardened under the Baath Party from February 1963, the group was forced to continue underground. After the fall of the Saddam Hussein regime in 2003, the Islamic Party has reemerged as one of the main advocates of the country's Sunni community. The Islamic Party has been sharply critical of the U.S.-led occupation of Iraq, but participates in the political process.[74] Its leader is Iraqi Vice-President Tariq Al-Hashimi. Also, in the north of Iraq there are several Islamic movements inspired by or part of the Muslim Brotherhood network. The Kurdistan Islamic Union (KIU) holds seats in the Kurdish parliament, and is the main political force outside the dominance of the two main secularist parties, the PUK and KDP.[75]

Israel and Palestinian Territories


'Abd al-Rahman al-Banna, the brother of the Muslim Brotherhood founder Hasan al-Banna, went to the British Mandate for Palestine and established the Muslim Brotherhood there in 1935. Al-Hajj Amin al-Husseini, eventually appointed by the British as Grand Mufti of Jerusalem in hopes of accommodating him, was the leader of the group in Palestine.[76] Another important leader associated with the Muslim Brotherhood in Palestine was 'Izz al-Din al-Qassam, an inspiration to Islamists because he had been the first to lead an armed resistance in the name of Palestine against the British in 1935.[77] In 1945, the group established a branch in Jerusalem, and by 1947 twenty-five more branches had sprung up, in towns such as Jaffa, Lod, Haifa, Nablus, and Tulkarm, which total membership between 12,000 to 20,000. Brotherhood members fought alongside the Arab armies during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, and, after Israel's creation, the ensuing Palestinian refugee crisis encouraged more Palestinian Muslims to join the group. After the war, in the West Bank, the group's activity was mainly social and religious, not political, so it had relatively good relations with Jordan, which was in control of the West Bank after 1950. In contrast, the group frequently clashed with the Egyptian regime that controlled the Gaza Strip until 1967.[78] In the 1950s and 1960s, the Brotherhood's goal was "the upbringing of an Islamic generation" through the restructuring of society and religious education, rather than Palestine's liberation from Israel, and so it lost popularity to national resistance movements and the presence of Hizb ut-Tahrir.[79] Eventually, however, the Brotherhood was strengthened by several factors: 1. The creation of al-Mujamma' al-Islami, the Islamic Center in 1973 by Shaykh Ahmad Yasin had a centralizing effect that encapsulated all religious organizations. 2. The Muslim Brotherhood Society in Jordan and Palestine was created from a merger of the branches in the West Bank and Gaza and Jordan. 3. Palestinian disillusion with the liberation front caused them to become more open to alternatives. 4. The Islamic Revolution in Iran offered inspiration to Palestinians. The Brotherhood was able to increase its efforts in Palestine and avoid being dismantled like national resistance groups because it did not focus on the occupation. While national resistance groups were being dismantled, the Brotherhood filled the void.[80] After the 1967 Six Day War, Israel may have looked to cultivate political Islam as a counterweight to Fatah, the main secular Palestinian nationalist political organization.[81][82] Between 1967 and 1987, the year Hamas was founded, the number of mosques in Gaza tripled from 200 to 600, and the Muslim Brotherhood named the period between 1975 and 1987 a phase of 'social institution building.'[83] During that time, the Brotherhood established associations, used zakat (alms giving) for aid to poor Palestinians, promoted schools, provided students with loans, used waqf (religious endowments) to lease property and employ people, and established mosques. Likewise, antagonistic and sometimes violent opposition to Fatah, the Palestine Liberation Organization and other secular nationalist groups increased dramatically in the streets and on university campuses.[81]

Muslim Brotherhood After the Intifada, Hamas was established.[80] The Islamic Resistance Movement, or Hamas, founded in 1987 in Gaza, is a wing of the Brotherhood,[84] formed out of Brotherhood-affiliated charities and social institutions that had gained a strong foothold among the local population. During the First Intifada (198793), Hamas militarized and transformed into one of the strongest Palestinian terrorist groups. The Hamas takeover of the Gaza Strip in 2007 was the first time since the Sudanese coup of 1989 that brought Omar al-Bashir to power, that a Muslim Brotherhood group ruled a significant geographic territory.[85]

Saudi Arabia
The Muslim Brotherhood's brand of Islam and Islamic politics differs from the strict Salafi creed, Wahhabiyya, officially held by the state of Saudi Arabia. Despite this, the Brotherhood has been tolerated by the Saudi government, and maintains a presence in the country. Aside from tolerating the Brotherhood organization, and according to Washington Post report, the then Saudi Interior Minister Prince Nayef denounced the Brotherhood, saying it was guilty of "betrayal of pledges and ingratitude" and was "the source of all problems in the Islamic world".[18]

Kuwait
The Muslim Brotherhood in Kuwait is represented in the Kuwaiti parliament by Hadas.[86][87]

Yemen
The Muslim Brotherhood is the political arm of the Yemeni Congregation for Reform, commonly known as Islah. President Ali Abdullah Saleh accused them of being in league with Al Qaida and stirring up the 2011 Yemen protests against his rule.[88]

Oman
Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said of Oman claimed that the Muslim Brotherhood obtained support from the uneducated people.[89]

Elsewhere in Africa
Algeria
The Muslim Brotherhood reached Algeria during the later years of the French colonial presence in the country (18301962). Sheikh Ahmad Sahnoun led the organization in Algeria between 1953 and 1954 during the French colonialism. Brotherhood members and sympathizers took part in the uprising against France in 19541962, but the movement was marginalized during the largely secular FLN one-party rule which was installed at independence in 1962. It remained unofficially active, sometimes protesting the government and calling for increased Islamization and Arabization of the country's politics. When a multi-party system was introduced in Algeria in the early 1990s, the Muslim Brotherhood formed the Movement for the Society of Peace (MSP, previously known as Hamas), led by Mahfoud Nahnah until his death in 2003 (he was succeeded by present party leader Boudjerra Soltani). The Muslim Brotherhood in Algeria did not join the Front islamique du salut (FIS), which emerged as the leading Islamist group, winning the 1991 elections and which was banned in 1992 following a military coup d'tat, although some Brotherhood sympathizers did. The Brotherhood subsequently also refused to join the violent post-coup uprising by FIS sympathizers and the Armed Islamic Groups (GIA) against the Algerian state and military which followed, and urged a peaceful resolution to the conflict and a return to democracy. It has thus remained a legal political organization and enjoyed parliamentary and government representation. In 1995, Sheikh Nahnah ran for President of Algeria finishing second with 25.38% of the

Muslim Brotherhood popular vote. During the 2000s (decade), the partyled by Nahnah's successor Boudjerra Soltanihas been a member of a three-party coalition backing President Abdelaziz Bouteflika.

10

Sudan
Until the election of Hamas in Gaza, Sudan was the one country were the Brotherhood was most successful in gaining power, its members making up a large part of the government officialdom following the 1989 coup d'tat by General Omar Hassan al-Bashir. Always close to Egyptian politics, Sudan has had a Muslim Brotherhood presence since 1949. In 1945, a delegation from the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt visited Sudan and held various meetings inside the country advocating and explaining their ideology. Sudan has a long and deep history with the Muslim Brotherhood compared to many other countries. By April 1949, the first branch of the Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood organization emerged. However, simultaneously, many Sudanese students studying in Egypt were introduced to the ideology of the Brotherhood. The Muslim student groups also began organizing in the universities during the 1940s, and the Brotherhood's main support base has remained to be college educated. In order to unite them, in 1954, a conference was held, attended by various representatives from different groups that appeared to have the same ideology. The conference voted to establish a Unified Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood Organization based on the teachings of Imam Hassan Al-banna. An offshoot of the Sudanese branch of the Muslim Brotherhood, the Islamic Charter Front grew during the 1960, with Islamic scholar Hasan al-Turabi becoming its Secretary general in 1964. The Islamic Charter Front (ICM) was renamed several times most recently being called the National Islamic Front (NIF). Turabi has been the prime architect of the NIF as a modern Islamist party. He worked within the Institutions of the government, which led to a prominent position of his organization in the country. NIF supported women's right to vote and ran women candidates. The Muslim Brotherhood/NIF's main objective in Sudan was to Islamize the society "from above" and to institutionalize the Islamic law throughout the country where they succeeded. The Brotherhood penetrated into the ruling political organizations, the state army and security personal, the national and regional assemblies of Sudan. They also launched their own mass organizations among the youth and women such as the shabab al-binna, and raidat al-nahda, and launched educational campaigns to Islamize the communities throughout the country. At the same time, they gained control of several newly founded Islamic missionary and relief organizations to spread their ideology. The Brotherhood members took control of the newly established Islamic Banks as directors, administrators, employees and legal advisors, which became a source of power for the Brotherhood. The Sudanese government has come under considerable criticism for its human rights policies, links to terrorist groups, and war in southern Sudan and Darfur. The conservatism of at least some elements of the Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood was highlighted in an August 3, 2007 Al-Jazeera television interview of Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood leader Sheikh Sadeq Abdallah bin Al-Majed. As translated by the Israeli-based MEMRI, Bin Al-Majed told his interviewer that "the West, and the Americans in particular are behind all the tragedies that are taking place in Darfur", as they "realized that it Darfur is full of treasures"; that "Islam does not permit a non-Muslim to rule over Muslims;" and that he had issued a fatwa prohibiting the vaccination of children, on the grounds that the vaccinations were "a conspiracy of the Jews and Freemasons".[90]

Somalia
Somalia's wing of the Muslim Brotherhood is known by the name Harakat Al-Islah or "Reform Movement". Nonetheless, the Brotherhood, as mentioned earlier, has inspired many Islamist organizations in Somalia. Muslim Brotherhood ideology reached Somalia in the early 1960s, but Al-Islah movement was formed in 1978 and slowly grew in the 1980s. Al-Islah has been described as "a generally nonviolent and modernizing Islamic movement that emphasizes the reformation and revival of Islam to meet the challenges of the modern world", whose "goal is the

Muslim Brotherhood establishment of an Islamic state" and which "operates primarily in Mogadishu".[91] The founders of the Islah Movement are: Sh. Mohamed Ahmed Nur, Dr. Ali Sheikh Ahmed, Dr. Mohamed Yusuf Abdi, Sh. Ahmed Rashid Hanafi, and Sh. Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah. The organization structured itself loosely and was not openly visible on the political scene of Somali society. They chose to remain a secret movement fearing the repressive regime of Siad Barre but are considered the first ever opposition to the dictatorship. However, they emerged from secrecy when the regime collapsed in 1991 and started working openly thereafter. Most Somalis were surprised to see the new group they had never heard of, which was in the country since the 1970s in secrecy. According to the Islah by-law, every five years the organization has to elect its Consultative (Shura) Council which elects the Chairman and the two Vice-chairman. During the last 30 years, four chairmen were elected. These are Sheikh Mohamed Geryare (19781990), Dr. Mohamed Ali Ibrahim (19901999), Dr. Ali Sheikh Ahmed (19992008) and Dr. Ali Bashi Omar Roraye (20082013). Dr. Ali Bashi is a medical doctor, a former university professor and a member of the transitional parliament (20002008). During the 1990s, Al-Islah devoted much effort to humanitarian efforts and providing free basic social services. The leaders of Al-Islah played a key role in the educational network and establishing Mogadishu University. Through their network, they educate more than 120,000 students in the city of Mogadishu. Many other secondary schools such as the University of East Africa in Bosasso, Puntland, are externally funded and administered through organizations affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood-affiliated Islamic organization Al-Islah.[91] In Somalia, they are known to be a peaceful organization that does not participate in any factional fighting and rejects the use of violence. Today the group's membership includes urban professionals and students. According to a Crisis Group Report, Somalia's Islamists, "Al-Islah organization is dominated by a highly educated urban elite whose professional, middle class status and extensive expatriate experiences are alien to most Somalis." Although Al-Islah have been criticized by some hardcore Islamists who considered them to be influenced by imperialist western values, Al-Islah speaks of democratic peaceful Somalia. They promote women's rights, human rights, and other ideas, which they argue that these concepts originate from Islamic concepts. Al-Islah is gaining momentum in the Somali societies for their humanitarian work and moderate view of Islam, which is compatible to modernisation and respect of human rights. Currently, Islah initiated to establish political party under the name of Justice and Unity Party which is open for all citizens of Somalia.

11

Tunisia
Like their counterparts elsewhere in the Islamic world in general, the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood has influenced the Tunisia's Islamists. One of the notable organization that was influenced and inspired by the Brotherhood is Ennahda (The Revival or Renaissance Party), which is Tunisia's major Islamist political grouping. An Islamist named Rashid Ghannouchi founded the organization in 1981. While studying in Damascus and Paris, Rashid Ghannouchi embraced the ideology of the Muslim Brotherhood, which he disseminated on his return to Tunisia.

Libya
The Libyan branch of the Muslim Brotherhood was founded in 1949, however it had not been able to operate openly in Libya until after the Libyan civil war. A public conference was held on November 17, 2011, attended by Libyan Muslim Brotherhood leader Suleiman Abdelkader and Tunisia's Rashid Ghannouchi.[92] On December 24, 2011, the Libyan Muslim Brotherhood announced that they had formed the Justice and Development Party which contested the Libyan General National Congress election, 2012.[93]

Muslim Brotherhood

12

Other states
Russian Federation
The Muslim Brotherhood is banned in Russia as a terrorist organisation.[94][95] As affirmed on 14 February 2003 by the decision of the Supreme Court of Russia, the Muslim Brotherhood coordinated the creation of an Islamic organisation called The Supreme Military Majlis ul-Shura of the United Forces of Caucasian Mujahedeen (Russian: ), led by Ibn Al-Khattab and Basaev; an organisation that committed multiple terror-attack acts in Russia and was allegedly financed by drug trafficking, counterfeiting of coins and racketeering.[96] According to the above-mention decision of the Supreme Court: Muslim Brotherhood is an organisation, basing its activities on the ideas of its theorists and leaders Hassan al-Banna and Sayyid Qutb with an aim of destruction of non-Islamic governments and the establishment of the worldwide Islamic government by the reconstruction of the "Great Islamic Caliphate"; firstly, in regions with majority of Muslim population, including those in Russia and CIS countries. The organisation is illegal in some Middle East countries (Syria, Jordan). The main forms of activities are warlike Islamism propaganda with intolerance to other religions, recruitment in mosques, armed Jihad without territorial boundaries. The Supreme Court of Russia[96]

United States
The MB's organisations in the USA were started by activists involved with the Muslim Brotherhood and included the Muslim Students Association in 1963,[18] North American Islamic Trust in 1971, the Islamic Society of North America in 1981, the American Muslim Council in 1990, the Muslim American Society in 1992 and the International Institute of Islamic Thought in the 1980s.[18] According to the Washington Post, Muslim activists say the MSA's members represent "all schools of Islam and political leanings many are moderates, while others express anti-U.S. views or support resistance against Israelis."[18] The Holy Land Foundation trial has led to the release, as evidence, of[97] several documents on the Muslim Brotherhood. One of these documents, dated in 1991, explains that the goal of the Muslim Brotherhood called Civilization Jihad. Its primary objective in the U.S. is to advance Islamic "settlement," defined by the brotherhood as a jihad aimed at destroying Western civilization from within and allowing for the victory of Islam over other religions.[98] In another one of these documents, "Ikhwan in America", the author alleges that the activities of the Muslim Brotherhood in the US include going to camps to do weapons training (referred to as Special work by the Muslim Brotherhood),[99] as well as engaging in counter-espionage against US government agencies such as the FBI and CIA (referred to as Securing the Group).[100]

United Kingdom
In 1996, the first representative of the MB in Britain, Kamal el-Helbawy, an Egyptian, was able to say that "there are not many members here, but many Muslims in Britain intellectually support the aims of the Muslim Brotherhood." He added that at that time, the object of the MB in Britain was only to disseminate information on Islam, Islamic issues and movements, and to rectify the distortions and misunderstandings created by "different forces against Islam". In September 1999, the MB opened a "global information centre" in London. A press notice published in Muslim News and SalarO.com the web sites developers stated that it would "specialize in promoting the perspectives and stances of the Muslim Brotherhood, and [communicate] between Islamic movements and the global mass media."

Muslim Brotherhood

13

Indonesia
Several Party and organizations in Indonesia are linked or at least inspired by MB, although none has a formal relationship with MB. One of the MB linked Parties is PKS (Prosperous Justice Party) with 10% seats in the parliament based on the Indonesian legislative election, 2009.[101] The PKS relationship with the Egyptian MB was confirmed by Yusuf al-Qaradawi, a prominent MB leader .[102][103] PKS is a member of current government coalition under President SBY with 3 ministers in the cabinet.

Indian subcontinent
The Jamaat-e-Islami (Urdu: ,; lit. "Islamic Party" abbreviation, JI) is a political party founded on August 26, 1941 in Lahore by Muslim theologian Abul Ala Maududi. Jamaat-e-Islami is said to be the Muslim Brotherhood in the Indian subcontinent and Muslim Brotherhood is called the Jamaat-e-Islami of the Arab world. Jamaat-e-Islami has independent oganizations in Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.

Criticisms
The Brotherhood was criticised by Ayman al-Zawahiri in 2007 for its refusal to advocate the violent overthrow of the Mubarak regime. Issam al-Aryan, a top Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood figure, denounced the al-Qaeda leader: "Zawahiri's policy and preaching bore dangerous fruit and had a negative impact on Islam and Islamic movements across the world."[104]

Motives
Numerous officials and reporters question the sincerity of the MB's pronouncements. These critics include, but are not limited to: According to FrontPage Magazine, a conservative publication, former U.S. White House counterterrorism chief Juan Zarate said: "The Muslim Brotherhood is a group that worries us not because it deals with philosophical or ideological ideas but because it defends the use of violence against civilians."[105][106] Miles Axe Copeland, Jr. -a prominent U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) operative who was one of the founding members of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) under William Donovan- divulges the confessions of numerous members of the Muslim brotherhood that resulted from the harsh interrogations done against them by Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser, for their alleged involvement in the assassination attempt made against Nasser (an assassination attempt that many believe was staged by Nasser himself[107]), which revealed that the Muslim Brotherhood was merely a "guild" that fulfilled the goals of western interests: "Nor was that all. Sound beatings of the Moslem Brotherhood organizers who had been arrested revealed that the organization had been thoroughly penetrated, at the top, by the British, American, French and Soviet intelligence services, any one of which could either make active use of it or blow it up, whichever best suited its purposes. Important lesson: fanaticism is no insurance against corruption; indeed, the two are highly compatible."[108] Former U.S. Middle East peace envoy Dennis Ross, who told Asharq Alawsat newspaper that the Muslim Brotherhood is a global, not a local organization, governed by a Shura (Consultative) Council, which rejects cessation of violence in Israel, and supports violence to achieve its political objectives elsewhere too.[109] The Interior Minister of Saudi Arabia, Prince Naif Ibn Abdul Aziz has stated that the Muslim Brotherhood organization was the cause of most problems in the Arab world. 'The Brotherhood has done great damage to Saudi Arabia,' he said. Prince Naif accused the foremost Islamist group in the Arab world of harming the interests of Muslims. 'All our problems come from the Muslim Brotherhood. We have given too much support to this group..." "The Muslim Brotherhood has destroyed the Arab world,' he said. 'Whenever they got into difficulty or found their freedom restricted in their own countries, Brotherhood activists found refuge in the Kingdom which protected their lives... But they later turned against the Kingdom...' The Muslim Brotherhood has links to groups

Muslim Brotherhood across the Arab world, including Jordan's main parliamentary opposition, the 'Islamic Action Front,' and the 'Palestinian resistance movement, 'Hamas." The Interior Minister's outburst against the Brotherhood came amid mounting criticism in the United States of Saudi Arabia's longstanding support for Islamist groups around the world..."[110]

14

Links to violence
Caryle Murphy believes that the organization has had a "secret apparatus" responsible for attacks in Egypt, including the assassination of Mahmoud an-Nukrashi Pasha, the Egyptian Prime Minister in 1948.[111] Newsweek journalists Mark Hosenball and Michael Isikoff reported connections between al-Qaeda and Brotherhood figures Mamoun Darkazanli and Youssef Nada.[112] A similar article in the Financial Times reported financial links between 74-year-old Swiss Muslim convert, and businessman Ahmed Huber, and members of the Muslim Brotherhood, notably Youssef Nada, Ali Ghaleb Himmat. According to the U.S. government, Al Taqwa "has long acted as financial advisers to al-Qaeda." He is reported to have "confirmed" having "had contact with associates of Osama bin Laden at an Islamic conference in Beirut", whom he called "very discreet, well-educated, very intelligent people".[113]

Status of non-Muslims
In 1997 Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide Mustafa Mashhur told journalist Khalid Daoud[114] that he thought Egypt's Coptic Christians and Orthodox Jews should pay the long-abandoned jizya poll tax, levied on non-Muslims in exchange for protection from the state, rationalized by the fact that non-Muslims are exempt from military service while it is compulsory for Muslims. He went on to say, "we do not mind having Christian members in the People's Assembly...the top officials, especially in the army, should be Muslims since we are a Muslim country...This is necessary because when a Christian country attacks the Muslim country and the army has Christian elements, they can facilitate our defeat by the enemy."[115] According to The Guardian newspaper, the proposal caused an "uproar" among Egypt's six million Coptic Christians and "the movement later backtracked."[116]

Response to criticism
According to authors writing in the Council on Foreign Relations magazine Foreign Affairs: "At various times in its history, the group has used or supported violence and has been repeatedly banned in Egypt for attempting to overthrow Cairo's secular government. Since the 1970s, however, the Egyptian Brotherhood has disavowed violence and sought to participate in Egyptian politics."[34] Jeremy Bowen, BBC Middle East editor, calls it "conservative and non-violent";[117] Yet even though the Brotherhood has condemned terrorism and the 9/11 attacks.[118][119] The Brotherhood itself denounces the "catchy and effective terms and phrases" like "fundamentalist" and "political Islam" which it claims are used by "Western Media" to pigeonhole the group, and points to its "15 Principles" for an Egyptian National Charter, including "freedom of personal conviction... opinion... forming political parties... public gatherings... free and fair elections..."[19] Similarly, some analysts maintain that whatever the source of modern Jihadi terrorism and the actions and words of some rogue members, the Brotherhood now has little in common with radical Islamists and modern jihadists who often condemn the Brotherhood as too moderate. They also deny the existence of any centralized and secretive global MB leadership.[120] Some claim that the origins of modern Muslim terrorism are found in Wahhabi ideology, not that of the Muslim Brotherhood.[121][122] According to anthropologist Scott Atran, the influence of the Muslim Brotherhood even in Egypt has been overstated by Western commentators. He estimates that it can count on only 100,000 militants (out of some 600,000 dues paying members) in a population of more than 80million, and that such support as it does have among Egyptiansan often cited figure is 20 percent to 30 percentis less a matter of true attachment than an accident of

Muslim Brotherhood circumstance: secular opposition groups that might have countered it were suppressed for many decades, but in driving the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, a more youthful constellation of secular movements has emerged to threaten the Muslim Brotherhood's dominance of the political opposition.[123] This has not yet been the case, however, as evidenced by the Brotherhood's strong showing in national elections.

15

Foreign Relations
On 29 June 2011, as the Brotherhood's political power became more apparent and solidified following the 2011 Egyptian revolution, the United States announced that it would reopen formal diplomatic channels with the group, with whom it had suspended communication as a result of suspected terrorist activity. The next day, the Brotherhood's leadership announced that they welcomed the diplomatic overture.[124]

Footnotes
[1] http:/ / www. ikhwanonline. com/ [2] http:/ / www. ikhwanweb. com [3] The Muslim Brotherhood in flux (http:/ / english. aljazeera. net/ indepth/ 2010/ 11/ 2010111681527837704. html) 21 November 2010 aljazeera [4] The Moderate Muslim Brotherhood (http:/ / www. ikhwanweb. com/ Home. asp?zPage=Systems& System=PressR& Press=Show& Lang=E& ID=6674). Robert S. Leiken & Steven Brooke, Foreign Affairs Magazine [5] Terrorism in America By Kevin Borgeson, Robin Valeri (http:/ / books. google. ca/ books?id=pERPR9lbHagC& pg=PA23& dq=muslim+ brotherhood+ fascist& hl=en& sa=X& ei=be0_T7GNDYyz0QHKmNTJBw& ved=0CF0Q6AEwBw#v=onepage& q=muslim brotherhood fascist& f=false) [6] The Muslim Brotherhood and the Egyptian State in the Balance of Democracy (http:/ / www. metransparent. com/ old/ texts/ amin_el_mahdi_the_muslim_brotherhood_and_the_egyptian_state. htm) [7] Islamic Terrorism's Links To Nazi Fascism (http:/ / www. aina. org/ news/ 2007070595517. htm) [8] Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood is not to be trusted (http:/ / old. post-gazette. com/ pg/ 12022/ 1204878-373-0. stm) [9] Hallett, Robin. Africa Since 1875. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press (1974), pg. 138. [10] Ghattas, Kim (9 February 2001). "Profile: Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ world-middle-east-12313405). BBC News. . [11] "FAS Intelligence Resource Program" (http:/ / www. fas. org/ irp/ world/ para/ mb. htm). . [12] "MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD An ideological Protectorate of Saudi Arabia?" (http:/ / www. ikhwanweb. com/ article. php?id=22363& ref=search. php). . [13] Lia, Brynjar. The Society of the Muslim Brothers in Egypt: The Rise of an Islamic Mass Movement 1928-1942. Ithica Press, 2006. p.53 [14] Delanoue, G., "al-Ikhwnal-Muslimn", Brill [15] Chamieh, Jebran, Traditionalists, Militants and Liberal in Present Islam, Research and Publishing House, 1994?, p. 140. [16] "Egypt opposition wary after talks" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ world-middle-east-12313405). BBC News. 2011-02-09. . [17] Ghattas, Kim (2005-05-18). "Syria cracks down on 'Islamists'" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ middle_east/ 4557543. stm). BBC News. . [18] In Search Of Friends Among The Foes U.S. Hopes to Work With Diverse Group (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ articles/ A12823-2004Sep10. html) [19] "The Principles of The Muslim Brotherhood" (http:/ / www. ikhwanweb. com/ Article. asp?ID=813& LevelID=2& SectionID=116). . [20] interview w/Dr. Mohamed El-Sayed Habib (http:/ / www. ikhwanweb. com/ faq. php) [21] Davidson, Lawrence (1998) Islamic Fundamentalism Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn., ISBN 0-313-29978-1 pp. 9798; [22] In his tract, "Toward the Light" in Five Tracts of Hasan al-Banna, trans. by Charles Wendell (Berkeley, 1978), ISBN 0-520-09584-7 pp. 126f., al-Banna writes:

Following are the principal goals of reform grounded on the spirit of genuine Islam ... Treatment of the problem of women in a way which combines the progressive and the protective, in accordance with Islamic teaching, so that this problem one of the most important social problems will not be abandoned to the biased pens and deviant notions of those who err in the directions of deficiency and excess ... a campaign against ostentation in dress and loose behaviour; the instruction of women in what is proper, with particular strictness as regards female instructors, pupils, physicians, and students, and all those in similar categories ... a review of the curricula offered to girls and the necessity of making them distinct from the boys' curricula in many stages of education ... segregation of male and female students; private meetings between men and women, unless within the permitted degrees of relationship, to be

Muslim Brotherhood counted as a crime for which both will be censured ... the encouragement of marriage and procreation, by all possible means; promulgation of legislation to protect and give moral support to the family, and to solve the problems of marriage ... the closure of morally undesirable ballrooms and dance-halls, and the prohibition of dancing and other such pastimes ....
[23] The Future of Political Islam, Graham E. Fuller, Palgrave MacMillan, (2003), p. 138. [24] The Salafist Movement (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ wgbh/ pages/ frontline/ shows/ front/ special/ sala. html), Frontline (PBS) [25] "Muslim Brotherhood vs Al Qaeda" (http:/ / www. ikhwanweb. com/ article. php?id=22699) January 19, 2010 [26] "MB Chief Criticism" (http:/ / www. nefafoundation. org/ miscellaneous/ FeaturedDocs/ nefambexecbureaurejectubltape1207. pdf) December 30, 2007. [27] Zeid al-Noman, "Ikhwan in America" (http:/ / www. nefafoundation. org/ miscellaneous/ HLF/ IkhwanAmerica. pdf), pp. 1516. [28] "The West and Islam" (http:/ / books. google. co. in/ books?id=heMyqgE_l5QC& pg=PA68& lpg=PA68& dq=ikhwan+ shura+ council& source=web& ots=tn32fDmdyG& sig=0SoJDcxnSU_IaZwfl-8pHvw3-sk& hl=en& sa=X& oi=book_result& resnum=4& ct=result), By Mishal Fahm Sulami [29] Kntzel, 2002, pp. 1719. [30] London: Oxford University Press, 1969, p. 9 [31] Chamieh, Jebran, Traditionalists, Militants and Liberal in Present Islam, Research and Publishing House, [1994?], p.140 [32] Wright, Robin, Sacred Rage 1985, p.179 [33] The Rebellion Within, An Al Qaeda mastermind questions terrorism. by Lawrence Wright. (http:/ / www. newyorker. com/ reporting/ 2008/ 06/ 02/ 080602fa_fact_wright?currentPage=all) newyorker.com, June 2, 2008 [34] Crane, Mary. "Does the Muslim Brotherhood Have Ties to Terrorism" (http:/ / www. cfr. org/ publication/ 9248/ ). Council on Foreign Relations. . [35] Traub, James. "Islamic Democrats?" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2007/ 04/ 29/ magazine/ 29Brotherhood. t. html) The New York Times. 29 April 2007. accessed 6 September 2011 [36] Fawzi, Sameh. "Brothers and Others". (http:/ / weekly. ahram. org. eg/ 2005/ 772/ op8. htm) Al-Ahram Weekly 8 December 2005. accessed 6 September 2011 [37] "The Brotherhood Goes to Parliament" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20061001175005/ http:/ / www. merip. org/ mer/ mer240/ shehata_stacher. html). Samer Shehata from Georgetown University and Joshua Stacher from the British University in Egypt Middle East Report. Fall 2006. 29 November 2009 [38] The Brotherhood's Power display (http:/ / english. daralhayat. com/ opinion/ OPED/ 12-2006/ Article-20061218-95ae9eb8-c0a8-10ed-00b1-7119b3684228/ story. html) Dar Al-Hayat (18 December 2006)] [39] Bradley, John R., Inside Egypt: The Land of the Pharaohs on the Brink of a Revolution by John R. Bradley, Palgrave MacMillan, 2008, p.62 [40] Bradley, John R., Inside Egypt, Palgrave MacMillan, (p.65). [41] Radsch, Courtney C.. "Arab Media & Society" (http:/ / www. arabmediasociety. com/ ?article=692). Arab media society. . Retrieved 2012-11-11. [42] (http:/ / www. arabinsight. org/ aiarticles/ 186. pdf) [43] Lynch, Marc (2007-03-05). "Brotherhood of the blog" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ commentisfree/ 2007/ mar/ 05/ brotherhoodoftheblog). The Guardian (London). . [44] "Muslim Brotherhood seeks end to Israel treaty" (http:/ / www. washingtontimes. com/ news/ 2011/ feb/ 3/ muslim-brotherhood-seeks-end-to-israel-treaty). The Washington Times. . [45] "Live Blog: Egypt in Crisis, Day 8" (http:/ / www. cbsnews. com/ 8301-503543_162-20030175-503543. html). CBS News. 2011-02-01. . [46] "IRIN Middle East | EGYPT: Social programs bolster appeal of Muslim Brotherhood | Middle East | Egypt | Education Gender Issues Governance Health & Nutrition Human Rights | News Item" (http:/ / www. irinnews. org/ report. asp?ReportID=51850). Irinnews.org. . Retrieved 2010-08-27. [47] 'Our Muslim Brothers,' (http:/ / www. counterpunch. org/ 2012/ 06/ 22/ our-muslim-brothers/ ) at Counterpunch 2224 June 2012. [48] 'Shariah in Egypt is enough for us,' Muslim Brotherhood leader says|23 May 2011 (http:/ / www. hurriyetdailynews. com/ n. php?n=8220shari8217a-law-in-egypt-is-enough-for-us8221-tells-a-muslim-brotherhood-leader-2011-05-23) [49] El Rashidi, Yasmine, "Egypt: The Victorious Islamists", New York Review of Books, July 14, 2011 [50] Egypt: Muslim Brotherhood sets up new party (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ world-middle-east-13249434), 30 April 2011 [51] Freedom and Justice Party Open to Copt as Deputy (http:/ / www. ikhwanweb. com/ article. php?id=28554), 2011 May 11 [52] Egypts Muslim Brotherhood could be unraveling (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ world/ egypts-muslim-brotherhood-could-be-unraveling/ 2011/ 07/ 06/ gIQAdMZp1H_story. html), By Leila Fadel, 7 July 2011 [53] Souaiaia, Ahmed. "FPIF Contributor" (http:/ / www. fpif. org/ articles/ egypt_and_the_islamists). FPIF. Foreign Policy in Focus. . Retrieved 2/6/12. [54] Brotherhood of Hate: Muslim Brotherhood's Hatred for Jews and Israel Flourishes in "New" Egypt - Introduction (http:/ / www. adl. org/ main_International_Affairs/ muslim_brotherhood. htm), Anti-Defamation League, 12 December 2011. [55] "Egyptian Cleric Safwat Higazi Launches MB Candidate Muhammad Mursi's Campaign: Mursi Will Restore the "United States of the Arabs" with Jerusalem as Its Capital" (http:/ / www. memritv. org/ clip/ en/ 3431. htm). May 1, 2012. .

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Muslim Brotherhood
[56] "Islamic presidential candidate promises democracy in Egypt" (http:/ / articles. cnn. com/ 2012-06-15/ middleeast/ world_meast_egypt-election-morsi_1_prime-minister-ahmed-shafik-islamic-muslim-brotherhood?_s=PM:MIDDLEEAST). June 15, 2012. . [57] All Things Considered (2012-06-19). "A Look At Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood Candidate" (http:/ / www. npr. org/ 2012/ 06/ 19/ 155380953/ a-look-at-egypts-muslim-brotherhood-candidate). NPR. . Retrieved 2012-11-11. [58] Ahmed Eleiba(2012-06-04). "Mursi meets former presidential candidates for talks". http:/ / english. ahram. org. eg/ NewsContent/ 1/ 64/ 43802/ Egypt/ Politics-/ Mursi-meets-former-presidential-candidates-for-tal. aspx. Retrieved 2012-06-05 [59] Roi Kais (2012-06-02). "Muslim Brotherhood/ Mubarak's sentence too light". http:/ / www. ynetnews. com/ articles/ 0,7340,L-4237240,00. html. 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[70] "Middle East Roundtable" (http:/ / www. bitterlemons-international. org/ previous. php?opt=1& id=30). bitterlemons-international.org. . Retrieved 2010-08-27. [71] "The Iranian Revolution Echoes in Egypt" (http:/ / pajamasmedia. com/ michaeltotten/ 2011/ 02/ 01/ the-iranian-revolution-echoes-in-egypt/ ), M.J.Toten in Interview with Dr. Abbas Milani [72] The Spirit of Allah: Khomeini and the Islamic Revolution by Amir Taheri, Adler and Adler c1985, pp. 107109. [73] Alan Godlas (1968-07-17). "The Muslim Brotherhood in Iraq" (http:/ / www. uga. edu/ islam/ muslim_brotherhood_iraq. html). Uga.edu. . Retrieved 2010-08-27. [74] John Pike (2010-05-13). "Iraqi Islamic Party" (http:/ / www. globalsecurity. org/ military/ world/ iraq/ iip. htm). Globalsecurity.org. . Retrieved 2010-08-27. [75] "Profile: Kurdish Islamist movement" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ not_in_website/ syndication/ monitoring/ media_reports/ 2588623. stm). BBC News. 2003-01-13. . Retrieved 2010-04-06. [76] http:/ / archive. frontpagemag. com/ readArticle. aspx?ARTID=11146 [77] Cohen, 1982, p. 144. [78] . JSTOR3992661. [79] 0253208661 [80] Ziad Abu-Amr (Summer, 1993), "Hamas: A Historical and Political Background", Journal of Palestine Studies 22 (4): 519, JSTOR2538077 [81] How Israel Helped to Spawn Hamas, by Andrew Higgins (http:/ / online. wsj. com/ article/ SB123275572295011847. html) Wall Street Journal January 24, 2009 [82] How Israel brought Gaza to the brink of humanitarian catastrophe, by Avi Shlaim (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ world/ 2009/ jan/ 07/ gaza-israel-palestine/ print?2) Guardian UK January 7, 2009 [83] (http:/ / www. metimes. com/ Politics/ 2009/ 03) [84] "Hamas Charter" (http:/ / www. mideastweb. org/ hamas. htm). Mideastweb.org. . Retrieved 2010-08-27. [85] The Talibanization of Gaza: A Liability for the Muslim Brotherhood (http:/ / www. currenttrends. org/ research/ detail/ the-talibanization-of-gaza-a-liability-for-the-muslim-brotherhood). by Jonathan Schanzer. August 19, 2009. Current Trends in Islamist Ideology vol. 9 [86] The Future of Political Islam, by Graham E. Fuller, Palgrave MacMillan, 2003, p. 39. [87] "Charting the Rise of the Muslim Brotherhood" (http:/ / www. spiegel. de/ international/ world/ 0,1518,491925,00. html). . [88] "Yemen's President Saleh Speaks: The Interview Transcript" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ world/ article/ 0,8599,2095702,00. html). TIME. 2011-09-29. . Retrieved 2012-11-11. [89] "US embassy cables: Oman sultan resists Iranian charm offensive" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ world/ us-embassy-cables-documents/ 143790). The Guardian (London). 2010-11-28. . [90] "Al-Jazeera Interviews Muslim Brotherhood Leader in Sudan" (http:/ / www. memri. org/ bin/ opener_latest. cgi?ID=SD168507). .

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[91] International Religious Freedom Report 2004. Somalia (http:/ / www. state. gov/ g/ drl/ rls/ irf/ 2004/ 35382. htm) [92] "Muslim Brotherhood goes public with Libya summit" (http:/ / www. reuters. com/ article/ 2011/ 11/ 17/ us-libya-muslim-brotherhood-idUSTRE7AG2OY20111117). Reuters. 2011-11-17. . [93] "Muslim Brotherhood to Contest Libyan Elections as Independent Party" (http:/ / www. tripolipost. com/ articledetail. asp?c=1& i=7553). The Tripoli Post. 2011-12-24. . [94] (Russian) " , " (http:/ / nak. fsb. ru/ nac/ ter_org. htm). Federal Security Service. . Retrieved 2011-04-13. [95] (Russian) " 12.02.2003 N 3624-III " " " // " ", 24.02.2003, N 8, . 720 ([[Russian language|Russian (http:/ / base. consultant. ru/ cons/ cgi/ online. cgi?req=doc;base=EXP;n=257852)]: Resolution of the State Duma, 12.02.2003 N 3624-III GD "on the Application of the State Duma of the Russian Federation" on the suppression of the activities of terrorist organisations on the territory of the Russian Federation)"]. Consultant Plus. . [96] (Russian) " " (http:/ / www. religare. ru/ 2_5347. html). - - RELIGARE (" "). . Retrieved 2011-04-13. [97] "United States v. Holy Land Foundation" (http:/ / www. nefafoundation. org/ hlfdocs. html). The NEFA Foundation. . Retrieved 2010-08-27. [98] "The Muslim Brotherhood in the United States" http:/ / www. currenttrends. org/ docLib/ 20090411_Merley. USBROTHERHOOD. pdf [99] Zeid al-Noman, "Ikhwan in America" (http:/ / www. nefafoundation. org/ miscellaneous/ HLF/ IkhwanAmerica. pdf), pp. 13, 16. [100] Zeid al-Noman, "Ikhwan in America" (http:/ / www. nefafoundation. org/ miscellaneous/ HLF/ IkhwanAmerica. pdf), p. 13. [101] "Pemilihan umum legislatif Indonesia 2009 - Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas" (http:/ / id. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Pemilihan_umum_legislatif_Indonesia_2009) (in (Indonesian)). Id.wikipedia.org. . Retrieved 2012-11-11. [102] esky. "Ikhwanul Muslimin - Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas" (http:/ / id. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Ikhwanul_Muslimin) (in (Indonesian)). Id.wikipedia.org. . Retrieved 2012-11-11. [103] Qaradhawi, DR. Yusuf (2001), Umat Islam Menyongsong Abad ke-21, Era Intermedia, Solo, ISBN 979-9183-56-1 pp. 92; [104] Jones, Seth G. (2012). "Think Again: Al Qaeda" (http:/ / www. foreignpolicy. com/ articles/ 2012/ 04/ 23/ think_again_al_qaeda?page=0,4). Foreign Policy (May/June 2012). . Retrieved 28 April 2012. [105] Ehrenfeld, Rachel and Lappen, Alyssa A., (16 June 2006) "The Truth about the Muslim Brotherhood" Front Page Magazine, citing Sylvain Besson, La Conqute De L'Occident: Le Projet Secret Des Islamistes, as quoted in Guitta, Olivier, (20 February 2006), "The Cartoon Jihad," The Weekly Standard (http:/ / 97. 74. 65. 51/ readArticle. aspx?ARTID=3996). Retrieved 2007-03-01. [106] Poole, Patrick, (26 March 2007) "Mainstreaming the Muslim Brotherhood" Front Page Magazine, citing Sylvain Besson, La Conqute De L'Occident: Le Projet Secret Des Islamistes, p. 39) (http:/ / www. frontpagemag. com/ Articles/ ReadArticle. asp?ID=27519). Retrieved 2007-04-25. [107] "Revolutionary leader" (http:/ / gulfnews. com/ about-gulf-news/ al-nisr-portfolio/ weekend-review/ articles/ revolutionary-leader-1. 40238). gulfnews. . Retrieved 2010-08-27. [108] Miles Axe Copeland, Jr., "The Game of Nations: The Amorality of Power Politics, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1970" [109] "Lufti, Manal, "The Brotherhood and America Part III," (14 March 2007) Asharq Alawsat" (http:/ / aawsat. com/ english/ news. asp?section=3& id=8310). . [110] MEMRI, the Middle East Media Research Institute posted this at their website, (http:/ / www. memri. org/ bin/ articles. cgi?Area=sd& ID=SP44602) introducing it with the following: "On November 29, 'Ain-Al-Yaqeen, a weekly news magazine published online by the Saudi royal family, released an English translation of an interview with Saudi Minister of Interior Prince Nayef Ibn Abd Al-Aziz; the interview originally appeared in the Kuwaiti newspaper Al Siyasa. The following are excerpts from the translation[1] as it appeared in the Saudi weekly." [111] Passion for Islam: Shaping the Modern Middle East: the Egyptian Experience by Caryle Murphy, p. 54. [112] (http:/ / www. pbs. org/ weta/ crossroads/ about/ show_the_brotherhood. html) "Spreading fundamentalist Islam but does the Muslim Brotherhood also support terrorism?" [113] www.ft.com (http:/ / specials. ft. com/ theresponse/ FT38ZL6ZSTC. html) Far-right has ties with Islamic extreme. By Hugh Williamson and Philipp Jaklin. 8 November 2001 [114] article printed in Al Ahram Weekly July 59, 1997, quoted in Passion for Islam: Shaping the Modern Middle East: the Egyptian Experience by Caryle Murphy, pp. 241, 330. [115] Passion for Islam: Shaping the Modern Middle East: the Egyptian Experience, by Caryle Murphy, Simon and Schuster, 2002, pp. 241, 330. [116] The Muslim Brotherhood uncovered (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ world/ 2011/ feb/ 08/ egypt-muslim-brotherhood-uncovered)| ack Shenker in Cairo and Brian Whitaker| guardian.co.uk| 8 February 2011 [117] "Egypt unrest: What if Mubarak goes?" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ world-middle-east-12325128). BBC News. 2011-01-31. . [118] "Muslim Brother Hood Condemns 9/11 attack" (http:/ / www. unc. edu/ ~kurzman/ terror. htm). . [119] "Morsi: 9/11 a global calamity, not only for U.S." (http:/ / www. ikhwanweb. com/ article. php?ID=14069& LevelID=1& SectionID=71). . [120] "The Moderate Muslim Brotherhood" (http:/ / www. foreignaffairs. org/ 20070301faessay86208/ robert-s-leiken-steven-brooke/ the-moderate-muslim-brotherhood. html). . [121] "The root of terrorism is Wahabism" (http:/ / www. buzzle. com/ editorials/ 4-10-2006-93214. asp). .

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[122] "The root of terrorism" (http:/ / www. ataturksociety. org/ letters/ tarhan. html). . [123] Atran, Scott (2011-02-02). "Egypt's Bumbling Brotherhood" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2011/ 02/ 03/ opinion/ 03atran. html). The New York Times. . [124] Egypt's muslim brotherhood welcomes idea of U.S. contacts (http:/ / www. haaretz. com/ news/ international/ egypt-s-muslim-brotherhood-welcomes-idea-of-u-s-contacts-1. 370446), on Haaretz.com

19

References
Abdullahi, Abdurahman (Baadiyow) (October 2008) "The Islah Movement: Islamic moderation in war-torn Somalia" (http://www.hiiraan.com/oct2008/ISLAH.pdf) Hiiraan Online Mogadishu, Somalia Ankerl, Guy (2000) Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. INUPRESS, Geneva. ISBN 2-88155-004-5 Baer, Robert (2002). See No Evil: The True Story of a Ground Soldier in the CIA's War on Terrorism. Three Rivers Press. ISBN978-1-4000-4684-3. Cohen, Amnon (1982). Political Parties in the West Bank under the Jordanian Regime, 19491967. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN978-0-8014-1321-6. Cohen, Nick (9 July 2006) "The Foreign Office ought to be serving Britain, not radical Islam" (http://observer. guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,,1816257,00.html) The Observer London Dreyfuss, Robert (2006). Devil's Game: How the United States Helped Unleash Fundamentalist Islam. Owl Books. ISBN978-0-8050-7652-3. Mallmann, Klaus-Michael and Martin Cppers (2006) Halbmond und Hakenkreuz: Das 'Dritte Reich', die Araber und Palstina Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt. ISBN 978-3-534-19729-3 Mayer, Thomas (1982) "The Military Force of Islam: The Society of the Muslim Brethren and the Palestine Question, 19451948" In Kedourie, Elie and Haim, Sylvia G. (1982) Zionism and Arabism in Palestine and Israel Frank Cass, London, pp.100117, ISBN 0-7146-3169-8 Zahid, Mohammed (2012) The Muslim Brotherhood and Egypt's Succession Crisis: The Politics of Liberalisation and Reform in the Middle East I. B. Tauris ISBN 1780762178 Leikrn, Robert S. and Steven Brooke (2007) The Moderate Muslim Brotherhood, Foreign Affairs. "The Nazi Roots of Palestinian Nationalism and Islamic Jihad," by David Meir-Levi (2007).

External links
Ikhwan Web official site (http://www.ikhwanweb.com) "Egyptian democracy and the Muslim Brotherhood" (http://www.iss.europa.eu/publications/detail/article/ egyptian-democracy-and-the-muslim-brotherhood/) European Union Institute for Security Studies "Revolution in Cairo: Interview with Shadi Hamid" (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/ revolution-in-cairo/interviews/shadi-hamid.html). Frontline (PBS). Feb., 2011.

Article Sources and Contributors

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Article Sources and Contributors


Muslim Brotherhood Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=523716629 Contributors: 01011000, 104Serena, 20785, 49oxen, AFP, AI, AJB, Aaliyah Stevens, Abb3w, Abdou46, Abdowiki, Abshir1000, Abu ali, Adam Holland, Againme, AgarwalSumeet, Ahlusunah, Airmanedwards, Aiy3333333, Akjar13, Alberuni, Alborz Fallah, Alpha Quadrant (alt), AmigoCgn, Aminul802, Amit6, Andrew Kurish, Angrynight, Anomie, Anonymous editor, Apeloverage, Apesteilen, Arre, Arthena, Ascnder, Ashley Y, Asimk29, Atmamatma, Atwarwiththem, Ayasi, Bagofants, BanyanTree, BarakZ, Baronnet, Barristr44, Basicdesign, Bassemkhalifa, Bdasgupta@gmail.com, Beek100, Bejnar, Benbarth, Bender235, Beroul, BertVorenk, Bertilvidet, Bgwhite, BigCoolGuyy, Bihco, Billybud989, Blood sliver, Bobfrombrockley, Bochkov, Boing! said Zebedee, Bondegezou, BoogaLouie, Brainhell, Brian Wiseman, Btford, BusterD, Cadmos2, Call 3004, Calm, CambridgeBayWeather, CanadianLinuxUser, Carabinieri, CasualObserver'48, CeceliaXIV, Cefr, Cgingold, 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